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Этнопсихологическое изучение культур

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii ?uaieianoao ?O

ANO?AOAINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE

OIEAA?NEOAO

Einoeooo Yeiiiieee

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA

Ii aeenoeeieeia: «Eoeueoo?ieiaey»

Oaia: «YOIIINEOIEIAE*ANEIA ECO*AIEA EOEUeOO? »

Auiieiee:

Nooaeaio a?oiiuCOY-88

Na?aaa

I?iaa?ee:

Ae.Y.I, I.E.

1. Ineoieiae/aneea oeiu eoeueoo?. Enneaaeiaaiea “iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a”

EAeAE, noi?ioee?iaaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaeyie “Ineoieiaee ia?iaeia”, a XIX a.
iieo/eee ?aciiia?acioth ?aaeecaoeeth a eco/aiee eoeueoo?, ia/aaoainy a
20-30-a aiaeu a iai?aaeaiee “Eoeueoo?a-e-ee/iinoue”. Yoie/aneea eee
eoeueoo?ii-iaoneiaeaiiua /a?ou ineoieiaee eiaeeaeaeia eco/aeenue oaeaea
(i?aaaea, a ianeieueei aieaa iicaeiee ia?eiae a?aiaie) e a ineoieiaee. A
ineoieiaee iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue aiaeeco ineoieiae/aneeo /a?o
eiaeeaeaeia a yiie?e/aneeo e?inn-eoeueoo?iuo enneaaeiaaieyo. A
aio?iiieiaee aea aieueoia cia/aiea eiae iauaeoeueoo?ieiae/aneee aniaeo
enneaaeiaaiee (eco/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, cia/aiea yoie/iinoe a
nia?aiaiiii ie?a).

Ia/aei yoiiineoieiae/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi iieiaeeea ?.Aaiaaeeeo,
iioaeeeiaaaoay ia yoo oaio aeaa ?aaiou: “Ineoieiae/aneea oeiu eoeueoo?
THai-Caiaaea” (1928) e “Eiioeao?aoeee eoeueoo? a Naaa?iie Aia?eea”
(1932). Eo iniiaiay eaeay ninoiyea a oii, /oi eaaeaeie eoeueoo?a i?enou
niaoeeoe/aneee oei ee/iinoe. Oa?iei “eiioeao?aoeey eoeueoo?” icia/ae
iniaue niinia niaaeeiaiey (noeaieaiey) yeaiaioia eoeueoo?u, nicaeaaaaoee
ia?ac oeaeiai. A eaaeaeii oeia eoeueoo?u ee/iinoe auaeaeyeanue iaeay
aeiieiaioiay iiaeaeue iiaaaeaiey eee ii?aaeaeythuay ineoieiae/aneay
/a?oa. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua oeiu eoeueoo?, auaeaeaiiua ?.Aaiaaeeeo.

A aiieeiiianeii oeia eoeueoo?u eiaeaeoeaa ioyaei oeaio?aeueiie
iiaeaeueth iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony iiae/eiaiea eiaeeaeaeia o?aaeeoeeyi
a?oiiu (aic?anoiie, iieiaie), a eioi?ie iie aeeaoo, e aicaea?aeaiea io
yeno?aiaeueii-yiioeeiiaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee naiaai oa?aeoa?a. A aeaiiii
oeia eoeueoo?u a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie aiieiuaaony aiieeiiianeee
eaeaae “n?aaeiaai iooe” (ia?a ai anai). Caeanue ia i?eaaonoaoaony yaiia
au?aaeaiea ianeeey, aiaaa, ?aaiinoe. Eiiia?aoeey e oa?ieiinoue
ainieouaathony n aeaonoaa. ?aaoeyoeaiua ii?iu onoaiaaeeaathony
oi?iaeueiuie no?oeoo?aie, a ia eiaeeaeaeaie. Eiuie neiaaie, nouanoaoao
i?eaioaoeey ia o?aaeeoeee e oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee eoeueoo?u, a ia ia
aaoi?eoa?iua naieoeee aiaeaey. A oi aea a?aiy a oaeeo iauanoaao oea?yo
aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeiua i?aau a iaeanoe a?a/iinaiaeiuo ioiioaiee e naena.

Aeeiieneeneee oei eoeueoo?u eiaeaeoeaa plains i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ii?yaeeai ioyaei. Aianoi eiiia?aoeee,
nio?oaeie/anoaa – eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, ia?aaeee ioe?uoua oi?iu ianeeey.
Aunie aaoi?eoao oao, eoi iieacaee naay aanno?aoiuie e aa?anneaiuie, e
oao, eoi ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aae ianeeuenoaaiiui aeinoeaeaieai oeaeae.

Ia?aiieaeiue oei eoeueoo?u aeiaoaioeaa (aeeoaee ino?iaia Aeiao) ioia/ai
eiioeeeoaie e iiaeic?eoaeueiinoueth. A eoeueoo?a aeeoioee?oaony
a?aaeaeaaiinoue a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ioaeai e aeaiie, ninaaeyie e
aea?aaiyie. ?ani?ino?aiaii aa?iaaiea, /oi oaea/a, oniao iaeiiai icia/aao
iaoaea/o ae?oaiai. Oe?iei i?aeoeeoaony a?aaeiiiniay iaaey.

A 40-50-a aiaeu ineoieiaey ia?iaeia aiaeece?iaaeanue /a?ac iiiyoea
“iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?”. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aeaiiue iiaeoiae
ia iiae?acoiaaaao aiaeiaee n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii eae
niaieoiiinoueth ineoieiae/aneeo /a?o. Iao e ioeaii/iiai iiaeoiaea
“oi?ioee-ieioie”. Enneaaeiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a i?eaioe?iaaii
ia iiiaiia?iue aiaeec eoeueoo?u n oeaeueth iaia?oaeeoue niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, iiaaaeai/aneeo noa?aioeiia. I?aaaea,
i?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea aano?aeoiie iiaeaee ee/iinoe, iaeaaeathuae
niaoeeoe/aneeie onoaiiaeaie e iano?iai a ie?iaini?eyoee, o.a.
ea/anoaaie, aeeceeie e oai, /oi iiaeiaaeatho iiae iiiyoea “iaioaeeoao”.

A yoe aiaeu a NOA auea iioaeeeiaaia na?ey ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo
enneaaeiaaieyi iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. N?aaee ieo “O?ecaioaia e ia/”
(1947) ?.Aaiaaeeeo, “Ia?iaeu Aaeeei?innee” (1948) A. Ai?a?a e Aeae.
?eeiaia, “Oaiu ai o?aioeocneie eoeueoo?a” (1954) ?. Iao?i e I.Ieae,
“Iaeeiieay oieia. Eco/aiea eciaiythuaainy aia?eeaineiai oa?aeoa?a”
(1950) Ae. ?eniaia. Aaoi?u no?aieeenue nicaeaoue iieeoiie/aneee ii?o?ao
ia?iaea, eniieuecoy iniaaiiinoe oeeaaea aeecie, iianaaeiaaiiai auoa,
ii?i iaaeee/iinoiiai iauaiey, niaoeeoeee ?aeeaee, o?aaeeoeee, iuoaeenue
oeiaeoue noauaeoeaiue aeoo eoeueoo?u. I?eia?ii oaeiai aea oeia iiaeoiaea
e enneaaeiaaieth iiaoo neoaeeoue aeanoyuea i/a?ee i auoa ia?iaeia
ssiiiee e Aiaeee ?inneeneiai aeo?iaeenoa A. Ia/eiieeiaa “Aaoea naeo?u”,
“Ei?ie aeoaa”.

?aciiia?acea aniaeoia a eco/aiee “aeooa ia?iaeia” e iaineaaaaathuee
eioa?an e iaio o/aiuo ?acee/iuo no?ai ie?a a oa/aiea oaea noa eao
oeacuaatho ia aeeciaiiinoue e iaiaaeoiaiiinoue aeaiiie i?iaeaiu eae
iieiii?aaiie ninoaaiie /anoe eoeueoo?ieiaee. Iniiao iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie onoie/eaay iiaoi?yaiinoue noa?aioeiia
iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea, ?aaeecoaiuo i?aaeaea anaai a iaaeia?niiaeueiii
acaeiiaeaenoaee. E?iia yoiai, iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? – yoi e aniaeo
auoey eoeueoo?u, nouanoaothuae a iauaeoeae?iaaiiuo oi?iao (eneonnoai,
oieueeei?, ?aeeaey, eeoa?aoo?a).

2. Yoie/aneay eaeaioe/iinoue a nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a

A 70-a aiaeu yoiiineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eoeueoo? aiaeece?iaaeenue a
aeaea yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe. Yoie/aneay eaeaioe/iinoue, eee i?inoi
yoie/iinoue, – yoi /oanoai i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiie eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee. Iauaeoaie aeey eco/aiey aeaiiiai oaiiiaia a iniiaiii
yaeythony ?acaeoua eiaeono?eaeueiua no?aiu. Iaeaieaa aeoeaii yoie/iinoue
eco/aeanue a NOA, noaaoeo naiaia?aciui yoaeiiii nia?aiaiiie
oieoeoee?iaaiiie eiaeono?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Eiaiii a yoie no?aia iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue a aieaa yaiie oi?ia oaiaeaioeee, naienoaaiiua eoeueoo?iui
i?ioeannai, i?ienoiaeyuei a eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao.

A NOA aeieaia a?aiy ainiiaenoaiaaea eiioeaioeey “ieaaeeueiiai oeaey”.
N/eoaeinue, /oi a NOA eiiea?aiou ec ?acee/iuo no?ai “ia?aieaaeythony” a
aaeeioth (ni noaiaea?oece?iaaiiie aia?eeaineie eoeueoo?ie)
yoiiiieeoe/aneoth iauiinoue aunieie noaiaie eioaa?aoeee, /oi nouanoaoao
aia?eeaineay eoeueoo?a, iaeee naa?oi?aaieci, iauaaeeiythuee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia. Aeaiiia iieiaeaiea iiaeii
iiaeoaa?aeeoue oeaeui ?yaeii a?aoiaioia a aai iieueco. Nouanoaotho
iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe ycuea (aia?eeaineee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea),
aia?eeaineea ea?u (aaenaie, aia?eeaineee oooaie e o. ae.), eiathony
iniaaiiinoe a; iiaeaeyo iianaaeiaaiiai iiaaaeaiey, a no?ieoaeuenoaa
aeeeeu, a ieua.; *aeiaae eaeaioeoeoee?oao (ioiaeaeanoaeyao) naay ni
no?aiie, eoeueoo?ie (y – aia?eeaiaoe). Yoi eiiaaea i?eia?aoaao
iai?eau/iua aeey aa?iiaeoeaa oi?iu.

?ac?aaioaia yie/aneay enoi?ey Aia?eee – eaeaaeece?iaaiiia, ?iiaioe/aneia
iiaanoaiaaiea i a?aiaiao iiei?aiey Aeeeiai Caiaaea, a oeaio?a eioi?iai –
ia?ac e?aieiai eiaaiy, caueoieea neaauo e iiai?ieea ni?aaaaeeeainoe
(/oi-oi a?iaea *aea Ii??ena ec ecaanoiiai na?eaea “I?aainoaeea
ii-oaoannee”). ?acaeaaaony, aicaeaenoaoy ia inoaeueiie oeeaeeeciaaiiue
ie?, oaeia neiaeiia yaeaiea nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u, eae aia?eeaineia
eeiieneonnoai – niaieoiiinoue eaeaaeueiuo ia?acoeia, iaeay “aia?eeaineay
ia/oa”.

Ia?aciaaieth iaueo iniaaiiinoae iiaaaeaiey, iioeaia iinooieia,
ineoieiae/aneeo /a?o niioonoaoao aeeeoaeueiia niaianoiia i?iaeeaaiea a
?aieao iaeiiai nioeeaeueiiai i?aaiecia (no?aiu) a?oii ethaeae,
ia?aiia/aeueii i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui eoeueoo?ai. Aiaeiae/iua
eioaa?aoeaiua i?ioeannu oee e a auaoai Niaaoneii Nithca, a yoii aea
iai?aaeaiee – a au?aaioea iaeioi?iai n?aaeiaaa?iiaeneiai noaiaea?oa
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u – eaeoo eciaiaiey a Aa?iia. Iiaeii aiai?eoue e ia
iaueo /a?oao iaua/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u. Ii icia/aao ee yoi iieiia
on?aaeiaiea, ?anoai?aiea a yoii iioiea eciaiaiee yoiieoeueoo?iuo
iniaaiiinoae, iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiaia?acey eoeueoo? (io ieaiaie ooeueaa a
Ao?eea aei neoeeeeaioeaa a Eoaeee)? A?yae ee ia yoio aii?in iiaeii
ioaaoeoue ooaa?aeeoaeueii.

Iaoeaeaniia?acii e iai?aaeeueii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue aeaa oaiaeaioeee,
nouanoaothuea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a: no?aieaiea e eioaa?aoeee,
iauaaeeiaieth, nicaeaieth iaoaeoeueoo?iuo iauiinoae e e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, nio?aiaieth eoeueoo? a eo iaoeeiiaeueii-iniaaiiuo
oi?iao.

Yoio oacen iiaeoaa?aeaeatho e enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia,
i?ienoiaeyueo a NOA, n oi/ee c?aiey “yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe”.
Iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi eoeueoo?a aini?iecaiaeeony ia iiaii ianoa iaeoaiey,
a ae?oaie no?aia (a aeaiiii neo/aa a NOA). Aa?iiaeneea eee
eaoeiiaia?eeaineea ia?anaeaioeu nio?aieee niaoeeoe/aneee oeeaae aeecie,
ycue, ?aeeaeiciua aa?iaaiey, aini?iecaiaey a i?ioeanna yieoeueoo?aoeee
yie/aneia ianeaaeea naiaai ia?iaea, aai enoi?eth. Oaea iaeuecy auei
aiai?eoue (iniaaiii yaii yoi noaei aeaeii a 70-a aiaeu) i “ia?aieaaea”
eoeueoo? a aaeeiue eiiaeiia?ao, en/aciiaaiee eo naiaia?acey, naaaeaiee
anao e any e iaeiaio aaeeiiio “eiaeono?eaeueiiio” ciaiaiaoaeth.

Ia niaio ainiiaenoao oai?ee “ieaaeeueiiai oeaey” i?eoae oacen ia
yoie/aneii eee eoeueoo?iii ieth?aeecia, iiiaiia?acee eoeueoo? a
a?aieoeao iaeiie naa?oeoeueoo?u NOA. Aaaeiay ?ieue a enneaaeiaaiee
eoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia ia aia?eeaineii eiioeiaioa i?eiaaeeaaeaea a?oiia
ineoieiae/aneeo aio?iiieiaia, iauaaeeieaoeo naie oneeey a eieeaeoeaiii
o?oaea “Yoie/aneay eaeaioe/iinoue” (1975, 1982), ecaeaiiii iiae
?aaeaeoeeae Aeae.Aea Ai e E. ?iiaione-?inn. A iai o/anoaiaaee e oaeea
ecaanoiua o/aiua, eae I.Ieae, Aeae. Ai?a?, Aeae.Aeaaa?i, O. Oaa?oeiai e
ae?oaea.

Eaeaeiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e aaeioiiaeoaeai eco/aiey yoie/iinoe aue
Aeae.Aea Ai – aaoi? onoaiiai/iie noaouee “Yoie/aneee ieth?aeeci:
eiioeeeo e i?eniiniaeaiea”. Aa iniiaiay eaeay – iieacaoue, eae
eiaeeaeae, aai “ss” aeeth/aiu a eoeueoo?o e iaeiia?aiaiii a
nioeeaeueii-ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. Iiiyoea
yoie/iinoe eae ioiaeaeanoaeaiey naay n ii?aaeaeaiiie eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeeae Aea Ai aeiiieiee iiiyoeai yoie/aneie a?oiiu, a eioi?ie,
nianoaaiii, ?aaeueii e nio?aiyaony yoiieoeueoo?iia naiaia?acea.
Yoie/aneay a?oiia – iauiinoue ethaeae, ?acaeaeythueo eiiieaen
o?aaeeoeee, ia ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo n?aaee ae?oaeo ethaeae, n eioi?uie iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho. A o?aaeeoeee aeeth/athony ia?iaeiua ?aeeaeiciua
aa?iaaiey e ia?yaeu, ycue, /oanoai enoi?e/aneie i?aainoaaiiinoe, iauaai
?iaenoaa e ianoa i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Aaaeouei i?eciaeii yoie/iinoe a oceii
cia/aiee yoiai neiaa Aea Ai n/eoaao “/oanoai i?aainoaaiiinoe,
iai?a?uaiie nayce n i?ioeui, /oanoai, ninoaaeythuaa nouanoaaiioth /anoue
naiiii?aaeaeaiey eiaeeaeaea”. Iniaue aeoeaio o/aiue aeaeae ia iniciaiee
iai?a?uaiinoe eoeueoo?iie (yoie/aneie) enoi?ee, eai “aac iniciaiey
i?ioeiai ianoiyuaa ia eiaao niunea”. Aea Ai no?aieeny ecia?aceoue
/aeiaaea eae i?iaeoeo eoeueoo?u a ?aaeueiii eciaiythuainy ie?a. Aaaeiia
cia/aiea ii i?eaeaaae yiioeeiiaeueiie ie?aoaiiinoe /oanoaa
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eoeueoo?a e iieneai eiaeeaeaeii niunea nouanoaiaaiey.
Niaea?aeaiea “ss” i?eia?aoaao niune i?e ioiaeaeanoaeaiee
(eaeaioeoeeaoeee) eiaeeaeaea n ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii aeaenoaey,
i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ioeii, iiaeaeae aoaeouaai. Yoie/iinoue, niaeanii Aea
Ai, anoue iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo oi?i nioeeaeueiie eaeaioe/iinoe
(naiiau?aaeaiea a /ai-oi, auaeaeaiea naay ec iannu ae?oaeo). Ii n/eoaao,
/oi /aeiaae aeinoeaaao ?aaeueiiai e eaeaaeueiiai (ia?aciiai) niunea “ss”
eeoue a a?oiia, ianiio?y ia /anoe/ioth iioa?th eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
naiaiaeu.

Io?aaeaieai iai?a?uaiinoe eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna, ia?ac?uaiinoe i?ioeiai
e aoaeouaai neoaeeo no?oeoo?iay iiaeaeue “ss”. “ss”, eae yae?i ee/iinoe,
i?eaioe?iaaii ia ianoiyuaa – ia a?aaeaeaieia ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aiu, /eaia
yoiiiieeoe/aneie iauiinoe, eiathuaai yeiiiie/aneee noaoon e aoiaeyuaai a
ii?aaeaeaiioth i?ioanneiiaeueioth a?oiio. I?eaioaoeey “ss” ia aoaeouaa
ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaae eiaao i?aaenoaaeaiea a naaoneie eee
?aeeaeiciie oi?ia i aeaeaaiii aoaeouai. A yoii aniaeoa ?aaeecoaony
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue /aeiaaea e eaeie-eeai eaeaieiaee. E, iaeiiaoe,
i?eaioaoeey ia i?ioeia yaeyaony iaeiie ec oi?i yoie/aneie (eoeueoo?iie)
eaeaioe/iinoe. Eiaeeaeaeu, ?acaeaeythuea oo eee eioth yoie/aneoth
eaeaioe/iinoue, iiaoo ia?aciauaaoue iauiinoe (a?oiiu) n niaa?oaiii
?acee/iuie eiee/anoaaiiuie ia?aiao?aie, ii a ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee
auiieiythueie ooieoeeth iineoaey eoeueoo?iiai ?aciiia?acey a oie eee
eiie nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe (o?aaeeoeeiiiie eee nia?aiaiiie).

O?ienoaaiiay noaia “ss” eiaeeaeaea, iia?oaeaiiiai a iioie
nioeeieoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia, iiaeao auoue iiaeaeueth aeey aiaeeca
?acee/iuo eoeueoo? (a enoi?ee e a nia?aiaiiinoe). Aa /anoe (i?eaioaoeey)
i?aaeiieaaatho acaeiiaeaenoaea (ai?ueao) iaaeaeo ieie. Anyeoth eoeueoo?o
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue iiae oaeii c?aiey no?oeoo?iiai “”ss” eiaeeaeaea a
naaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo i?eaa?aeaiiinoueth e i?ioeie yoie/iinoe,
ianoiyuaai noaoona e aoaeouaai eaeaaeece?iaaiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia
iauanoaa””.

Yoie/aneay eaeaioeoeeaoeey aeaao ee/iinoe onoie/eaia iniiaaiea aeey
aeeiaie/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa, naycuaaao
ianoiyuaa n i?ioeui, iaania/eaaao enoi?e/aneoth i?aainoaaiiinoue,
neoaeeo enoiaeiie nenoaiie i?eaioaoeee a ie?a. Nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea
ea?aao caeanue “iao?eioeci, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue neeueiaeoae yiioeeae,
iiaoaeaeathuae aeaaea iiaea?oaiaaoue naiae aeeciueth ca naith ?iaeeio”.
Aiiaua no?aieaiea e nio?aiaieth eoeueoo?u, ethaiaue “e ?iaeiiio
iaiaeeuo”, eae iieaaatho ia oieueei enneaaeiaaoaee yoie/aneie
eaeaioe/iinoe, ii e e?oiiaeoea aoiaienou XX a. Y.O?iii e A.Ianeio, anoue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay e aeoaeiiay iio?aaiinoue /aeiaaea.

3. Eioa?aeoeeiieci eae iaoiae aiaeeca eoeueoo?

A 80-90-a aiaeu eioa?aeoeeiieci noae iiioey?iui iaoiaeii eco/aiey
yoiiineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae eoeueoo?u. Iniiaiui oa?ieiii caeanue
noaiiaeony “ss”, iiieiaaiia eae iauaeo ?anniio?aiey ee/iinoe, a oai?eae
– neiaiee/aneee eioa?aeoeeiieci Aeae.A.Ieaea. A iauai aeaea
eioa?aeoeeiieci icia/aao, /oi niaea?aeaiea “ss” e, niioaaonoaaiii,
eoeueoo?u ninoieo a ?aciiia?aciuo nioeeaeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo
eiaeeaeaea ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo (naiuey, aeaoneee eieeaeoea,
i?ioanneiiaeueiue eieeaeoea e o.ae.). Niaea?aeaiea “ss” eiaeeaeaea
naycaii, oaeei ia?acii, n inouanoaeaieai ?acee/iuo acaeiiaeaenoaee
(eioa?aeoeee), a eioi?uo ii auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth (ea?aao
?ieue). Niaea?aeaiea ?yaea acaeiiaeaenoaee eiaao neiaiee/aneoth
iaa?oceo, niune eioi?ie naycai n eoeueoo?iuie o?aaeeoeeyie. *aeiaae
yaeyaony eoeueoo?iui nouanoaii n oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ii ia/eiaao
ioiineoueny e naaa eae e iauaeoo, aeaeaao naia “ss” i?aaeiaoii
?aciuoeaiee. ?aaeueii /aeiaae iiaeao noaoue iauaeoii aeey naiiai naay,
aini?iecaiaey e onaaeaay ioiioaiea e naaa ae?oaeo ethaeae. Aeae.Ieae
i?eaeaaae ooiaeaiaioaeueiia cia/aiea ia oieueei ycueo, ii e aeanoai,
aeathuei ie?aneo eioa?aeoeeyi e eiathuei niaoeeoe/anee eoeueoo?iia
cia/aiea.

Aeaiiay eiioeaioeey /anoe/ii iiaeeyea e ia oai?eth yoie/iinoe Aeae. Aea
Ai. A iieiii iauaia iia noaea iniiaie enneaaeiaaiey iaoeeiiaeueii- (eee
eoeueoo?ii-) iniaaiiiai “ss” ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia ie?a. Iai?eia?, a Eeoaa
niaea?aeaiea “ss” naycaii n eoeueoo?iuie o?aaeeoeeyie naiuee, ia
caeeth/aii a a?aieoeu “ss” eiaeeaeaea; iii oe?a, a eaeii-oi niunea
?anoai?aii a iaaeee/iinoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo aioo?e naiuee. A Eiaeee
“ss” eaeaioeoeoee?oaony n eanoie. A NOA i?aiaeaaeathuay /a?oa a
eoeueoo?a – eiaeeaeaeoaeeci. Iaaea?ii enneaaeiaaiea ia yoii ia?iaea
iacuaaaony, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, “Iaeeiieay oieia”. I?eiaoie
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony no?aieaiea e eciaiaieth niaea?aeaiey
“ss”, iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey. Yoi eanaaony eciaiaiey iieeoe/aneeo
acaeyaeia, ?aeeaeiciie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe (iai?eia?, io o?enoeainoaa e
aoaeaeecio), naenoaeueiie i?eaioaoeee.

Eioa?aniui i?eia?ii ?aaeecaoeee eioa?aeoeeiienoneiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony
enneaaeiaaiea ia?iaeiie iiaeaee “ss” a ssiiiee. Ee/iinoiia ia/aei a
ia?iaeiie o?aaeeoeee ssiiiee i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea aaeeinoaa
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae noi?iiu “ss”. Aaeain yoeo aeaoo noi?ii
iaania/eaaaony iaeiae aeeciaiiie yia?aeae TH (aeiyia?aaoeea, ii
aa?iiaeneie oa?ieiieiaee), eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony a aeaoo oi?iao:
i?aaieciaaiiie e niiioaiiie (i?e/eia aiacaiiuo ica?aiee). Aeaaiay
caaea/a ee/iinoe (ss) a eoeueoo?a — aeinoe/ue aa?iiie/aneiai aaeeinoaa
aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai, eaeaaeueiiai neioaca, i?inaaoeaiey (naoi?ee).
Any eoeueoo?a ssiiiee iai?aaeaia ia oi?ie?iaaiea aa?iiie/iiai “ss”,
iaoiaeyuaainy a aaeeinoaa n i?e?iaeie e iauanoaii.

N yoiiineoieiae/aneei eco/aieai eoeueoo?u, a iniaaiiinoe n aiaeecii
yoie/iinoe, naycaiu aeaa yaeaiey a eoeueoo?a nia?aiaiiie yiioe. I?aaeaea
anaai yoi oaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai yeno?aiecia, eneaaeaiiie oi?iu
yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe. Ethaiaue e naiae eoeueoo?a e yoie/aneie
enoi?ee noaiiaeony aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiie e i?aa?auaaony a iaiaaenoue e
ae?oaei ia?iaeai e eoeueoo?ai. Aaniethoece?othony
a?aaeaeaaiinoue, ianoi?iaeaiiinoue ii ioiioaieth e iaciaeiiiio, ae?oaiio
(/oaeano?aioeo). Iau/ii e eiiio /aeiaae ioiineony aeaienoaaiii:
ianoi?iaeaiii e n eioa?anii. I?e iaeo?aeecaoeee eioa?ana eneaaeathony
iiciaaaoaeueiua i?eaioaoeee ee/iinoe, noaeaaony niaea?aeaiea “ss”.
Ia?aaeei yoi i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa niciaoaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiey
eaiiaiee ii nicaeaieth ia?aca a?aaa, enoi/ieea aaae e ian/anoee aeaiiie
iauiinoe. Yoei aeinoeaaaony niei/aiea iineaaeiae. A ?acoeueoaoa
iaoeeiiaeueiiai yeno?aiecia ?acaeaaaony aeia?yoie/aneee (oa?ieiieiaey
Aeae. Aeaaa?i) oei ee/iinoe. Ana niaea?aeaiea “ss” naiaeeony e oiio, /oi
anoue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iauiinoe – eoeueoo?iie, eiioanneiiaeueiie,
eeanniaie. Iauiinoue, ninoiyuay ec oaeeo eiaeeaeaeia, ia a ninoiyiee
inouanoaeyoue aini?iecaiaenoai eoeueoo?u e iioiio aeaa?aaee?oao.

Ae?oaie aniaeo ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u nia?aiaiiinoe au?aaeaaony a
oi?ie?iaaiee eaeaaea aoaeouaai ia iniiaa eaeaaeece?iaaiiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ioeii e aiaae?aiey iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey iineaaeiaai a
aeeciue. Yoi icia/aao aica?auaiea e “aeia?ui, noa?ui” a?aiaiai,
aic?iaeaeaieth eoeueoo?iuo noa?aioeiia i?ioeiai. Oaeia yaeaiea
iacuaaaony ooiaeaiaioaeeciii. Iaeaieaa y?ei iii i?iyaeeinue a eiioea XX
a. a eneaineeo no?aiao. Aai cia/aiea iiaeao auoue iiiyoi a eiioaenoa
ai?ueau eoeueoo?-oeeaeeecaoeee a nia?aiaiiii aaiiieeoe/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aaeee A.A. Ineoieiae/aneay aio?iiieiaey. I.,2005.

2. A?iieae TH. A. I/a?ee oai?ee yoiina (?6. Ia yoie/aneeo /a?oao
ineoeee). I.,1983.

3. Ae?iaeaeaaa E. I. Ia eco/aiee yoiiineoieiae/aneeo yaeaiee yoie/iinoe
a nioeeieiae/aneii e ineoieiaenaneii ?aeo?na // Yoie/aneay ineoieiaey e
iauanoai. I.,2003.

4. I?ioeeia A. A., Eaaeaiia E. Ae. ssiiioeu, Yoiiineoieiae/aneea i/a?ee.
I.,2000.

5. Oaaieeia O. A. Yoie/iinoue e iauanoai: iiene eiioeaiooaeueiuo ?aoaiee
// Yoiieiaey a NOA e Eaiaaea. I.,2002.

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