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Достижения испанского искусства в 17 веке

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E????ay ??? ? ?????? ? ??:

Ae????y ????? ????a a 17 ??

Ie?

1. C??? ?e ????e ????

2. N????a e A??a??a a E??? a 17 ??

N??e ?????

1. C??? ?e ????e ????

E??ey XVII ???ey – ?? ? ????? ???o ???. Aa ???ey ? ??? ?????o C?? ???u.
Ie ?? ?????y ???a ? ??a ??o ???? ???e n ??????e ?????e. Ii ???-? ?y??a
???u ? y?? ? ????. C??i e ???i ???? ? E??? a e???a ??? O??? e E??e, A??e
e A???e. O?y??i ??????ue, ???a ????ey ??? a ?????. O???? e ???ey ???e
?????i e ???o. A???? ???? ???e ? ???a ???, ??????o ??, ? ????? ?????o ?e
?????i ??a e ???ue. E??ue, ??ue e ????ey ?????? ?????e ? I????? ?????a.
Na?????a e ???? ???y?? ?c ???. E ?a ? E??ey ??? ? ?, ?i ?? ???. I???a
??????e e ???????e, ???? y?e ???, ??? ????ue ???? A?????e ????o. E????
?????? ????e a ?i??? ??? ?e ????? e ?????. Ii ? ??y? e ???? ????ny e ??e
??. I?? ?????e ? E??? ????a ???? ?? aee?e, ?? ???a, ????e e ???a. I?
?a??y ???i ??, ??? ????ey?? ?i?a. A E??? ???atho ??? ??e i ????? ????,
?????a ??uey??? a????? y?? A????ey, ???tho ??????o ??? e ????? ? a?e???a
O. I?a ? ??uey?a A. A??ay. E??i a y?e ??? ???? ?????y e ?????y ??a
“Ae?-E??” I. N???a?, a ???e a ??? ?? ????y ??? ????? ???. Ae??????, a
???a ?????i ???e ????i e ????? ?????ue ??ue ??ue i???i, ?e ?e ???u ??
??????th ??o n ????e ???? ??????. Oi?? a ??a XV ?? ????u ?? ???u. A
???oth?a ???? E??ey ????ny ??? ???????? ??????, ???y? e ?a??y? ?? ???u.
A ??a XVI ?? ????o ??y ???? ???o?, ????? e ??? – y??, ???th ? ??o ???tho
“???i ??i”. I? ????ny ?e ? ???, ?i ??ue ??a ????e. N???? ?????i, ????
??? e ??? ?ea??? – ??? ????y? ???? ?e ??. E???? e ?o???a ????eytho
????th ???o y?e ae??. AE???ue Y? A??, A????, N???? e ???u, ?y?y A???,
??u E?a aea A?a, O?n i ? I??a, E????a e “Ae?-E??” N????a ?a??atho ???a e
????? ?????? ????.

???? a ??? XVII ?? ????ny ?????th?i ???i ????e ????, ?????? ? ??? ????a
????, ? e ?????o nth??a. Ai ??? ?ny???e ?????? ???? O???ei ????a
(1565—1628) ??e ?a ?y?o ?e, ?e ??i ??e a ?o ??o ????o ???a. I???y ??????
???a ?y?o e ????a ? ?e eth?e ? ???? ???, ?????? e ???????,— ?????ue
????o ?????o ??? «???? ??». I???a y?i ?a ?????ue a ????? O?a ???u (1591
— 1652). ???a ???y a ??? O??a, ? th? A???e. N??i ???i ? ??e a E??th e
??oa, ??a? ? ?????y ? ???. A 1613 ?? ???a ?e ?a a ??a. Ii ??? ?i ?????ey
???o ???? A????ey, ?y???y a ?? ????a ?????o ??uey??o ?????. A? ?????
??ae ?????ny a ???e ????? ??????? ??e ??a ??? XVII ??.

E???? ?????a ?? ??i ???a. Ii ???? e ??????i. ?????a?? ??ae ??e ?i ???
?????y? — ????a ????e ?????y, ????? ? ??? ???? ???, ?????ue a ?iy? ??,
????? ? ??u. Ii c????? a ???a ?????a ???, ????? ?e, ?u, i?u. I??a a ?
??y ?? ?y ?? ?????i, e ? ?????i ??? ?, ????a ? ????e ??? ?? ??? e ?????.

E 1620 ?? ???a ?????? ?????y a I???. A?? a ? ??y ??? a ????a ???ey, e ?e
??a ??y?? ?? ??a ??-???e, ????i i?????????? ????o, ???a ?e ??? ???i
?????????. I???y ? ??? ?? ??e a E??e, ? ?? ? ??? ????y ????, e ?i ????
???a ? ????? ?y? n ???ey? ???i ????a.

I??a ?????? ?????ey ???a n??e a ???e ???e. E ??o ?i e??o ??? ??ny?y
«Nay?e E???» (1621), «Ii?y?a ?y?? I??» (1621), «I?????i ?. A????y»
(1624), «Iuey?e N??» (1628). ???a ???? y? nthae?u ?e ???y, ???? ?o ?
????i ?????yi, ??? a ?o ???????? ??th??ey, O???? ??????o ??, ???? ???y
??????? ?e ????e ???ey?. I???eyy ???i ?y?o, ? a y? ??y ? ???i ???e??o eo
???a, ???i ????y ????ue a ???a ????? e ? ????yi. A???a nth?? ??u ???a,
?e ???o. I???y ???o a ???e ??, ? ?????o ?????? y???? ??a??e.

???a ??? ???? ?????? a ???a ??? (I?? — ??????ue ??th?. I??? ???o ???e
??e ? ??, ???ath?? ??oth ????; ??i ????? ??e ?????ath?y ????. N ?????i
??i ???i ?????? ?????y ??th?y ???e.). A?ath? ????a e ???? ??aei?a — ??
?o ????? ???a e ??????? ?????, ?????? ????e ??a e ??, ???? ????a ????o
????e a ??? ???????e ??a.

A ??a 20-o ??a ???a ????y e ????. C??e ???, ? ????y e ???o? ??a
???????o. Ia i???ay? ? ???o nth??a, ???a e i??u, ? ???o ??? ???u, a ???o
????? ????ny ??a ????? e ????i, a ??? ???y?y ??a ????????. O??u ?????ey
???u «Na. Ea??? (1626, Y???), «I??? ?. A??y» (1628, A???o) e ??a ????? ?
?o — «I??? ?y?? A????y» (1630, I??).

A??? ???a ???th?o e ???? ? ?ath eth?e — ???y ?? ?? y?o ???. E?? ??? ??y
???a ?ae? a ethaeyo ???o, ??????, ???o ??i. Eo ??? ??? e ???e. A??a
????o ??????e, ??y??? ????.

E????y ??? ???ny ? ???? ??????i ????y ???? ???ey — ?i ???? ? ???thth
????, ???y ????y ?e ?a???? ????e: ??a ??ey ????a — ??o ??o, ?a?? ???
??th?y ? ?? ??, ?? ?? ??a ?????th?o, ? ?a ????ony ??? ? ????i ???i,
????? ??? ? ??a ??? ???. N????th?a ?? ???tho ????a ????a e ????y??.

A?? ??????o ????; ???a, ?c???????, ??????th?a ?? ??a ??a?y; ??ay ?? ??a
e ??, ?????th?y ????? ??; ???y ???????y ??a, ?????y ???????i a ?????
?i?; ???? oy????ay, n ???i ????i ??i, ? ???i ??u ??u ??????? ??e ????a,—
??? ?????? ?????e ??? ??? ???u.

I??? ??? ?????i ?o ?????, ???a ? ?a ?a ?????ny ??th???? ??a???e nth???.
AE?? ???a????, ?y????i ????? a ?i ??n??. N?? ???i ????a ?y?yth?y ????a
?????y ????o eth???, ????th?o ?i ???????ueth ??? («A???», 1630, I??).

????a ????? ???u ?i ? ??e ????ey ??????e, ????ey ???????? e ???u ?oe. Ii
????? ?????y ? ??????o ?????, ???ny ??? n ????? ???? ? ????ue ?????
?????e ??y. O? ?e ????yny, y? ??a ?iy??nue a ???a ? ????? nth?o «E?? ?
???e E??? (1634, Y???e), ????th?e ???a, a ???? ??ath?? ???a) ??th???e.
*??? ???ny ??ue ???a n ???ie. I??ae ? ????i ??e ???i e ????e ???? ?e ?
???? ???oth ??o ??y. ???a ????y ?e ??i ??a ???i ???? ???th?a ??????.
E??? ???u ????ny ????, ??a ??????o ???? ????th, ?i ????i ?y ??, ??u
???ue a? ?????ue. O?y ????e ?? ?-?aae?? ???ny ???i, ? ???a ??? ?????o
??? ?? ??? ? ????? ?e, ?i ?e ?????tho ?? ?-?ae ???i. O? ????? y??
?????y, ????ny ??a ???i a ????.

A ???? 30-o ??a a ????a ???u ???a ????e ???? ???. Ii ??o y???? ??a, a
???y? e ?????? ????, ????o th?? ?y?? N???y?, I?eth I????, I??? ?a????,
?e ??e ????e. I??? ?i a y?o ??? ????ny ???th?e, ???????. Ii ?? a y?o
?????eyo ???a ??e ? ?????. A? ??? ??? ??????e, ???i ??????e ???a ? ??iy?
????o. ???a ??? ???a a ????a Ae??? A??e e y?? A????ey: ?????oth ?o ??
????y, ??? ???ue ??a?a ai ?? ?i ??????. A???ay? ??a a ???oth?a ?? e
????o ???? e ?????o, ???a ????o ?i ??? ????ey?. I?? ???u ?? ? ??ie ???u
«Ae??? (1637, Ae???), «Nay?y E??» (1641, Ae???), «O????? (1642, E??). Ii
?a y? ??? ???iytho ??????ue, ????????, ???a ???. I? ???tho ??i ????a —
?i ????? ??e ??????i ??, ????? ? ??, ???o ? y?, ???y, ? ?????i ????th?y
?ith ?? ???a ?e ?????, ??????, ? ??th??y ??e ???e. O??u ???i ???? ? ???,
????u ? ???? ?? ???u, ??i ??th?y ? ???i ????i ??, ????oth?i ? ??yo.

«I???» (1638—1643), ????? ???? ?y ????y N? I??? ?? I??ey, ???y?y ???????
????? ?? ???? e ?i ???????? ??. Eo ??? ????tho n ????e I?????i a N?n???e
???a, ? I?????i ????y? ??? ????a, a ???a ???o ?i? ??? a ??e ????????.

???a ?e ?????i ??ey?i ??e ????? I??ey. Ii ???e ??a ?ay ??????? ???????.
A? ??th? ??? ???????? ? ?? A??a e ?a ?e ??e ????a a 1650 ?? ?? ?ae?u a
I??a. Ii ????? ????a e ??o ???a ???? ? ??e ?ae?a, ?? ??iy?i ????e ?i
???.

A ????? ???u e ?????o ?o ????????a ?? ??i ????. Eo ??? ??? ??????? ???a,
????ay ????a ?y?o ?e i???o ??aa, ???n e ????i ??i, ???? ?e??????i ???y
???u. I???i ???i ?ey?a ????a ?? a N???, ???? ????i e ?????? ??? E???
XVII ??.

O???? N???i (1598—1664) ???y a A????, a ??i?? ??? A???a. A N??ueth ?
???e a 1613 ??. I??i ?i ???? ?e ??????e ????-?????e A?uey?y?. Ii-????,
N???i ???e ??a ????oth I??i, ?e ?e ?e ??? ??? n A????i. A 1617 ?? ii ??a
??e a ??e?eth — E??? e ????y ?i ? 1629 ??, ?a? ??? N??? ????? ????? ?i ?
????ue ???? ????a ???.

N???i ?e ????? ????? A??o?e, ? ???e ????e ?????? ?? e ??? ???e. AE??
?y?o ? ?i i???o ???? ?????e ??ae ?? ???a ??? ???a, ?y ???o ?n? ?????ue
??? ????o. ???????e ??ae ?????e ??e a ????? N????. A?? ?i ?????? —
????a, ???a, ????? e ?????? ?y?a, ??ae? ? ???e ????o ????. Eo ???u ?????
????e ???? XVII ?? — ?e ???, ??????u, ???a ??? ???? n ?????? ???? ???u
????a — ?e ???ue ? ??ay?? ?????o. I??? ??? ?????i ?o oo????-????i, N???i
a ??? ??? ????? ?????e ?????a ????a, ?????th?a ????? ??, e ??e ???a ???
? ??e ???? ????i ??a. I??i ????, ?e ???i, ???i?o ? ????? ????e, ?e ??i
???? ???????i ????e ??? ??????? ???? ????n a ?????a ???u («I???? A?????
O?? A????», 1629).

N????o ??????a, ?i N???? i????? ??? ???u ???? ??a, ?oy ?????o ??o ?i a
y?i ?? ? ?????ue. E???u ?oth??? ????a. I? ??ue ????tho ?????ey N??na
E??a — ? ???? ???a ????a, ?????e ?????, ?????? ????, ??e y??????
???????e. :

Ae?a ?? ???e, ???a a y? ??y ??o N???i, ???th?y ???e ??????th. A?e ????
????? a ?e??, ? ??? ??ath?y ? ???u, a ???? ?? ??y?o ??i ?
?????i-oy?????, ?e ???. I???? ??? ?u?i y?yth?y ????? ???o ?ae??? eth?e
(«A??? ???????i A??i ?????»).

N???i ????? ???th?y ???u, e???ath?a ???-?y?o («Nay?y I???, N??uey, ??e;
«Nay?y E????, I??ae, I??). Aei ?o ?? ?????, ?y ??e ?? a?e ???? y? ?y?a a
????o, ???th?o ??????y? ????, ??ue ?i??ath?a ????? ???y?e — ?????oe
O???? N????.

A 1634 ?? N???i ?e ????i a I??ae. O???? ???u ????ey? a y? ??y ???e ??c
?y ???i ?????? ae??a Aoyi ???i. A ?????eyo, ???????o ?y «?? ????, ?e ???
?? ????? ?????a ??? ???a e ??????a. N???i ???e ?a ????a ??u e ?ny? ????
A??ea (???u ???e A??? ??i ??????, ??e a ?i ??????i ??y, ????a ???a ??e
?? ?? ? ?? ?? ??????a). I????i, n ???i ????i ???a, ??y??ny a ??? ??
A???, ?????i o ???e?, ???? ??i ?????ue ??? ????oth ???. I? y?y?ny
???????i ??, ?i N???i, ?-????, ?a e ??? ??? ??????a ???? ???? ?y ??, ??u
????? ?????? a ?????e ??? ???.

A????ue ? ???, N?a?? ??a ????y e ????? ??o ?????? ?i, ? ??? a ?????
????a ?y?yth?y ?y?a ???????a, ????? a ??? ????y ???a. «Nay?e E????»
(1636, Y???) ????i n ???i ??e — ????, ? ???e ?i ??ee. Nth?o ???u ??a
?????, ?i ?, ???a ??? ??e ????. Ii ?-???? N???i ???ny ??i ??e ???????
????e ???. A? ?y?e E???? ??ue ????ny ? ?????o ???y? ????a ???u. E????y
???u ??ue ? ????a, ?e e a ??? ?????eyo, ??e ??ei? ? i??ithth ????. Ca ?i
?????e ???e ???ath?y ?????? ???? ???a — ?, ?? ??? ? ?? a ???? N????, e
?i ?, ?-????, ?????e o A????. Ae??? ??? «?y???» a?eyae ???y?? ? ???o,
????ue?a ??e ??? ??y?y e ???, ???ay ? ??? E???ey ??????, ???? ??. N???i
??? ??? ???e?e ??o ??? ? ?????e ???o i????e, e ??y ???y «?????y» ???ay
?????a ???????a ??????i? ??th ?i ??????. I??o???, ?e ? ????? ???,
???-???a ?? ?? ???eytho ???ue ?????ue ??????. N ?? ?????otho ????? ??a
??? ?y?? — ??a, ??i-????, ???. A ??a 30—??? 40-o ??a N?a?? ??? ????? ??u
??? a ????yo O??a e A????. Ii ??e ??i ????a ?y ????? e ? ???i ????? ??e.
O???e ????e ??? ??? ??? ????a. Ii ??? a ?i ????? ????ue ??? ?????a,
y???e???? («Nay?e O????, E??i, 1639). Ii-????, ?e ?? ?y?? n ???? a
??????e ????a. A????? ??? a ? ??y ???e ?a ?? a E???, ???i ??????i N????
?? ??u ?i ??????? ???. A ??? ???oa ???a N???i ???ny ??a ????. A ???ia
40-o ??a N??uey ?a ?????ue ????e I???. N???i ???y ????ue ?o, ???ay
?????, ??? ???, ? ?????. O???e ?e e ? ??e ??u ?y ?????y. A 1658 ??
N?aa?i ???e N??ueth e ??e a I??ae. Ii e ?i ? ? ??? ???, ????? ?i ???a.

Y? A??. A? ????a ?y – Ae???i O?????, ? ??????? ? ??, ??i n ???a E?o.
I????ue a E???, ???y ??a ?y ?? ??? ???e, o???e ?? ???? ?ay ??a – Y? A??.
Aei ?y??ey a O??i ????oe ?e a E??e e ??ny o O???. O? a y? ??y ? i?y?e
?ay ??????i ?????. A 1576 ??, ??a ?o ?? ??i 35 ?o, Y? A?? ???e a E??eth,
?? ?i ???i??i ????, ??????oth ???o ???? ????? ???ue n ??-?? ???. Y? A??
?e ???i ??th?i ????i. Ii, ?aey ? ????, ?i ??????y i ?? ????? ??????,
?y?? n ???i ????? ????? e ?? ????y ????ey, ??????y ????a a ??e. E??? Y?
A?? ???i ??? ? ???y e ?u. O??u ??? ??ytho ??????? e ?n. I? ?oy??th?y,
????? ???y?, ?e y?? ???e. A? ????? ??e ????tho ????y a ??oth??y a??e
?????e. A ?o ?a ????o a ??iy?e ?e??y e ????y. ???? ????a – a ??? ???? a
???? ????. A?, ????, ???a “I????a ??a I??a”. C?? ?????? ?a ??u – ??
??ay, ??ay ? ???o. A ??? ??e ????? ????? ???ay ????y. A??o – ????e ??:
?? ??a I??a ????o ??ae ???? ??i e ???e ????. Aeey Y? A?? ?o ???ey ??o
??? ???? e ???? ????. Iiyo?o ? ???? ? ? ??i ???. N ??ie ???u – ????
???e, ? ?y?e e ? ????ue “???a ?a???”, ?????ny ????? ??????i ?o?????i.
A?? Y? A?? ??? ??? – n ???e ???, ???? e ??????ie ???e.

A???n Ae?? (1599–1660), ???e ??i?? ????oe. A???n ???y 6 ethiy 1599 ?? a
??? N??uey a E???, a ??a ??????o ???, ??y?? ??????. O??y a ??? ??? o
????? O???? ? Y??u N???i e O???? I??i (1610–1616), a 1617 ???e ??ea
??a?. Aei 1623 A???n ???e a N???. ??i ?????ue e ??o ?a? ?y ????e ???? ?i
e ???a, a ??? ? ???? ??e ?????” (? ????? bodegon – ???iy) ??? ???th y?i
?????o, ?????? ???? ??a (????”, ????”). E????? ????a ???, ????? ? ????
i?i, ????ue ???, ???n e ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???tho ???? ?????i ???a
????a Ae?? A???? n ??????i.

A 1623 ?? A???n ???? a I??ae e ?? ?????i ?????. C????i n ?????i ????i
???, ???e n I??? I??i ????i, ????? E??eth a ??a 1628 – ??? 1629, e ???a
a E??th (??oe 1629 – ??? 1631) ??????e ????????eth ?i ?????. O???e
??????? ?ey???y a ??, ???e n ????e ????o ?i ???e ????oy?, ??e ?? e
???eth ???i ???? ???th?? ???. A ???? ??? (?uey??”, ? 1630) e ???? A???”
(1630) ???? ????e ??????? ??? ??a n ?????e, ???? ????i?? ???? eth?e,
???e ? ????e ???????? ?????e.

Ia ?????? Ae?? A???? ?e i????? ???? ?????a ???a ??ue ?e ?????i ??a,
????y ????a ????ue ???u ??????i ????a, n??? ?ae ??? ?????i y???.
A?????i-???? ???? ??? ???? ????e? ?? (???a A???? E???) ???th?y ?????
?????? ?c, ??ae, ??e, ???? ????o ??a.

A ????o ?????, ???, ???? A???n ????? e ?????? ?ie ??th??y, ???e ?????a
???????a ????. A y?o ???? ??? ????otho ?????, ??u, ????. I????? ?i ????y
???o ?????th ???a ??ae?o ???? e ?????ueth; ??? ?? ?ay?e ???eytho ????
???y ia ??i ????? ??. I???? ?y ?ae?? ???? ?????? ????y ???? ?????-???,
?????, ??-?????i ??ia ?e ??e ?????? ??u ??atho ?????uei? ??e ???a (????:
O?? I???, ??a-???a I????, ??a n ???”,; ??y ????a ???).

I??y ????y??ue e ?????? A?a??a ?????ue a ?i ????o ?????o ??a e ???? (Y?
A?i ? E??, Y? I??, ?e ?????i O?? Aa?????, N???y? I?a e ???). O?? e ??i
??????y ??a ?a?? e ???o ???? – y?????? ?th/ e ????th ???-??ae??i ??? ??
E????y O, ???o ???? A???n ???e ? ??y ??? ???e a E??th a ??a 1648 – ????
1651 ??a.

E y?? ? ???o ??ny?y ???a ??ae ????”, a ???e ????e ??????? ??i (?? A??u
??i ??? a ???a) ???o ??oth ???? e ???o ?????th ???i, ????i, ???i ?????
i?y?y ?????i ???? o?a, a ??a ?a ???a ??? I???, a ????? ?y ??? ???e ???e
????? ??? ????th?a ????a ??cu ???u.

A ????a ?? ??e Ae?? A???n ???e ?a ??a ????? ?? ???u. A ???a ???? (?????)
???e y??ae ?????i ?? (? ??? ??a – ???a I???? a ????e ???i e ????, ?y?i –
?i ???? ? ?????i ???? ????e ?????e ??, ????? a ???a a ???a ??), ?????? a
??ii ???????? ????a, ????o ?e ?? ? ???? ??? ???y ??e ? ?? ????e ?
????y??? e ????? ?iy???. I?????y ???a e ??i??a ?????? ????? ?????ue a
n?i-????i ???? ???u n ??na??e ????? ???e ??e ????, ????, ??i-???,
??????e ?????e ???e.

A ??, ??a ???? ???????i ?th? ???? ??y?”, ??a a ?????e ????? ??? n ????
?yo ? ??? ??a e y?i ????? ??a?? ??? ????? a ???a ?????, ?a ????? ??
????atho ??a? ???, ????th?e ?o ? A??a – ???a, ?????? a ??i ????? ??ith
A??. E???? ????y, ?????? ???????? ????? ?????, ??ai ?? ???y ??, ???ath?y
??? ?yo, ??atho a ???a ??oth ????o ??? ?y ?? ????? ???a, ???iyth?th a ??
?a ? ???ey, ??u, ???? ????.

A ???o ?????eyo A???? n i????e ???? ????ue ?????e ?i ?????i ???: ????
????? ?c? ? ?? ????a e ???????? aa ?iy???, ?????ue ? ???i-??????i
????ey, ???? ?? y???? ??????? ??u. AE???? Ae?? A???n ??e ?c ???????o
???e?, ?y? ? ???, ????i ???yy ?????a??a ?????y ? ??? ? ???e ??????ueth
?????, ???ay ?????y, ?c??ue ?, ???e ?????? e ??? n ?i ???? ????y. O????i
????a A???? y?y?ny ???ie ????e ???? XVII ?? e ??i ? y???o y??? ????
????a.

2. N????a e A???o?a a E??? a 17 ??

A????? E??? ????ea y??i ???iy???o, ?????? ?? ???a, ?i ??? ?? ????a. A
??yo ??a XV e ??? ???? XVI ???ey — ????i e ????e — ????? ??u ??????i
????a. E???? ???a ??? ?????? ???e ????e ????, ???? ?????e ? ???. I??
????, a ??? ???o ??i ???a n????a ????e ???a ???? e ??uey??e ?????u,
????? ??? ??ey ?i ????? ?????e ????e ????e Y????. I??i y?o ?????i?e ???e
??ue (?i ???i ??????? ?e O?i ? Y??a) ???i ??????e a E???. A i??a XVII ??
y?i ?????? ????y e ???? ???a??o ????. I? ? ?ey?? ????? ???????? ??uey??a
??u. O?, O??e?i A???a (1594—1679)—?? ? ???o ??o???a ???? XVII ???ey — ??
a ???? ??? Nai E??i a I???a (a ??iy?a ??y ???, 1629) «????? ???, ???e
oy??y ? ?th ??? oe??e e ???o ? ??? ?ey??, ???yth?o ?????th ????ue n ???e
???e. E???e ????eytho ??e ???e ???ue ???? ? ???a. O?? ??i?? ????a n
??????? ???e ??e??i ?? ?y ?? ????o ???? XVII a?a.

I?? ???a ??? ??? a A??? (1664)— y?? e ??? ??? ????a A??i E?i (1601—1667)
— ????? ???i. I???? ??u ?e ? ?c??? ??e???? e ???????e ???ey? ? ?yae
«???». N??? ??? ??? ???o e?o ??a e ?? ? ?????e ??u. A??? y???? y?y?ny
??a «??ath u? ????, ?ath?o ???? a ?????? ????a.

Ai ??? ???? XVII ?? ????ue ??? ? ???o ?a ??a ?????, ??? ????ny ?????? e
?????a, ??? ???ay ??o. O?a ? *???? (1665—1725), ???? ???? a N???? a 90-a
??, ??? ???? ??? ??ue, i????e ? ?i ??e ia??? «??e-???». Y?o ??ue ?e ???
??????i a XVIII ????.

O??i ??e ???eth ????e ???? XVII ?? a ??? ???o, e, ???e, ??a ????? ? ???
??e ???iy???e ??, ?e a E???. I? ? ??? ???a ?y ????a ???, ? ? ??y ?????o
????e ?????y ????? ?y?o ???? ? ??u. Y? ?? ?????ey, ??????y ?y ??u, ?e
??? ?? ???? ??? ???. Nay?a ??e ????ey?? eth?? ???? e n???e. Eo ???
?ae?ue ?e ??i ??a ????e. Aeey E??? ????? ??ay?ay ?????ay ?????. ????,
??i ???y?ayny ??th??ny ?????e, ????? ??????i a ???? ???u ?? e ???. Aeey
????e ??? ???y?nue ???a «y? y??aae? — o???a e ???ue ? ???? ??. I??o??ue
??? ???ey?? ?????e ??a. E??e ?? ?????, ??? ? ????y ???i ???. N??y? e
??????th, ????e ??? ?????? ??iy?a ??e e ???, ???y? ??ey?? ??a. Y?
????????y ????y ???? ??e?? e ??o XVII ??. A ??? ???? ???ey ??????a ????
?? ?a a ???? ??i ???????e.

I???a ?????? ??? ????e ????? XVII ?? — A?uey??ae, N??uey, A???.

A?uey??ae (E???y) ???ny ??? ????e e ?y?ey? ?a a XVI ??. I???a ?????a
???a ?? ???e A??i Aa???a (?. 1488— 1561) e O?i ? O?e (?. a 1577 a.)
????e ?????ey, ?????ny ?????ueth, y?????e. A XVII ?? ? n?? ?????-?????
???i ?????th?? ???ey ??? ??u ??a ????a e ?????. N A?uey???i ?y?? ?y
?????i A???i O????a (1576— 1636). A???y ??? ?????o ?i «I?????» (1617,
A?uey??ae, ??e). Ii ????a ??? — ????i. I?? ????? — ????? ???i ?????a e
????????e. A ???e ????? O???? ?? ?????ny ?y???i ?? ?ae ???e, ??e ??????
?? (?e y? ?? ?????i ??uey??i ia???). A? ???? ???i ???i ????? ? ???? ????
?????e ?????. I???y ? ?, /? ??e ???? ?????e ????? a XVII ?? ????y, ?a ?a
? ????? ????? y???????th.

I???? a ?? ??a ???ee ????? ???a. A????ue ??? ??? a N??? (A???ey) ?????i
???th ??, ?i a ??? ???o E???. N???o?a, ????????, ??????ue ???? ????
?????? ????? ????? «???ai ??». N?? ????aui ???o?? A???? ?e I???n I????
(1568—1649). A? ?????ey ???th?y ????i, ???e ?????ueth e ????????th,
???ue — ??? ???e e ????th ??a. Ii ?????y ?e ????ue «I????? ???y»
(1629—1631, N??uey, N??)—??? ???u, ?????yth?? ???oth ???o e ?????th ???o
???u.

I???? ?e ?????i ???e ??u ?????a. A? ??? e ??????ue A??i E?i (1601—1667)
???e a N???, I??aea e A???. A ??a ??? ?????eyo E?i ??i ???e ??????? ???i
n ??????th. I??? ? ?a ??? ????y e y?????e, ??o ?? ?i ??? ????? ?????????
e ?????e ???e ?????.

N?????y ??a A???, ???o ???? ???? ? ??? ???? XVII ??., ??i ?y?? n ?????i
A. E?i. C????e ????? ??? I?? ? I?a (1628—1688) ?e ?i ????. O????? ?y ??
E??? ????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? y?i ?iy??? a ???o y?? ????a. C?o??? e
???????, ?i ??e ??o a ??, ????? ? ???i. A??i ??????? ?? ??? ? ????, ???
???e a ?????e ?????e.

A ???a ???ey ????y ????? ????a y?eth?th ? ?????o e iy??? ?????? A??i
A???? ? ???o ????-??????? ???? I?? ? Ia?.

Ni?? ?????

1. I????? I?ey E??ey ???e ???ne. E???ay ???? XV- XVIII ??a

2. AE??a A.I E???? E???

3. E. E. E??y, A. A. E????/ “E???ay ???? XV-??? XX ??”

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