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Эпоха возрождения, титаны Ренессанса

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IEAI

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey.

?aiiaa Aic?iaeaeaiea.

A. Aeaeiooi.

A. A?oiaeeanee.

Aunieia Aic?iaeaeaiea

A. A?aiaioa

Oeoaiu ?aiannaina.

1. Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e.

2. ?aoayeue Naioe.

Ieeaeaiaeaei.

Oeoeeai.

3. Iicaeiaa Aic?iaeaeaiea

YIIOA AIC?IAEAeAIEss

A eiioea XIV – ia/aea XV aa. a Aa?iia, a eiaiii – a Eoaeee, ia/aea
oi?ie?iaaoueny ?aiiaao?aeoaciay eoeueoo?a, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea eoeueoo?u
Aic?iaeaeaiey (?aiannain). Oa?iei “Aic?iaeaeaiea” oeacuaae ia naycue
iiaie eoeueoo?u n aioe/iinoueth. A yoi a?aiy eoaeueyineia iauanoai
ia/eiaao aeoeaii eioa?aniaaoueny eoeueoo?ie Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e ?eia,
?acuneeaathony ?oeiiene aioe/iuo ienaoaeae, oae auee iaeaeaiu ni/eiaiey
Oeeoea?iia e Oeoa Eeaey. Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue iiiaeie
i/aiue cia/eoaeueiuie ia?aiaiaie a oiiiano?iaieyo ethaeae ii n?aaiaieth
n ia?eiaeii N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Oneeeaathony naaoneea iioeau a aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?a, ana aieaa naiinoiyoaeueiuie e iacaaeneiuie io oea?eae
noaiiayony ?acee/iua noa?u aeecie iauanoaa – eneonnoai, oeeinioey,
eeoa?aoo?a, ia?aciaaiea, iaoea. A oeaio?a aieiaiey aeayoaeae
Aic?iaeaeaiey aue /aeiaae, iiyoiio ie?iaicc?aiea iineoaeae yoie
eoeueoo?u iaicia/atho oa?ieiii “aoiaienoe/aneia” (io eao. humanus –
/aeiaa/aneee).

Aoiaienou Aic?iaeaeaiey iieaaaee, /oi a /aeiaaea aaaeii ia aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiea eee nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, a ee/iinoiua ea/anoaa,
oaeea, eae oi, oai?/aneay yia?aey, i?aaei?eei/eainoue, /oanoai
nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa, aiey, ia?aciaaiiinoue. A ea/anoaa
“eaeaaeueiiai /aeiaaea” i?eciaaaeanue neeueiay, oaeaioeeaay e
ananoi?iiia ?acaeoay ee/iinoue, /aeiaae-oai?aoe naiiai naay e naiae
noaeueau. A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue i?eia?aoaao
iaaeaeaiioth ?aiaa oeaiiinoue, aaaeiaeoae /a?oie aoiaienoe/aneiai
iiaeoiaea e aeecie noaiiaeony eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, /oi niinianoaoao
?ani?ino?aiaieth eaeae eeaa?aeecia e iauaio iiauoaieth o?iaiy naiaiaeu
ethaeae a iauanoaa. Ia neo/aeii aoiaienou, a oeaeii ia aunooiathuea
i?ioea ?aeeaee e ia inia?eaathuea iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee o?enoeainoaa,
ioaiaeeee Aiao ?ieue oai?oea, i?eaaaeoaai ie? a aeaeaeaiea e aeaeaa ia
aiaoeaathuaainy a aeeciue ethaeae.

Eaeaaeueiue /aeiaae, ii iiaieth aoiaienoia, yoi “oieaa?naeueiue
/aeiaae”, /aeiaae – niceaeaoaeue, yioeeeeiiaaeeno. Aoiaienou
Aic?iaeaeaiey n/eoaee, /oi aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey
aani?aaeaeueiu, eai ?acoi /aeiaaea iiaeiaai aiaeanoaaiiiio ?acoio, a nai
/aeiaae yaeyaony eae au nia?oiui aiaii, e a eiioea eiioeia ethaee
anooiyo ia oa??eoi?eth iaaaniuo naaoee e oai iainiothony e noaioo eae
aiae. Ia?aciaaiiuo e iaea?aiiuo ethaeae a yoio ia?eiae ie?oaeaea
aoiinoa?a anaiauaai ainoeuaiey, iieeiiaiey, eo /oeee, eae a N?aaeiea
aaea nayouo. Ianeaaeaeaiea caiiui auoeai – yoi iai?aiaiiay /anoue
eoeueoo?u Aic?iaeaeaiey.

?AIIAA AIC?IAEAeAIEA

Aic?iaeaeaieth a eoeueoo?iii i?ia?anna i?eiaaeeaaeeo iniaia ianoi. Aeaei
ia oieueei a oii, /oi a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ia iiiai iaeaeaony yiio,
ioia/aiiuo noieue aea eeio/ae eioaineaiinoueth eoeueoo?iiai, iniaaiii
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai, oai?/anoaa, oaeei iaeeeai aeenoaoaeueiuo oaeaioia,
oaeei aiaaonoaii aaeeeieaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee. Ia iaiaa ii?aaeaao ae?oaia:
i?ioei iyoue noieaoee, aeeciue iaociaaaaii eciaieeanue, a oai?aiey
aaeeeeo ianoa?ia ?aiannainiiai eneonnoaa ia ia?anoatho aieiiaaoue ana
iiaua e iiaua iieieaiey ethaeae.

A /ai aea nae?ao yoie ii?aceoaeueiie aeeciaiiie neeu? Eae au ie
i/a?iauaaei ian niaa?oainoai oi?iu, aai iaeiiai iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey oaeie
aeoeaiie aeieaiaa/iinoe. Nae?ao – a aeoai/aeoae /aeiaa/iinoe yoiai
eneonnoaa, a i?iiecuaathuai aai aoiaiecia. Iinea ouny/aeaoey
n?aaeiaaaeiauey Aic?iaeaeaiea yaeeinue ia?aie iiao/ae iiiuoeie
aeooiaiiai ?ane?aiiuaiey /aeiaaea, inaiaiaeaeaiey e ananoi?iiiaai
?acaeoey ne?uouo a iai eieinnaeueiuo oai?/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae.
Eneonnoai, ?iaeaeaiiia yoie yiioie, ianao a naaa aannia?oiua yoe/aneea
oeaiiinoe. Iii ainieouaaao, ?acaeaaao aoiaiiua /oanoaa, iii i?iaoaeaeaao
a /aeiaaea *aeiaaea.

AEeaiienue Aecaioee, io aeeyiey eioi?ie eoaeueyineea ooaeiaeieee ia/aee
inaiaiaeaeaoueny oieueei e eiioeo XIII a., nicaeaea oaaeaa?u,
aucuaathuea iaoa ainoeuaiea, ii iia ia ecia?aaeaea ?aaeueiiai ie?a.

Eneonnoai ooaeiaeieeia n?aaeiaaaeiauey ia ?iaeaeaao o c?eoaey iuouaiey
iauaia, aeoaeiu, ia nicaeaao aia/aoeaiey i?ino?ainoaa, aea iii e yoiio e
ia no?aieony.

Aeaaay eeoue iaiae ia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, aecaioeeneea ianoa?a
no?aieeenue i?aaeaea anaai ia?aaeaoue oa eaeae, aa?iaaiey e iiiyoey,
eioi?ua ninoaaeyee aeooiaiia niaea?aeaiea eo yiioe. Iie nicaeaaaee
ia?acu-neiaieu aaee/anoaaiiua e i?aaeaeueii iaeooioai?aiiua, i?e/ai a eo
aeeaiiene e iicaeea /aeiaa/aneea oeao?u inoaaaeenue eae au aanoaeaniuie,
oneiaiuie, ?aaii eae e iaecaae e any eiiiiceoeey.

Aeey oiai /oiau e iaae aioeeie, e iaae aecaioeeneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
nenoaiie ainoi?aeanoaiaaei iiaia, ?aaeenoe/aneia eneonnoai, ioaeai aue
ia?aai?io a ie?iiuouaiee ethaeae, eioi?ue iiaeii iacaaoue iaeiei ec
naiuo aaee/aeoeo i?ia?anneaiuo ia?aai?ioia a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Oi, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue Aic?iaeaeaieai, auei ooaa?aeaeaieai
i?aainoaaiiinoe aaeeeie aioe/iie eoeueoo?u, ooaa?aeaeaieai eaeaaeia
aoiaiecia. Yoi auei eiioeii n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia/aeii iiaie y?u.
I?iaiaeieee iiaie eoeueoo?u iacuaaee naay aoiaienoaie, i?iecaiaey yoi
neiai io eaoeineiai humanus – “/aeiaa/iue”, “/aeiaa/aneee”. Enoeiiue
aoiaieci i?iaicaeaoaao i?aai /aeiaaea ia naiaiaeo, n/anouea, i?eciaao
aeaai /aeiaaea iniiaie nioeeaeueiiai ono?ienoaa, ooaa?aeaeaao i?eioeeiu
?aaainoaa, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, /aeiaa/iinoe a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Eoaeueyineea aoiaienou ioe?uaaee ie? eeanne/aneie ae?aaiinoe,
?acuneeaaee a caauouo o?aieeeuao oai?aiey ae?aaieo aaoi?ia e e?iiioeeaui
o?oaeii i/euaee eo io eneaaeaiee, aianaiiuo n?aaeiaaaeiauie iiiaoaie.
Iienee eo auee ioia/aiu ieaiaiiui yiooceaciii. Ae?oaea ioeaiuaaee
iaeiiee eieiii, noaooe, aa?aeueaou, iiiaou. “ss aine?aoath ia?oauo” –
aiai?ee iaeei ec eoaeueyineeo aoiaienoia, iinayoeaoee naay a?oaieiaee. E
a naiii aeaea, aioe/iue eaeaae e?aniou aine?anae iiae oai iaaii e ia oie
caiea, eioi?ua auee ecaa/ii aio ?iaeiuie. E yoio eaeaae, caiiie, aeoaiei
/aeiaa/iue e inycaaiue, ?iaeaeae a ethaeyo aaeeeoth ethaiaue e e?anioa
ie?a e oii?ioth aieth iiciaoue yoio ie?. Oaeie a?aiaeeiciue ia?aai?io a
ie?iiuouaiee ethaeae i?iecioae ia eoaeueyineie caiea iinea oiai eae
Eoaeey anooieea ia iiaue iooue a naiai yeiiiie/aneii e nioeeaeueiii
?acaeoee. Oaea a XI-XII aa. a Eoaeee i?ienoiaeyo aioeoaiaeaeueiua
?aaiethoeee n onoaiiaeaieai ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao ?anioaeeeaineie oi?iu
i?aaeaiey.

Enoi?e/anee a Eoaeee aeaaiui ?oneii ao?iie oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe
?aiannaina noaea ia naia ii naaa iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue e aeaaea
ia ecyuiay neiaaniinoue, a ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai. Eiaiii a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiii oai?/anoaa iiaay eoeueoo?a ?aaeeciaaea naay n
iaeaieueoae au?aceoaeueiinoueth, eiaiii a eneonnoaa iia aiieioeeanue a
nie?iaeua, iaae eioi?uie ia aeanoii a?aiy. Iiaeaeoe, ieeiaaea ie aei (ii
e?aeiae ia?a – ni a?aiai eeanne/aneie ae?aaiinoe), ie iinea /aeiaa/anoai
ia ia?aaeeaaei yiioe, eiaaea ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai ea?aei au a
eoeueoo?iie, aea e a iauanoaaiiie aeecie, oaeoth eneeth/eoaeueioth
?ieue. Naiia iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a Aic?iaeaeaiey” i?iaoaeaeaao a niciaiee
i?aaeaea anaai iaiaeyaeioth, /a?othuoth aa?aieoeo aieiothueo aeooo
oai?aiee aeeaiiene, neoeueioo?u, a?oeoaeoo?u – iaeii i?ae?aniaa
ae?oaiai. Ana yoi a iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioiineony e aunoae nooiaie
?acaeoey yoie eoeueoo?u, e aa eoeueieiaoeeiiiiio ia?eiaeo, eioi?ue ia
aac iniiaaiey iacuaaaony Aunieei Aic?iaeaeaieai. Oi, /oi ?aiaa auei
iiiuoeie, oieueei i?i?uaii, caeanue yaeyaony ai anae iieiioa iunee,
niaa?oainoaa aa?iiiee, a eeio/ai iioiea ai?ueau oeoaie/aneeo nee.
Iaeiaei e aa?oeia aae aeieaee e iaeaaeee iooue ainoiaeaeaiey. Aac iaai
ia iiiyoue eoeueieiaoeee.

Aa?iiiey, e?anioa ia?aooo iacuaeaioth iniiao a oae iacuaaaiii cieioii
na/aiee (yoio oa?iei aue aaaaeai Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e; aiineaaenoaee
i?eiaiyeny e ae?oaie: “aiaeanoaaiiay i?iii?oeey”), ecaanoiii aua a
ae?aaiinoe, ii eioa?an e eioi?iio aiciee eiaiii a XV a. a nayce n aai
i?eiaiaieai eae a aaiiao?ee, oae e a eneonnoaa, iniaaiii a a?oeoaeoo?a.
Yoi – aa?iiie/aneia aeaeaiea io?acea, i?e eioi?ii a(eueoay /anoue
yaeyaony n?aaeiae i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie iaaeaeo anai io?aceii e iaiueoae
aai /anoueth, /aio i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue /aeiaa/aneia oaei. Eoae,
/aeiaa/aneee ?acoi – eae aeaeaeouay neea eneonnoaa iino?iaiey. Oaeiai
auei oaea e?aaei a?oeoaeoi?ia eaao?i/aioi, a noi eao nionoy
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei neaaeao aua ii?aaeaeaiiaa:

“A?oeoaeoo?iua /eaiu caaenyo io /aeiaa/aneiai oaea, e eoi ia aue eee ia
yaeyaony oi?ioei ianoa?ii oeao?u, a oaeaea aiaoiiee, ia iiaeao yoiai
o?acoiaoue.”

A naiai no?oeoo?iii e aeaei?aoeaii-ecia?aceoaeueiii aaeeinoaa
?aiannainiay a?oeoaeoo?a i?aia?aceea iaeee niai?a – aai oeaio?e/aneia
eoiieueiia nii?oaeaiea ia i?eaeaaeeaaao /aeiaaea, ii e ia io?uaaao io
caiee, a naiei aaee/aaui iiaeuaiii eae au ooaa?aeaeaao aeaaainoai
/aeiaaea iaae ie?ii.

N eaaeaeui aeanyoeeaoeai XV a. naaoneia no?ieoaeuenoai i?eieiaao a
Eoaeee ana aieueoee ?aciao. Ia o?aio, aeaaea ia aeai?oeo, a caeaieth
iauanoaaiiiai iacia/aiey auiaea aunieay /anoue auoue ia?aaioeai
iiaeeeiii ?aiannainiiai ciae/anoaa. Yoi oei?aioeeneee Ainieoaoaeueiue
aeii aeey iiaeeeaeuoae, e iino?ieea eioi?iai A?oiaeeanee i?enooiee a
1419 a.

*enoi ?aiannainiua eaaeinoue e ecyuanoai ioee/atho yoi nicaeaiea
ciaiaieoiai ciae/aai, auianoaai ia oanaae oe?iei ioe?uooth a?i/ioth
aaea?ath n oiieeie eieiiiaie e yoei eae au naycaaoaai caeaiea n
ieiuaaeueth, a?oeoaeoo?o – “/anoue aeecie” – n naiie /anoueth ai?iaea.
I?aeanoiua iaaeaeueiiu ec iie?uoie aeaco?ueth iaiaeaeaiiie aeeiu n
ecia?aaeaieyie niaeaiaouo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo oe?aoatho iaaieueoea oeiiaiu,
e?ani/ii iaeeaeyy anth a?oeoaeoo?ioth eiiiiceoeeth.

No?ieii ?an/eaiaiu a naieo iiao/eo ai?eciioaeueiuo oanaaeao, aac aaoai e
a?i/iuo aceaoia, aaee/aau, noaoiu e ea?oeiiu oei?aioeeneea aeai?oeu:
iaeaoeoei Ieooe, iaeaoeoei ?eea?aee, iaeaoeoei ?o/aeeae, iaeaoeoei
No?ioeoee e /oaeaniue oeaio?aeueiieoiieueiue o?ai Iaaeiiiu aeaeea
Ea?/aee a I?aoi. Ana yoi ciaiaieoua iaiyoieee a?oeoaeoo?u ?aiiaai
Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Aeiaaaei aeaa neiaa aua ia iaeiii aeeaiieniii aeai?a, i?ioeaaoaaoai ai
Oei?aioeee XV a. Yoi ia?yaeiua noiaeoee eee ea?oeu (eanniia), a eioi?uo
o?aieeenue ecethaeaiiua aaue, ieaouey, a /anoiinoe i?eaeaiia aeaaooae.
Aianoa n ?acueaie eo iie?uaaee aeeaiienueth, iiae/an i/aiue ecyuiie,
aeathuae y?eia i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiaeao oie ii?u, eiiaaea ni noeaiaie,
caeinoaiaaiiuie ec eeanne/aneie ieoieiaee.

O enoieia Aic?iaeaeaiey (?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey) a Eoaeee noiye aaeeeee
Aeaioa Aeeauea?e (1265-1321), aaoi? “Eiiaaeee”, eioi?oth iioiiee,
au?aaeay naia ainoeuaiea, iacaaee “Aiaeanoaaiiay eiiaaeey”. Aeaioa acye
i?eau/iue aeey N?aaeiaaaeiauey nthaeao e noiae neeie naiaai aiia?aaeaiey
i?iaanoe /eoaoaey ii anai e?oaai Aaea, *enoeeeua e ?ay; iaeioi?ua
i?inoiaeooiua aai nia?aiaiieee iieaaaee, /oi Aeaioa aeaenoaeoaeueii
iiauaae ia oii naaoa.

“Aiaeanoaaiiay eiiaaeey” ninoieo ec o?ao /anoae: “Aae”, “*enoeeeua”,
“?ae”. A Aaeo, aeoaiei iiae caieae, oa?cathony aa/iie aieueth a?aoieee –
oaeeoeu, naiioaeeoeu, i?aaeaoaee, ianeeueieee, eniuouaathuea aa/iua
aeooaaiua e oece/aneea ioee. Iaeoaoaee *enoeeeua, ai?u-ino?iaa – ioae?ua
e o?aaiiaaoaiiua. Yoi i?aaaaeiua ycu/ieee, ia ciathuea O?enoa, ana
aeia?ua ethaee, iieeiiythueany eaeaaiaai. Iiiaaoeo nthaea aeaeoo aeieaea
e io/eoaeueiua ?acaeoiuey i Aiaa, ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iaioa?aoeiinoe
aiciacaeey ca a?aoe; caeanue, a *enoeeeua, iuoathony iinoe/ue aunooth
oeaeaniia?aciinoue ie?icaeaiey. Eo/oee oaieie *enoeeeua – ia aa?oeia
ai?u. Yoi Caiiie ?ae. Aeooe iiiaeo niiniaiu i/enoeoueny io a?aoia,
eneoieoue eo ?aneayieai, iiaeiyoueny aei Caiiiai ?ay e aeaaea aceaoaoue
a iaaana, a ?ae ianoiyuee, iaaaniue. A Iaaaniii ?ath “Neaaa oiai, eoi
anae Anaeaiiie aeaeaeao, i?iieeiiaaiii neyy, no?oeony”. Aeaioa
iienuaaao, eae ii aianoa n Aaao?e/a iinaoee Iaaaniue ?ae, aanaaeiaae oai
n i?aaaaeieeaie. Ia Eoia iaeoatho aeooe iiiaoeiue, iioeuaiiuo ec
iiianou?ae e ianeeueii auaeaiiuo caioae, ia ii naiae aeia e aieai ia
naea?aeaaoeo iaaoa aeaanoaaiiinoe. Yoi aeooe Eoiu. Ia Ia?eo?ee – aoi?ie
?aeneie noa?a – iaeoatho aeooe-naaou /anoiethaeauo aeayoaeae, aeeciue
eioi?uo auea i?aaaaeiie. O?aouea iaai – Aaia?a – i?enoaieua aeey
ethaaaiaeeueiuo i?aaaaeieeia. Nieioea ianaeytho neythuea aeooe
aiaineiaia, ioae?aoeia, oeeinioia. Ia Ia?na niae?athony aeooe aieoaeae
ca aa?o. THieoa? – ianoi, aaea aeoatho aeooe ni?aaaaeeeauo. E Naoo?io
no?aiyony aeooe nica?oeaoaeae-i?aaaaeieeia. Neaaeothuae, ainueiie
?aeneie noa?ie, yaeyaony “Aiacaei Eaaeu” a Nicaacaeee Aeeciaoeia,
caeanue iaoiaeyo i?etho aeooe aaeeeeo i?aaaaeieeia. A yoii aea
nicaacaeee Aeeciaoeia iaoiaeeony e aunoay, aeaayoay, noa?a ?ay –
Yiie?ae. Oeaio? aa – e?ioioiay e ineaieoaeueii y?eay oi/ea, aie?oa
eioi?ie a?auathony inoaeueiua ainaiue ?aeneeo e?oaia. Nthaea iiiaaeatho
aeooe ieaaeaioeaa, aeaaeaiiuo, ionthaea enoiaeeo aa?oiaiue e naiue
ineaieoaeueiue Aa/iue Naao, iiiiaathuee ia?anoe aunoaa ciaiea e enoeio.
Yoi “Ethaiaue, /oi aeaeaeao nieioea e naaoeea”.

Aeaioa, O?ai/anei Iao?a?ea (1304-1374) e Aeaeiaaiie Aieea//i (1313-1375)
– ciaiaieoua iiyou Aic?iaeaeaiey, auee nicaeaoaeyie eoaeueyineiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Eo ni/eiaiey oaea i?e aeecie iieo/eee oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue ia oieueei a Eoaeee, ii e aeaeaei ca aa i?aaeaeaie, aioee a
nie?iaeuieoeo ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u.

Anaie?ioth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee niiaou Iao?a?ee ia aeeciue e nia?oue
iaaeiiiu Eao?u. I?eia?ii eo iiaeao neoaeeoue niiao ? 215 ec “Eieae
Ianai”.

I?e aeaai?iaenoaa e?iae – ne?iiiinoue yoa,

Aeanoyuee oi – e na?aeoea i?inoioa,

I?e caieiooinoe aiaoiae – oaieioa,

E c?aeue ieiae – io iieiaeiai oeaaoa,

– Aea, e iae auea uaae?a aa ieaiaoa,

Aa?iaa – oea?ue naaoee, e aunioa aa aeinoieinoa,

Eaaeaeay /a?oa

Neiieee au aaeeeiai iiyoa.

A iae ni/aoae Ainiiaeue ethaiaue e /anoue,

I/a?iaaiueai iaaeaey iiae noaoue

I?e?iaeie e?anioa – i/ai ia ?aaeinoue.

E /oi-oi o iaa ai aci?a anoue,

*oi a iieii/ue aeaiue neyoue canoaaeo, caneyoue,

Aeano ai?a/ue iaaeo e iieuie – neaaeinoue.

Iineaaeiaaoaeai Iao?a?ee aue Aieea//i, aaoi? “Aeaeaia?iia” – nia?aiey
?aaeenoe/aneeo iiaaee, iauaaeeiaiiuo iauei aoiaienoe/aneei eaeaaeii e
i?aaenoaaeythueo aaeeiia oeaeia.

Aeey Aic?iaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ai eoeueo e?aniou, i?aaeaea anaai e?aniou
/aeiaaea. Eoaeueyineay aeeaiienue, eioi?ay ia a?aiy noaiiaeony aaaeouei
aeaeii eneonnoaa, ecia?aaeaao i?ae?aniuo, niaa?oaiiuo ethaeae.
AEeaiienue ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaia oai?/anoaii Aiooe/aeee
(1445-1510), nicaeaaoaai i?iecaaaeaiey ia ?aeeaeiciua e ieoieiae/aneea
nthaeaou, a oii /enea ea?oeiu “Aania” e “?iaeaeaiea Aaia?u”, a oaeaea
Aeaeiooi (1266-1337), inaiaiaeeaoaai eoaeueyineoth o?aneiaoth aeeaiienue
io aeeyiey aecaioeeneie.

AeAEIOOI

O?a/aioi – yoi aua ia Aic?iaeaeaiea, yoi I?aaeaic?iaeaeaiea, eee
I?ioi?aiannain. I?e/ai iiaeii neacaoue, /oi i?ioi?aiannainiua aayiey
iiyaeeenue a eoaeueyineie eoeueoo?a e a iauai ie?iiuouaiee oaea a XIII
a., a eiiaaea aeaaea e XII e XI aa. Oaea I?aaeaic?iaeaeaiea iiaeiyei
aeaaec iiae?aaeaiey i?e?iaea. Eiaiii ca yoi aoiaienou ai?y/i oaaeeee
Aeaeiooi. Oei?aioeaoe Aeaeiooi – ia?aue ii a?aiaie n?aaee oeoaiia
aaeeeie yiioe eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa. Ii aue i?aaeaea anaai
aeeaiienoeai, ii oaeaea aayoaeai e ciae/ei. Anoue naaaeaiey, /oi ii aue
aeo?ai niaie e neaaeeny ino?ineiaeai. Ia?iiii auei aia/aoeaiea,
i?iecaaaeaiiia ia nia?aiaiieeia oai?aieyie Aeaeiooi. Iao?a?ea ienae, /oi
ia?aae ia?acaie Aeaeiooi eniuouaaaoue ainoi?a, aeioiaeyuee aei
ioeaiaiaiey. A noi eao nionoy i?ineaaeaiiue oei?aioeeneee aayoaeue
Aeaa?oe oae iocuaaeny i iai:

“Aeaeiooi aeaeae a eneonnoaa oi, /oi ae?oaei auei iaaeinooiii. Ii i?eian
anoanoaaiiia eneonnoai… Ii yaeeny ecia?aoaoaeai e ioe?uaaoaeai aaeeeie
iaoee, eioi?ay auea iia?aaaia ieiei oanoenio eao”.

“Anoanoaaiiia eneonnoai”, eai iii iniiaaii ia ecia?aaeaiee ie?oaeathuaai
ian ie?a oaeei, eaeei aai aeaeeo iao aeac.

Caeanue ia/eiaeny io?ua io n?aaeiaaaeiaiai, ?aeeaeiciiai eneonnoaa. Oai
aunoei niaa?oainoaii iieaaaeny anaie?iue e naa?o/oanoaeoaeueiue aia, e
oieueei e iaio, eae e aaeeinoaaiii ?aaeueiiio eaeaaeo, aeieaeii auei
ono?aieyoueny eneonnoai. Ana caiiia, i?e?iaeiia iauyaeyeinue iaiai/eaui,
i?ec?a/iui, iaaeinoieiui ethaiaaiey: aaaeue iii ioaeaeaei io nica?oeaiey
iac?eiiai – aiaa. Iaeiaei naa?o/oanoaaiiia ecia?aceoue e aini?eyoue
iaaiciiaeii, a iioiio, /oiau ecia?aceoue aiaa, aiaaeia e nayouo,
i?eoiaeeeinue i?eaaaaoue e ecia?aaeaieth ethaeae, e a eaeie-oi noaiaie,
yeaiaioia i?e?iaeu. Ii yoe ecia?aaeaiey ia aeieaeiu auee eiaoue
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ynoaoe/aneiai cia/aiey, a eeoue neoaeeoue iaiaeaie,
neiaieaie “iaaaniiai”, aiaeanoaaiiiai. C?eiia aeiioneaeinue eeoue aeey
oiai, /oiau ia?auaoue iiiuneu ethaeae e iac?eiiio.

Ia/eiay n Aeaeiooi, i?e?iaea e /aeiaae naie noaiiaeeenue iauaeoii
ethaiaaiey, a ieo noaee eneaoue (e iaoiaeeee!) e?anioo e aeooiaiia
aiaaonoai. Ie? neiaii caiiai ?ane?uaaeny ia?aae ethaeueie. Aieiaiea,
eioa?an, ethaiaue ooaeiaeieeia ana aieueoa nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ia
/aeiaaea e ia anai oii, /oi aai ie?oaeaao. A yoii auee neea e caneoaa
?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey, aai aaeeeia oeeinionei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ioe?uoea:
ii?ua e /aeiaaeo e i?e?iaea eae e noa?a e?aniou e aeia?a icia/ae
ia?aianaiea ynoaoe/aneiai e yoe/aneiai oeaio?a oyaeanoe ec ai?iae,
iieiie, naa?oiaoo?aeueiie noa?u a ie? caiiie, ?aaeueiue, /aeiaa/aneee.

Ii caeanue aea oaeeanue e aai neaainoue. Ainoeuaiiia ioe?uaoeiny ia?aae
iei ie?ii eneonnoai ia iiaei ia oaea/ueny aai “iano?ui oa?ainoaii” e
eaaei naeaaeinue ia iooue iaei/iiai iaoo?aeecia. Iiiaea ooaeiaeieee ia
auaea?aeaee eneona e inoaaeee iioiieai ea?oeiu, aaea anoue e oeaaoenoua
eaaaeueeaaeu, e ianoa?nee ecia?aaeaiiua iooe, neaeyuea ia enienaiiii
eenoea aoiaae, ii aaea /aeiaae ecia?aaeai iaeei, iaau?aceoaeueii, – ii
caoa?yeny a yoie i?acaeie/iie eee auoiaie ieoo?a.

Iaeiaei eneonnoai ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey i?e anae naiae ia?aie/aiiinoe
ioithaeue ia auei iaeiicia/ii iaoo?aeenoe/aneei, naiiiiiyoii i?inoui.
Iii auei neiaeiui, i?ioeai?a/eaui, e yoa aioo?aiiyy i?ioeai?a/eainoue
aaea aai aia?aae. Eae ie no?aiii ia ia?aue acaeyae, a eneonnoaa ?aiiaai
Aic?iaeaeaiey, ia?yaeo n iaei/iie aeaoaeecaoeeae, n naiiai aea ia/aea
iaia/aaony ae?oaay, neioace?othuay oaiaeaioeey: ia?ac?uaii naycaiiay n
nicaeaieai iaiauaiiiai, iiioiaioaeueiiai e aa?ie/aneiai ia?aca
niaa?oaiiiai /aeiaaea.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo neoeueioi?ia oiai a?aiaie aue Aeiiaoaeei
(1386-1466), aaoi? ?yaea ?aaeenoe/aneeo ?aaio ii?o?aoiiai oeia, aia?aua
aiiaue iinea aioe/iinoe i?aaenoaaeaoaai a neoeueioo?a iaiaaeaiiia oaei.
E?oiiaeoee a?oeoaeoi? ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey – A?oiaeeanee (1377-1446).
Ii no?aieeny ni/aoaoue yeaiaiou ae?aaia?eineiai e aioe/aneiai noeeae,
no?iee o?aiu, aeai?oeu, eaiaeeu.

A?OIAEEANEE

Nianoaaiii ?aiannainiia eneonnoai ia/aeinue a XV a., eiaaea a ia?aue
aiae yoiai noieaoey Oei?aioeeneay eiiioia iauyaeea eiieo?n ia oe?aoaiea
aeaa?ae aaioenoa?ey Nai-Aeaeiaaiie. Eo/oeie auee ia?acoeu ?aeueaoia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua aeaoiy iieiaeuie ooaeiaeieeaie – Oeeeiii A?oiaeeanee e
Ei?aioei Aeaa?oe ia iaeio e oo aea oaio: aea?oaii?eiioaiea Aa?aaia. Iaa
?aeueaoa auee aaeeeieaiiu, iaa – iiaaoi?nee niaeu e ii ?aoaieth, e ii
ecia?aceoaeueiiio ycueo. Iaeueio ia?aainoaa ioaeaee Aeaa?oe aa?iyoii
iioiio, /oi ia ?aeueaoa A?oiaeeanee oeao?a Enaaea, iaea/aiiiai ia
caeeaiea iooeii, auaeyaeaea neeoeii iineooiui aiao, yoi “oaa?ue
ae?iaeauay”, aeaeeee, ii/oe aii?oiue ?aa, eioi?iai Aa?aai, eae
aacioaaoioth neioeio, oaueo ia aea?oaaiiee. Nianai ia oi o Aeaa?oe. Aai
Enaaeo /oaeaeu /a?ou aeaeeiai ie/oiaeanoaa. Yoi no?ieiue, aeaeee
iaeue/ee ia ii?iaa thiioaneiai ?anoeaaoa. Aai ieanoe/iinoue i/a?iauaaao.
Aea, eieaiyie ii iinoaaeai ia aeoa?ue, ?oee aai naycaiu ca nieiie, ii ii
ia neeiiee iiei?ii aieiau. Iai?ioea, ii ai?aei iiaeiye aa, e iu aeaeei,
neieueei a iae e?aniou e aeinoieinoaa. Ia eeoea – ie oaie no?aoa, a iai
ai?aeue aucia aeeeie iani?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?ay aioiaa ia iaai
ia?ooeoueny. Oio aea aucia – a iaiaaeaiiie a?oaee, aanno?aoii
?acaa?iooie iaano?a/o iianiinoe. Yoio aanno?aoiue thiioa ia neeiieony
ia?aae aacaeaeinoiui iooeii, aea, iaaa?iia, e ia?aae naiei aiaii, ia
niooeaoeiny ioaeaoue oaeia aan/aeiaa/iia i?eeacaiea.

“Enaae” Aeaa?oe ia oieueei n ?aaeeie oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth au?acee
naiaiaeiethaeaue, iaiiei?iue aeoo Oei?aioeeneie ?anioaeeee. Ii, a
nouiinoe, ia?aui, ia naiii ii?iaa Eaao?i/aioi, a aunieii iaiauaiee
aiieioee eaeaaeueiue ia?ac ai?aeiai e i?ae?aniiai /aeiaaea
Aic?iaeaeaiey.

A?oiaeeanee aea eiae aeaa aaee/aeoeo caiunea: ia?aue – aa?iooue ia naao
aiaeee oi?iooth a?oeoaeoo?o, aoi?ie – iaeoe, anee yoi aio oaeanony,
niinia aicaanoe eoiie Naioa Ia?ey aeaeue Ouei?a ai Oei?aioeee.

Aeaei a oii, /oi a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia niaa?oaiii ia oiaee aicaiaeeoue
aieueoea eoiiea, iiyoiio eoaeueyioeu oie ii?u ace?aee ia ae?aaia?eineee
Iaioaii n ainoeuaieai e caaenoueth.

E aio eae ioeaieaaao Aaca?e aicaeaeaiooue A?oiaeeanee eoiie
oei?aioeeneiai niai?a Naioa Ia?ey aeaeue Ouei?a:

“Iiaeii ii?aaeaeaiii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ae?aaiea ia aeinoeaaee a naieo
iino?ieeao oaeie auniou e ia ?aoaeenue ia oaeie ?ene, eioi?ue au
canoaaee eo niia?ie/aoue n naiei iaaii, eae n iei, eaaeaony,
aeaenoaeoaeueii niia?ie/aao oei?aioeeneee eoiie, eai ii oae aunie, /oi
ai?u, ie?oaeathuea Oei?aioeeth, eaaeoony ?aaiuie aio. E aeaenoaeoaeueii,
iiaeii iiaeoiaoue, /oi naii iaai caaeaeoao aio, eai iinoiyiii e /anoi
oeaeuie aeiyie ii?aaeaao aai iieieyie”.

Ai?aeaeeaay iiuue ?aiannaina! Oei?aioeeneee eoiie ia aue iiaoi?aieai ie
eoiiea Iaioaiia, ie eoiiea eiinoaioeiiiieueneie na.Nioee, ?aaeothueo ian
ia aunioie, aeaaea ia aaee/aainoueth iaeeea, a i?aaeaea anaai oai
i?inoi?ii, eioi?ua iie nicaeatho a o?aiiaii eioa?uea?a.

Eoiie A?oiaeeanee a?acaaony a iaai anae naiae no?ieiie a?iiaaeie,
ciaiaioy aeey nia?aiaiieeia ia ieeinoue iaaa e ai?iaeo, a oi?aeanoai
/aeiaa/aneie aiee, oi?aeanoai ai?iaea, ai?aeie Oei?aioeeneie ?anioaeeee.
Ia “nioneaynue ia niai? n iaaan”, ii i?aaie/anee au?anoay ec iaai, ii
aue aicaeaeaioo eae ciae iiaaaeu e aeanoe, /oiau (e ai?yiue, /oaeeony
iai) oaea/ue iiae naith naiue ai?iaea e ia?iaeu.

Aea, oi auei ia/oi iiaia, iaaeaeaiiia, ciaiaiothuaa oi?aeanoai iiaiai
eneonnoaa. Aac yoiai eoiiea, aicaeaeaiooiai iaae n?aaeiaaaeiaui niai?ii
ia ca?a ?aiannaina, auee au iaiuneeiu oa eoiiea, /oi aneaae ca
ieeaeaiaeaeaeianeei (iaae ?eineei niai?ii na.Iao?a), oaai/aee a
iineaaeothuea aaea niai?u /ooue ee ia anae Aa?iiu.

A?oiaeeanee aioae a ie?iaoth eoeueoo?o eae iniiaaoaeue a?oeoaeoo?iie
nenoaiu ?aiannaina e aa ia?aue ieaiaiiue i?iaiaeiee, eae
i?aia?aciaaoaeue anae aa?iiaeneie a?oeoaeoo?u, eae ooaeiaeiee, /uea
oai?/anoai ioia/aii y?eie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth. Aeiaaaei, /oi ii aue
iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae iao/iie oai?ee ia?niaeoeau, ioe?uaaoaeai aa
iniiaiuo caeiiia, eiaaoeo ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey anae
oiaaeaoiae aeeaiiene.

A yiioo aoiaiecia ie? i?aaenoaaeyeny /aeiaaeo i?ae?aniui, e ii caoioae
aeaeaoue e?anioo ai anai, /ai ii nai naay ie?oaeee a yoii ie?a. E iioiio
caaea/ae a?oeoaeoo?u noaei eae iiaeii aieaa i?ae?aniia ia?aieaiea
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Oae e?anioa noaea eiia/iie oeaeueth a?oeoaeoo?u.
Ethaeyi Aic?iaeaeaiey e?anioa i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae iiiyoea oi/iia,
iauaeoeaii ii?aaeaeyaiia, aeey anao iaeeiaeiaia.

Eaii Aaooenoa Aeueaa?oe, e?oiiaeoee oai?aoee eneonnoaa XV a., oae
ii?aaeaeye caeiiu i?ae?aniiai:

“Niaeaniaaiea anao /anoae a aa?iiie/aneia oeaeia oae, /oiau ie iaeia ia
iiaea auoue ecuyoa eee eciaiaia aac oua?aa aeey oeaeiai”.

E, ?anoaaeeaay iaeii ec nicaeaiee A?oiaeeanee, ii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi “ie
iaeia eeiey ia aeeaao a iai naiinoiyoaeueii”.

Iiaia eneonnoai iniiauaaeinue ia eiaeea, ia ioe?iaaieyo /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeie ?an/aoaie. E ?acoi o?aaiaae
yniinoe, no?ieiinoe, ni?acia?iinoe.

Ii i?yii i?iaeieaeeoue eo/oea o?aaeeoeee ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey auei
iaaiciiaeii – ei ioaeii auei ?iaeeoueny caiiai, a iiaii, aunoai
ea/anoaa. Aoiaienoe/aneia eneonnoai aeieaeii auei iaeoe a naaa neeo e
niaeinoue, /oiau n?aaee aeooiaiiai ?aca?iaea io?eiooue niaeaciu iiaeiuo,
ii eiaeiuo, oiaaei/iuo oa/aiee, i?aiaeieaoue e?ecen aanno?aoii
aeaeiooueny aia?aae, iiaanoe ca niaie ooaea, eoaea oyioeinue eneonnoai
?aiiaai ?aiannaina, ii eoaea iii ieeiaaea ia noiaei iiaeiyoueny. Oaeia
auei ii neeai oieueei oeoaiai. E iie iiyaeeenue.

AUNIEIA AIC?IAEAeAIEA

Cieioie aae eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa – yoi aae naiaiaeu. AEeaiienoeu
Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aeaaeatho anaie n?aaenoaaie ecia?aaeaiey – ino?ui
e ioaeanoaaiiui ?enoieii, ane?uaathuei inoia /aeiaa/aneiai oaea,
eiei?eoii, ia?aaeathuei oaea e aicaeoo, e oaie, e naao. Caeiiu
ia?niaeoeau eae-oi n?aco inaaeaathony ooaeiaeieeaie neiaii aac anyeiai
oneeey. Oeao?u caaeaeaaeenue, e aa?iiiey auea aeinoeaiooa a eo iieiii
?ane?aiiuaiee.

Aeaeaeaiea noaiiaeony aieaa oaa?aiiui, ia?aaeeaaiey – aieaa aeoaieeie e
no?anoiuie.

Iaeaaeaa oi?iie, naaoioaiueth, iaeaaeaa o?aoueei ecia?aieai, ooaeiaeieee
Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey iaeaaeaee aeaeeiui ie?ii ai anai aai aaneiia/iii
?aciiia?acee, ai anao aai i?inoi?ao e oaeieeao, /oiau i?aaenoaaeoue iai
aai oaea ia ae?iaii, a a iiao/ai iaiauaiee, a iieiii aeanea aai
nieia/iie e?aniou.

A?AIAIOA

A?aiaioa neaaeoao i?eciaoue aaieaeueiui ciae/ei Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.
Oai?/anoai A?aiaioa ooaa?aeeei ia iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey iauaa iai?aaeaiea
ciae/anoaa Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey. Aai ?ieue a a?oeoaeoo?a auea ia
iaiueoa, /ai ?ieue A?oiaeeanee a i?aaeuaeouai noieaoee.

Ciae/anoai /eieaa/aioi naea?aeeaaao ?aaeinoioth iiaeaeaeiinoue ?aiiaai
Aic?iaeaeaiey e i?aa?auaao aa a ?acia?aiiue oaa. En/acaao iaeueeathuaa
?aciiia?acea aeaoaeae, auai? iaiiiaeo e?oiiuo oeao? iiauoaao iieieioth
aiooeoaeueiinoue oeaeiai. Ciaiaieoia ?eineia iaeaoeoei Eai/aeea?ey (aaea
?acianoeeanue iaineay eaioeaey?ey), a caaa?oaiee iino?ieee eioi?iai
o/anoaiaae A?aiaioa, ciaiaioao oi?aeanoai noaiu iaae i?aea?ii: eiaiii
no?ieiay a?iiaaea noaiu nicaeaao aaee/aaoth caieiooinoue ia?iiiiai
oanaaea. A a nianai iaeaiueeii eoiieueiii o?aia Oaiiueaooi
(aicaeaeaiooii a ?eia a 1502 a.), n ieoaie aioo?e e nia?oaee,
ie?oaeaiiii ?eineiaei?e/aneie eieiiiaaeie, A?aiaioa aeae eae au ia?acaoe
i?aaeaeueiie iiioiaioaeueiinoe, ia caaenyuae io ?acia?ia caeaiey, oae
/oi yoio o?ai aue aini?eiyo nia?aiaiieeaie eae “iaieoano iiaiai
ciae/anoaa”.

Eae enoeiiue aaiee, A?aiaioa aue naiiauoai. Iaeiaei eneonnoai aai
ieoaeinue nieaie i/aiue aunieie eoeueoo?u. Eiaaea ii ?aaioae a Ieeaia,
oai iaoiaeeeny Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, n eioi?ui ii nio?oaeie/ae a
ninoaaeaiee a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo ieaiia.

Naieaeanyoeeaoiee A?aiaioa neii/aeny a 1514 aiaeo a ?acaa? naiae ?aaiou
ii ?aeiino?oeoeee Aaoeeaia.

Yiioa ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey caaa?oeeanue e eiioeo XV a., ia niaio aio
i?eoei Aunieia Aic?iaeaeaiea – a?aiy iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa
aoiaienoe/aneie eoeueoo?u Eoaeee. Eiaiii oiaaea n iaeaieueoae iieiioie e
neeie auee auneacaiu eaeae i /anoe e aeinoieinoaa /aeiaaea, aai aunieii
i?aaeiacia/aiee ia Caiea. Oeoaiii Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aue Eaiia?aei
aea Aei/e (1456-1519), iaeei ec iaeaieaa caia/aoaeueiuo ethaeae a
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa, iaeaaeathuee ?aciinoi?iiieie niiniaiinoyie e
aea?iaaieyie. Eaiia?aei iaeiia?aiaiii aue ooaeiaeieeii, oai?aoeeii
eneonnoaa, neoeueioi?ii, a?oeoaeoi?ii, iaoaiaoeeii, oeceeii, ano?iiiiii,
oeceieiaii, aiaoiiii – e yoi ia iieiue ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
aai aeayoaeueiinoe; ii/oe ana iaeanoe iaoee ii iaiaaoee aaieaeueiuie
aeiaaaeeaie. Aaaeiaeoea aai ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ?aaiou – “Oaeiay aa/a?y” –
o?anea a Ieeaineii iiianou?a Naioa Ia?ey aeaeea A?aoeea, ia eioi?ie
ecia?aaeai iiiaio aa/a?e iinea neia O?enoa: “Iaeei ec aan i?aaeano
iaiy”, a oaeaea anaie?ii ecaanoiue ii?o?ao iieiaeie oei?aioeeee Iiiu
Eecu, eiathuee aua iaeii iacaaiea – “Aeaeieiiaea”, ii eiaie aa ioaea
Aeaeieiiaei.

Oeoaiii Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aue e aaeeeee aeeaiienaoe ?aoayeue Naioe
(1483-1520), nicaeaoaeue “Neenoeineie iaaeiiiu”, aaee/aeoaai
i?iecaaaeaiey ie?iaie aeeaiiene.

Iineaaeiei aaeeeei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eoeueoo?u Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aue
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei Aoiia?iooe (1475-1654) – neoeueioi?, aeeaiienaoe,
a?oeoaeoi? e iiyo, nicaeaoaeue ciaiaieoie noaooe Aeaaeaea, neoeueioo?iuo
oeao? “Oo?i”, “Aa/a?”, “Aeaiue”, “Ii/ue”, auiieiaiiuo aeey a?iaieoe a
eaiaeea Iaaee/e. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ?anienae iioieie e noaiu Neenoeineie
eaiaeeu Aaoeeaineiai aeai?oea; iaeiie ec naiuo aia/aoeythueo o?anie
yaeyaony noeaia No?aoiiai noaea. A oai?/anoaa Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aieaa
io/aoeeai, /ai o aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia – Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e e ?aoayey
Naioe, cao/ao o?aae/aneea iiou, aucaaiiua iniciaieai oiai i?aaeaea,
eioi?ue iieiaeai /aeiaaeo, iiieiaieai ia?aie/aiiinoe /aeiaa/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae, iaaiciiaeiinoueth “i?aacieoe i?e?iaeo”.

Caia/aoaeueiuie ooaeiaeieeaie yoiai ia?eiaea aue Aeaei?aeaeiia
(1477-1510), nicaeaaoee ciaiaieoua iieioia “THaeeoue” e “Niyuay Aaia?a”,
e Oeoeeai (1477-1576), ainiaaathuee e?anioo ie?oaeathuaai ie?a e
/aeiaaea. Ii oaeaea nicaeae aaea?ath aaeeeieaiiuo ii?o?aoia
iiaouanoaaiiuo e aiaaouo nia?aiaiieeia.

OEOAIU ?AIANNAINA

*aou?a aaiey neytho a oiaaeaoiae Eoaeee. *aou?a aaiey, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo – oeaeue ie?, caeii/aiiue, niaa?oaiiue, aieoaaoee a naay ana
ciaiey, ana aeinoeaeaiey i?aaeuaeouaai aaea e aicianoee eo ia nooiaie,
/aeiaaeo aei oao ii? iaaeinooiiua: Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, ?aoayeue,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, Oeoeeai.

EAIIA?AeI AeA AEI*E

Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e ?iaeeeny a 1452 a. a naeaiee Aieeaii, ieiei ai?iaeea
Aei/e, o iiaeiiaeey Aeueaaineeo ai?, ia iieiooe iaaeaeo Oei?aioeeae e
Iecie.

Aaee/anoaaiai iaecaae a oao ianoao, aaea i?ioaeaei aai aeaonoai: oaiiua
onooiu ai?, aoeiay caeaiue aeiia?aaeieeia e ooiaiiua aeaee. Aeaeaei ca
ai?aie – ii?a, eioi?iai ia aeaeii ec Aieeaii. Caoa?yiiia ianoa/ei. Ii
?yaeii e i?inoi?u, e aunue.

Eaiia?aei aue aiaa?a/iui nuiii iioa?eona Iuea?i aea Aei/e, eioi?ue nai
aue aioeii e i?aaioeii iioa?eonia. Ioaoe, ii-aeaeeiiio, iicaaioeeny i
aai ainieoaiee.

Eneeth/eoaeueiay iaea?aiiinoue aoaeouaai aaeeeiai ianoa?a i?iyaeeanue
i/aiue ?aii. Ii neiaai Aaca?e, ii oaea a aeaonoaa ianoieueei i?aoniae a
a?eoiaoeea, /oi naieie aii?inaie noaaee a cao?oaeieoaeueiia iieiaeaiea
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii Eaiia?aei caieiaeny iocueie, i?ae?anii
ea?ae ia ee?a e “aiaeanoaaiii iae eii?iaecaoeee”. Iaeiaei ?eniaaiea e
eaiea aieueoa anaai aieiiaaee aai aiia?aaeaiea. Ioaoe ioian aai ?enoiee
naiaio aeaaieoiaio ae?oao Aiae?aa Aa??ieeuei. Oio ecoieeny e neacae, /oi
thiue Eaiia?aei aeieaeai anaoeaei iinayoeoue naay aeeaiiene. A 1466 a.
Eaiia?aei iinooiee a ea/anoaa o/aieea ai oei?aioeeneoth ianoa?neoth
Aa??ieeuei.

A ciaiaieoie aaea?aa Oooeoee ai Oei?aioeee o?aieony ea?oeia
oei?aioeeneiai ianoa?a aoi?ie iieiaeiu XV a. Aiae?aa Aa??ieeuei
“E?auaiea O?enoa”. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ianeaaeea Aa??ieeuei – ii aue
aeeaiienoeai, neoeueioi?ii, a?aaa?ii e thaaee?ii – ?aaeoao ian e ii nae
aeaiue. Ii ia yoie aai ea?oeia iu auaeaeei oieueei oeao?o ia?aaeiaai
aiaaea neaaa.

A n?aaiaiee n iae inoaeueiua oeao?u eaaeoony neiaaiiuie a aeaeaeaieyo,
oaeiaaouie. Oieueei ii, yoio aiaae, iiaeao eaaei iiaa?iooueny, aeuoaoue
naiaiaeii, oioue e ?iaea aua thiay iiuue, neaai iiaia aeuoaiea.

Ea?oeia iaienaia a naiii ia/aea naieaeanyouo aiaeia eaao?i/aioi. A
oeaeii iia i/aiue oeie/ia aeey yoie yiioe. Ii eae aeaaii oaea auei
caia/aii, yoio aiaae o?iaaao ian, oi/ii aiein eaeiai-oi eiiai ie?a. Ii
iaienai ia Aa??ieeuei, a aai thiui o/aieeii Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e.

Aaca?e ieoao, /oi aiaae Eaiia?aei auoae iiiai eo/oa, iaaeaee oeao?u
Aa??ieeuei. Eiia/ii, Aa??ieeuei aeieaeii auei ii?aceoue oai?aiea
o/aieea, i?e yoii ia oieueei eae naeaeaoaeuenoai aieueoae iaea?aiiinoe
Eaiia?aei. Aeaei a ae?oaii: oeao?a, iaienaiiay Eaiia?aei, ciaiaiiaaea
eae au ia?aoiae a iiaia, iaaaaeiiia aai o/eoaeth ea/anoai, eai iia
aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaoeua eiiai, iiaiai ie?a, eioi?iio noaeaeaii auei
i?iyaeoueny a iieiii aeanea e neea eeoue /a?ac ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee.

Yoio aiaae, oaeie anoanoaaiiue a naiai niaa?oaiiii ecyuanoaa, oaeie
ieaieoaeueiue a naiae iaeooioai?aiiinoe, oaeie a?aoeeiciue, ni acaeyaeii
eo/enoui e aeoaieei, – oaea oai?aiea ia ?aiiaai, a Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey, o.a. iiaeeeiii cieioiai aaea eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa. Aai
oeao?a anoanoaaiii iaaieaeeaaaony naaoioaiueth.

Oaea a ?aiieo ?aaioao Eaiia?aei iaia?oaeeaathony /a?ou, eaeeo ia auei a
eneonnoaa eaao?i/aioi. Aio iaeaiueeay ea?oeia – “Iaaeiiia Aaioa”, ii eae
iiiai iia a naaa ianao! Ia?ey n ieaaeaioeai-Eenonii ia ?oeao aei
Eaiia?aei ecia?aaeaeenue iiiaie?aoii, e oaia i?ioea aeieaee iooue
aoiaiecaoeee: Ia?ey o ooaeiaeieeia XV a. oaea ia ainnaaeaao ia o?iia, n
aa aieiau en/acaao ei?iia, ieiau eeoue oaaaeuaathony – aiaiiaoa?ue e
aiai/aeiaae oo?aoeee aieueooth /anoue aiaeanoaaiiinoe, i?aa?aoeeenue a
/aeiaa/aneoth iaoue n ?aaaieii. Iaeiaei ii/oe anaaaea nio?aiyeanue
?ai?acaioaoeaiinoue: Ia?ey iieacuaaao aiaeueaai nuia ethaeyi, aea e naia
iice?oao ia?aae ieie. Oaeiau “Iaaeiiiu” e o e?oiiaeoeo ooaeiaeieeia
eaao?i/aioi, oaeeo eae Aiae?aa Iaioaiuey, Iueao?i Ia?oaeaeeii,
Aeaeiaaiie Aaeeeie.

Nianai ia oi o Eaiia?aei. Ie iaoue, ie ieaaeaiaoe ia ?acaa?ioou e
c?eoaeth, ia iaai iie ia niio?yo. Iie caiyou naiei aeaeii: ia?aae iaie
aeeaay noeaia ea?u thiie iaoa?e, i?inoie aeaaooee, ii/oe aeaai/ee, n aa
ia?aaioeai. Ea?a iieiinoueth caoaaoeea iaieo. Iaoue aanaei oeuaaaony,
aeaaea niaaony, ainoeuaynue naiei iaeuoii; a ia?aie ?aaeinoe yoie ea?u
?ane?uaaaony aa aanoeo?inoiay aeooa, aa aioo?aiiyy naiaiaea, aa thiay
iaoa?eineay ethaiaue. Nayuaiiue niune oaeoe/anee iieiinoueth ono?aiai.

Ieeiaaea aua ooaeiaeiee aei oaeie noaiaie ia nin?aaeioi/eaae aieiaiey ia
naiie o?oaeiie aeey ecia?aaeaiey noi?iia iaoo?u – ia aioo?aiiae aeecie
/aeiaaea, ia aai aeooaaiuo aeaeaeaieyo. E yoi – iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo
iiaoanoa, eaeea i?eianei a ?aiannainiia eneonnoai Aunieia Aic?iaeaeaiea.
“Caaea/a ooaeiaeieea, – ienae Eaiia?aei, – ecia?aceoue oi, /oi a?aie/eo
ii/oe n iaaeinoeaeeiui: iieacaoue aioo?aiiee, aeooiaiue ie? /aeiaaea”.
Aio aaaeiaeoaa i?ia?aiiiia o?aaiaaiea e ea/anoaaiii iiaiio ninoiyieth
aoiaienoe/aneiai eneonnoaa, iaeia ec ii?aaeaeythueo /a?o Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Ec ei?aiiie onoaiiaee anoanoaaiii i?ienoaeaee aaaeiua neaaenoaey,
nouanoaaiii iaiyaoea oa?aeoa? ?aaeecia ia aunoae noaaeee ?aiannainiiai
eneonnoaa. Anee aeaaiia – /aeiaae e, iniaaiii, aai aioo?aiiee ie?,
cia/eo, ana iinoi?iiiaa, aoi?inoaiaiiia, iaiaycaoaeueiia aeieaeii auoue
ono?aiaii n ea?oeiu. A “Iaaeiiia Aaioa” ia?aae c?eoaeai ?acaa?iooa
oeaeay ineoieiae/anee ianuuaiiay noeaia. Ii eae eaeiie/ii aa ?aoaiea!
A?oiia iiiauaia a eioa?uea?a, iaeiaei eioa?uea?a-oi, nianoaaiii, e iao:
ie iaeiie aeaoaee aeeeeua e aai ianoaiiaee, anee ia n/eoaoue neaiuee, ia
eioi?ie neaeeo Ia?ey, aea e oa aaeaa iaia/aia. Anoue oieueei ieii n
iieooee?eoeueiui naiaeii (iiaoi?ythuei eeieth iieoe?oaeey, caiueathuaai
aaa?oo anth eiiiiceoeeth, e aa?oiea eiioo?u aieia iaoa?e e ?aaaiea). Ii
i?i?acaii ia ai eiy i?aaaeiiiaeiaey. Yoi enoi/iee aicaeooa ia ea?oeia, –
eia/a ea?oeia caaeioioeanue au. E – a?aoeeicii i/a?/aiiia iyoii naaoa,
caeaii-aieoaiaaoiai, i?iiecaiiiai nieioeai, eae cieioenoie iueueth. Iii
naaoei e iyaei aeeiiiaie?oao oeaaoiaie aaiia naiie a?oiiu – ieaaeaioea,
thiie iaoa?e e aa iaeaaeae, oi anoue ia ioaeaeaao io aeaaiiai, a
iai?ioea, neoaeeo aua aieueoaio aaeeinoao oeaeiai.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?iaeaeaaoainy eneonnoaa Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey
i?eia?aoaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo /a?o aeaeei ca niaie ioeac io
ii?aaeaeaiiuo /a?o noa?iai – aeey iaei/iiai iaoo?aeecia, naienoaaiiiai
?aiiaio Aic?iaeaeaieth, oaia?ue ia inoaaaeinue ianoa. Oieueei ioaa?aioa
ethaiaaiea aiaoieie aeaoaeyie, iiaeii auei iao/eoueny iinoeaaoue e
ethaiaaoueny aioo?aiiae aeeciueth /aeiaaea. Oieueei ioa?inea
iiaa?oiinoiue “iiieiaeeci” aauae, iiaeii auei ?ane?uoue a eneonnoaa
aunooth ?aaeueiinoue – aiaaonoai aeooiaiiai ie?a /aeiaaea.

Eaeiai “aiieeiie/aneiai” niaa?oainoaa, eaeiai na?aea/iiai aiaaonoaa e
aa?ie/aneie aicauoaiiinoe aeooa iiaeao aeinoe/ue e aeieaeai aeinoe/ue
/aeiaae, a iieioth neeo iieacaei oieueei eneonnoai Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey – e a “Aeaaeaea” Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, e a “Neenoeineie
iaaeiiia” ?aoayey. Oi, /oi a eneonnoaa eaao?i/aioi niaea?aeaeinue
oieueei a iioaioeee, a iaiaea, caeanue ?acaa?ouaaaony a iiao/ai
oeaaoaiee.

Iaeiaei auei au caaeoaeaeaieai aeoiaoue, /oi eneonnoai Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey – /oi oi aea eneonnoai ?aiiaai ?aiannaina, oieueei “a
iieiii aeanea i?iyaeaiee”. Ionoue no?aieaiea e ?ane?uoeth aioo?aiiaai
ie?a /aeiaaea i?i?uaaeinue a iaeioi?uo eo/oeo oai?aieyo eaao?i/aioi, –
aeey oiai, /oiau yoa oaiaeaioeey aeaenoaeoaeueii ?aaeeciaaeanue, naiia
iiieiaiea /aeiaaea, aai aioo?aiiaai ie?a aeieaeii auei i/aiue
nouanoaaiii eciaieoueny.

A aiaaoaeoai ianeaaeee Eaiia?aei-?eniaaeueueea ii?aaeaao oeaeay aaea?ay
no?aiiuo eeoe n o?iaeeeauie, ia?aaeei iooaeeeaathueie /a?oaie. A
eeoa?aoo?a eo i?eiyoi iacuaaoue ea?eeaoo?aie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaeioi?ua
ec yoeo ?enoieia, iniaaiii a?oiiiauo, iinyo au?aaeaiiue naoe?e/aneee
oa?aeoa?: aeanoieinoue, aeoiinoue, nianue, oeo?inoue, ia caia/athuea
ioa?aoeoaeueiinoe naiaai iaee/uey. Yoi ci?eea e aacaeaeinoiua
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aiaie, eeee iauanoaaiiiai
cea. N?aaee ieo iaiaei ecia?aaeaiee aunieiia?iuo e iooaeeeaathueo
oeceiiiiee “ii/oaiiuo ethaeae”, “neeaie iauanoaa”.

Iaeiaei iauay iai?aaeaiiinoue “Ea?eeaoo?” oe?a, iia a oeaeii eaeao a
?onea aoiaienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee, oioy aiineo a iaa ia/oi niaa?oaiii
iiaia. Yoi- ethaee, ii ethaee, neiaii aia?aua oaeaeaiiua ia a eo
e?anioa, neea e aeaai?iaenoaa; iao, ia?aae iaie ii i?aeiouanoao
aacia?aciua eeoea, ecaeaaaiiua aeeciueth, eneiaa?eaiiua aeaaeiinoueth,
aeanoiethaeai, oeo?inoueth, /?aaioaiaeeai, caaenoueth e ae?oaeie
ii?ieaie. Aei Eaiia?aei oaeeo ecia?aaeaiee ethaeae a ?aiannainiii
eneonnoaa ia nouanoaiaaei. Iaacia?aaeaiiuo aeeciueth eeoe, anoanoaaiii,
aie?oa auei aeinoaoi/ii, ii ooaeiaeieee eo neiaii ia caia/aee, eneonnoai
e ia iuoaeinue inaaoeoue /aeiaaea n yoie, oaiaaie noi?iiu.

Yoi auei ioe?uoea. Aac iaai Eaiia?aei ieeiaaea ia niia au nicaeaoue
naiae iio?ynathuae “Oaeiie aa/a?e”. Ana ?aciiia?acea e oeie/aneay
au?aceoaeueiinoue eeoe aiinoieia e, oae eiia/ii, eeoei Eoaeu, ia iiaee
auoue nicaeaiu ooaeiaeieeii, /ae aci? aue ia?aie/ai ?aaeoaeiuie oi?aie
?aiiaai aoiaiecia. Iaiiiaea aeioaaeoea aei ian yothaeu e yoie o?anea
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi Eaiia?aei aioiaee aa a aeieaeo e ianoie/eauo
iieneao ia iaoo?a.

“Oaeiay aa/a?y” io?aaeaao iiaoth nooiaiue c?aeinoe aoiaienoe/aneiai
niciaiey Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey. A iae ii?aaeaao iiiaiia?acea oeiia,
oa?aeoa?ia, aeooaaiuo aeaeaeaiee ethaeae, au?aceoaeueiaeoa ia?aaeaiiuo
ooaeiaeieeii. Caeanue oiaea iiiaea iieaaa?eaiu aeeciueth. Ii ia yoi
aeaaiia a ea?oeia. Aa niuneiaie oeaio? ninoaaeyao ia/oi aieueoaa –
no?aoiue aeo i?aaeaoaeuenoaa, oi?aeanoai ioa?aoeoaeueiiai ceiaeaenoaa.
“Iaia?oaeaiea” o?aaaaeee a aeecie, niaeinoue ioe?uoi neacaoue i iae –
caaiaaaiea Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey, iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo iiiaioia,
i?enoueo ea/anoaaiii iiaiio yoaio ?acaeoey ?aiannainiiai aoiaiecia e
aoiaienoe/aneiai eneonnoaa. Caeanue – iaeei ec ei?aiiuo ioieoia
aiaei?acaeaea iaaeaeo ?aiiei e Aunieei Aic?iaeaeaieai.

A “Oaeiae aa/a?a” anoue e e?aneaua, eiiicaioiua oeao?u, ii anoue e
eunua, e aaccoaua, e iiiyoua. A aeaaiia – iao oaaaeaeaiiinoe a naiae
i?aaioa, iao aaeeinoaa. Oi/iaa, – aaeeinoai oieueei eaaeouaany, iii
?aniaaeaaony ia aeacao. ?yaeii n ioaeaeueiuie niaeuie, aioiauie e
aeaenoaeth – onoaaoea, o?oneeaua, ?aaiiaeooiua, icaai/aiiua oieueei
niaie. O?anea Eaiia?aei – yoi iaee/aiea ?uneathuaai a ie?a cea – a eeoea
i?aaeaoaeuenoaa, ii ia iaiaa oaeaea – e a eeoea oiai, /ai anyeia cei
ieoaaony, – /aeiaa/aneiai ?aaiiaeooey.

Aio ii/aio “Oaeiay aa/a?y” – iaeia ec aeaaiuo aao, eioi?uie ioia/aii
ia/aei iiaiai yoaia ?aiannainiie eoeueoo?u – Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.
AEeciue iieacaea, /oi /aeiaae ai?acaei neiaeiaa oie iaeiinoi?iiia
iioeienoe/aneie noaiu, ia eioi?ie aace?iaaeanue e yoeea, e ynoaoeea
?aiiaai ?aiannaina. Eaiia?aei ia?aui ?aoeeny caaeyiooue ii oo noi?iio
yoie noaiu e a naiai eneonnoaa iieacae iai?ioioth noi?iio iaaeaee,
?ane?ue anth i?ioeai?a/eaoth neiaeiinoue /aeiaaea, ia cae?uaay aeac ia
naiua ioa?aoeoaeueiua aai noi?iiu.

E?eoe/iinoue acaeyaea – aio /oi i?aaeaea anaai ioaeaeyao Aunieia
Aic?iaeaeaiea io ?aiiaai. Ii ia e iecaio?iiee iiaa?ioe Aunieee
?aiannain; aa?u a /aeiaaea, ieoaaoae aoiaienoe/aneia eneonnoai n naiiai
ia/aea, ii ia oo?aoee. Iai?ioea, oieueei Aunieiio Aic?iaeaeaieth n
en/a?iuaathuae aeoaeiie e neeie oaeaeinue aiieioeoue a eneonnoaa
aoiaienoe/aneee eaeaae /aeiaaea. Oieueei a oai?/anoaa ei?eoaaa Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey eaeaaeueiue /aeiaae i?aaenoae neiaeiui, iaiaeiicia/iui, ii
oaeei ioae?ui, iiao/ei e i?ae?aniui, i eaeii ?aiiaa Aic?iaeaeaiea iiaei
oieueei ia/oaoue. Oaeea aeoaieea, oeeinionee neiaeiua ia?acu, eae
Aeaeieiiaea, auee ia ii neeai eneonnoao eaao?i/aioi.

*oi au ie aiai?eee i “Aeaeieiiaea”, ianiiiaiii, /oi ia?aae iaie aeaiueia
eneeth/eoaeueiay, aeaiueia i?ae?aniay. Iao, – ia ieeiaeaeiinoueth eee
a?ineie e?aneainoueth (ecia?aaeaiea oaeeo eeoe Eaiia?aei i?aaeii/eoae
ecaaaaoue, a anee oae i?eoiaeeeinue, aieueooth /anoue ?aaiou ia?aaeaaae
o/aieeai). E thiie aa ia iaciaaoue. Ii eae iia oi?ioa, eae aioo?aiia
niaea?aeaoaeueia! Neieueei aeinoieinoaa a ai?aeie iinaaeea aieiau, eaeei
aunieei naiiniciaieai aaao io yoiai eeoea, neieueei /a?othuae i?aeanoe a
aunieii, naaoeii eaa, a aeoaieeo aeacao, iieiuo ?acoia e iiieiaiey,
neieueei aioo?aiiae naiaiaeu ai acaeyaea! Oaeeaeoaeueiay oeaeueiinoue
ia?aca, caiueaaiiai eieueoeii i?ae?aniuo ?oe, nicaeaao iuouaiea aunoaai
niaa?oainoaa. Ai anai i?aaeoanoaothuai eneonnoaa ?aiannaina ia iaeoe
noieue aea i?iieeiiaaiiiai aiieiuaiey aoiaienoe/aneiai eaeaaea /aeiaaea
– i?ae?aniiai, aicauoaiiiai, aeooiaii aiaaoiai.

Iaaiaoe/aneay i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue “Aeaeieiiaeu” – aeieacaoaeuenoai aa
aeoaeiu e, i/aaeaeii, aa aa?iinoe aeecie. Cia/eo, oaeia yoiai ii?o?aoa –
ia iaaeoiaiiay, a eaeay-oi aeeciaiiay, ioaeiay ethaeyi – enoi?e/aneay e
/aeiaa/aneay. Aannii?ii, a “Aeaeieiiaea” – auni/aeoaa aiieiuaiea
?aiannainiiai eaeaaea oiiiai, ai?aeiai, niaa?oaiiiai /aeiaaea. Ii ia
oieueei. Aa no?aiiay oeuaea, iaeiia?aiaiii e ieaieoaeueiay e ai?ueeay,
aiai?eo aua e i eaeii-oi eiii caiunea ooaeiaeieea, aea – e ia iniaii
ineoieiae/aneii ninoiyiee iaoo?u.

Iaaeaeo 1513 e 1516 aa. Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e nicaeaao ea?oeio
“Eiaii-E?anoeoaeue”, eioi?ay aeaaii ia?aea neaao aaeaa ee ia naiiai
caaaaei/iiai ec anao aai oai?aiee.

Eiia/ii, caaaaei/iiai iaiaei ai anai oai?/anoaa Eaiia?aei. Ecaanoii, /oi
ana naie caiene ii aae ca?eaeueiui ienueiii, a iiiaea iaeaieaa niaeua
iunee iaeaeae a yciiianeoth oi?io aanai, i?eo/, i?i?i/anoa.
Eneeth/eoaeueiie eioaeeaeooaeueiie ianuuaiiinoueth ioee/aaony e
eneonnoai Aei/eaioea. Oai?aiey eenoe yoiai aaee/aeoaai
ooaeiaeieea-iuneeoaey iaiieiaiu oaeei aeoaieei, “iiiaineieiui” eaeaeiui
niaea?aeaieai, /oi i?e iiaa?oiinoiii iiaeoiaea ia iiaeaeathony
?anoeo?iaea. Iie ii?iaeaeatho iiiai iaaeioiaiiuo aii?inia, a ii?ith e
i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua noaeaeaiey.

E aieaa anaai yoi ioiineony e “Eiaiio-E?anoeoaeth”. Iiaeaeoe, ai anai
eneonnoaa eeanne/aneiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aaeaa ee iaeaeaony ae?oaia
i?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia aucaaei au noieue aea i?ioeai?a/eaua ioeaiee, eae
yoa ea?oeia. Iaeie ainoeuaeenue ath, ae?oaea n/eoaee ianoieueei neaaie,
/oi ioeacuaaeenue i?eciaoue aaoi?noai Eaiia?aei; iaeie i?ineaaeyee,
ae?oaea aioiau auee i?ieeeiaoue.

Ea?oeia ienaeanue, aeaeeii, ii caeaco o?aioeocia, aa?iyoiaa anaai – aua
Ethaeiaeea XII, a eiioea aai aeaaeu/anoaa a Ieeaia. Noaey ii
iiiai/eneaiiui eiieyi e iiae?aaeaieyi ooaeiaeieeia, ii ioaeaeueiui
naeaeaoaeuenoaai eeoe, iiauaaaoeo i?e o?aioeocneii aeai?a a XVI e XVII
aa., ea?oeia ainoeuaea nia?aiaiieeia, a o?aioeocneea iiia?oe ai?aeeeenue
ath eae iaeiie ec aeai/oaeei naiae eieeaeoeee; ai?aeeeny ath e nai
ooaeiaeiee.

A ea?oeia “Eiaii-E?anoeoaeue” /oanoaoaony e?e/auee ?aceaae. I?ecuaay
iiiuoeyoue i iaaaniii e oai, a iai?iaeyaeiii i?aea, eneaoue nianaiey,
iieiioaeue i?iiiaaaeiee aneacu nai aano?aaiaeii i?aauaaao a nai a?aoiii
ie?a. E yoio ?aceaae anaoeaei niaeanoaony n aeaoiuneaiiinoueth aai
e?iie/aneie oeuaee. Ana yoi ianoieueei ia aycaeinue n o?aaeeoeeiiiui
i?aaenoaaeaieai i Eiaiia E?anoeoaea, /oi oaea a XVII a ea?oeia aeaee
(ianiio?y ia ecia?aaeaiiue e?ano) aoi?ia iacaaiea: “Aaeo”.

Cia/eo, aaeaa ee ?acoiii oi?aeaoue ooaeiaeieea a iaaeinoaoi/iii
neaaeiaaiee “enoi?e/aneie aeinoiaa?iinoe” ia?aca iiaicaaaoiiai
ia?niiaaea. Aa?iaa caeeth/eoue, /oi ca yoei Eiaiiii ne?uoi ia/oi
ian?aaiaiii aieueoaa, /ai iaeii ec eeoe aaaiaaeueneiai ?anneaca, /oi ca
iei – oeaeia yaeaiea e ii?aaeaeaiiia ioiioaiea e iaio naiiai
ooaeiaeieea. A naiai iineaaeiai oai?aiee ooaeiaeiee-aoiaieno iaee/ee
eeoeaia?ea aneaoe/aneie i?iiiaaaee e neacae i eaoiee/aneie oea?eae oi,
/oi i iae aeoiae.

Naiae iineaaeiae, “caaauaoaeueiie” ea?oeiie, eae ?aceei aeei?aeii,
Eaiia?aei caaa?oee oo aeoao aoiaiecia i?ioea aneaoecia, eioi?oth ia/aee
e iaonoaiii aaee Aieea//i, A?oie, Iiaeaei, Aaeea, e, a nouiinoe, ana
?aiannainiia eneonnoai.

Oia? Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e a caiea Eeo, aeec Aiaoaca, 2 iay 1519 aiaea
oanoeaeanyoe naie eao.

?AOAYEUe NAIOE

?aoayeue Naioe ?aii aeinoea aunoeo ii/anoae. ?eineee iaia oioae
oaai/aoue aai iaauaaeie aeey aeeaiienoea iaa?aaeie, e eeoue
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiay nia?oue iiiaoaea ?aoayeth noaoue ea?aeeiaeii.

Ia?aoth ii a?aiaie oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aoayey iu iaoiaeei a ienueia nano?u
aa?oeiaa O?aeineiai, eioi?ay iacuaaao ooaeiaeieea – aio oiaaea aue
aeaaaeoeaoue iaeei aiae (1504) – “ne?iiiui e ieeui thiioae”. Iienaiea
aea aai ee/iinoe ii Aaca?e, neaaeoao i?eaanoe ii/oe iieiinoueth.

“*oiau aeaoue naaa io/ao, – ieoao Aaca?e, – ianeieueei iaai iiaeao
i?iyaeoue naay ?anoi/eoaeueiui e aeaaineeiiiui, aiceaaay ia iaeio eeoue
aieiao oi aaneiia/iia aiaaonoai naieo nie?iaeu e e?anio, eioi?ia iii
iaueiiaaiii ?ani?aaeaeyao a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie iaaeaeo
ianeieueeeie ee/iinoyie, iaaei acaeyiooue ia noieue aea i?aainoiaeiiai,
eae e i?ae?aniiai, ?aoayey O?aeineiai. Ii aue io i?e?iaeu iaea?ai oie
ne?iiiinoueth e oie eaneiainoueth, /oi iiaeii eiiaaea iaaethaeaoue o
ethaeae, eioi?ua aieaa ae?oaeo oiatho i?eniaaeeiyoue e anoanoaaiiiio
aeaai?aniieiaeaieth i?ae?aniaeoaa oe?aoaiea /a?othuae ethaaciinoe,
i?iyaeythuae naay ai anai e i?e anao ianoiyoaeuenoaao iaeeiaeiai ieeie e
i?eyoiie. I?e?iaea naeaeaea ie?o yoio aea?, eiaaea, aoaeo/e iiaaaeaeaia
eneonnoaii Ieeaeaiaeaeaei Aoiia??ioe, iia caoioaea auoue iiaaaeaeaiiie
iaeiia?aiaiii eneonnoaii e ethaaciinoueth ?aoayey”. A ?aoayea,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao Aaca?e, aeenoaee “naiua ?aaeeea aeooaaiua ea/anoaa, n
eioi?uie niaaeeiyeinue noieueei a?aoeee, o?oaeiethaey, e?aniou,
ne?iiiinoe e aeia?ie i?aanoaaiiinoe, /oi eo auei aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau
ecaeieoue ana ii?iee, eae iinouaeiu iie ie auee au. Oaeei ia?acii,
iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oa, eoi oae n/anoeeai iaea?ai, eae ?aoayeue
O?aeineee, ia ethaee, ii nia?oiua aiae, anee oieueei oae iicaieaii
au?aceoueny… A oa/aiea anae naiae aeecie ii ia ia?anoaaae yaeyoue
iaeeo/oee i?eia? oiai, eae iai neaaeoao ia?auaoueny eae n ?aaiuie, oae e
n auoa e ieaea ian noiyueie ethaeueie. N?aaee anao aai ?aaeeeo ea/anoa
iaeii iaiy oaeeaeyao: iaai iaea?eei aai niiniaiinoueth eia/a naay aanoe,
iaaeaee yoi i?eiyoi n?aaee iaoae a?aoee ooaeiaeieeia; iaaeaeo anaie
ooaeiaeieeaie, ?aaioaaoeie iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ?aoayey oea?eei oaeia
niaeanea, /oi eaaeaeue ceie iiiunae en/acae i?e iaeiii aai aeaea, e
oaeia niaeanea nouanoaiaaei oieueei i?e iai. Yoi i?ienoiaeeei io oiai,
/oi ana iie /oanoaiaaee i?aainoiaenoai aai eaneiaiai oa?aeoa?a e
oaeaioa, ii aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y aai i?ae?aniie iaoo?a, anaaaea
noieue aieiaoaeueiie e noieue aaneiia/ii uaae?ie ia ieeinoe, /oi ethaee
e aeeaioiua /oanoaiaaee e iaio i?eaycaiiinoue… Ii iinoiyiii eiae
iiiaeanoai o/aieeia, eioi?ui ii iiiiaae e eioi?uie ii ?oeiaiaeee n /enoi
ioa/aneie ethaiaueth. Iiyoiio, ioi?aaeyynue ei aeai?o, ii e aue anaaaea
ie?oaeai iienioiae ooaeiaeieeia, an? ethaeae aeia?uo e niaeuo,
ninoaaeyaoeo aio naeoo, /oiau aicaeaoue aio /anoue. A nouiinoe, ii
i?iaeee ia eae ooaeiaeiee, a eae eiycue”.

Eiia/ii, iaeuecy i?eienaoue iaeiie aaieaeueiinoe ?aoayey iiaeiaiia
ioiioaiea nia?aiaiieeia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, oa?aeoa? oai?/anoaa ?aoayey e a
oi aea a?aiy naia aai ee/iinoue niaaeeiyee a naaa ana, /oi n/eoaeinue
oiaaea niaa?oainoaii. Iiyoiio ii e aue anai aeeceei e iiiyoiui e eacaeny
aiieiuaieai anao /aeiaa/aneeo aeinoieinoa.

?aoayeue aue o/aieeii Ia?oaeaeeii e a thiinoe eae ooaeiaeiee aue iioiae
ia naiaai o/eoaey. Iaeiaei aeaaea a naiuo ?aiieo aai i?iecaaaeaieyo
caiaoai eiie ii/a?e ooaeiaeieea.

A eiiaeiineie Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaea?aa aeneo aai i/a?iaaoaeueiay ea?oeia
“Nii ?uoea?y”, iaienaiiay a 1500 a., o.a. eiaaea ?aoayeth auei anaai
naiiaaeoeaoue eao. ?uoea?ue – ia/oaoaeueiue thiioa ecia?aaeai ia oiia
i?ae?aniiai iaecaaea. Ii eniieiai a?aoeee, iiaeao auoue, aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii ioaeanoaaiiie, ii oaea ni/aoathuaeny n eaeei-oi aioo?aiiei
?aaiiaaneai, aeooaaiui niieienoaeai.

Yoi aioo?aiiaa ?aaiiaanea ica?yao iaienaiioth aiaeii eee aeaoiy iicaea
ciaiaieooth y?ieoaaeioth “Iaaeiiio Eiianoaaeea” (oae iacaaiioth ii eiaie
aa i?aaeiaai aeaaeaeueoea). Iao ia?aca aieaa ee?e/aneiai, eae e aieaa
e?aieiai ii naiae aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?a. Eaeay aa?iiiey ai acaeyaea
iaaeiiiu, iaeeiia aa aieiau e a eaaeaeii aea?aaoea iaecaaea, ai anao
aeaoaeyo e eiiiiceoeee a oeaeii!

E oei?aioeeneiio ia?eiaeo oai?/anoaa ?aoayey ioiineony aai aaoiii?o?ao,
iaienaiiue a 1506 a. (Oei?aioeey, Oooeoee) a aeaaaeoeaoue o?e aiaea.
Aieiaa aai e iea/e /aoei au?eniauaathony ia aeaaeeii oiia. Eiioo?
iaiaueiiaaiii oiiie, /ooue aieieno (ai Oei?aioeee ?aoayeue oaea
i?eiaueeny e aeeaiieniui ioe?uoeyi Eaiia?aei). Acaeyae caaeoi/ea e
ia/oaoaeai. ?aoayeue eae au niio?eo ia ie? e i?iieeaaony aai aa?iiieae.
Ii ooaeiaeiee aua ?iaie, thi, eaneiaay e?ioinoue ?aceeoa ii aai eeoeo.
Iaeiaei neaicue aai iaoaa?aiiinoue e oiieaiea oaea /oanoaoaony
ia?iaeaeathuaany aeooaaiia ?aaiiaanea. ?acei aunooiathuay ieaeiyy aoaa,
eeiey ?oa, e?aneai e yia?ae/ii eciaiooay, iaaeueiue iiaeai?iaeie
auaeatho ?aoeiinoue e aeanoiinoue.

E, aeyaey ia aai aaoiii?o?ao, eae ia niaeaneoueny n eoaeueyineei
ienaoaeai Aeieue/a, aai ieaaeoei nia?aiaiieeii, eioi?ue aiai?eo, /oi
?aoayeue ethaee e?anioo e iaaeiinoue oi?i, iioiio /oi nai aue ecyuai e
ethaacai, i?aaenoaaeyynue anai noieue aea i?eaeaeaoaeueiui, eae e
ecia?aaeaiiua ei oeao?u.

I?eia?ii a oa aea aiaeu ei iaienaiu “Iaaeiiia a caeaie”, “Iaaeiiia ni
uaaeaieii”, “I?ae?aniay naaeiaieoea”, ioia/aiiua iiauie, aieaa neiaeiuie
eiiiiceoeeiiiuie eneaieyie e aunieei ianoa?noaii, eaeouei io /aoeie
aeeaiieniie o?aaeeoeee oei?aioeeneie oeieu.

Ca Oei?aioeeae – ?ei. A ?eia eneonnoai ?aoayey aeinoeaei ?anoeaaoa.

Iaeiaei iaeaieaa iieiia e i?aaie/iia ni/aoaiea aeooa naiaiaeu e iunee
aiieiuaii ?aoayeai ai o?anea “Aoeineay oeiea” (1508-1511). Ia
nooiaiueeao aaee/anoaaiiiai aioe/iiai caeaiey, iiae naiueth noaooe naiuo
oai?/aneeo aiaia ae?aaiinoe – Aiieeiia e Ieia?au, nia?aeenue
i?ineaaeaiiua ioae?aoeu aioe/iinoe – oeeiniou, iaoaiaoeee, einiia?aou. A
oeaio?a, nieaeynue iea/ii e iea/o, – ei?eoae aeaoo aeaaiaeoeo
iai?aaeaiee oeeinioneie iunee – Ieaoii e A?enoioaeue. Naaeiaeanue
Ieaoii, iiaeiya ?oeo, oeacuaaao ia iaai: oai enoeia; cia/eoaeueii aieaa
iieiaeie A?enoioaeue, iai?ioea, ?ane?uooth eaaeiiue a yia?ae/iii aeanoa
ia?aoee e caiea: iao, enoeia caeanue. Ai?aai e aeaai io yoeo aeaoo
iooeia ioae?inoe – eo o/aieee e noi?iiieee. Iaeie iai?yaeaiii neooatho,
ae?oaea nin?aaeioi/aiii ?aciuoeytho, o?aouee oi?iieeai caienuaatho, eiua
ia ne?uaatho naiaai niiiaiey, ai?y/i nii?yo, yia?ae/ii aeanoeeoee?oy, a
oa niaoao ia iiicaeaoue e o/aiiio nii?o. Ioaeaeueiua e?oaeee eae au
iainiaeeenue, ii anthaeo iai?yaeaiii ?aaioatho. Iniaaiii au?aceoaeueia
a?oiia iieiaeuo ethaeae a i?aaii oaeo ea?oeiu, nia?aaoayny aie?oa
ianoeoiai o/aiiai (A?oeiaaea? Yaeeeaea?), neeiieaoaainy iaae eaeei-oi
/a?oaaeii. Iie aoeaoe/anee neiaeaiu, eo iicu, aeanou iieiu ai?y/ae
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, eeoea naaoyony aeaaeaeie ciaiey: iie e noa?athony
iiiyoue, e aeoeaii o/anoaotho a ?aoaiee o?oaeiie caaea/e.

E – ieeaeie i?eioaeaeaiiinoe. A eo aeaeaeaieyo, a eo aeeaie
ethaiciaoaeueiinoe aeuoeo anoanoaaiiay (e aianoa n oai a?aoeeiciay)
?aneiaaiiinoue. Oith aea naiaiaeie aeaeaeaony e aeeaao any ea?oeia,
eaaeaeay iica e eaaeaeay iiceoeey – io ai?y/ae oaea/aiiinoe aei niiiaiey
e io?eoeaiey. C?eoaeue ia niiiaaaaony, eaeea au nii?u ie ?acaeaeyee yoeo
ioae?aoeia, ia?aae iaie aaeeeia niae?oaeanoai oiia, euoueo enoeiu.

*oiau ioeaieoue neeo e aeoaeio yoiai oai?aiey, ioaeii o/anoue, eaeay
iaaa?iyoii neiaeiay caaea/a auea iinoaaeaia ia?aae ooaeiaeieeii –
ecia?aceoue Oeeinioeth (oaeiai ia?aiia/aeueiia iacaaiea o?anee).
?aoayeue ?ac?aoee yoo caaea/o aaieaeueii e – aiieia a aeooa Aunieiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey: iiaeaeoe, a ?aiannainiii eneonnoaa ia nouanoaoao ae?oaiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, aaea au n oaeith ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth, a
oaeie iiao/ae aa?iiiee neeeinue e au?aceeinue ioaeaeueiia e oeaeueiia,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia e iauaa.

“Aoeineay oeiea”, auoue iiaeao, naiia i?ia?aiiiia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
oai?aiea ?aiannainiiai aoiaiecia, ii i?aaeaea anaai yoi aeii naiaiaea e
iiaouanoao /aeiaa/aneie iunee, aaca?aaeiinoe iieaoa naiaiaeiiai,
iiciathuaai ?acoia. Ai o?anea ?aoayey iuoeaiea i?aaenoaaeaii eae aunoaa
aiieiuaiea naiaiaeu e aeinoieinoaa /aeiaaea.

Ii ?aiannainiay aiey e naiaiaea ia caiueaeanue ia naiaiaea iiciaiey,
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aoiaienoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ie?a,
eae noa?a ?aaeecaoeee anao iioaioeee /aeiaaea, aeeth/aei a naay
iai?aiaiii ?ane?aiiuaiea yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?u, naiaiaeo /aeiaa/aneeo
/oanoa. Eeeothuoth ?aaeinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai, /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey
ie?a, iiaeii neacaoue – neeyiey n iei, oi?aeanoai n/anoeeaie ethaae,
i?ae?aniie iaaiou ia eiia aaca?aaeiie, naaoeie i?e?iaeu n iaeaieueoae
neeie au?acee oio aea ?aoayeue ai o?anea “O?eoio Aaeaoae” (1513).

An? caeanue aeuoeo naiaiaeie – e naiay iaaioa, e ao?iia aeaeaeaiea,
eioi?ui ioaa/aiu ana – ia?aeaeu, o?eoiiu, aio?u, aeaeueoeiu. N/anoueai e
aieae naaoeony eeoei Aaeaoae, aa aieueoea aeaca. Ano?a/iue aaoa?
?acaaaaao aa aieinu. Ii iiaeoaaoee aa?oiee e?ae aa ieaoea e, acaeo?ea,
?acaa?ioe aai, eae ciaiy. Yoiio aeiieie?othuaio aeaeaeaieth aoi?yo e
?acaaaathueany a oii aea iai?aaeaiee aieinu ae?oaie ia?aeaeu ia caaeiai
ieaia ni?aaa, e acaeoaoeeny aeoaie, cieioenoue oaeeiaue oa?o ieiou ia
ia?aaeiai ieaia neaaa. Ii aaaeouae iaaei?iie iioie neoaeeo ana-oaee
ioa?ioaiiue iacaae a ao?iii ii?uaa e?ae io?io?iiai ieaua Aaeaoae, /oi
iieiuaony iaae aieiaaie oeao? neaaa. Yoi i?eaeaao anaio aeaeaeaieth
a?oiiu oa?aeoa? oiieoaeueiiai aieueiiai iieaoa. Aeuoaiea oe?eony. Iu
iuouaai “ie?a ainoi?a aani?aaeaeueiue”.

Iau/ii ioia/atho, /oi a yoie o?anea ?aoayeue eae ieeoi ae?oaie, noiae
iinoe/ue e au?aceoue aioe/iia, “ycu/aneia” ie?iiuouaiea, eniieiaiiia
/oanoaaiiie ?aaeinoe auoey. Yoi a iauai aa?ii. Ii aaeaa ee aaea a
eneonnoaa aioe/iinoe iiaeii ano?aoeoue noieueei aeeiaieee, – ia
iiueyiaiey aaeoaiaeee, a caei?iaie aeaaeaeu naiaiaeu e ?aaeinoe. Yoi
aieueoa, /ai aaeeaaiea a aeoo aioe/iinoe, – yoi aiieiuaiea eeio/aai
aeooa Aic?iaeaeaiey. Yoa ea?oeia – y?/aeoaa au?aaeaiea i?enouaai
?aiannainiiio aoiaiecio naiaiaeiiai, ?aaeinoiiai, iaioaenoe/aneiai
aini?eyoey ie?a.

Ie? i?ae?anai, iao, caiiie ie?! Oaeia eicoia anaai eneonnoaa
Aic?iaeaeaiey. *aeiaae ioe?ue e aeonee e?anioo aeaeeiiai ie?a, e ii
ethaoaony ath eae aaeeeieaiiaeoei c?aeeuai, nicaeaiiui aeey ?aaeinoe
aeac, aeey aeooaaiiai ainoi?aa. Ii nai /anoue yoiai ie?a, e iioiio ii
ethaoaony a iai e naiei niaie. ?aaeinoue nica?oeaiey caiiie e?aniou –
yoi ?aaeinoue aeeaeoaeueiay, aeia?ay. Aeaei ooaeiaeieea – auyaeyoue ana
iieiaa, ana y?/a aa?iiieth ie?a e yoei iiaaaeaeaoue oain, ooaa?aeaeaoue
iaeee aunoee ii?yaeie, iniiaa eioi?iai – ia?a, aioo?aiiyy
iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ?iaeaeathuay e?anioo.

A n?aaeiaaaeiauo o?aiao ?inienue, iicaeea eee aeo?aaee eae au neeaathony
n a?oeoaeoo?ie, nicaeatho aianoa n iae oi oeaeia, eioi?ia aeieaeii
aucuaaoue o iieyuaainy oi?aeanoaaiiia iano?iaiea. A ?iiaineeo eee
aioe/aneeo o?aiao ethaee n?aaeiaaaeiauey iiae/an e ia niciaaaee, /oi
ia?aae ieie ia oieueei neiaieu, oneiaiua ia?acu, neaayuea eaeaaeu eo
aa?u, ii e i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. ?inienue o?aia ia i?aaenoaaeyeanue
ei naiinoiyoaeueiui oai?aieai, ia iaa oi?ioi auei niio?aoue iiae iaiea
oea?eiaiiai oi?a, eioi?ia, eae e naie naiaeu o?aia n aai aunieeie
a?eaie, oiineei eo aiia?aaeaiea a ie? ia/oaiee, ooaoeoaeueiuo iaaeaaeae
eee noaaa?iuo no?aoia. E iioiio iie ia eneaee a yoie ?iniene eeethcee
?aaeueiinoe.

AEeaiienue Aic?iaeaeaiey ia?auaia e c?eoaeth. Eae /oaeaniua aeaeaiey
i?ioiaeyo ia?aae aai aci?ii ea?oeiu, a eioi?uo ecia?aaeai ie?, aaea
oea?eo aa?iiiey. Ethaee, iaecaaee e i?aaeiaou ia ieo oaeea aea, eaeea ii
aeaeeo aie?oa naay, ii iie y?/a, au?aceoaeueiaa. Eeethcey ?aaeueiinoe
iieiay, iaeiaei ?aaeueiinoue, i?aia?aaeaiiay aaeioiiaaieai ooaeiaeieea.
E c?eoaeue ethaoaony ath, iaeeiaeiai ainoeuaynue i?aeanoiie aeaoneie
aieiaeie e no?iaie noa?/aneie aieiaie, aiana, auoue iiaeao, ia
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie a aeecie. Ia noaiao aeai?oeia e niai?ia o?anee /anoi
ieooony ia aunioa /aeiaa/aneiai aeaca, a a eiiiiceoeee eaeay-ieaoaeue
oeao?a i?yii “aeyaeeo” ia c?eoaey, /oiau /a?ac iaa ii iia “iauaoueny” ni
anaie ae?oaeie.

?aoayeue – yoi caaa?oaiea. Ana aai eneonnoai i?aaeaeueii aa?iiie/ii, e
?acoi, naiue aunieee, niaaeeiyaony a iai n /aeiaaeiethaeai e aeooaaiie
/enoioie. Aai eneonnoai, ?aaeinoiia e n/anoeeaia, au?aaeaao iaeoth
i?aanoaaiioth oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, i?eyoea aeecie ai anae aa iieiioa e
aeaaea ia?a/aiiinoe. A ioee/ea io Eaiia?aei ?aoayeue ia oiieo ian naieie
oaeiaie, ia nie?ooaao naiei anaaeaeaieai, a eaneiai i?eaeaoaao
ianeaaeeony caiiie e?anioie aianoa n iei. Ca naith iaaeieaoth aeeciue ii
oniae au?aceoue a aeeaiiene, aa?iyoii, ana, /oi iia, o.a. iieiia
oea?noai aa?iiiee, e?aniou e aeia?a.

A ?eia ?anoeaae iieiinoueth aaiee ?aoayey, a ?eia, aaea a yoi a?aiy
aicieeea ia/oa i nicaeaiee iiaouanoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e aaea ?acaaeeiu
Eieecay, o?eoioaeueiua a?ee e noaooe oeaca?ae iaiiieiaee i aaee/ee
ae?aaiae eiia?ee. En/acee thiioaneay ?iainoue e aeainoaaiiinoue,
yie/iinoue ainoi?aeanoaiaaea iaae ee?eeie, e ?iaeeeinue ioaeanoaaiiia,
aani?eia?iia ii naiaio niaa?oainoao eneonnoai ?aoayey.

“?aoayeue niciaaae, – ieoao Aaca?e, – /oi a aiaoiiee ii ia iiaeao
aeinoe/ue i?aainoiaenoaa iaae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. Eae /aeiaae aieueoiai
?annoaeea, ii iiiye, /oi aeeaiienue ia caeeth/aaony oieueei a
ecia?aaeaiee iaaiai oaea, /oi aa iiea oe?a… Ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee
n?aaiyoueny n Ieeaeaiaeaeaei a yoie iaeanoe, ?aoayeue iinoa?aeny
n?aaiyoueny n iei, a iiaeao auoue, e i?aacieoe aai a ae?oaie”.

?aoayeue a ioee/ea io Eaiia?aei e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia niouae nia?aiaiieeia
aea?ciiaaiiinoueth naieo eneaiee: ii no?aieeny e aunoaio neioaco, e
eo/aca?iiio caaa?oaieth anaai, /oi auei aeinoeaiooi aei iaai, e yoio
neioac aue ei iaeaeai e aiieiuai.

Oei?aioeeneea iaaeiiiu ?aoayey – yoi i?ae?aniua, ieeiaeaeiua,
o?iaaoaeueiua e /a?othuea thiua iaoa?e. Iaaeiiiu, nicaeaiiua ei a ?eia,
o.a. a ia?eiae iieiie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie c?aeinoe, i?eia?aoatho eiua
/a?ou. Yoi oaea aeaaeu/eoeu, aiaeie aeia?a e e?aniou, aeanoiua a naiae
aeainoaaiiinoe, iaeaai?aaeeaathuea ie?, niya/athuea /aeiaa/aneea
na?aeoea. “Iaaeiiia a e?anea”, “Iaaeiiia n ?uaie”, “Iaaeiiia aeaeue
Oieeiuei” e ae?oaea anaie?ii ecaanoiua iaaeiiiu (aienaiiua a e?oa eee
oea?yuea a neaaa iaae i?i/eie oeao?aie a aieueoeo aeoa?iuo eiiiiceoeeyo)
ciaiaiotho iiaua eneaiey ?aoayey, aai iooue e niaa?oainoao a aiieiuaiee
eaeaaeueiiai ia?aca aiaiiaoa?e.

Iauiinoue oeiia iaeioi?uo ?aoayeaaneeo aeaineeo ia?acia ?eineiai
ia?eiaea ii?iaeeea i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ooaeiaeieeo neoaeeea iiaeaeueth
iaeia e oa aea aeaiueia, aai aicethaeaiiay, i?icaaiiay “Oi?ia?eia”, /oi
cia/eo aoei/ieoea. Yoa ?eieyiea n yniuie aeaai?iaeiuie /a?oaie eeoea,
oaeinoieaoayny ethaae aaeeeiai aeeaiienoea, auea aei/a?ueth iaea?y.
Auoue iiaeao, ia?ac aa e aaeioiiaeye ?aoayey, iaeiaei ii, ii-aeaeeiiio,
ana aea ia aue aaeeinoaaiiui. Eai aio /oi iu /eoaai a ienueia ?aoayey:
“ss neaaeo aai, /oi, aeey oiai /oiau iaienaoue e?anaaeoeo, iia iaaei
aeaeaoue iiiaeo e?anaaeoe… Ii aaeaeo iaaeinoaoea eae a oi?ioeo
noaeueyo, oae e a e?aneauo aeaiueiao y iieuecothnue iaeioi?ie eaeaae,
eioi?ay i?eoiaeeo iia ia oi. ss ia ciath, eiaao ee iia eaeia-eeai
niaa?oainoai, ii y i/aiue noa?athnue yoiai aeinoeaiooue”.

Iiniio?ei aea ia yoo eaeath, eioi?ay i?eoea ia oi ?aoayeth, eaeath,
eioi?oth ii, i/aaeaeii, aeieai auiaoeaae, ia?aae oai eae aiieioeoue aa a
eneonnoaa iieiinoueth.

“Neenoeineay iaaeiiia” (oae iacaaiiay ii eiaie iiianou?y, aeey eioi?iai
aue iaienai yoio aeoa?iue ia?ac) – naiay ciaiaieoay ea?oeia ?aoayey e,
aa?iyoii, naiay ciaiaieoay ec anao aiiaua ea?oei, eiaaea-eeai
iaienaiiuo.

Ia?ey eaeao ii iaeaeai, iany naiaai ?aaaiea. Neaaa aa ie/ai ia
iiae/a?eiooa. Iiae ainu. Ii eae iiaaeeoaeueieoeo ano?a/aao aa, i?aeeiiea
eieaie, iaia Neeno, iaea/aiiue a ia?/o; nayoay Aa?aa?a iioneaao aeaca n
aeaaiaiaaieai, a aeaa aiaaei/ea ono?aieytho aaa?o
ia/oaoaeueii-caaeoi/eaua aci?u.

Iia eaeao e ethaeyi, thiay e aaee/aaay, /oi-oi o?aaiaeiia caoaea a naiae
aeooa; aaoa? eieuoao aieinu ?aaaiea, e aeaca aai aeyaeyo ia ian, ia ie?
n oaeie aaeeeie neeie e n oaeei ica?aieai, neiaii aeaeeo ii e naith
noaeueao, e noaeueao anaai /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

Yoi ia ?aaeueiinoue, a c?aeeua. Iaaea?ii aea nai ooaeiaeiee ?acaeaeioe
ia?aae c?eoaeyie ia ea?oeia oyaeaeue caiaaan. C?aeeua, i?aia?aaeathuaa
?aaeueiinoue, a aaee/ee aauae, ioae?inoe e e?anioa, c?aeeua,
aicauoathuaa aeooo naiae aaniethoiie aa?iiieae, iiei?ythuaa e
iaeaai?aaeeaathuaa ian, oi naiia c?aeeua, eioi?iai aeaaeaeaea e ia?aea
iaeiiaoe Eoaeey Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey a ia/oa i eo/oai ie?a.

E neieueei i?ae?aniuo e aa?iuo neia neacaii aeaaii oaea ai anai ie?a, e
a /anoiinoe a ?innee. Eai, aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae ia iaeiiie/anoai
ioi?aaeyeenue a i?ioeii aaea ?onneea ienaoaee e ooaeiaeieee a Ae?acaeai
e “Neenoeineie iaaeiiia”. Iineooaai eo noaeaeaiey i aeaaa, ianouae
ieaaeaioea n iaaeaoneei, oaeeaeoaeueiui aci?ii, ia eneonnoaa ?aoayey e i
oii, /oi oioae ii au?aceoue a yoeo ia?acao.

AEoeianeee: “Ia?aae aeacaie iieioii, ia iai eeoea, iaaaaeaiiua /a?oaie,
e ana noaniaii a iaeii i?ino?ainoaa, e, ianiio?y ia oi, ana iaiauyoii,
ana iaia?aie/aiii… Caiaaanue ?acaeaeioeanue, e oaeia iaaan ioe?ueanue
aeacai /aeiaaea… A Aiaiiaoa?e, eaeouae ii iaaanai, ia i?eiaoii
ieeaeiai aeaeaeaiey; ii /ai aieaa niio?eoue ia iaa, oai aieaa eaaeaony,
/oi iia i?eaeeaeaaony”.

A?theeia: “*ai aieueoa niio?eoue, oai aieaa /oanoaoaony iaiinoeaeeiinoue
neo e?anio: eaaeaeay /a?oa iaaeoiaia, ia?aiieiaia au?aaeaiey a?aoeee,
niaaeeiaia ni no?iaeaeoei noeeai…”

Aaeeineee: “A aa aci?a anoue /oi-oi no?iaia, naea?aeaiiia, iao
aeaaiaeaoe e ieeinoe, ii iao ai?aeinoe, i?ac?aiey, a aianoi anaai yoiai
eaeia-oi ia caauaathuaa naiaai aaee/ey nienoiaeaeaiea”.

Aa?oeai: “Aioo?aiiee ie? aa ?ac?ooai, aa oaa?eee, /oi aa nui – Nui
Aiaeee, /oi iia – Aiai?iaeeoea; iia niio?eo n eaeie-oi ia?aiie
ainoi?aeaiiinoueth, n iaoa?eineei yniiaeaeaieai, iia eae aoaeoi aiai?eo:
“Aicueieoa aai, ii ia iie”. Ii a oi aea a?aiy i?eaeeiaao aai e naaa oae,
/oi, anee a iiaeii, iia oaaaeaea au n iei eoaea-ieaoaeue aaeaeue e noaea
au i?inoi eaneaoue, ei?ieoue a?oaeueth ia nianeoaey ie?a, a naiaai
nuia”.

Aeinoiaaneee aeaeae a “Neenoeineie iaaeiiia” aunooth ia?o /aeiaa/aneiai
aeaai?iaenoaa, auni/aeoaa i?iyaeaiea iaoa?eineiai aaiey. Aieueoay
iiyniay aa ?ai?iaeoeoeey aenaea a aai eiiiaoa, a eioi?ie ii e neii/aeny.

Oae iaia?eiouay e?anioa iiaeeeiii aaeeeeo i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa
aiiaeooaaeyao e a iineaaeothuea aaea eo/oea oaeaiou e oiu…

Neenoeineay iaaeiiia – aiieiuaiea oiai eaeaaea e?aniou e aeia?a, eioi?ue
niooii aiiaeooaaeye ia?iaeiia niciaiea a aae ?aoayey e eioi?ue ?aoayeue
auneacae aei eiioea, ?acaeaeioa caiaaan, oio naiue, /oi ioaeaeyao
aoaeie/ioth aeeciue io aaeioiiaaiiie ia/ou, e iieacae yoio eaeaae ie?o,
anai iai e oai, eoi i?eaeao iinea ian.

?aoayeue aue ia oieueei iai?aacieaeaiiui ianoa?ii eaeaaeueii iino?iaiiie
eiiiiceoeee: eiei?eo aai ea?oei, y?eee e iaeiia?aiaiii i?ic?a/iue e
eaaeee, /oaeanii ni/aoaaony n /aoeei ?enoieii.

Yoio aaeeeee aeeaiienaoe inoaaee neaae e a neoeueioo?a. N?aaee aai
o/aieeia – aayoaeue Ei?aioei Ei?aioeaooe. Ii yneecai e iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii naiaai aaeeeiai o/eoaey ii auiieiee ianeieueei neoeueioo?,
ec eioi?uo aei ian aeioea oieueei iaeia – “Ia?oaue iaeue/ee ia
aeaeueoeia”. A iae aiieiuaiu a i?aii?a ?aoayeaaneee eaeaae e?aniou, aai
?eoi e aa?iiiey: iao oaeana nia?oe, eaaeaony, aoaeoi ?aaaiie ie?ii
canioe.

?aoayeue! Ii oia? a iieiii ?anoeaaoa nee, a caieoa neaau – o?eaeoeaoe
naie eao.

IEEAEAIAeAEAEI AOIIA??IOE

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ?iaeeeny a 1475 a. e oia? a 1564 a., ia?aaeea Eaiia?aei e
?aoayey ia /aou?a n iieiaeiie aeanyoeeaoey e inoaaea aeaeaei iicaaee
aaeeeoth yiioo aoiaiecia e naiaiaeu aeooa. Yoe ai?aeua eaeaaeu ia
inouanoaeyeenue e ?aiaa a iauanoaaiiie aeecie Eoaeee, ii iie
i?iiiaaaeiaaeenue oeeinioaie, iiyoaie e ooaeiaeieeaie e iaeia?yeenue
iaeaieaa i?inaauaiiuie i?aaeoaeyie. Ianoaee ae?oaea a?aiaia. A
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey naiae aeecie Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aue naeaeaoaeai
oiai, eae yoe eaeaaeu a?oai iiie?aeenue, ainoi?aeanoaiaaea oea?eiaiay e
oaiaeaeueiay ?aaeoeey.

Ioi?une noa?eiiiai, ii iaaaeiaaoaai aeai?yineiai ?iaea, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei
Aoiia??ioe aue iao?eioii e aeaiie?aoii. A ioee/ea io Eaiia?aei,
a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoue i?iiecuaaea aai ie?iiuouaiea. Ii i?eieiae o/anoea a
aeoaao i?ioea oe?aiee, caaaaeiaae anaie oe?aieaieyie naiae ?iaeiie
Oei?aioeee, inaaeaeaiiie aieneaie aa?iaineiai eiia?aoi?a e iaiu, e
oieueei neaaa, caaiaaaiiay ei a eneonnoaa, nianea aai caoai io ?ani?aau
iiaaaeeoaeae.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aeoaiei /oanoaiaae naith naycue n ?iaeiui ia?iaeii, n
?iaeiie caieae.

Aai ei?ieeeoeae auea aeaia eaiaiioana. Aniiieiay i iae, ii aiai?ee
naiaio caieyeo Aaca?e: “Ana oi?ioaa a iiai oaeaioa iieo/aii iiith io
iyaeiai eeeiaoa ?iaeiiai iaoaai A?aoeoei, a ec iieiea iiae ei?ieeeoeu
ecaeae y ?acaoe e iieio, eioi?uie nicaeath naie noaooe”. Aeaiie?aoeci
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia anai i?eoaeny ii aeono. A oeoaie/aneeo ia?acao
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aeaeaee ii?ie i?ineaaeaiea a?oaie oece/aneie neeu. Oae,
iaeei ec oiaaeaoieo e?eoeeia eneonnoaa cayaeye, /oi “?aoayeue ienae
aeaai?iaeiuo ethaeae, a Ieeaeaiaeaeaei – a?oc/eeia”.

Ai?anoiay noaeueaa ?iaeeiu, caaaaiea a oiaaeaoiae Eoaeee aunieeo
iaaeaaeae, eioi?ua aaeioiiaeyee ana aai oai?/anoai, aeoaiei ?aieee aeooo
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. Oii?ii, aei eiioea naieo aeiae, ii ai?ieny ca naie
eaeaae, ca naith aa?o.

Aaiee Eaiia?aei – yoi aiey e iiciaieth ie?a e iaeaaeaieth ei a
eneonnoaa, iieiia niciaiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea neeu e aeanoe /aeiaa/aneiai
oia.

?aoayeue aeae /aeiaa/anoao ?aaeinoue aaciyoaaeiiai ethaiaaiey ie?ii ai
anae aai aaee/aaie e oiieoaeueiie e?anioa, auyaeaiiie aaieai
ooaeiaeieea.

Aaiee Ieeaeaiaeaeaei au?aaeaao a eneonnoaa ae?oaia ia/aei.

Iniiaa aa?u e eaeaae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei a oii, /oi ec anao e?oiiaeoeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae Aic?iaeaeaiey, ii iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii e
aaciaiai?i/ii aa?ee a aaeeeea aiciiaeiinoe, caeiaeaiiua a /aeiaaea, a
oi, /oi /aeiaae, iinoiyiii iai?yaay naith aieth, iiaeao aueiaaoue naie
nianoaaiiue ia?ac, aieaa oeaeueiue e y?eee, /ai nioai?aiiue i?e?iaeie. E
yoio ia?ac Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aueiaae a eneonnoaa, /oiau i?aacieoe i?e?iaeo.
Ioaeii ia i?inoi iiae?aaeaoue i?e?iaea, a iinoeaaoue aa “iaia?aiey”,
/oiau au?aceoue aei eiioea, caaa?oeoue a eneonnoaa aeaei i?e?iaeu e oai
naiui aicauneoueny iaae iae.

E yoie oeaee no?aieeenue Eaiia?aei e ?aoayeue, ii ieeoi aei
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia i?iyaeye a yoii no?aieaiee oaeiai ioaeiieythuaai
nia?aiaiieeia aea?caiey.

Au?aaeay anaiauee ainoi?a, Aaca?e ienae, /oi aeaaioneay noaooy Aeaaeaea,
eniieiaiiay Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, “ioiyea neaao o anao noaooe, nia?aiaiiuo e
aioe/iuo, a?a/aneeo e ?eineeo”. Yoio Aeaaeae, aaee/aaue e i?ae?aniue
thiioa, eniieiaiiue aani?aaeaeueiie ioaaae e neeu, aioiaue anooieoue a
ai?ueao ni ceii, oaa?aiiue a naiae i?aaioa e a naiai oi?aeanoaa, –
iiaeeeiiue iiioiaio aa?ie/aneie ee/iinoe, /aeiaaeo, eaeei ii aeieaeai
auoue, yaeyy niaie aunoaa oaai/aiea i?e?iaeu.

Anai naiei eneonnoaii Ieeaeaiaeaeaei oi/ao iai iieacaoue, /oi naiia
e?aneaia a i?e?iaea – yoi /aeiaa/aneay oeao?a, aieaa oiai, /oi aia aa
e?aniou aiiaua ia nouanoaoao. E yoi iioiio, /oi aiaoiyy e?anioa anoue
au?aaeaiea e?aniou aeooiaiie, a /aeiaa/aneeo aeoo iiyoue-oaee au?aaeaao
naiia aunieia e i?ae?aniia a ie?a.

“Ie iaeia /aeiaa/aneay no?anoue ia inoaeanue iia /oaeaeie”. E: “Ia
?iaeeeny aua oaeie /aeiaae, eioi?ue, eae y, aue au oae neeiiai ethaeoue
ethaeae”.

E aio aeey aicaaee/eaaiey /aeiaaea ai anae aai aeooiaiie e oece/aneie
e?anioa Ieeaeaiaeaeaei noaaee auoa i?i/eo eneonnoa neoeueioo?o.

I neoeueioo?a Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aiai?ee, /oi “yoi ia?aia ec eneonnoa”,
nnueaynue ia aeaeaeneoth eaaaiaeo i Aiaa, aueaieaoai ec caiee ia?aoth
oeao?o /aeiaaea – Aaeaia.

“Iia anaaaea eacaeinue, – ienae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, /oi neoeueioo?a – naaoi/
aeeaiiene e /oi iaaeaeo ieie oa aea ?acieoea, /oi iaaeaeo nieioeai e
eoiie”.

Aua ioia/ae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei: “ss ?acoiath iiae neoeueioo?ie oi eneonnoai,
eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony a neeo oaaaeaiey”. Ooaeiaeiee eiaao a aeaeo
oaaaeaiea anaai eeoiaai. Aio aeuaa i?aii?a: e?anioa caeiaeaia a iae,
ioaeii oieueei ecaea/ue aa ec eaiaiiie iaiei/ee. Yoo iuneue
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei au?acee a caia/aoaeueiuo noeoao (enoaoe, ii aue iaeiei ec
ia?auo iiyoia naiaai a?aiaie):

E auni/aeoee aaiee ia i?eaaaeo

Aaeeiie iunee e oai, /oi i?aii? nai

Oaeo a ecauoea, – e eeoue yoi iai

?oea, iineooiay ?annoaeeo, yaeo.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aa?ee, /oi oi/ii oae aea, eae a i?e?iaea caeiaeaia
e?anioa, a /aeiaaea caeiaeaii aeia?i. Iiaeiaii aayoaeth, ii aeieaeai
oaeaeeoue a naaa ana a?oaia, eeoiaa, ana, /oi iaoaao i?iyaeaieth aeia?a.
Ia yoii aiai?eo ii a noeoao, eniieiaiiuo aeoaieiai niunea, iinayuaiiuo
aai aeooiaiie ?oeiaiaeeoaeueieoea Aeooi?ee Eieiiia:

Eae ec neaeu aeeaia ecaayiuea

Iu ecaeaeaai, aeiiia,

Eioi?ia oai aiea caaa?oaiii,

*ai aieueoa eaiaiue aeaeaai iu i?aoii, –

Oae aeia?ua aeayiey

Aeooe, eacieiie no?aoii,

Ne?uaaao iaoa nianoaaiiay ieioue

Naiei /?acia?iui, a?oaui eciaeeueai…

Iaaea?ii, ia?auaynue e iiaeiui iiyoai oiai a?aiaie, /anoi
aanniaea?aeaoaeueiui, ianiio?y ia ecyuanoai oi?iu, iaeei ec iaeaieaa
aaeoi/eauo ii/eoaoaeae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei oae ioicaaeny i aai noeoao: “Ii
aiai?eo aaue, au aea aiai?eoa neiaa”.

…?aniieiaeaiiue a aeoaieie ai?iie eioeiaeia, ai?iae Ea??a?a oaea a
ae?aaiinoe neaaeeny i?aii?ii. Oai, ieoaynue ii/oe iaeiei oeaaii,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei i?iaue aieaa ainueie ianyoeaa, /oiau iaeiiaoue eae iiaeii
aieueoa aaeiai ea??a?neiai i?aii?a e aeinoaaeoue aai a ?ei. Naiua
a?aiaeeiciua caiunee aicieeaee a aai aiia?aaeaiee, eiaaea ii a
iaeeii/anoaa a?iaeee n?aaee neae. Oae, aeyaey ia ai?o, oeaeeeii
neiaeaiioth ec i?aii?a, ii ia/oae, au?oaeoue ec iaa eieinnaeueioth
noaooth, eioi?ay auea au aeaeia ecaeaeaea ii?aieaaaoaeyi e neoaeeea ei
iayeii. A yoie ai?a ii oaea ?acee/ae oeoaie/aneee ia?ac, eioi?ue iieio e
?acaoe ecaeaeoo ec aa a?iiaaeu.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia inouanoaee yoiai caiunea. Iaeiaei e oi, /oi ii
inouanoaee, aani?eia?ii a ie?iaii eneonnoaa. O Ieeaeaiaeaeaei anoue
neoeueioo?u, aaea nio?aieeenue i/a?oaiey eaiaiiie aeuau. Anoue e oaeea,
aaea /anoe eaiiy ia o?iioou ?acoeii, oioy ia?ac e aunooiaao ai anae
naiae iiue. E yoi c?eiia iaie aunaiaiaeaeaiea e?aniou.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei n/eoae naay a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neoeueioi?ii, e aeaaea
oieueei neoeueioi?ii. A ai?aeuo aeoiao, auoue iiaeao, a?aceeinue aio,
/oi a aai ?acoea ioaeaeaaony ia oieueei i?aii?iue aeie, aua?aiiue ei
aeey ?aaiou, ii e eaaeaeay neaea, ai?a, ana aanoi?iaiiia, aanii?yaei/ii
iaa?iiiaeaeaiiia a ie?a. Aaaeue oaeae eneonnoaa – aeiaa?oaoue aeaei
i?e?iaeu, ooaa?aeaeaoue e?anioo. A yoi, n/eoae ii, iiae noaoue oieueei
aayoaeth.

I aeeaiiene Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aiai?ee iiae/an n aunieiia?eai, aeaaea
?acae?aaeaieai, eae ia i naiai ?aianea.

Eae e neoeueioo?u Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, a?aiaeeiciua ia?acu, nicaeaiiua aai
eenoueth, ii?aaeatho naiae aani?eia?iie ieanoe/aneie
au?aceoaeueiinoueth. A aai oai?/anoaa, e auoue iiaeao, oieueei a iai,
neoeueioo?a yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueii “naaoi/ai aeeaiiene”. Eai
neoeueioo?a iiiiaaea Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aa?iiie/ii iauaaeeiyoue e
nin?aaeioi/eaaoue a iaeiii ii?aaeaeaiiii aeeaiieniii ia?aca anth
oayuothny a /aeiaa/aneie oeao?a ieanoe/aneoth e?anioo.

Ia/aeueiia oi?ie?iaaiea Ieeaeaiaeaeaei eae ooaeiaeieea i?ioaeaei a
oneiaeyo, ?iaeiyueo aai n Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e. Eae e Eaiia?aei, ii aue
o/aieeii ecaanoiiai oei?aioeeneiai ianoa?a eaao?i/aioi. Anoue naaaeaiey,
/oi ianoa? yoio, Aeiiaieei Ae?eaiaeaei, eae e o/eoaeue Eaiia?aei
Aa??ieeuei, caaeaeiaae naiaio o/aieeo. Iiaeiaii Eaiia?aei,
ooii/aiii-ecuneaiiia eneonnoai, i?ioeaaoaaoaa i?e aeai?a Ei?aioei
Aaeeeieaiiiai, ia iiaei oaeiaeaoai?eoue Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. E iaeia ec
ia?auo aai ?aaio – “Iaaeiiia o eanoieoeu”, auna/aiiay ei a i?aii?a,
eiaaea aio auei aaeaa oanoiaaeoeaoue eao, ia eciaaeaiiay iao?eoeeaiea e
aeaaea ia o?iaaoaeueiay a naiae ethaae e ieaaeaioeo thiay iaoue, a
no?iaay e aaee/aaay aeaaa, eioi?ay iniciaao naith neaao e ciaao ia
oaioiaaiiii ae o?aae/aneii eniuoaiee.

Nio?aieeny oieueei iaeei aiieia aeinoiaa?iue ia?acaoe noaieiaie
aeeaiiene Ieeaeaiaeaeaei: ciaiaieoia oiiaei (e?oaeay ea?oeia) “Iaaeiiia
Aeiie”. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a yoie eiiiiceoeee ii/oe
o?eaeoeaoeeaoiee Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, oaea iieueciaaaoeeny a?iieie neaaie,
aiciiiee i?aacieoe Eaiia?aei, ooaa?aeeoue naia i?aainoiaenoai iaae
noa?oei nia?aoii, aeeaiieniua aeinoeaeaiey eioi?iai aini?eieiaeenue ai
Oei?aioeee eae ioe?iaaiey.

“Iaaeiiia Aeiie” Ieeaeaiaeaeaei e “Na.Aiia” Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e…
Ia?aeeaeue i/aaeaeia. E i/aaeaeia iauay oeaeue: neiioeaio?e?iaaoue aei
iaeneioia neeo aeaeaeaiey, iaocaeaoue yia?aeth, /oiau ia?aoeoue eo a
iacuaeaiue iiiieeo.

O Eaiia?aei oeaeue aeinoeaaaony a aa?iiiee, i?eie?ythuae ana
i?ioeai?a/ey, aa?iiieae, eae au inouanoaeyaiie naiie i?e?iaeie.

O Ieeaeaiaeaeaei – neiioeaio?e?iaaiiay neea, e ana – ai?ueaa, a eioi?ie,
iiae ?acoeii ee aai eee iiae eenoueth, ?iaeaeathony ethaee aieaa
i?ae?aniua, aieaa iiaouanoaaiiua e aieaa aea?ciiaaiiua – ethaee-aa?ie.
Aeaaioneia iai?yaeaiea e aeeiaieci a eaaeaeii eo ioneoea, a eaaeaeii
ii?uaa, e oece/aneii e aeooiaiii.

A ioee/ea io ooaeiaeieeia i?aaeuaeouaai aaea, ?aaioaaoeo a aoua ia?iaea,
ooaeiaeieee /eieaa/aioi i?eiauathony e aunoaio, iao?eoeeaineiio e?oao.
Eaeaaeu ia?iaeiie naiaiaeu iii?aiu aaniethoeciii. Naaoneea e aeooiaiua
aeanoeoaee ioaeaeathony a eneonnoaa, eioi?ia i?ineaaeyei au eo aeayiey:
iie i?eaeaeatho e naaa ia neoaeao ciaiaieoaeoeo aeeaiienoeaa,
neoeueioi?ia e a?oeoaeoi?ia. Iaia THeee II aucaae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei a ?ei,
/oiau aeaoue aio a?aiaeeiciia caaeaiea: yoio no?iaue e oi?yiue
/anoiethaaoe, ia/oaaoee ii?ie i nicaeaiee oea?eiaiie eiia?ee, aieaa
iiaouanoaaiiie, /ai eiia?ey oeaca?ae, iiaeaeae, /oiau oaea i?e aeecie
aio auea aicaeaeaiooa a?iaieoea, eioi?ay naieie ?acia?aie e aaeeeieaieai
i?aainoiaeeea au ana nicaeaiiia aei oiai a ie?a, e ?aoee, /oi n oaeie
caaea/ae iiaeao ni?aaeoueny oieueei Ieeaeaiaeaeaei.

A?aiaeeiciia iaineia iaaea?iaea, eaeei caaeoiae aai Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, –
iaacieae, oe?aoaiiue ni?iea noaooyie, – ia auei auiieiaii.
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aeiaue i?aii?, eiee/anoai eioi?iai ecoieei aanue ?ei, e
oaea niae?aeny i?enooieoue e ?aaioa, eae aae?oa oneuoae, /oi iaia ia
oi/ao iieaoeoue noieiinoue i?aii?a. Eiaaea ii yaeeny e THeeth II, aai ia
aionoeee, iauyaee, /oi oaeia i?eeac naiiai iaiu.

Inei?aeaiiue Ieeaeaiaeaeaei oio/an iieeioe ?ei. Iaia iineae ca iei
iiaiith, o?aaoy aai aica?auaiey, ii ooaeiaeiee ineooaeny, /oi auei
i?eciaii ianeuoaiiie aea?cinoueth.

Aeaei a oii, /oi THeee II ii niaaoo A?aiaioa, niia?ieea Ieeaeaiaeaeaei,
?aoee caiiai iino?ieoue niai? na.Iao?a, oae, /oiau yoio o?ai, oaa?aeuiy
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, noae naiui a?aiaeeiciui e aaeeeieaiiui ai anai
o?enoeaineii ie?a. Nii?oaeaiea a?iaieoeu iooiaeeei aneaaenoaea yoiai ia
aoi?ie ieai. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei i?eienuaae oaeia ?aoaiea “caaenoeeaui
eiciyi” A?aiaioa e naie ioiioaiey n iaiie n/eoae ?anoi?aioouie
iaanaaaea. Yoiai, iaeiaei, ia neo/eeinue. I?eie?aiea ninoiyeinue, e
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei iieo/ee io iaiu iiaue caeac, ii naiei ianooaaai ia
onooiaaoee caaeoiaiiiio iaaea?iaeth.

THeee II ii?o/ee Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ?inienue iioieea Neenoeineie eaiaeeu,
aeiiiaie oea?eae ?eineeo iai a Aaoeeaia.

Ie iaeiiio eoaeueyineiio aeeaiienoeo ia i?eoiaeeeinue aei yoiai a?aoueny
ca oaeoth aeaaioneoth ?inienue: ieiei oanoenio eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia! Aea
aua ia ia noaia, a ia iioieea.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia/ae yoo ?aaioo 10 iay 1508 a. e caeii/ee 5 naioya?y
1512 a. Aieaa /aou?ao eao o?oaea, o?aaiaaaoaai ii/oe naa?o/aeiaa/aneiai
aeooiaiiai e oece/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Iaaeyaeiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii
aeatho oaeea na?eanoe/aneea noeoe Ieeaeaiaeaeaei:

ss iieo/ee ca o?oae eeoue cia, oai?iao

(Oae io/eo eioae iooiay aiaea

A Eiiaa?aeee – ia?aaeeeo iano aaaea!)

Aea iiaeai?iaeeii aeeeieeny a oo?iao;

A?oaeue eae o aa?iee; /a?ai iia ia ceiao

Iieac e ai?ao; e aeuaii ai?iaea;

A n eenoe ia eeoei oa/ao ao?aea,

?yaey iaiy a ia?/o, iiaeiaii a?iao;

Nianoeeenue aaae?a ia/enoi a aeeaio;

A caae, a i?ioeaiaan, ?acaeoeny a ai/eo;

Nooiie n caieath noiaeyony ia aae?oa;

Naenaao eiaea ei?iaii aia?aae,

A ncaaee neeaaeeie auoi/aia a no?i/eo,

E aanue y auaioo, eae ne?eeneee eoe.

Eaaea ia eanao ia nieia, ienae ana nai, aiynue aeiaa?eoue o/aieeai. Iaia
oi?iiee aai, ii Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ia aeiioneae a?iciiai caeac/eea a eaiaeeo
ai a?aiy ?aaiou, a eiaaea oio ana aea i?iieeae iiae aa naiaeu, na?anuaae
n eania, yeiau ia/ayiii, aeinee, ia?auay a aaanoai ?acuy?aiiiai noa?eea.

?anienuaay Neenoeineoth eaiaeeo, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei oae i?eo/ee naie aeaca
niio?aoue eaa?oo ia naiae, /oi iioii, eiaaea ?aaioa auea caeii/aia e ii
niiaa noae aea?aeaoue aieiao i?yii, oaea ii/oe ie/aai ia aeaeae; eiaaea
aio i?eoiaeeeinue /eoaoue ienueia e aoiaae, ii aeieaeai aue aea?aeaoue
eo auniei iaae aieiaie. E eeoue iiiaiiiao ii iiyoue i?eaue /eoaoue,
aeyaey ia?aae niaie aiec.

Ia iioieea Neenoeineie eaiaeeu Ieeaeaiaeaeaei nicaeaaae ia?acu, a
eioi?uo e ii nae aeaiue iu aeaeei auni/aeoaa i?iyaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
aaiey e /aeiaa/aneiai aea?caiey. A ienueia a?aoo ii cayaeye n iieiui
i?aaii: “ss o?oaeonue /a?ac neeo, aieueoa /ai ethaie /aeiaae,
eiaaea-eeai nouanoaiaaaoee”.

Oeoaio, eiy eioi?iio Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, aeaee ?anienuaaoue ieaoii, e ii
iie?ue aai oeoaie/aneeie ia?acaie, ?iaeaeaiiuie aai aiia?aaeaieai, iaei
caaioynue i oii, eae iie aoaeoo “i?iniao?eaaoueny” nieco, aoaeue oai
aieco ia oieueei iu n aaie, ii e nai a?iciue iaia THeee II. Iaeiaei e
oio aue iio?ynai aaee/eai nicaeaiiiai. E ana a oiaaeaoiai ?eia auee
iio?ynaiu, eae e iu iui/a. Iio?ynaiu, ii ia ?aaeinoii i/a?iaaiu.

Aea, yoi nianai eiia eneonnoai, /ai ?aoayeaaneia, ooaa?aeaeaaoaa aeeaiia
?aaiiaanea ?aaeueiiai ie?a. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei nicaeaao eae au naie,
oeoaie/aneee ie?, eioi?ue iaiieiyao iaoo aeooo ainoi?aii, ii a oi aea
a?aiy niyoaieai, eai oeaeue aai – ?aoeoaeueii i?aacieaey i?e?iaeo,
nioai?eoue ec /aeiaaea oeoaia. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei “ia?ooee ?aaiiaanea ie?a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ioiye o Aic?iaeaeaiey aaciyoaaeiia ianeaaeaeaiea
naiei niaie”.

Aea, ii ioiye o eneonnoaa yoie yiioe aaciyoaaeiinoue, ia?ooee
oie?ioai?aiiia ?aoayeaaneia ?aaiiaanea, ioiye o /aeiaaea aiciiaeiinoue
iieieiiai ethaiaaiey niaie. Ii caoi ii iiaeaeae iieacaoue /aeiaaeo,
eaeei ii aeieaeai auoue, eaeei ii iiaeao noaoue.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei nicaeae oaeie ia?ac /aeiaaea, eioi?ue iiaeao iiae/eieoue
naaa caieth, e, eoi ciaao, iiaeao auoue, aieueoa, /ai caieth!

Eniieuecoy aeey naiaai caiunea a?oeoaeoo?iue ieaoii, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei
nicaeae naiae aeeaiienueth iiaoth – “ecia?aaeaiioth” – a?oeoaeoo?o,
?acaeaeea n?aaeithth /anoue ieaoiia niioaaonoaaiii ieiiiui ieaoiiai e
ia?aciaaaoeany i?yiioaieueiua iiey caiieiea nthaeaoiuie eiiiiceoeeyie.
?acia?u naieo noeai ia iaeeiaeiau, iaiythony e ianooaau oeao?. Eiio?anou
a ianooaaao e ?annoaiiaea a i?ino?ainoaa ioaeaeueiuo noeai e oeao?
aeoaiei i?iaeoiaiiu a niaeanee n aaeeiui a?oeoaeoo?ii-aeeaiieniui
ieaiii, e a ?acoeueoaoa “i?iii?oeee ea?oei ei anae ianna iioieea
auaea?aeaiu aaniiaeiaii”.

Eaaeaeay eiiiiceoeey nouanoaoao iaeiia?aiaiii e naia ii naaa e eae
iaiouaieaiay /anoue oeaeiai, oae eae ana iie acaeiii niaeaniaaiiu. Yoi –
aaeeeia aeinoeaeaiea aeeaiiene Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey, aeiaaaeaiiie
caeanue Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aei niaa?oainoaa. A eneonnoaa i?aaeuaeouaai aaea
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo /anoae iaoaea aaeeinoao oeaeiai, e
eaao?i/aioi /anoi caauaaei i iai. A eneonnoaa aea aaea iineaaeothuaai,
o.a. a eneonnoaa noeey aa?ieei, /anoiia iieiinoueth iiae/eiyaony oeaeiio
e, oo?a/eaay naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, eae au ?anoai?yaony a iai.
Oieueei a cieioie aae eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa, aae Eaiia?aei, ?aoayey,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei e Oeoeeaia, auea aiciiaeia iiaeiaiay aa?iiiey iaaeaeo
/anoiui e oeaeui, eo iieiay ?aaiicia/eiinoue – e iioiio eneonnoai yoiai
aaea yaeyao iai eae au i?iia?ac oaeiai eaeaaeueiiai ii?yaeea, aaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue iaoiaeeo naia caeii/aiiia au?aaeaiea a aa?iiie/anee
niaeaniaaiiii eieeaeoeaa.

…Ii/oe iyoiaaeoeaoue eao (n 1520 a.) ?aaioae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei iaae
onuiaeueieoeae Iaaee/e ai Oei?aioeee – ii caeaco iaiu Eeeiaioa VII,
eioi?ue aue ec ?iaea Iaaee/e.

Aeaei oei ia oaaeiaa/aiee iaiyoe ia aueuo ciaiaieouo Iaaee/e, a oao
i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai ?iaea, eioi?ua ioe?uoi onoaiiaeee ai Oei?aioeee
iiia?oe/aneia i?aaeaiea, aeaoo ?aii oia?oeo e ie/ai ia i?eia/aoaeueiuo
aa?oeiaia. Ii?o?ao aue /oaeae Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. Iaieo aa?oeiaia ii
ecia?acee aeeaai?e/anee a aeaea aiaia/aeueieeia a aeanoyueo aeiniaoao,
iaeiiai eae aoaeoi ioaeanoaaiiiai, yia?ae/iiai, ii aaco/anoiiai,
i?aauaathuaai a iieia, ae?oaiai – iia?oaeaiiiai a aeoaieia ?acaeoiuea. A
ii aieai – oeao?u “Oo?a”, “Aa/a?a”, “Aeiy” e “Ii/e”.

Aioo?aiiyy iai?yaeaiiinoue e a oi aea a?aiy uaiyuaa niiiaiea,
i?aae/oanoaea ia?a/aiiinoe – aio /oi au?aaeatho ana yoe oeao?u. Ia/aeue
?aceeoa ai anai e oiaeeo io noaiu e noaia.

A /anoue naiie ciaiaieoie oeao?u – i?ae?aniie “Ii/e” – auee ni/eiaiu
oaeea noeoe:

Aio yoa ii/ue, /oi oae niieieii nieo

Ia?aae oiaith, – aiaaea nicaeaiea.

Iia ec eaiiy, ii a iae anoue aeuoaiea:

Eeoue ?acaoaee, – iia caaiai?eo.

Ii Ieeaeaiaeaeaei n yoei ia niaeaneeny e oae ioaaoee io eiaie naiie
“Ii/e”:

Io?aaeii niaoue, io?aaeii eaiiai auoue,

I, a yoio aae, i?anooiiue e iinouaeiue,

Ia aeeoue, ia /oanoaiaaoue – oaeae caaeaeiue,

I?ioo, iie/e, ia niae iaiy aoaeeoue.

A o?eaeoeaouo aiaeao XVI noieaoey iaia Iaaae III ii?o/ee Ieeaeaiaeaeaei
iaienaoue ia aeoa?iie noaia ana oie aea Neenoeineie eaiaeeu
aaaiaaeueneoth noeaio “No?aoiiai noaea”. Iaae yoie o?aneie ii/oe a
aeaanoe eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ?aaioae (n iaeioi?uie
ia?a?uaaie) oanoue eao.

A.I.Eaca?aa ieoao: ”Caeanue aiaaeia ia ioee/eoue io nayouo, a?aoieeia io
i?aaaaeieeia, ioae/ei io aeaiuei. Anao eo oaeaeaao iaeei iaoiieeiue
iioie aeaeaeaiey, ana iie ecaeaathony e ei?/aony io ioaaoeaoaai eo
no?aoa e oaeana… Oeaio?ii eaeouaai ii e?oao aeaeaeaiey Ieeaeaiaeaeaei
aeaeaao oeao?o O?enoa. E /ai aieiaoaeueiaa aaeyaeuaaaoueny a iauoth
eiiiiceoeeth o?anee, oai ianoie/eaaa ?iaeaeaaony iuouaiea, aoaeoi ia?aae
oiaie ia?iiiia a?auathuaany eieani oi?ooiu, aiaeaeathuaa a naie
no?aieoaeueiue aaa ana iiaua e iiaua /aeiaa/aneea aeecie, ie iaeia ec
eioi?uo ia iiaeao ecaaaiooue oaooia. A oaeii oieeiaaiee einie/aneie
eaoano?iou oaea ia inoaaony ianoa aeey aa?iy e aa?ie/aneiai aeayiey, ia
inoaaony ianoa e aeey ieeina?aeey. Iaaea?ii Ia?ey ia i?ineo O?enoa i
i?iuaiee, a ioaeeai e iaio i?eaeeiaaony, iao?aaaaiay no?aoii ia?aae
?acaooaaaaoaeny noeoeae. ?aaioay iaae o?aneie “No?aoiue noae”,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei oioae iieacaoue ouaoo anaai caiiiai, oeaiiinoue ieioe,
aaniiiiuiinoue /aeiaaea ia?aae neaiui aaeaieai noaeueau. Oaeia,
ianiiiaiii, aue aai iniiaiie caiunae. E aeey yoiai ii aeieaeai aue
?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i /aeiaaea e /aeiaa/aneie
oeao?a, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea noaoue o?oieie, eaaeie, aanieioiie. Ii eae
?ac yoiai ia i?iecioei… Ii-i?aaeiaio ii ecia?aaeaao iiuiua oeao?u n
ioaeanoaaiiuie eeoeaie, n oe?ieeie iea/aie, n oi?ioi ?acaeoui oi?nii, n
ioneoeenouie eiia/iinoyie. Ii yoe aaeeeaiu oaea ia a neeao
i?ioeaiai?noaiaaoue noaeueaa. Iiyoiio eneaaeaiu a?eianaie eo eeoea,
iiyoiio oae aaciaaeaaeiu ana eo, aeaaea naiua yia?ae/iua, aeaeaeaiey,
iai?yaeaiiua e eiiaoeueneaiua… Ia?a/aiiua ia aeaaeue oeoaiu oo?aoeee
oi, /oi anaaaea iiiiaaei /aeiaaeo a ai?ueaa ni noeoeeiuie neeaie. Iie
oo?aoeee aieth!”.

Oaea i?e aeecie Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aai “No?aoiue noae” aucaae y?inoiua
iaiaaeee noi?iiieeia eiio??aoi?iaoeee.

Iicaeiaa oai?/anoai Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ioia/aii o?aaiaie, niciaieai
a?aiiinoe auoey, oaeoaeaieai a nei?aiua ia/oaiey e aeoiu, ii?ie
io/ayieai.

A aai o?aneao a aaoeeaineie eaiaeea Iaieeia iaeioi?ua ia?acu ii?aaeatho
naiae au?aceoaeueiinoueth, iiao/ae e ino?ie, ii a oeaeii –
?acae?iaeaiiinoueth eiiiiceoeee, niaaeii iauae iai?aaeythuae aiee,
oi?aeanoaothuaai aa?ie/aneiai ia/aea – yoe noeaiu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
aeooaaiii iaaeeiia eo nicaeaoaey. Iunee Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ana /aua ia?auaiu
e nia?oe, e, eae ii nai aiai?eo a iaeiii ec naieo noeoioai?aiee, ie
eenoue, ie ?acaoe oaea ia i?eiinyo aio caaaaiey.

“Eoi oi/ao iaeoe naay e ianeaaeeoueny niaith, – ieoao ii, – oio ia
aeieaeai eneaoue ?acaea/aiee e oaeiaieuenoaee. Ii aeieaeai aeoiaoue i
nia?oe! Eai eeoue yoa iuneue aaaeao ian e naiiiiciaieth, canoaaeyao
aa?eoue a naith e?aiinoue e iaa?aaaao ian io oiai, /oiau ?iaenoaaiieee,
ae?ocuey e neeueiua ie?a naai ia ?anoa?caee au ian ia eonee ni anaie
iaoeie ii?ieaie e aeaeaieyie, ?acoaa?ythueie /aeiaaea a naiii naaa”.

Iuneueth i nia?oe, eae au aa nica?oeaieai, i?iieeioou iineaaeiea aai
neoeueioo?u, iai?eia? “Iueaoa” (Oei?aioeey), a eioi?ie
aeeciaooaa?aeaeathuay iiuue i?aaeieo eao niaiyaony uaiyuae aeooaaiie
aieueth. Iiaeeeiii aani?aaeaeueiu o?aae/aneay au?aceoaeueiinoue e
no?anoiay iaeooioai?aiiinoue anae a?oiiu.

Ae?oaay a?oiia, “Iueaoa ?iiaeaieie” (Ieeai), iiae/a?eeaaao iaeeii/anoai
e ia?a/aiiinoue; n eaeei oneeeai Aiaiiaoa?ue iiaeaea?aeeaaao auoyiooia
oaei O?enoa, eaeeie aanieioiuie, oaea ia?aaeueiuie eaaeoony a naiae
io/eoaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe eo nei?aiua, i?eaeaoua ae?oa e ae?oao
oeao?u. Iaae yoie a?oiiie Ieeaeaiaeaeaei aua ?aaioae ca oanoue aeiae aei
nia?oe.

Ia iaoiaey caaaaiey ie a eenoe, ie a ?acoea, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ana /aua
i?eaaaaao a iineaaeiea aeaa aeanyoeeaoey naiae aeecie e ea?aiaeaoo. A
a?aoe/aneeo yothaeao yoie ii?u en/acaao i?aaeiyy ieeaeaiaeaeaeianeay
oaa?aeay eeiey, a eaaeie naaoiaie oaie ii aaeaa iaia/aao oeao?u, eceeaay
a ii?aceoaeueii iyaeii ?enoiea naie aeoaieea, oeoie a?onoueth eee
aeoaieei no?aaeaieai ioia/aiiua ia?aaeeaaiey.

Ii a iaeiii eneonnoaa Ieeaeaiaeaeaei inoaaony aa?ai eaeaaeai naieo
i?aaeieo eao – yoi eneonnoai a?oeoaeoo?a. Ooo aai aa?a a aaca?aie/ioth
oai?/aneoth iiuue ooaeiaeieea aiiaue i?iyaeyaony iieiinoueth. Ia iaaei
ecia?aaeaoue aeaeeiue ie?; aaeeeee ii?ua, oii?ii iaiieiythuee aai aeooo,
ionoue iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea ia a /oanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe, – iia
neeoeii iaiai/eaa! – a a noeaieaiee, ai?ueaa e iiaaaea no?ieiuo e
onoie/eauo nee, eiaia eioi?ui eieiiia, ea?iec, eoiie, o?iioii. Ooo iao
eciaiu oiio eaeaaeo /aeiaa/aneie e?aniou, eioi?iio ii aa?ee e
iieeiiyeny, eai, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei ooaa?aeaeae caaeneiinoue a?oeoaeoo?iuo
/anoae io /aeiaa/aneiai oaea.

Oioy Ieeaeaiaeaeaei iicaeii ia?aoeeny e a?oeoaeoo?a, ii e a yoii
eneonnoaa i?ineaaee naia eiy. Aio iu iaycaiu onuiaeueieoeae Iaaee/e;
eioa?uea?ii aeaeeioaee Eao?aioeeaiu (oiaea ai Oei?aioeee, ia?aie
ioaee/iie aeaeeioaee a Aa?iia) ni ciaiaieoie eanoieoeae, /oi, ii neiaai
A.I.Eaca?aaa, iiaeiaia “iioieo eaau, auoaeathuaio ec oceiai aeaa?iiai
i?iaia”, e /uee e?eaieeiaeiua nooiaie eaaeoony iai aa/ii iiaeaeaeiuie a
naiai eae au iaoaea?aeeiii /a?aaeiaaiee. Ii caieiaeny a?aiaeeiciie
?aeiino?oeoeeae ae?aaia?eineie ieiuaaee Eaieoieey n onoaiiaeaieai
iin?aaeeia aioe/iie eiiiie noaooe eiia?aoi?a Ia?ea Aa?aeey, oaai/ae
ia?iiiui ea?iecii, oaaeaa?ii ?aiannainiiai ciae/anoaa, iaeaoeoei Oa?iaca
a ?eia.

Iaae nii?oaeaieai iiaiai a?aiaeeiciiai niai?a na.Iao?a, eioi?ui iaineia
ainoaea?noai aeaeaei i?ineaaeoue naia iiaouanoai, ?aaioaee iii/a?aaeii
ciaiaieoaeoea a?oeoaeoi?u oiai a?aiaie: A?aiaioa, ?aoayeue,
Aaeueaeanna?a Ia?ooeoee, Aioiiei aea Naiaaeei Ieaaeoee. A 1546 a.
?oeiaiaenoai ?aaioaie ia?aoei e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei.

Eoiie niai?a na.Iao?a – aaiaoe a?oeoaeoo?iiai oai?/anoaa Ieeaeaiaeaeaei.
Eae e a niaa?oaiiaeoeo nicaeaieyo aai eenoe e ?acoea, ao?iue aeeiaieci,
aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa eiio?anoia, ana caiieiythuaa aeaeaeaiea aeanoii e
i?aaie/anee aeeth/aiu a caieiooia oeaeia eaeaaeueiuo i?iii?oeee.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei neii/aeny 18 oaa?aey 1564 a. ainueieaeanyoe aeaayoe eao
iinea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aieacie, naaeeaoae aai a ?acaa?a ?aaiou.

Ii aeinoea i?e aeecie aaeeeie neaau, e aaoi?eoao aai aue iai?a?aeaai.

OEOeEAI AA*AEEEI

Oi/iue aic?ano Oeoeeaia aei neo ii? ia onoaiiaeai. Oia? ii a 1576 a., a
?iaeeeny, ii iaeiei naaaeaieyi, a eiioea ainueieaeanyouo, ii ae?oaei – a
eiioea naieaeanyouo aiaeia XV noieaoey eee aeaaea ?aiueoa.

N oaa?aiiinoueth iiaeii eeoue neacaoue, /oi Oeoeeai i?iaeee ia iaiaa
ainueieaeanyoe eao e ia aieaa noa o?ao, i?e/ai oia?, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia io
noa?inoe, a io /oiu.

Oeoeeaio noaeaeaii auei a aai aeieaoth aeeciue ai?anoii iaaethaeaoue
o?aae/aneia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo aunieeie eaeaaeaie Aic?iaeaeaiey e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth. Ii inoaeny aei eiioea aa?ai yoei eaeaaeai, ia
eciaiee aoiaiecio.

Oeoeeai Aa/aeeei ?iaeeeny a naiuea aiaiiiai a ai?iii ai?iaeea Iueaaa aee
Eaaei?a, aoiaeeaoai ai aeaaeaiey Aaiaoeee. ?iae aai aue noa?eiiui e
aeeyoaeueiui a yoie ianoiinoe. I?iyaea oaea a ?aiiai aeaonoaa aea/aiea e
aeeaiiene, ii aeaayoe eao aue ii?aaeaeai iooeii a ianoa?neoth
aaiaoeeaineiai iicae/enoa. I?iaue oai, iaeiaei, iaaeieai e iao/aeny
caoai iii/a?aaeii o Aeaeaioeea Aaeeeie e o Aeaeiaaiie Aaeeeie. Naeeceeny
n Aeaei?aeaeiia e eniuoae ai iiiaii aai aeeyiea. A iinea aai
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie nia?oe noae iauai?eciaiiui aeaaie aaiaoeeaineie oeieu.

Neaaa Oeoeeaia auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeanue ii anae Eoaeee, a caoai e ii
anae Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Iaia Iaaae III aucuaaao Oeoeeaia a ?ei, aaea oaea
c?aeui ianoa?ii ii aia?aua ciaeiieony n oai?aieyie ?aoayey e
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. Naiue iiaouanoaaiiue ec oiaaeaoieo iiia?oia, aa?iaineee
eiia?aoi? Ea?e V i?eaeaoaao aai a Aoanao?a, aeaeoao aio a?aoneee oeooe
e, iice?oy Oeoeeaio, aoaeoi au aeaaea iiaeieiaao eenoue, o?iiaiioth
ooaeiaeieeii. Nui Ea?ea V aeanoieee eniaineee ei?ieue Oeeeii II,
o?aioeocneee ei?ieue O?aioeene I e iiiaea eoaeueyineea ainoaea?e auee
oaeaea caeac/eeaie Oeoeeaia, caieiaaoaai ioeoeeaeueiue iino ooaeiaeieea
Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeee.

Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao aaiaoeeaineiai oai?aoeea eneonnoaa Aeieue/a, Oeoeeai
aue “aaeeeieaiiui, oiiui niaanaaeieeii, oiaaoei noaeeoue iai anai ia
naaoa”.

Aeieaay, n/anoeeaay aeeciue n?aaee ecuneaiiiai, ia?aciaaiiiai iauanoaa,
aeeciue, oeaeeeii iaiieiaiiay ethaiaaieai e?anioie ie?a e i?ineaaeaieai
yoie e?aniou a aaeeeii eneonnoaa aeeaiiene. Oai?/anoai Oeoeeaia i/aiue
iaoe?ii: ii eiee/anoao nicaeaiiiai iii /ooue ee ia i?aainoiaeeo
oai?/anoai Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, ?aoayey e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei.

Ieeoi a aeeaiiene aei e iinea Oeoeeaia ia ainiaaae n oaeei
aaeioiiaaieai, eae ii, neythuoth e?anioo aeaiueiu, ieaieoaeueioth,
iieoaeaiioth e?anioo, eae au ieeoeaoai?ythuoth ?aaeinoue auoey, caiiia
n/anouea.

A iaeiie ec naieo ?aiieo ?aaio Oeoeeai niaei i?ioeaiiinoaaee
eiioi?ienoneie, naiiaeiaieueiie e noaoiie “iaaaniie ethaae” naiaiaeioth,
ineaieoaeueii i?ae?anioth a naiae iaaioa ethaiaue caiioth, eioi?ay, n
oeaeii a ?oea, neiaii ?ane?uaaao /aeiaaeo aaca?aaeiue ie? aieueiie
i?e?iaeu. “Ethaiaue caiiay e ethaiaue iaaaniay” – aeeaai?e/aneay
ea?oeia, eniieiaiiay naaoeie, oiieoaeueiie aeecia?aaeinoiinoe,
ciaiaiothuay aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai aeaaeaiiiai e uaae?iai n/anouey.
Nia?aiaiiay ae “Oei?a” au?aaeaao oioaea aunieee eaeaae, oo aea /enooth
?aaeinoue. Eae iaaeai oaieue ?iciaue oii ioe?uoiai iea/a aiaeie oeaaoia,
eaeie iiaeeeiii aiaeanoaaiiue “eonie aeeaiiene” – ?oea a ni/aoaiee n
i?ic?a/iie aaeeciie ?oaaoee e naaoeui aa?oaoii oyaeaeiai iaea/aiey.
“Aaeoaiaeey” e “I?acaeiee Aaia?u” – /oaeaniua caaiuey oie aea oeaie.

Aunoaa oaai/aiea yoiai eaeaaea – ea?oeia “Aaia?a ia?aae ca?eaeii”,
iaienaiiay Oeoeeaiii oaea a noa?inoe. Iiaeaeoe, oaeiai aaeeeieaiey aua
ia aeinoeaaea aei yoiai aai eenoue. Ia?aae iaie iiaeeeiii oea?noaaiiay
aeainoaaiiinoue ai anae aa ia?aicaeaiiie neaaa. Aiaeiy ethaae a iaee/ee
ceaoiaeanie e?anaaeoeu yaeyao iai niaa?oaiiaeoee ia?ac ethaae e iaae. A
yoii ia?aca iao ie/aai ii?i/iiai, eae iao ie/aai ii?i/iiai a iieiioa
n/anouey. Neieueei eanee, aaneiia/ii ieeie e o?aiaoiie, ai acaeyaea
aiaeie, neieueei ?aaeinoe i?eiineo iai yoio eee e any yoa iaiiaoi?eiay
e?anioa, nicaeaiiay aeeaiienueth!

A aio ae?oaie aeaineee ia?ac, oiaea nicaeaiiue Oeoeeaiii a noa?inoe, –
“Aeaaooea n o?oeoaie”, auoue iiaeao, ii?o?ao aai aei/a?e Eaaeiee.
E?anioa aeaiueiu e ?ineioue i?e?iaeu, cieioi iaaa e cieioi ia?/e, e
eaeay aaee/aainoue a iiai?ioa aieiau, ai anai iaeeea yoie oeaaoouae
aaiaoeeaiee! Eaeei ?aaeinoiui e aaeeeieaiiui iieiai, iieiiai
ianeaaeaeaiey aeeciueth aeuoeo any ea?oeia!

Aaeeeia iaauaiea n/anouey, iaaeaaeaea ia n/anouea e iieiia ianeaaeaeaiea
aeeciueth ninoaaeytho iaeio ec iniia oai?/anoaa Oeoeeaia.

“Aicianaiea Ia?ee”, ciaiaieoay “Annoioo” – a?iiaaeiue aeoa?iue ia?ac
Oeoeeaia a oea?eae Naioa Ia?ey Aei?eica aeae O?a?e a Aaiaoeee. Aea, yoi
eiaiii a?aiaeeicii, e aaeioiiaaiiue eee Ia?ee ia onooiaao ii naiae
aioo?aiiae neea, ii naiaio iaoino, ii naiaio no?anoiiio e
aaee/anoaaiiiio ii?uao naiui aaee/anoaaiiui ia?acai Neenoeineie eaiaeeu.

“Iieiay iiue, – ieoao ia yoie ea?oeia Aa?inii, – acaeuiaaony Aiaiiaoa?ue
iaae iiei?iie ae anaeaiiie… Eaaeaony, ai anai ie?a iao neeu, eioi?ay
iiaea au i?ioeainoiyoue aa naiaiaeiiio aceaoo ia iaai. Aiaaeu ia
iiaeaea?aeeaatho aa, a ainiaaatho iiaaaeo /aeiaa/aneiai auoey iaae
a?aiiinoueth”.

Yoa a?aiaeeiciinoue ie?iiuouaiey e yoa aunieay e ?aaeinoiay
oi?aeanoaaiiinoue, iiaeiaiay a?iio i?eano?a, oae aea ica?ytho naiei
neyieai eiiiiceoeee Oeoeeaia, aiana ia ?aaeinoiua ii nthaeaoo, ii
nicaeaiiua ei a eo/oea, iaeaieaa naaoeua aiaeu aai aeecie, eiaaea ii
aanue ioaeaaaeny eoeueoo i?ae?aniiai eae aaniethoiiio aeaao,
aeieaeainoaothuaio ainoi?aeanoaiaaoue a ie?a. Yoi iniaaiii ynii a oaeii
oaaeaa?a, eae “Iieiaeaiea ai a?ia”. Yoi, ianiiiaiii, iaeii ec
iai?aacieaeaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aeeaiiene, eai a ea?oeia yoie ana
niaa?oainoai: e eiio?ano aacaeeciaiiiai, iaaeathuaai oaea O?enoa n
ioaeanoaaiiuie, aeuoaueie neeie oeao?aie aiinoieia, e o?aaeci anae
eiiiiceoeee, a eioi?ie ai?a oiia a iauae aeaaiaeaoiie aa?iiiee e e?anioa
oaeie cao/iinoe, oaeie neeu, /oi, eaaeaony, iao e ia iiaeao auoue a
i?e?iaea aieaa i?ae?aniuo oiiia, oaiei-aaeuo, eaci?aauo,
cieioenoi-?iciauo, aonoi-caaa?iuo, oi ieaiaiathueo, oi en/acathueo ai
i?aea, /ai oa, eioi?uie iaea?ee yoo ea?oeio Oeoeeai.

Ec yoie iocuee oeaaoa, ec yoie iaae/aneie aa?iiiee, ei nicaeaiiie ec
yoie iniaie “noanoaioeee”, eioi?oth iiaeii auei au iacaaoue aeeaui
oaeii, iniiaiui iaoa?eaeii aeeaiiene, Oeoeeai e oai?eo naie ia?acu, eae
au eaieo eo ec yoiai /oaeaniiai, oi aeeaeeiai, iieoi?ic?a/iiai, oi
aonoiai, ni/iiai, aei i?aaeaea ianuuaiiiai, anaaaea iiei?iiai aio
aeaaiaea?iiai iaoa?eaea. Oaeea ea?oeiu – yoi e anoue “/enoay
aeeaiienue”, a ioaeaeueiua eo e?aniou – “eonee aeeaiiene”, eai eae
aoaeoi ie/aai, e?iia aeeaiiene, a ieo iao, aeeaiiene eae noeoee oeaaoa e
naaoa, eioi?ie iiaaeaaaao aaiee ooaeiaeieea.

Ia ae?oaie ciaiaieoaeoae ea?oeia Oeoeeaia “Aeeia?ee eana?y” niaeanii
aaaiaaeueneie eaaaiaea, oa?enae, aeaeay niooeoue O?enoa, ni?inee o iaai,
neaaeoao ee ieaoeoue iiaeaoue eana?th, o.a. ?eineiio eiia?aoi?o, ia /oi
O?enoin ioaaoee aio: “Aicaeaeoa aiaeuea Aiao, a eana?aai – eana?th”.
Ia?aae iaie aeaa eeea: eee O?enoa, aueaieaiiue naaoii, e eee oa?enay,
aunooiathuee ec oueiu, iaeiaeeaoae ia iaai naith ia/aoue. Noeoeae oeaaoa
e naaoa ia?aaeaao Oeoeeai aeooiaiia aeaai?iaenoai ia?aiai, ieciaiiinoue
e eiaa?noai aoi?iai, neythuaa oi?aeanoai ia?aiai iaae aoi?ui.

Oeoeeaiii iaienaii iiiai ii?o?aoia, e eaaeaeue ec ieo oieeaeai, eai
ia?aaeaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth iaiiaoi?eiinoue, caeiaeaiioth a eaaeaeii
/aeiaaea. Naiae eenoueth ii oeaaeeaaao aa oeaeeeii, eiioeaio?e?oao a
e?anea e naaoa e caoai ?annoeeaao ia?aae iaie a aaeeeieaiiii “eonea
aeeaiiene”.

Neieueei neeu, eaeie caian yia?aee e eaeay iioaioeeaeueiay y?inoue a
ii?o?aoa Iueao?i A?aoeii, a yoii ioaea n iiao/ei eaii, iiao/ei iinii e
iiao/ae /a?iie ai?iaeie! A ?ineioiia i?inoi?iia aai iaea/aiea eae au
iiae/a?eeaaao ?aciao no?anoiie e aaniiuaaeiie iaoo?u.

Aua iaeei oaaeaa? Oeoeeaia “Iaaeiiia I(ca?i” (1519-1526). Ea?oeia
ii?aaeaao naiae oeaeueiinoueth, a?aiaeeiciinoueth. Aeaa iiao/ea eieiiiu
aiciinyony aaunue. Ca ieie – i?inoi?iia iaai n aaeuie eo/aauie iaeaeaie.
Ni?aaa, ia ianneaiii aicauoaiee o iniiaaiey aieueoie eieiiiu, oe?iei,
naiaiaeii e aianoa n oai i/aiue i?inoi ?aniieiaeeeanue iaaeiiia n
ieaaeaioeai. Neaaa, i?ioea yoie a?oiiu, yia?ae/ii iiaeiyoia ?oeie
ciaiaiinoea e iaeneinue oia?oia a nooiaie eae ciae caaiaaaiiie
oa??eoi?ee auniei aciaoioeinue aeia oaeeiaia ciaiy n aa?aii
iao?eoeeaineiai aeiia Iaca?i; aai iaaa?oea, aicianaiiia auoa aieiau
aiaiiaoa?e, neiaii oie?aaony a iaai. Yoi y?eia iyoii eiei?enoe/anee
o?aaiiaaoeaaao, anee ia ia?aaaoeaaao, a?oiio iaaeiiiu, a iaeaaeaea
eioi?ie oiaea i?aiaeaaeaao aeue oaee. A oao aea oiiao aeai ieau, niyoue
ia eieaiyo aiinoiea Iao?a a oeaio?a ea?oeiu, e ?ineioiue ia?yae, a
eioi?ue iaea/ai iaeei ec /eaiia ciaoiiai naiaenoaa caeac/eeia, noiyuee
ieaea iaaeiiiu. Ana eniieiaii aaee/ey, iiauoaiiiai iano?iaiey.

Eeiey ino?iai aiciouaiey oea?yuei ceii, ai?ueeiai iaaa?ey a oi?aeanoai
nee aeia?a n ia/aea 1540-o aiaeia iieo/aao ?acaeoea a oai?/anoaa
Oeoeeaia: Eoa?neia “Aai/aiea O?enoa oa?ieyie” – ao?iia, aeanoieia,
o?aae/aneia; e “Na /aeiaae” (1543 a.). A iineaaeiae ea?oeia iao noeaiu
enoycaiee, ii iio?ynaao iia ia iaiueoa, a nioeeaeueiia cao/aiea aeoaaea.
Enoa?caiiiai, n iiouaiiie aieiaie, aaniiiiuiiai O?enoa iinea iuoee
auaiaeyo ia aunieia e?ueueoei. Ii neiieai. Ieeao aea naiiaeiaieueii
oniaoaaony: aeaeeoa, – yoi anaai eeoue /aeiaae. A iano?ie, ?aciiianoiie
oieia ia ieiuaaee aeaaiay oeao?a ia ia?aaeiai ieaia – oienoue, aiaaoue
iao?eoeee a y?ei-e?aniie iaioee iiaa?o ?ineioiiai ia?/aaiai iaeayiey (ia
iaiae ee ia aunoeo ea?a?oia eaoiee/aneie oea?eae?). Naiiaeiaieueiui
aeaeaeaieai a?eoie aieiau ia aee?iie oaa, au?aceoaeueiui aeanoii i?aaie
?oee ii eae au aiai?eo: “Io, eiia/ii, y a yoii ia niiiaaaeny, – yoi
oieueei /aeiaae”. *ooue iiiaeaeue ne?iiiay aeaiueia a aaeii ieaouea
(yaiay eiio?ia?aeeaeue e ia?aaeiae oeao?a), neeiiea ia/aeueii aieiao e
i?eaeeiay e naaa nuieoeo, iaiaeia?eoaeueii eineony ia aaeueiiaeo.
Iaeeiieee thiioa a eaaii ieaeiai oaeo ea?oeiu, iiae nooiaiyie ia?aaeiiai
e?ueueoea, /oi-oi e?e/eo a oaeana e aiciouaiee, ii aai ieeoi ia neooaao.
Oieia ia ieiuaaee ooieo, ethaiiuonoaoao, aeoieony. O?enoin iaanneeai.

Iaaeaeo 1572 e 1575 aa. Oeoeeai nicaeaao aoi?ia “Aai/aiea oa?ieyie”.
Ecio/aiiiai, ni naycaiiuie ?oeaie, aea aeeaiai O?enoa iuoatho, ecaeaatho
iaeeaie ii aieiaa; oauao aua iaeie, e eaaeaeue noa?aaony aeinoaoue
iiaeaeueoa e iiaieueiaa. Oaea ianoo e naee?o. E ana yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
aonoii i?aea, eioi?iai ia ?annaeaaao, ii eeoue aua aieaa iiae/a?eeaaao
ceiaauee, eeoi?aaei/iue naao /aaeyueo naaoeeueieeia (eaaeaony neuoii,
eae iio?aneeaaao iaiiue). Ea?oeia i?iiecaia aeooa?acaee?athuei
o?aaeciii, ia?aae eioi?ui ia?eiao aeooeia aia/aoeaiea, i?iecaiaeeiia
ia?aui aa?eaioii oie aea oaiu. Ooaeiaeiee au?acee a yoie ea?oeia
oi?aeanoai /aeiaa/aneiai neionoaa e aanneeea aeia?a.

N?aaee ea?oei Oeoeeaia aeaa ecaanoiu anaio naaoo. Yoi “Eathuayny Ia?ey
Iaaaeaeeia” e “Na.Naaanoueyi”. Oioy eo ?acaeaeyao aeanyoeeaoea, iaa
iaienaiu aaeeeei ooaeiaeieeii oaea a noa?inoe, eiaaea ii aeinoea aeanoe
iaae oeaaoii e iia ei iaeiei no?ieoue eiiiiceoeeth, noieue aea
aacoi?a/ioth e ieanoe/ioth, eae ?aoayeaaneay.

Uaiyuaa ai?a eathuaeny a?aoieoeu iiyoue-oaee ooiiaao a e?anioa
aeeaiiene, ciaiaioao oi?aeanoai aeeciaooaa?aeaeathuaai ia/aea, i?enouaai
anaio oai?/anoao Oeoeeaia. I?ae?anii eeoei Iaaaeaeeiu, i?ae?ania aeaaa
neac ia aa aeacao, n oaeie aa?ie iiaeiyouo e iaao. A aeey ian a yoie
ea?oeia – ?aaeoaeiia oiiaiea: e naia yoa oeaaoouay aaiaoeeaiea n iooeui
iieoioe?uoui ?oii, iaaeiie aa?oaoenoie eiaeae e aeeaii oaeeiaenouie
oyaeaeuie einaie, e inaiiee aa/a?iee iaecaae, ninoaaeythuee n iae e aa
ai?ai ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia.

“Na.Naaanoueyi” iaienai Oeoeeaiii iacaaeieai aei nia?oe. Oaia
o?aae/aneay, ii yoi ia no?aoeo Oeoeeaia: ii aeaeaao iiaaaeeoue
/aeiaa/aneia no?aaeaiea, ia?a/aiiinoue, aaeeeia aaniieienoai, ioaaoeaoaa
iiae noa?inoue nianoaaiioth aeooo, iieacaa eo iai iieiinoueth.

Aaeece eaaeaony, aoaeoi any ea?oeia – oain iaceia. AEeaiienue iicaeiaai
Oeoeeaia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue ia iaeioi?ii ?annoiyiee. E aio oain
en/ac: n?aaee i?aea iu aeaeei thiioo, iiaeaathuaai iiae no?aeaie, ia
oiia iueathuaai eino?a.

Oeoeeaiianeay iaeeo?a nicaeaao a?icioth neioiieth e?anie, neiaii
iiiaauathuoth i einie/aneie eaoano?ioa ai anai aa oaeana e
aaciaaeaaeiinoe. Ii aiieue io/ayiey i?aiaeieai e caeanue. Ec yoie
neioiiee iaceia au?anoaao aa?ie/anee i?ae?aniay oeao?a io/aieea. E yoa
oeao?a eaeaaeueiuo i?iii?oeee oiaea any aueaieaia ec oeaaoa.

Iaeei ec o/aieeia Oeoeeaia inoaaee iiae?iaiia iienaiea oiai, eae ianoa?
?aaioae a iineaaeiea aiaeu, aeiaiaey yoo neioiieth oeaaoa aei
niaa?oainoaa:

“Oeoeeai iie?uaae naie oienou e?ani/iie iannie, eae au neoaeeaoae eiaeai
eee ooiaeaiaioii aeey oiai, /oi ii oioae a aeaeueiaeoai au?aceoue. ss
nai aeaeae oaeea yia?ae/ii naeaeaiiua iiaeiaeaaee, eniieiaiiua aonoi
ianuuaiiie eenoueth a /enoii e?aniii oiia, eioi?ue i?ecaai aue iaiaoeoue
iieooii, eeai aaeeeaie. Oie aea eenoueth, ieoiay aa oi a e?anioth, oi a
/a?ioth, oi a aeaeooth e?aneo, ii au?aaaouaae ?aeueao inaauaiiuo /anoae.
N yoei aea aaeeeei oiaieai i?e iiiiue anaai eeoue /aou?ao oeaaoia aucaae
ii ec iaauoey iaauaiea i?ae?aniie oeao?u… Ii iie?uaae caoai yoe
inoiau, i?aaenoaaeythuea naiaia?aciue yeno?aeo ec anaai iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiiai, aeeaui oaeii, aei?aaaouaae aai iin?aaenoaii ?yaea
iiaoi?iuo iaceia aei oaeiai ninoiyiey, /oi eacaeinue: aio ia oaaoaei
oieueei aeuoaiey… Iineaaeiea ?aoooe ii iaaiaeee eaaeeie oaea?aie
iaeueoeaa, naeaaeeaay ia?aoiaeu io y?/aeoeo aeeeia e iieooiiai, e aoe?ae
iaeei oii a ae?oaie. Eiiaaea oai aea iaeueoeai ii iaiinee aonooth oaiue
a eaeie-eeai oaie, /oiau oneeeoue yoi ianoi, eeai aea eanne?iaae e?aniui
oiiii, oi/ii eaieyie e?iae, aeey iaeeaeaiey aeeaiieniie iiaa?oiinoe… E
eiioeo ii iienoeia ienae aieueoa iaeueoeaie, iaaeaee eenoueth”.

O?aae/aneay eeiey a oai?/anoaa Oeoeeaia aeinoeaaao aiiaay a aai
iineaaeiae ea?oeia – “Iieaeeaaiea O?enoa” (1573-1576), inoaaoaeny
iaieii/aiiie. Aeaenoaea ?acai?a/eaaaony o oyaeaeie ieoe, ca iath –
aeooay noaia. Yoa aaciaaeaaeiay, io/ayiiay i?aaeaeueiinoue iaaiaeeo ia
iuneue, /oi ii/oe 90-eaoiee ooaeiaeiee a yoie ea?oeia iieaeae naiiai
naay, e aeiey enoeiu a oaeii i?aaeiieiaeaiee, i/aaeaeii, anoue. Ii oi,
/oi ii ecia?acee, aeaeaei auoiaeeo ca ?aiee ee/iiai.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay oaia iieaeeaaiey o?aeoiaaia i?eaeiaeueii e aanueia
aieueii. Iieiay aeeaie e, aianoa n oai, no?iaie nei?ae Ia?ey aea?aeeo ia
eieaiyo oaei O?enoa, a iii niiecaao, ia/eiaao aaeeoueny. Aia/aoeaiea
oaeia, /oi ii oieueei /oi oia?, eee aeaaea – aio nae/an oie?aao o iaa ia
?oeao. Au?aaeaiea eeoea oaeiai, neiaii ii aua iuoaaony ai?ioueny ca
aeeciue, neiaii oi/ao /oi-oi neacaoue (aua e ?io iieoioe?uo), ii aieueoa
ia iiaeao: aeaca cae?uaathony, e eaaay ?oea oiaea aanneeueii. Yoi
aia/aoeaiea oneeeaaao iica e aeaeaeaiea Ieeiaeeia, eioi?ue oieueei /oi
iionoeeny ia eieaie (ieau ?acei niiec n aai iea/a), /oiau iiii/ue: ii
o?iaaao iiaenooth ?oeo O?enoa e, iiaeiya aieiao, caaeyaeuaaao a aai
eeoei, eee oi/ao oneuoaoue aai iineaaeiea neiaa. Ii iicaeii, O?enoin
oia?, e a oaeana io naa?oeaoaainy, anei/eea ia iiae e io/ayiii cae?e/aea
Iaaaeaeeia. Iia ia iea/ao, iia iiaa?ioeanue a i?ioeaiiieiaeioth noi?iio
– aeaai e ooaea aua?ineea iiaeiyooth ?oeo: iia e?e/eo, /oi O?enoin oia?,
iia ciaao anao. Ii ieeiai iao, ieeoi ia niaoeo ia cia. Ieiei oia?oaai –
oieueei o?e iaeeiieea oeao?u.

Oeoeeai aeiionoee ianeuoaiioth aieueiinoue: ii ionooiee io
aaaiaaeueneiai iiaanoaiaaiey a aai ei?aiiii ioieoa e i?aaenoaaee ia
iieaeeaaiea ia?oaiai oaea, niyoiai n e?anoa, ii naioth nia?oue Eenona –
ia ia e?anoa, a ia ?oeao o iaoa?e, a aeaiiue iiiaio, ia aeacao o
c?eoaeae. Yoi oai aieaa aeaao iiaiae aeoiaoue, /oi ooaeiaeiee a yoii
i?iecaaaeaiee iieaeae nianoaaiioth aeeceoth eii/eio. Iaeiaei e?aeiaa
aicaoaeaeaiea Iaaaeaeeiu, aa ai?y/ee ii?ua, ia?auaiiue e ethaeyi, e
iaaiaeothuea iaee/aiey ethaeneiai ?iaea, eioi?uie ?ac?aaeaaony eaiaiiia
ecaayiea Iienay, iaii?iaa?aeeii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ian?aaiaiii aieaa
oe?ieii, iauanoaaiiii, i?aaeinoa?aaathuai cia/aiee iineaaeiaai oai?aiey
Oeoeeaia. Yoi iienoeia aai aeooiaiia caaauaiea.

E aio ia?aae iaie nai yoio ooaeiaeiee, iaeaaeaaoee noeoeae oeaaoa,
ieii/aoaeueii i?aiaeieaaoee aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue i/a?oaiee e oai
ioe?uaoee iiaoth no?aieoeo a enoi?ee aeeaiiene. Ooaeiaeiee, aeaaoee ie?o
naiia ?aaeinoiia, oi?aeanoaaiii-i?acaeie/iia eneonnoai, ooaeiaeiee,
eioi?iai ia iiaee ii?a/eoue ie caeao aoiaiecia, ie aeoia i nia?oe aeaaea
a naiua noa?/aneea aiaeu. Aaee/aa, iieiai e no?ia ii ia iineaaeiai
aaoiii?o?aoa. Ioae?inoue, iieiay eneooaiiinoue e niciaiea naiae
oai?/aneie iiue aeuoao a yoii ai?aeii eeoea n i?eeiui iinii, aunieei
eaii e acaeyaeii, iaeooioai?aiiui e i?iieoeaoaeueiui. *a?ou Oeoeeaia
aueaieaiu ec ieaiaiathueo oeoeeaiianeeo e?anie, a eiio?anoa n /a?iui
iaeayieai iie aunooiatho ia iieioia eae aa/iue iaiyoiee ciaiaiinoeo
aaeeeiai eneonnoaa, iaiyoiee, nicaeaiiue ei naiei ai neaao yoiai
eneonnoaa.

IICAeIAA AIC?IAEAeAIEA

Neaaeothuee yoai a eoeueoo?a Aic?iaeaeaiey – Iicaeiaa Aic?iaeaeaiea,
eioi?ia, eae i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, i?iaeieaeaeinue n 40-o aa. XVI a ii
eiiaoe XVI – ia?aua aiaeu XVII aa.

Eoaeey, ?iaeeia Aic?iaeaeaiey, noaea e ia?aie no?aiie, aaea ia/aeanue
eaoiee/aneay ?aaeoeey. A 40-a aa. XVI a. caeanue auea ?ai?aaieciaaia e
oneeaia eieaeceoeey, i?aneaaeothuay aeayoaeae aoiaienoe/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey. A na?aaeeia XVI a. iaiie Iaaeii IV aue ninoaaeai “Eiaeaen
cai?auaiiuo eiea”, aiineaaenoaee iiiaie?aoii iiiieiyaiue iiauie
?aaioaie. A yoio nienie aioee i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua cai?auaeinue
/eoaoue aa?othuei iiae oa?icie ioeo/aiey io oea?eae, oae eae iie
i?ioeai?a/eee, ii iiaieth oea?eae, iniiaiui iieiaeaieyi o?enoeaineie
?aeeaee e iaaoaii aeeyee ia oiu ethaeae. A “Eiaeaen” aioee e ni/eiaiey
iaeioi?uo eoaeueyineeo aoiaienoia, a /anoiinoe, Aeaeiaaiie Aieea//i.
Cai?auaiiua eieae naeeaaeenue, oaeay aea o/anoue aiieia iiaea
iinoeaiooue e eo aaoi?ia, e anao eiaeiiuneyueo, aeoeaii ionoaeaathueo
naie acaeyaeu e ia aeaeathueo eaeoe ia eiii?iienn n eaoiee/aneie
oea?eiaueth. Iiiaea ia?aaeiaua iuneeoaee e o/aiua iiaeaee ia eino?a.
Oae, a 1600 a. a ?eia ia ieiuaaee Oeaaoia aue niaeaeai aaeeeee
Aeaei?aeaii A?oii (1540-1600), aaoi? ciaiaieoiai ni/eiaiey “I
aaneiia/iinoe, Anaeaiiie e ie?ao”.

Iiiaea aeeaiienoeu, iiyou, neoeueioi?u, a?oeoaeoi?u ioeacaeenue io eaeae
aoiaiecia, no?aiynue onaieoue eeoue “iaia?o” aaeeeeo aeayoaeae
Aic?iaeaeaiey. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie ooaeiaeieeaie, ?aaioathueie a noeea
iaiuea?ecia, auee Iiioi?ii (1494-1557), A?iiceii (1503-1572), neoeueioi?
*aeeeie (1500-1573). Eo i?iecaaaeaiey ioee/aeenue oneiaeiaiiinoueth e
iai?yaeaiiinoueth ia?acia. A oi aea a?aiy iaeioi?ua ooaeiaeieee
i?iaeieaeatho ?acaeaaoue ?aaeenoe/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth a aeeaiiene:
Aa?iiaica (1528-1588), Oeioi?aooi (1518-1594), Ea?aaaaeaei (1573-1610),
a?aouey Ea?a//e. Oai?/anoai iaeioi?uo ec ieo, iai?eia? Ea?aaaaeaei,
ieacaei aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea aeeaiiene ia oieueei a Eoaeee, ii e
O?aioeee, Eniaiee, Oeaiae?ee, Aieeaiaeee. Acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea eoeueoo?
noaiiaeeinue ana aieaa aeoaieei, oae oi?ie?iaaeanue iauaaa?iiaeneay
eoeueoo?a, iauaaa?iiaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey.

Aoiaienoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea auei iauaaa?iiaeneei yaeaieai: a XV a.
aoiaieci auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu Eoaeee e auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii anai
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei no?aiai. Eaaeaeay no?aia eiaea naie iniaaiiinoe a
noaiiaeaiee eoeueoo?u Aic?iaeaeaiey, naie iaoeeiiaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey,
naieo eeaea?ia.

A Aa?iaiee eaeae aoiaiecia noaiiayony ecaanoiu a na?aaeeia XV a.,
ieacuaay neeueiia aeeyiea ia oieaa?neoaoneea e?oae e i?ia?anneaioth
eioaeeeaaioeeth.

Auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai iaiaoeeie aoiaienoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u aue
Eiaaii ?aeoeei (1455-1522), no?aieaoeeny iieacaoue aiaeanoaaiiia a naiii
/aeiaaea. Ii aaoi? ciaiaieoiai naoe?e/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey “Ienueia
oaiiuo ethaeae”, a eioi?ii auaaaeaia aa?aieoea iaaaaeanoaaiiuo, oaiiuo
ethaeae – iaaeno?ia e aaeaeaa?ia, eiathueo, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, o/aiua
noaiaie.

Aic?iaeaeaiea a Aa?iaiee ia?ac?uaii naycaii n yaeaieai ?aoi?iaoeee –
aeaeaeaieai ca ?aoi?io eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, ca nicaeaiea “aeaoaaie
oea?eae” aac iiai?ia e ieaou ca ia?yaeu, ca i/euaiea o?enoeaineiai
o/aiey io anyeeo iaaa?iuo iieiaeaiee, iaecaaaeiuo i?e iiiaiaaeiaie
enoi?ee o?enoeainoaa. Aicaeaaeye aeaeaeaiea ca ?aoi?iaoeeth a Aa?iaiee
Ia?oei Ethoa? (1483-1546), aeieoi? aiaineiaey e iiiao aaaonoeineiai
iiianou?y. Ii n/eoae, /oi aa?a anoue aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, /oi
nianaiea /aeiaaeo aea?oaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii io Aiaa, e /oi i?eeoe e
Aiao iiaeii e aac iin?aaeie/anoaa eaoiee/aneiai aeooiaainoaa. Ethoa? e
aai noi?iiieee ioeacaeenue aa?iooueny a eiii eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e
au?aceee i?ioano ia o?aaiaaiea io?a/ueny io naieo acaeyaeia, iieiaeea
ia/aei i?ioanoaineiio iai?aaeaieth a o?enoeainoaa. Ia?oei Ethoa? ia?aui
ia?aaae ia iaiaoeeee ycue Aeaeeth, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
niinianoaiaaei oniaoo ?aoi?iaoeee.

Iiaaaea ?aoi?iaoeee a na?aaeeia XVI a. aucaaea iauanoaaiiuo iiaeuai e
?ino iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Caia/aoaeueiiai ?anoeaaoa aeinoeaei
ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai. A yoie iaeanoe ?aaioaee ciaiaieoue
aeeaiienaoe e a?aaa? Aeuea?aoo Aeth?a? (1471-1528), ooaeiaeieee Aain
Aieueaaei Ieaaeoee (1497-1543), Eoean E?aiao Noa?oee (1472-1553).

Caiaoiiai iiaeuaia aeinoeaea iaiaoeeay eeoa?aoo?a. E?oiiaeoeie
iaiaoeeeie iiyoaie yiioe ?aoi?iaoeee auee Aain Naen (1494-1576),
iaienaaoee iiiaeanoai iaceaeaoaeueiuo aanai, ianai, ae?aiaoe/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee, e Eiaaii Oeoa?o (1546-1590) – aaoi? ino?inaoe?e/aneeo
?aaio, iineaaeiee i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaiaoeeiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.

E?oiiaeoei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eoeueoo?u Aic?iaeaeaiey a Ieaea?eaiaeao aue
Y?aci ?iooa?aeaineee (1496-1536). Cia/aiea i?iecaaaeaiee aaeeeiai
aoiaienoa e i?inaaoeoaey, a oii /enea aai ciaiaieoie “Iioaaeu aeoiinoe”,
aeey ainieoaiey naiaiaeiiuneey, e?eoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e noieanoeea,
noaaa?eth iienoeia iaioeaieii. Naoe?e/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey aai iieo/eee
oe?i/aeooth ecaanoiinoue a Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Eniaiee, Aiaeee.
I?aainoiaeiua ii oi?ia, aeoaieea ii niaea?aeaieth, iie aio oaea ia iaeii
noieaoea iaoiaeyo naiaai /eoaoaey.

Iaeiei ec i?aaeoa/ae e iniiaiiieiaeieeii eeaa?aeecia iiaeii n/eoaoue
Aee?ea Eii?ioa?oa, au?aceoaey eaeae naiaiaeu, aa?ioa?ieiinoe e
einiiiieeoecia. E yoiio aea a?aiaie ioiineony oai?/anoai Oeeeiia
Aeueaeioiiaea, aaoi?a iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeiia Ieaea?eaiaeia, ooaeiaeieeia
Ieoa?a A?aeaaey (1525-1569), O?aina Oaena (1580-1660). Iniaaiiinoueth
eoeueoo?iie aeecie Ieaea?eaiaeia auee ?eoi?e/aneea iauanoaa, eioi?ua
i?aaieciauaaeenue ia oieueei a ai?iaeao, ii e a naeao e aeaaea
iaaieueoeo aea?aaiyo. *eaiu yoeo iauanoa (a aieoe a eo ninoaa iia ethaie
/aeiaae) ni?aaiiaaeenue a ni/eiaiee noeoia, ianai, iuean, ?anneacia.
?eoi?e/aneea iauanoaa niinianoaiaaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth ia?aciaaiey a
iauanoaa, iiauoaieth aai eoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy.

A Aiaeee n?aaeioi/eai aoiaienoe/aneeo eaeae aue Ienoi?aeneee
oieaa?neoao, aaea ?aaioaee ia?aaeiaua o/aiua oiai a?aiaie – A?inei,
Eeiae?, Eieao. ?acaeoea aoiaienoe/aneeo aicc?aiee a noa?a nioeeaeueiie
oeeinioee naycaii n eiaiai Oiiana Ii?a (1478-1535), aaoi?a “Ooiiee”,
i?aaenoaaeaoaai ia noae /eoaoaey eaeaaeueiia, ii aai iiaieth,
/aeiaa/aneia iauanoai: a iai ana ?aaiu, iao /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, e
cieioi ia yaeyaony oeaiiinoueth – ec iaai aeaeatho oeaie aeey
i?anooiieeia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie aaoi?aie auee Oeeeii Neaeie
(1554-1586), Yaeioiae Niaina? (1552-1599).

Aaee/aeoae oeao?ie aiaeeeneiai Aic?iaeaeaiey aue Aeeueyi Oaenie?
(1564-1616), nicaeaoaeue anaie?ii ecaanoiuo o?aaaaeee “Aaieao”, “Ei?ieue
Ee?”, “Ioaeei”, enoi?e/aneeo iuean “Aai?eo VI”, “?e/a?ae III”, niiaoia.
Oaenie? aue ae?aiaoo?aii a eiiaeiineii oaao?a “Aeiaon”, eioi?ue
iieueciaaeny aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth o ianaeaiey. Aiaeeeneea oaao?u
oiai a?aiaie iinauaee ethaee anao nineiaee – a?enoie?aou, /eiiaieee,
eoioeu, eea?ee, e?anoueyia, ?aai/ea, ?aianeaiieee, iao?inu. Iiaeuai
oaao?aeueiiai eneonnoaa, aai iauaaeinooiiue e aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth aeaiie?aoe/aneeo no?oeoo? a aiaeeeneii
iauanoaa.

Aic?iaeaeaiea a Eniaiee iineei aieaa i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?, /ai a
ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao: iiiaea aoiaienou caeanue ia aunooiaee
i?ioea eaoieeoeecia e eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eee ?uoea?neea ?iiaiu, a oaeaea ieooianeea ?iiaiu. A yoii aeai?a
aia?aua aunooiee Oa?iaiaei aea ?ioan, aaoi? ecaaniie o?aaeeiiaaeee
“Naeanoeia” (iaienaia ie. 1492-1497). Yoo eeieth i?iaeieaeee e ?acaee
aaeeeee eniaineee ienaoaeue Ieaaeue aea Na?aaioan (1547-1616), aaoi?
aannia?oiiai “Aeii-Eeoioa”, ienaoaeue-naoe?ee O?ainenei aea Eaaaaei
(1580-1645), nicaeaaoee ciaiaieoue ?iiai “Enoi?ey aeecie i?ieaeioe).

Iniiaiiieiaeiee eniaineie iaoeeiiaeueiie ae?aiu – aaeeeee Eiia aea Aaaa
(1562-1635), aaoi? aieaa /ai 1800 eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, a oii
/enea oaeeo, eae “Niaaea ia naia”, “O/eoaeue oaioeaa”.

Cia/eoaeueiiai oniaoa aeinoeaea eniaineay aeeaiienue. Iniaia ianoi a iae
caieiaao Yeue A?aei (1541-1614) e Aeeaai Aaeanean (1599-1660), /uea
oai?/anoai ieacaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea aeeaiiene ia oieueei a
Eniaiee, ii e ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Ai O?aioeee aoiaienoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea ia/eiaao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny
oieueei a ia/aea XVI a. Auaeathueiny i?aaenoaaeoaeai o?aioeocneiai
aoiaiecia aue O?ainoa ?aaea (1494-1553), iaienaaoee naoe?e/aneee ?iiai
“Aa?aaiotha e Iaioaa?thyeue”. A 40-a aa. XVI a. ai O?aioeee aicieeaao
eeoa?aoo?iia iai?aaeaiea, aioaaeoaa a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai “Ieayaeu”.
Aicaeaaeyee yoi iai?aaeaiea ciaiaieoua iiyou Iuea? aea ?iina?
(1524-1585) e AEiaeai aeth Aaeea (1522-1566). Ae?oaeie ecaanoiuie
iiyoaie o?aioeocneiai aic?iaeaeaiey auee Aa?eiia ae’I?aeiuea (1552-1630)
e Eoeca Eaaa (1525-1565).

Aaaeiaeoae oaiie a iiycee yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey auei ainiaaaiea ethaae.
Iieacaoaeueiu a yoii ieaia niiaou Iuea?a ?iina?a, i?icaaiiiai “i?eioeai
iiyoia”, ieacaaoaai i/aiue neeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea o?aioeocneie
iiycee a oeaeii.

E?oiiaeoei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eoeueoo?u O?aioeee XVI a. aue Ieoaeue aea
Iiioaiue (1533-1592). Iniiaiia aai i?iecaaaeaiea – “Iiuou”,
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie ?aciuoeaiea ia oeeinioneea, enoi?e/aneea, yoe/aneea
oaiu. Iiioaiue aeieacuaae aaaeiinoue iiuoiiai ciaiey, i?ineaaeye
i?e?iaeo a ea/anoaa ianoaaieoeu /aeiaaea. “Iiuou” Iiioaiy auee
iai?aaeaiu i?ioea noieanoeee e aeiaiaoecia, ooaa?aeaeaee eaeae
?aoeeiiaeecia; yoa ?aaioa ieacaea cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia
iineaaeothuaa ?acaeoea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iunee.

A ia?eiae Aic?iaeaeaiey i?iaoaeeeny eioa?an e eneonnoao Ae?aaiae A?aoeee
e ?eia, /oi iiaoaeeei Aa?iio ia ia?aiaiu, eioi?ua iciaiaiiaaee eiiaoe
n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia/aei iiaiai a?aiaie. Yoio ia?eiae aue ia oieueei
a?aiaiai “iaeeaeaiey” aioe/iiai i?ioeiai, yoi auei a?aiy ioe?uoee e
enneaaeiaaiee, a?aiy iiauo eaeae. Eeanne/aneea i?eia?u aaeioiiaeyee
iiaia iuoeaiea, iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe,
?acaeoeth e i?iyaeaieth niiniaiinoae, a ia eo ia?aie/aiiinoe, /oi auei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iao/aiea e iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey
aieueoa ia auee eneeth/eoaeueii aeaeii oea?eae. Aicieeee iiaua oeieu e
oieaa?neoaou, i?iaiaeeeenue anoanoaaiii-iao/iua e iaaeeoeeineea
yenia?eiaiou. Ooaeiaeieee e neoeueioi?u no?aieeenue a naiai oai?/anoaa e
anoanoaaiiinoe, e ?aaeenoe/iiio ainnicaeaieth ie?a e /aeiaaea.
Eco/aeenue eeanne/aneea noaooe e aiaoiiey /aeiaaea. Ooaeiaeieee ia/aee
eniieueciaaoue ia?niaeoeao, ioeacaaoenue io ieineinoiiai ecia?aaeaiey.
Iauaeoaie eneonnoaa noaee /aeiaa/aneia oaei, eeanne/aneea e nia?aiaiiua
nthaeaou, a oaeaea ?aeeaeiciua oaiu. A Eoaeee ca?iaeaeaeenue
eaieoaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey, e aeeieiiaoey noaea eniieueciaaoueny eae
eino?oiaio a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ai?iaeaie-ainoaea?noaaie. Iao/iua e
oaoie/aneea ioe?uoey, oaeea, eae ecia?aoaiea eieaiia/aoaiey,
niinianoaiaaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth iiauo eaeae. Iinoaiaiii iiaua eaeae
iaeaaeaee anae Aa?iiie.

YIIOA AIC?IAEAeAIEss. OEOAIU ?AIANNAINA.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

N.I.Noai. Ei?eoae Aic?iaeaeaiey. Na?aoia, 1991

Eaa Ethaeiia. Eneonnoai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Iineaa “I?inaauaiea”, 1996

Eoeueoo?ieiaey. Enoi?ey ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?ioanni?a
A.I.Ia?eiaie. Iineaa, “Eoeueoo?a e nii?o”. Ecaeao. Iauaaeeiaiea
“THIEOE”, 1995 a.

Ae.*ecoiei. Ie?iaay enoi?ey a aeaoao. Iineaa, “?iniyi”, 1994 a.

XIV, XV, XVI aa. /anoue iaicia/athony a enoi?ee eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa
eoaeueyineeie oa?ieiaie “o?a/aioi” (o.a. 300-a aiaeu), “eaao?i/aioi”
(o.a. 400-a aiaeu) e “/eieaa/aioi” (o.a. 500-a aiaeu).

Eiiaoe eaao?i/aioi ciaiaioao ia?aoiae io ?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey e
Aunieiio Aic?iaeaeaieth.

Eanne?iaaoue – iaiineoue oiieee neie i?ic?a/iie e?anee, /a?ac eioi?ue
i?inaa/eaatho ieaeiea neie.

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