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Достижения иконописи в XVI веке

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E????ay ??? ? ??????e ? ??:

Ae????y ????e a XVI ??

Ie?

1.E???? a XVI ??

2.C????a ??u y?? ???a

– Oeap?? ????th?y

– O??? A????u

-*?i A??ey i C?a

N??e ?????

1. E???nue a 16 ??

E???? XVI a. ?? ??? ?y??? ?? ??? n ????? ?????a. I? ????th ???a-???, ?ae
??i ????i ????a??? ????? ?? ???a ???? «??a ?y». A ?????? E?? IV ?????i
??i ??n????? ??????? ????i. Oe???? ??? 1551 a. ???????e ? ??? ???????y
???a-????a n ????e, ? ??a ??????? ???n e ?i ?????, ?????y ?ay??? ??? e
????o?e ???????? ??u, ???ay ????? ??? ?????? ????? e A??y ????. I???a
??, ?????, ???? ???e ?? ????o, ???y? ???????? e ????a ????? «????».

A XVI a. I??a ??a ???iy? ???a ??????? ??u, ?i ??i ?????? ???? a ????a ?
?????a ???. A ????? ??a ????? ?n?? ??e ??? ?n??y? ??? ????ey ?????
????a, e a ??e-??? ??? ???? ?? ?-?ae ??e ?o?????? ????i ???a ?y?y?? ??a,
????ay ? ????? A??y ????. A ????i ??e I??u ?????ue ????? ??? I????,
I??a, O?? e ??? ???????o ???o ???a.

A XVI a. ?????i n?ea ?n??y?ny ???? ?????e? ????. A??? ??, ?i ???, ????e
???th?y e nth??i e ???i A??? ???, e ??????i ?a????eyi ??/ e, ?i ????
??i, e ?????-??????o ??o.

I??? ??a ?????ay o?a ? ???? ?e ??i ??a a ?i??yo ?????a. A ?y? n y?i a
??????? ????? ?? ??a ???atho ?????, ???n e ??, ?? ?? a ??i??yo ?y?yth?y
?n?? «?a??. O???y «y??????ay» ?????a ??y?ny ? e??o ???e. A ? ? ??y a
???? XVI a. ???i oy???a e ??a???o «??????th», e ?????eth a ????? ???o
?????? ????. Oe??? e ?????i ??? ??????? ????ue, ?y?? a ? ??y ????
???????a ?i???? ????? (???? ????), a ???o ?????a?? ?????y ???? nth???
?????, a o?? ????o ?????.

I?????? E?? A??i? ????i ???? ???? ?c???a?eth a ????a ??o ?????? ??. Ia
y?i ??a????? ??a-???a «A?????? ???? ????i ??y» («Oe??? ????th?y»),
??n?aey?y ? O????i ??? I????? E??y. I????y ?a?a??ue ????a E????i ???a,
?a ?? ????? ?a????e ??i?e ??c. Ia ??ue ?oy??i a ??? ??i????i ?? ????
????e ??????? ???, ???a ??y ???? a ??i e ??? ??th ??y?ny ? ???i?? ????
???. A???e ??e, ?????????? ????? I??e?, ?o??y?ny e «??? ? ??? ?ath
?????, ??? ?????ytho ???th?o A????ue n I???? O???. O? «???» ???e ?????
??????a ???u?? ?n??i ??? ? E??e a I??o, ????? ?i ?e ???c «???? ????i
??y», ?????y ? ??????? «??a ???e??» e «???o E?????. Ia ??a ??y? ???????a
???? ?????a ???ey – ??? ???, ?i ??? ?i ??a ????i e ???????. A ??? ??? a
y?? ???o n ???e a ?e?, ???th?a ????o ???, ???tho ???ny a ?????e ??????i
?a???y. A??? ???? ??a ?e a ??? ?i n ?? ?y?i, a ???i ??y?, n ???i a ??o
?? ?i E?i A??ue. A ?y?o ?y?? ??? — ??????a ???a ?y?y e ?????, ??? th??
??y, a ??a «????? ?y?a ??? e ???a ???e, ????a ??? ?ae E??ueth e ??????y
??i? ????i. O ?a ????a ???ny ??. ?y?i ????i ?ny?? ??/i?. Ii ??????o ???
«??? ??» — A???th. I????? ???? ?i????? «??? ??» — I??o.

2. C????a ??u y?? ???a

E?? Oeap?? ????th?y

N??iy ??? ???? o??a n ?????? A?????i Oe?y E??a IV ? A????e ??? I?????
E?iey. I??i ??a ?a ????? ?a ????i ?????e XVI-XVII ?., ? ???o ? ??i ???ue
y?? A???y.

I??e e ?th??e a y?i ?y? y?y?ny ??a ??????? ???? I???? Oe?y” (???a ????
???? ????th?y”) ??aey?yny a ??iy?a ??y a y????e A??????? O??y???e A???.

E?? ?????ue ?y O????i ??? I????? E??y. A??a ??a ???ey ? ???i (1547 a.) ?
??? Oe?y ?? ????i e ?????i A O???? ??? Oe??? ???? ??i (1551 a.). I???
???? ???? ??i ????? a ?a?? ??? A?????e ???e – Nay?e N?ee a E???????. Ia
?? ???? E?a??? ??a ????y ?ae ?i O???a Ie?????y ?e Nay??? ???? ? ??n?i.
E?? ???ey? n Oe??? ??? ??? ??????? e ????? ????. ??????ay ??? Oe???i
??a, ?a ? ??y A?????y ??? ?? ???? ??o ???i ????i Oe?y — I????? A???.
I??i ?a ???a ? ?y ?????ey” i ????? ??? A???y, a ?y ??iy??i, ?????i
?????y I????? A??? i ?i ?y???? ??ae Oe???th O???? e ???? A??i: ???? ???o
I?????e ??, ???ue ????? ?????? ? ?? ??.

Y? ??ey ?ethn????y ?????ui ? ??a ???i Oe??e — ??? A??? — ? A?? ?????i a
I??, ???? E????. A???????a ??? ???yth?y a ??a n ??????i i ?????i ??????
???e: ????? E????i ???a.

A?ue ??e ?a?u a ??? ??u ???????o, ?i ??ae ?? Oe?ue [E?? A???]. C?????y
??ue Nay?o, ?????? ? ??a — y? Nay?a ?y?y ???-????, A?????e ??e, ??? E??a
IV. Any ??? ????? a y? ??o ?? ???o, ??u a ? oe??a ????y ? ????e Oe?ue,
??ue ?? Na. ???????? E????i A???, ? A???? I???, a ????? Oe?ue, ???
I????e A?? ? ???i ????. Any ?????a, ?y ???? y?? ???a c???a e ???a ?e
?iy??, ???aeyth?e ????? ???a a ???e I????e ??e: ???? ? ???i E??a IV,
??????a ????? ????ny ?i ?o ????ey ???i ???i ???? ???? ??? ????ath??” ?
E??????ey e I??a.

A? ???ey, ??c Oe?y ??????? e a ?i ?????tho ??u ?i i??? e ????e a ????
Oe??e O?n??e, a ?i ??a e ??u Na. Oe?y E?????, e Nay?? ????????i ?.
A????, e A???? I???a. Y? ???? ????i ???? ? ??, ???? ???e ??????? A???ue
?e ???i ??? a ?? e ?? y???? ????e ??e Nay??? ????y??. O? ?, ?e ??e ?i
Oe?ue E????i — a ???oth E??eth, Na. ?. A???? — a y???oth ??ue. Oi ????a,
?i ?????o y?? ???eth, ???? na? ????e ? ?????a ?? Nayo? ?????. …

E?? a ?? ??? ?a ??a ??iy?? ??????th y?e ??? ?e E??a IV. Oi, ?i ??o ??o
???? ? ?????y ??, a ????? Oe??? A??e, ??iyth?e ???? ? ??????o ?????yo
????? ?y?e XIV-XV ?., ?? ?????? ?????ue ??, ?i y? ?????y ???ey ?? ????a
e ?e ???i? ???i ?????y. E?? ??, ?, ?a?, ?i, ???eyy? a E???? ??ae, E??
???? ????ue ? Oe??? ???e n I??????? N??i ??o. A?a ? ?????e-????? i? ???
?? ??? ??a. E ?o ?/?i ????i a ?i, ?i ? (a ?? ???ue, ?i ??? ??y?i e ?, ?i
y?? ?e ????i ??e ??? ?o. I??ey) ???e y?o ?? a ?????a??” ???? E????i ???
— e?? ??????? ???? I???? Oe?y”. I??? ??y?? ??ue e i ?i, ?i ? ??a XVII ??
?ay?e A????? ???/ Ae???e, ????e e ????? ?????”, ?i E??a A???i ????i n
??i ??i ? ???i… Ai ?y?i ???, ??o a Oe??? ??o ?a ??? ?ae????o ??eth i
?i, ?i y? ?????a E??a A???i. …

A? ?? ??? ??????e ??? ???? ? ?ay ????. Y? ???” — ??a, ????y ??? ????a e
?????y ??c ?? ?????e ??? ????a ??y ?????. O?ay ? ??a ?????? e ? ???
Nay?o — ?c????o E?????… E?? A??? ?e ? ??????y E????? ? ??? ?i ????ie, ?
e ????? ????o ??? ?????. N ??e ??ey A??i?? I?????e Oe??e … ? e ?e E?????
?????? ? ??a ?????? E???. O?? ???i, Oe?ue E?? ?ae ?a ??a ? ??n.

Ia ??a ??????? ???? I???ai Oe?y” ?????a A???? I??? ?????o e ?????” ?? —
? a???i ????? ??i e ???i a ???e. C?i ??? Oe?y ??o ? ????, ???a ???th?y
A?????o: ??o-??o e ??n. A?e ????ue, ?i E?? A???a? ???? “E?? A??o A???o
????, a ??? ?i ???? A??? ? E???? ??ae, ? ???ey ????a?ny ?? ??e. A?????
I??e ????y? ???? I???a, a Oe?ue-?????a — ???? ???.

A?e ????ue, ??a ???? ??a E???ay i??a ?y ??i ????i ?????a, ??th ?? ??? a
?e Oe?ue E?? e i ?i, ?i y? ??? ??a ???i ?y ????y ??u, ? ?o i??i ????i,
?i ??ay, ?????ay ???ey ?ea ????? ? ???e ??a.

E?? O??? A????u

E????e ???????? ?????ueth ??ey?ny ??a O??ey ???? XVI ?? ? A????-N?????i
??y-???ae??. A?e ? ?? ??????o ?? ?iy??? O??? ?? ??i ?????y ???e?i, ??a
?? A????e ??y ???, oi ??ue Ii ?????i a ????a, ?????yth?i ???? A????ue,
???th ? ??. Y? ???, ? ?? ????e, ?y?y?ny a «????» ???? O??ey a ??? ????
XVI ?? e ??? ??????y?ny a XVI–XVII ???eyo. A????eyth?i A????ue N????
?????i e ? ??a XVI ?? ? ???ey ????i ??y. Ia ?e ??a ?????? ????? A????e,
?aey?e ? ????, e ????i ??? ?y, ? ???? ??u ????? /?u, I???e ??ae (a ??
??????? ? ??a ??e) e ia???i ???o ????.

N ???e ????? a XVI ?? ?y?? e ????? ??u O??ey a ???yo ???. O?, a ????e
A??????i ??? I????? E??y e O???? ??? a N?y?? y?o nth?o ???i ?ae ???
???y, ?i ???y? ?a???ue y? ????eth, ??aey ? ??????e i ?i??? ????i ??????
?e ??a ??a?, ????.

E?? *?i A??ey i C?a

*?i A??ey i ?? — ????a a ??e ?y?? ????/??a A??ey I????? ???? ? ???u ?
?ay (???a), ?????a ?, ???? ?????o ????, ?a ??a ???. I???i ????a a ?????e
???i ?y??, ?? ??i ????? ?i ??????.

E??? ? ???? A???i ?ey ?a? ????a ??????a. I??atho, ?i ?a ?n??o e ?o?????i
???i. A???y ????y ??o ?yae ???o nth??a: C?n ????o O??a, ???? ? ???a ?i
????? ??a, A??? i??? ??? ?ae ???? I???, a A?a? ?ae E????e ???. I???a
???i ? nth?? e ?? A??ey i ?ia y?y?ny ?o i I??a e A????: Ia?? ????o ???a
???? e ???o ???o A????, ???oth ?o ? ????.

*?i A??ey i ?? ??o ?????e?? ?????: ???a — ???ue, ?? — y???? ? ?? A???,
??ay ??i?, ???o ?????oth ???ue ? y?/??a. O?? y? ?? ???????y ?e ??? ?ae
?y??i — «???i ???.

“*?i ?y?? A??ey i ??” ??i ??i ? ?eth???o nth??a ??????e ????. E? ?a
nth??, ? ?e ??ai ??????i, e ?????e ????e ???o i ?i, ?e ?? y?o y??ae
????? ? ???:

“*?i ?y?? A??ey, ?? ??? ae??o ? ?ey, ???y ??: ?y?e ???e A??? ??o ? ??
??i, a ?? ?ay? ??a e ?? ??e ?ey a ???ue; a ?? ??e ? ??a ??ie ???i e ??e;
??i ???, ??a ??a ??, a ? ??? ??? ??a ?, a ? ??a ??a ??o ???, ???y ??ue,
?ay?a ? ?e ???a a??e ???y??, ?y?i ??? ?ey e ??o ?y?i ?ey ? ??, a ??ay
??? ??? ???ey ???yao; ?? ??? ?i ??? e ??y, n ??e ???o ??, ???i ?n, ??a
???? e n ?i ???, a ? ?? ?ey?, ??u e ??ae n ???? e ??y?”.

E????? ????e ?? ??o, ??a ????y ??????i y???, ? ?? ? ???i ??u XIV, XV,
XVI ??a, ????th?a “*?i A??ey i ??”, ? ????y ??, ?e ???a ???a a ??? ????i
????ey e ?????? ??u ??? ?c?? ??ue ???, ??ue ????a ?? ? ??a ?????ey.

Nth?o ??i ????: ???e a ??i? ??a ? ??i ?? ??o ??? ?ay. C?? ?? ???? ?y
???? ?? ?o ????, ?? ?y????, ?????ue, e ??? n ?i ???????? n??: ??i ????o
?i. I??? ? y?o ??? A??? I????? “…??ny ????i ???i, ???? ???. A ?i
??????i ????e ?? ??i ????, ??i ??a, ?i ???ey? ?i ???th?e ?e?e. E ????
???y, ?i ?o ??e ?? a ??, ???y ??? ? ????? ??????e ?a y?? ??????i ???y”.

E????y ?? “*?i A??ey i ??” ??? a ?????i ???? e a ?????i. N????? ???o
????? ?e?i A??ey ? ??, ???th?? ?ey. A ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???o ??, a ???i
— ?e O???, ?????yth?e I?????, ?e Aai ??.

A ?????i ???? ?? e ???a, ???y ????? ???? ? ??i ?y?a a ??ae; e ??y n ??i,
???e e ??????e, ??th?th?? n ??? ? ????y?? ???y?, e ??ae, ?ay??y ??. E??a
o ??? A??ey ??o ?a?, a??th?e I????? ???e.

Ia ??a ??? XIV ?? ? ????i ??y a N??-I????a ?????i ?e ?c ??e ?????e ???o
??, ??? oe??? A???? ???a a ???e A???e. Aa ?????? e ???i ???yo n ???e
??e, ?e ?a?? ??o ????a ???? ? ??i ?y?a. A??? ? ??i ?? ??i ??ey?ny ? ???i
??, ???yy ??? ????e e A??? ? ??i, e ?? ??th n ???ey? ???u. N???a ???
???? ?ith ????ue, ? e A???, ?? e ??? a i??? ?? ??a, ? ?????i. Ii ????
?????? ????? ???ua, ???a ???, e ???th ???o a ??ae: ?? ???i, ???e ??? ??u
???, ????o ??e e ??.

E?? ??????a ?a e ?i, ?i ??? ???? ????u ??? n ??? ?y??, ??? ?????i ? ?o
??y?? ?i ???yi: A??ey ????tho, ?tho, ??? ? ?? ??e, ??tho a ??e n ?iy??,
?eyo ???, ?? ???e. A?????? ??ae a ??e ??, e ?e ?i a ??? ??? ???ny ????i
??i??.

E? ?o ??ay ?????ay ??a “*?i A??ey i ??” 16 ?? ? O??y???e ???e. C?? nth?o
??ny a ???e ????: ?. A??? ? ??i ??, ???????ue ??ae, ??o ?ay ??? a ??ue.
A??a ? ??a ??? ?o, ??? a ??? ???i ?? ? ???? ?? ??a ?????yth?y ?? A???.
Ii ?e a?????a, ?e ????a y? ??a! I???y ?, ????e ?????? I.A. A??? ????ny
?????? ???? ???a a ????e n ??????e ????????e ???ie, ??????e ?i ????,
????o e ?????e ????? ? ????i? ???.

“…E??? ?? ?????y ? ??a, ?e ?? ??y, ????, ?e ???? ?aiy, — ? ??y?i ????
“????th ????” ??y, e ? ????o e ??o ?e? ?? ??y?o ?e ??? ?i ae???e ???u.
A??a n ?i ??i ??yo? ???e ????y ? ????, e ??? ??? ?i ???y ?e ? ?????…”.

Ca ??? A??ey — ?o, ????? ?????? ??? e ??? n ?i i??? ? ???. A???i, a y?e
??? ??u 16 ?? ??e ????a ???a ????y ??yi: ?? A??? ??? ? ??o y???? ??i,
??? ?? ??atho ?i i????? ss??-N??a, ??? — I??a e Ae???, ??? — Nay???, a
????a ?y??tho ??????i ?y?? n ????i ??? ??i O??i.

N??a ??i, ? ???e ??a ?. A??? ??? a ?ay ??a ??? e ???a ???? ??? ???o
y???? ?a?.

E?? N???a A???a

E ???o ???? ??ny?y ??a ? ????? O???? ???a O??a – N???? E??, ??a ? ???ey
I?? E??a (?a – XV a.), ??a N???y ? ?????? ?? ??? I??u a Ethay??
(e.1530-o – 1540-a ?.). A ????e ? ???? ????iu ??????a ????, ?i ????o ?
????? ????a??i ???????? e ?????? ???? ???y ?e ?y? A??? e I??i ?a??.
I?????? ???u ?????e ? ???? A???ey. Y? ???????ay ???, ? ?????othuay
?????? ???????? e ??????? ?????eth, ??a???o ?????a I?????e y?, ?????a??y
y???i a ?? E????y. (?.3) A N???e ? A?????o ???, ?????o a ???e ???a ???e
???e ? i??i ???iai (1336 a., O???e ??? a. A?????a), ? ???? ????y ia ???
A???? n ???i ? ???e ???a, ? e ??? ??????a ???? – ??? e ????.

*?a ??i ?????? ??? ??? ???e ??ueth. Ia ?????? ??a XVI ?ea ? ???ey ?? a
A????a ia ??e ????i ?????? ??o. O?????ue ?????e ??? ??th??ny a ??????
?????e – a ??o, ????o ? ??e a ?? ???ey, O??? ??? ??? ? ????? ???e. A
??????i ??nn?a ???? ?a ?? ??a? ?????y I???a O??a n ??? a ??. Ia ?????e
E???? ??a A?e? I??e, ????e a ???e n XIV ?? e, ? ???eth, ?????e ?. A???i
n A??, E?? a ??e ?? ??? ??ay.

*? ? ???ny ??i? ???? ?????e N???y, ? ? ?????y ia ??e ? ???e ??ey???th.
Ia ??? ? ??? O??ey ? A???? ?? (I???ae, ???? XIV ??) N??i n I???? ? ??o
?????i ? ???e ????e ??y?, ???? a Nay?y ?y?o. I???? A?a n ?????i ???i n
???i ? ????i y?? «N? I?ae?? ???? ?? e ??th» ????? ?iy?e ? ? ?i ???, ?e
y? ?? ??y?, a ??o A????ueth e ?. E??? a ??e ??e ??u. Ia ??a N???y ?
N??-I????i??i ??? O?? (??i 1450 a.), ??y??y a A??????? ???? ??a, e ??a –
???? ? N???i-I????i ??y (??oe XV – ??? XVI a.) I?ey ??? I???a ? ??o, a
N??i ????i ???ath?i ? o ??a a ?ai. I???? ??? no?o ? a??? ???yo, ? n
??????i ???y?ny e I???o ?e ??i ??.

Ni?? ?????

1. A??? A I?????y ??a: C???a. N????. Nth??

2. E???a I??? I???/ “???? ??u”

3. A. A. A??a “O??? ??u”

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