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Аристотель и начала политической науки

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0 1998
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A?enoioaeue e ia/aea iieeoe/aneie iaoee

Oi/iie aeaou e eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa nicaeaiey “Iieeoeee” e
“Aoeineie iieeoee”, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ia?o eniieeia aioe/iie iunee
A?enoioaey, iu ia ciaai e, oau, ia ociaai—ignoramus et ignorabimus. N
oiai a?aiaie i?ioei aieaa aeaoo ouny/ eao, e a?aieoea yoa ioiaeaeaaaony
ana aeaeueoa. Ii yoi ia aaeeinoaaiiia cao?oaeiaiea, n eioi?ui
noaeeeaaaony enneaaeiaaoaeue iao/iiai ianeaaeey aaeeeiai a?aea: ca
aeaaaeoeaoue o?e noieaoey i iai iaienaiu ai?u eiea. A eiioea XIX aaea
iauay aeaeeia?aoey A?enoioaey, ninoaaeaiiay nio?oaeieeaie Iaoeeiiaeueiie
aeaeeioaee a Ia?eaea, ian/eouaaea ie iiiai ie iaei 3742 ?aaiou. A eiioea
aea oaeouaai aaea oaeiai ?iaea iiiuoea aeaaea ia i?aaei?eieiaeanue.
E?iia oiai, ii aaeeiiaeooiiio iiaieth ia?aaiae/eeia e eiiiaioaoi?ia,
oaenou naiiai o/aiiai i?aaenoaaeytho ca/anooth caaaaeeo ec-ca naiae
eaieaea?iinoe, o?aaiaioa?iinoe, ?aca?inaiiinoe. I?aaaea, enoi?e/aneay
?aeiino?oeoeey i?aaeinoaaeyao n?aaenoaa, aeathuea aiciiaeiinoue a
eaeie-oi ia?a i?aiaeieaoue o?oaeiinoe, ainnoaiiaeoue n aeinoaoi/iie
iieiioie aai aeeciue e acaeyaeu. Ii i?aaeaea neaaeoao oaaaeeoueny a oii,
aa?ia ee iauay iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu, auianaiiay a caaieiaie.

Anee eiaoue a aeaeo oceia enoieeiaaiea ia/ae iieeoe/aneie iaoee eae
iieeoieiaee, oi oiiieiaoue A?enoioaey n ieie aaeaa ee ii?aaaeaiii.
Iieeoieiaey a oaniii cia/aiee neiaa neiaeeeanue a ioaao ia i?aeoe/aneea
iio?aaiinoe ia?aaeeaaaiie yiioe, ?ino ianooaaia e cia/eiinoe
i?ienoiaeyueo iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee. Ae i?enoue nianoaaiiua
iaoiaeu e i?eaiu, naie iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao, ycue e, iiaeao iieacaoueny
no?aiiui, naiy eaeaieiaey. Anoue, ?acoiaaony, e iniaue iauaeo aieiaiey.
A eino?oiaioaeueiii niunea iieeoieiaey eco/aao niaoeeoe/aneoth
iieeoe/aneoth iaoa?eth, iieeoe/aneea eeannu e yeeou, eeaiu e eeeee,
ia?oee e aeaeaeaiey, iieeoe/aneia eeaea?noai e eeoeaaeaenoai,
ath?ie?aoeth e ?eoi?eeo, iieeoe/aneia iiaaaeaiea — aeoeaiia, ianneaiia e
ii?aaeaeyaiia anaaiciiaeiuie “eciaie”, iieeoe/aneee no?ie e ?aaeei,
neiaieeeo e yiaeaiaoeeo, iano?iaiey e /oanoaa e o. i. O iieeoieiaee
aaoiiiiiay i?aaeiaoiay iniiaa, ooieoeeiiaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue, eiaeea
e no?oeoo?a, naie oeaee e caaea/e. Raison d’etre nia?aiaiiie iieeoieiaee
ii?aaeaeeee niaoeeaeecaoeey io?aneaauo aeenoeeieei, aeiaaeecaoeey
iieeoeee e oieaa?naeecaoeey aa i?iyaeaiee, i?e/anoiinoue e iieeoeea oae
eee eia/a anao e eaaeaeiai a ioaeaeueiinoe.

Ii nouanoaoao e aieaa iauay nenoaia iieeoe/aneiai ciaiey, eiia, aieaa
oe?ieia iiieiaiea aeaiiiai eoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia. E a yoii neo/aa
ni/aoaiea eiaie A?enoioaey e iieeoe/aneie iaoee, aa iniia ia oieueei
oianoii, ii e aaeeinoaaiii aa?ii. Caeanue aioe/iue ioae?aoe aunooiaao
“iooeii iieeoe/aneie iaoee”, a iineaaeiyy i?aaenoaao ooiaeaiaioaeueiie,
neioaoe/aneie i?a – eee i?ioiiaoeie. Ioaeaeueiua ?iaeea aeiaaaeee i iae
iiaeii iaeoe a ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaieyo Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea.
Noeoeeii ca?iaeeaoayny, eiooeoeaiay e ai iiiaii iaeaiay iieeoe/aneay
iuneue “nic?aaaao”, iieo/aao caeii/aiiia eiioeaiooaeueiia ioi?ieaiea a
oneiaeyo aioe/iie A?aoeee.

Anee oianoii oaeia n?aaiaiea, oi iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iieeoe/aneay
iaoea, iiaeiaii aeenoaoaeueiie aiaeia Ao?iaeeoa, oaeaea eiathuae
ainoi/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiea, auoiaeeo ec ii?neie iaiu i?aaeiieiaeaiee e
caaeoaeaeaiee o aa?aaia Yeeaaeu. Eae e iauaa?a/aneay anaia?iaeiay
canooiieoea, iieeoe/aneay iaoea iiaea aea?iaaoue ethaeyi eciaeeea ia
caiea, oniaoiia ?aoaiea aeeoaeneeo i?iaeai, aaciianiue eo?n
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ei?aaey a iieeoe/aneeo ao?yo. Iiaeiaii aiaeia ethaae e
e?aniou, iiyaeyaoaeny a nii?iaiaeaeaiee naeou onie?aiiuo ath aeeeeo
caa?ae—eueaia, aieeia, iaaeaaaeae, iieeoe/aneia ciaiea, iniiaaiiia ia
yoe/aneeo i?eioeeiao, iiaei oe?ioeoue e?iaiaeaaeioth aeeeinoue e
caa?eiua no?anoe, ia?aiieieaoea /aeiaa/aneea aeooe. Noaiiaeaiea
iieeoe/aneie iaoee, ia?aoaiea ath ?acaeouo oi?i, niaea?aeaoaeueiie
aeoaeiu noaee aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai ?acaeoey aioe/iie eoeueoo?u e
iaeiia?aiaiii aa aeanoyuei ?acoeueoaoii.

Iieeoieiaey a oe?ieii niunea iaiaoiaeeii au?aaaouaaaony o anao ia?iaeia,
ia oieueei aeinoeaoeo yeiiiie/aneiai aeiaieuenoaa e ecaanoiie eeanniaie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, ii i?aaeaea anaai iaeieaaoeo aiieia caiaoioth
nooiaiue enoi?e/aneiai naiiniciaiey. Iia iniaaiii cia/eia aeey oao
iaoeee, eioi?ua i?iaeaeioeenue aeaeueoa ae?oaeo a ?aoaiee aii?inia
aeanoe, iieeoeee, ainoaea?noaa, i?aaa, aeey oao, eoi no?anoii no?aieeny
iinoeaiooue e ai iiiaii iinoea “iieeoe/aneee niune”, “iieeoe/aneoth
i?e?iaeo” yaeaiee e i?ioeannia e oai naiui oeacae iaeii ec
iaaeno?aeueiuo iai?aaeaiee aoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey e iaoee ia iauanoaa
inoaeueiui iaoeeyi.

Oaeiai ?iaea oieeiaaiea iieeoe/aneie iaoee canoaaeyao ?anoeaieaaoue aa a
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoa e iieacaoaey eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ac?ineaiey
/aeiaa/anoaa, aeinoeaiooiai o?iaiy aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. A yoii niunea aa
iacuaatho “iieeoe/aneie oeeinioeae”, i?e yoii iia caieiaaony ia oieueei
iieneii iaueo ia/ae, naycae e caeiiiia?iinoae, i?eioeeiia e ii?i, ii e
eaaeauae a eo iniiaa eiie?aoiie ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie ?aaeueiinoueth,
iieeoe/aneeie einoeoooaie, oaeoaie iieeoe/aneie aeecie. A?aee
i?aaeeiaeeee e niioaaonoaothuoth neiaeiinoe i?aaeiaoa iaoiaeieiaeth
iieeoe/aneie iaoee — n?aaieoaeueioth e ?ao?iniaeoeaioth,
aeeaeaeoe/aneoth e aiinoeoeenoe/aneoth, nica?oeaoaeueioth e
iiuoii-yiie?e/aneoth eae iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue eino?oiaio i?iieeiiaaiey a
nouiinoue iieeoe/aneiai. Caeinoaiaaiiay anaie ia?iaeaie ie?a, iia
aeieacaea naith iaaeaaeiinoue e nionoy ouny/e eao. Ii ia iaiueoay
caneoaa aioeeia ninoieo a noi?ie?iaaiee eie onoie/eaie nioeeaeueiie
iio?aaiinoe a iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?a.

Oe?iei ecaanoiu eiaia ethaeae (ia iaycaoaeueii iieeoeeia), ia yoie
aeaai?iaeiie ieaa oniaoii iiaeaecaaoeony. “Ia?aie/eaaynue iaeiei
ia?iaeii”, Aaaaeue ia?a/eneyao a ea/anoaa “iiaeiaiuo naaoeuo i?eia?ia
aaeeeeo oiia, aicauoathueony iaae iau/iui o?iaiai, Aiia?a, Ieiaea?a,
Ynoeea, Nioieea, Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey”. Iineaaeiei a yoii o?iiieiae/aneii
“caacaeiii” nienea noieo A?enoioaeue. Ii eae au onoaiaaeeaaao “ieaieo”
enneaaeiaaiey ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie aunioa. Iaia?eiouae caneoaie
ia?aae anai /aeiaa/anoaii inoaiaony aai aeeaae a oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
iieeoe/aneie iaoee, a no?ieoaeuenoai aaee/anoaaiiiai caeaiey aioe/iie
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u. A /ai aa oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe?

Oaea oiiieiaeinue, /oi aeiaaaeee e ica?aiey a iaeanoe iieeoe/aneiai
ciaiey neo/aeenue e ia Ainoiea. Ii oai iieeoe/aneay eaeaieiaey
iniiauaaeanue ia niaa?oaiii iniaie, aiai?aaiaie iniiaa, ianoi caeiia n
iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai caiyee caeanue ?eooae, o?aaeeoeey, iau/ae.

A no?aiao Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea i?aai aiiaua eneeth/aeinue ec /enea
nioeeaeueiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia. Ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea i?aai, enoiaeyuaa io
ainoaea?noaa, nouanoaiaaei, ii aai cia/eiinoue caaenaea io niioaaonoaey
aai ii?i ae?oaei oieaa?naeueiui i?aaeeai, “eaeaaeueiiio” i?aao,
eceiaeaiiiio a nayuaiiuo eieaao: Aaaeao, Oaeioaea, Ei?aia. Iaiai?io, ia
aioe/iii Caiaaea iieeoe/aneia niciaiea naycuaaeinue n naiuo acia n
i?aaiaui ia/aeii, n naiioeaiiinoueth caeiia, a ca?iaeeaoayny oai
th?eni?oaeaioeey ii?aaeaeyeanue eae “iaoea i aauao aiaeanoaaiiuo”,
ioiaoei—ia ia?aii ianoa, “a oaeaea aauao /aeiaa/aneeo”.

Ia Ainoiea nio?aiaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea aa?iiiee a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, /aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie i?eciaaaeinue nouanoaaiii aieaa
iaiaoiaeeiui, /ai oaaaeaiea e “eneonnoaaiii i?eaeoiaiiiio” caeiio eee
“aano?aeoiiio” i?aao. Iineaaeiaa auiieiyei aieueoae /anoueth
i?iaiaioaeueioth ?ieue: /aeiaaeo ia iieaaaeinue ianoaeaaoue ia naieo
i?aaao, eai aeiea eaaeaeiai — no?aieoueny e niaeaneth e caauaaoue i naaa
a eioa?anao anao. A aioe/iinoe aea oea?eei oaaaeaeaiea (aiineaaenoaee
aai oianeaaeiaaea Aa?iia, ana no?aiu eiioeiaioaeueiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu)
a oii, /oi aunoay ni?aaaaeeeainoue ei?aieony eiaiii a caeiia, /oi i?aai
yaeyaony eneonnoaii aeia?a, ?aaainoaa e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Ia Ainoiea iieeoe/aneay iuneue canouea, ia noi?ie?iaaaoenue, iineieueeo
canouei ana, ana inoaaaeinue iaiiaeaeaeiui, noaaeeueiui, eiina?aaoeaiui,
cae?uoui: io iieeoeee aaoa?eee, “aeooeo” a?aieoe aei “cae?uoie”,
ea?iaeeoe/aneie ienueiaiiinoe. Caoeo?iaaiiinoue n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey aaea
e no?aoaaaiiinoe (io — aiaiiay oeo?inoue) iuoeaiey, a iiae/a?eiooia
ii/eoaiea, oaaaeaiea e noa?oei — e eoeueoo i?aaeeia, iaaiciiaeiinoe ei
“i?aeineiaeoue”, iaiyoue ii?yaeee, aaaaeaiiua “io aaea”. A aioe/iuo
no?aiao ana a aeaeaeaiee, i/aaeaeia aeeiaie/iinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oi?i, iieeoeei-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa; ana ioe?uoi,
caeiiiiineooaiea e aunieee o?iaaiue i?aainiciaiey — ii?ia aeecie, ieaoao
e aeaaiaiaaiea aucuaatho ia naaeeiu e ai?iaea (oioy e, oae neacaoue,
aa?iioioiaeae ia no?aaeaee), a caeii; ioiioaiey, iniiaaiiua ia
ia?aaainoaa (noa?oee — ieaaeoee, ainieoaoaeue — o/aiee, naiiaiee —
iiae/eiaiiue), niaiyao iauaiea ?aaiuo, ae?oaeaa; ianneaiay, aac?iiioiay
ii/oeoaeueiinoue onooiaao ianoi naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e eieoeeaoeaiinoe,
oeaeie aaiia iano?iaiee, aaea anoue ianiaoeeainoue e e?iiey,
e?eoe/iinoue e aic?aaeaiea, niiiaiea e ainoeuaiea. Ninoycaoaeueiinoue,
aeeneonneiiiinoue iaania/eaaee aeeaeiae/iinoue e ioe?uoinoue iuoeaiey —
iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey ?acaeoey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

Naiiauoiinoue e eneeth/eoaeueiay ieiaeioai?iinoue oi?i iieeoe/aneie
aeecie a aioe/iinoe iniiauaaeenue ia nianoaaiiii, i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/iii io Ainoiea oeia oeeaeeecaoeee — ia ienueiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneie,
a onoiie, i?iaeonoe/aneie (io eao. Orare — aiai?eoue, a?a/. ?ioooaii —
neooaoue). Ionthaea i?ienoaeaao i?eaeiaeueiay, iaiiaoi?eiay i?e?iaea
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie aeaiie?aoee, eioi?ay e iiaea-oi ca?iaeeoueny oieueei a
Yeeaaea. Aei neo ii? aucuaatho oaeeaeaiea e ainoeuaiea aa aeaai?iaeiua
eaeaaeu e i?eioeeiu, i?yiie e iaiin?aaenoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, anaiauaa
o/anoea a i?eiyoee iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee, a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee,
?aaiii?aaea a naiii /oi ie ia anoue oe?ieii niunea: iai?eia?, eniiiiey
(ssoiiiissa) — i?aai auaeaeaeaiey caeiiii?iaeoa, enyai?ey (ssocainssa) —
?aaiia aeey anao a?aaeaeai i?aai aunooiaoue a Ia?iaeiii nia?aiee,
enie?aoey (ssoi/naossa) — ?aaiiaeanoea, ?aaiii?aaiinoue. Iiaeii
ia?a/eneyoue oeaeue ?yae i?aa, iieiiii/ee e iaycaiiinoae, inoaaoeony
iaiui oei?ii a iiiyoeyo e oa?ieiao, i eioi?uo a oneiaeyo “i?ia?anneaiie”
e “?acaeoie” aeaiie?aoee eiioea XX aaea e ia iiiuoeytho.

Iieeoe/aneee iaioaeeoao ae?aaieo a?aeia eiaao iiiai iauaai n
iieeoe/aneei niciaieai ae?aaieo ?eieyi aeaaiaea?y iauiinoe
i?ienoiaeaeaiey (io a?eeoeaa), iaeiei eeiaaenoe/aneei ei?iyi,
iaeeiaeiaui noaaeeyi yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey, iaeiiio
ia?aco aeecie, noiaeiui auoiaui e ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneei oi?iai.
Iaeiaei e caeanue anoue nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe, auoaeathuea ec
?acee/ee aeooiaiie aeecie, ie?inica?oeaiey, ?aeeaeiciuo, ynoaoe/aneeo,
yoe/aneeo ii?i, aicc?aiee ia naiueth e ainoaea?noai, oinoaaiiiai no?iy,
aeeyiey ?aciiai ?iaea oaeoi?ia — no?aoaae/aneeo, aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo,
oicyenoaaiiuo e aeaaea aaia?aoe/aneeo.

A A?aoeee nic?aaaiea iieeoe/aneie iunee, iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e ia
aaca yoiai iieeoe/aneie iaoee i?iecioei ?aiueoa, /ai a ?eia. A?aoeey
ea?aea ?ieue eioaeeaeooaeueiiai, aeooiaiiai, eoeueoo?iiai eeaea?a ii
ioiioaieth e “eoaeeioai” (eoUeeeuoco), eae a?aee iacuaaee ?eieyi. Ia
Aiaiieineii iieoino?iaa e Neoeeeee o?aee ono?aeaaee naie eieiiee, a ia
iaiai?io. A?aoeey inoaaaeanue ?acae?iaeaiiie, a oi a?aiy eae ?ei oniaoii
oa??eoi?eaeueii oe?oiiyeny. A A?aoeee iauaa i?eiineeinue a aea?oao
/anoiiio: iaoeeae aea?oaiaaee ?aaee iauee, iaueiaie — ?aaee ioaeaeueiuo
eeoe, ia?oeeoey?eci ioaeaeueiuo ieaiai aiciaeaaeae iaae eieeaeoeaiuie
eioa?anaie. A ?eia, iai?ioea, iiiaia, anee ia ana, i?eiineeinue ia
aeoa?ue ainoaea?noaa, aeiieie?iaaei ainoaea?noaaiiia ia/aei; caeanue
ioaa?aaeenue eaeaaeu nica?oeaoaeueiie, i?acaeiie aeecie, oeaieeanue
iieaciay eiie?aoiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eneonnoai neeu iaea?aeeaaei aa?o
iaae neeie eneonnoaa. Ae?aaiee ?ei nicaeaaae naiaeu caeiiia, eiaeaenu,
iie ioaa/aee ia aii?in: /oi aeaeaoue? Ae?aaiea a?aee ?ac?aaaouaaee
iieeoe/aneoth iaoeo, eioi?ay ioaa/aea ia aii?in: ii/aio neaaeoao
aeaeaoue oae, a ia eia/a?

A?aoeey inoaaeea /aeiaa/anoao iieeoe/aneoth oai?eth, iiuo e eaeaaeu
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaiie?aoee, iieeoe/aneoth iiaeaeue aeanoe n aeoeaiui
o/anoeai ia?iaea. Io ?eia inoaeenue eiie?aoiua ainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaiaua iaoaieciu e i?ioeaaeo?u, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
i?aaiaua i?eioeeiu e iiiyoey. A?aoeey—yoi iieeoe/aneay eaeaieiaey, yoi
iaoea e eneonnoai (oY/ic) oi?aaeaiey ethaeueie, iieeoe/aneia ciaiea
(oioessa), iieeoe/aneia naiiniciaiea e ainieoaiiinoue (?aeaeassa),
ioee/athuay eoeueoo?iuo yeeeiia io aa?aa?ia, iaeiiaoe, yoi ioae?aoeu
oeeiniou e iieeoe/aneea no?aoaae. ?ei — yoi einoeooou
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie, caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie,
th?enaeeeoeeiiiie aeanoe, yoi ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee, th?enou.
A?aoeey, iiyoe/iay e ?iiaioe/iay, ?ac?aaioaea iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o.
?ei, aa?iue naiaio nooiio ?aoeeiiaeecio, enoieeiaae ioi?ieaoaany
iieeoe/aneia ciaiea a aieaa i?aeoe/aneii niunea, i?enaiee aio aieaa
oi/ii io?aaeathuaa aai niaea?aeaiea eiy eoeueoo?u (cultura —
aicaeaeuaaiea, ainieoaiea, ia?aciaaiea) e ?ani?ino?aiee ii anaio ie?o —
urbi et orbi.

Aioe/ioth iieeoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o (oa?iei aioae a iao/iue iai?io
iiiai-iiiai iicaea iiyaeaiey naiiai oaiiiaia) iaaiciiaeii “niooaoue” ie
n eaeie ae?oaie. Aeey iaa naienoaaiia iaiau/aeiay oe?ioa iuoeaiey.
Ethaeyi, i?eo/aiiui e eeanniaie aeiieiaioa a iieeoeea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
ioiioaieyi a nioeeaeueiii aiaeeca, e oiio, /oi ana iiciaiea ei?aieony a
iaoa?eaeueiii iiuoa, /oi iauaeoeaiay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iinoeaaaony n
iiiiuueth /oanoa, o?oaeii aini?eiyoue i?eioeeieaeueii eioth, aieaa
ianooaaioth iiceoeeth: ca/ai /aeiaae aeeaao, aeinoaoi/ii ee aio
oaeiaeaoai?youe iinoiyiii ?anoouea iio?aaiinoe aeey n/anouey, a /ai iii?

Iieeoe/aneia niciaiea ae?aaieo a?aeia einiieiae/ii e aianoa n oai
naycaii n yoeeie, i?aanoaaiiie aa?ie a aiaeanoai, iiae/eiyaony caeiio
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?ay ?aceeoa a einiina, i?e?iaea e ?ani?ino?aiyaony
ia ee/ioth aeeciue /aeiaaea. Iiaeii aiai?eoue i aai iiienoe/iinoe, o. a.
neeoiinoe aeooiaiiai e oaeaniiai, aa?iiiee aeooe e ?acoia, aaeeinoaa
aeia?a e e?aniou, /oi, enoaoe, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony e oa?ieiieiae/anee.
Iai?eia?, ana i?ae?aniia e aeia?ioiia: i?aanoaaiiia niaa?oainoai e
aeia?iii?yaei/iinoue, caeiiiiineooaiea e i?aaaeeainoue, /anoiinoue e
aeaai?iaenoai — a?aee iacuaaee iaeiei neiaii “eaeeieaaaoey” — /aei/Ueaa?
ssa io /aeeio — e?anioa oaeaniay e aeooiaiay e Ueaaoio— oi?ioee a
oece/aneii e i?aanoaaiiii ioiioaiee. Ia?an/eaiaiiay oeaeinoiinoue
ie?iaicc?aiey i?iyaeeanue e a aaeeinoaa iiiyoee oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey,
iaoa?eaeueiiai e iaioaeueiiai, aiaeanoaaiiiai e /aeiaa/aneiai. O a?aeia
eaeaaeueiue eiain (eiaio — caeii, neiai, niune, ni?acia?iinoue)
niaaeeiyaony n ?aaeueiui ie?ii /ioiio — ie?, ana ie?neia, caiiua aeaoa,
ii?yaeie, a oii /enea ii?yaeie ainoaea?noaaiiue, iieeoe/aneia ono?iaiea)
e canoaaeyao caaeoiuaaoueny i “aa/iuo” aii?inao, aeeth/ay aii?in ia
yoe/aneeo i?aaeaeao iaoee, iieeoe/aneie iaoee, ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
iineaaenoaey iao/iuo ecuneaiee, iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee. A /oi oaeea
i?aaeaeu nouanoaotho e iaaeaeaiea n ieie n/eoaoueny iaeacoaii,
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea ieii/eaoayny ia/aeueii iiiuoea I?iiaoay i?aacieoe
ioae?inoue aiaia eee Eea?a i?aiaa?a/ue nouanoaothueie ii?iaie
iiaaaeaiey.

N?aaee aaaeiaeoeo naienoa iieeoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey ae?aaieo a?aeia —
aai “aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoue”, aoiaieci, enoi?e/aneee iioeieci, aeoo
?acoiiinoe e aeeciaiiinoe, oaa?aiiinoue a oi?aeanoaa aeia?a iaae ceii,
iii?a ia neeo ?acoia. I?e/ai oi?aeanoai ?acoia ia eae aano?aeoiiai e
oieiaeiiai i?aeoeoeecia, a ia/aea, i?aaeiieaaathuaai ae?oaea oi?iu
aeooiaiiai inaiaiey ie?a. Iaoea noaea o ieo iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
eoeueoo?u, caeiaii aa i?ia?anna. Noi?ie?iaaeanue iao/ii-oeeinioneay
no?oeoo?a ciaiey—?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay, einiiaiienoe/aneay, iaeiia?aiaiii
iiyoe/aneay e ieoieiae/aneay. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue iao/iie
iaoiaeeea, eiaeea, oai?aoe/aneie iaoaiaoeea. Nianoaaiii aiai?y, a?aee e
ecia?aee iaoeo: iaoaiaoeeo, aeieiaeth, oeeinioeth. Oieueei iinea oiai,
eae A?enoioaeue nicaeae eiaeeo, aeae “oaoieeo iuoeaiey” — “eneonnoai
iuneeoue” a naith i/a?aaeue naeaeaei aiciiaeiui ianoiyuaa eneaiea
iao/iie enoeiu: iinoaiiaeo i?eioeeieaeueiuo iao/iuo i?iaeai, iiene
caeiiiia?iinoae, eeanneoeeaoeeth iao/iuo oaeoia, niaiauaiea iao/iuo
auaiaeia n i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneea iuneeoaee auneacaee ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eaeae, ii?aaeaeea
iaaeno?aeueiia ?acaeoea aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee. Iie “caaauaee” eo
?ac?aaioeo ia neaaeothueo yoaiao ie?iaie enoi?ee: ai a?aiaia
ooaa?aeeaoaainy o?enoeainoaa, ia ?oaaaea Iiaiai a?aiaie, a yiioo
I?inaauaiey, ia aaea e aaea aia?aae — yoi iiaeii ni anae oaa?aiiinoueth
eiinoaoe?iaaoue ia ii?iaa o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey. A eaeii au iai?aaeaiee
ie oae iao/iue iiene, aai iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai inoaaony aa?iinoue
aioe/iui caaaoai, iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey,
/oanoao /aeiaa/aneiai aeinoieinoaa, ii?aeueiiai aeieaa. Inoaaony
i?eia?ii iaeooioai?aiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiee ae?aaieo a?aeia, neea eo
niciaoaeueiiai auai?a, e?anioa eae aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea aioo?aiiae
i?aanoaaiiie neeu, naiaiaea eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeooiaiie aeecie.

Ana yoe iniaaiiinoe ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ieaooi?iu aioe/iuo a?aeia,
anoanoaaiii, naiui na?ueaciui ia?acii iiaeeyee ia eo iieeoe/aneia
niciaiea. A /ai aea aai oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou?

Iieeoeea aeey ae?aaieo a?aeia anoue au?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiie eoeueoo?u,
yoi iauanoaaiii iieaciia oai?/anoai. Ii Ieaoiio, e caeanue A?enoioaeue
aiieia niaeanai ni naiei o/eoaeai, iieeoeea — yoi aeoeaiay /aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, eiathuay oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiea iauaai aeaaa e
oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae ethaeae, iai?aaeyaiay oaie,
eoi aeaaeaao aunoei, “oea?neei eneonnoaii” oi?aaeaiey a ?aieao
caeiiiinoe. Aeaaiue niune iieeoeee — i?aaeioa?auaiea nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia, i?ienoiaeyueo io i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey aaaeiinoe e aiaaonoaa,
ceioiio?aaeaiey aeanoueth, e?aeiinoae aeaiie?aoee.

Aaaeiaeoae a iieeoe/aneie oai?ee yaeyaony aa yoe/aneay noi?iia. Yoeea
aunooiaao iniiaie iieeoeee. O A?enoioaey ieii/aiea “Ieeiiaoiaie yoeee”
ia neo/aeii e anoue i?ieia “Iieeoeee”. I?aai, i?aainoaeea o iaai e anoue
caeiiiia, ni?aaaaeeeaia, aeia?iaeaoaeueiia. Ii i?ioea ?aceiai
eiouanoaaiiiai ?anneiaiey, ii e i?ioea ooiie/aneiai, iaoaie/aneiai
o?aaiaiey nianoaaiiinoe. Nie?ao n/eoae aeaaiui aeiaeaaoueny iaeaieaa
i?aanoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey, o/eoue aicaea?aeeaaoueny io iani?aaaaeeeauo
iinooieia. Oi?aeanoai aeia?a iaae ceii ?anoeaieaaeinue a?aeaie eae
aunoay ni?aaaaeeeainoue, eae iniiaa iauanoaaiiie i?aanoaaiiinoe, aac
eioi?ie iao i?aaiii?yaeea e aaoi?eoaoiinoe caeiia, caeiiiiineooaiey,
i?aainoaeey. Oaeia iiieiaiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe ono?aiyei iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ianeeey, i?eioaeaeaiey e iicaieyei ia?aie/eaaoueny ainieoaieai,
ia?aciaaieai, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iui aicaeaenoaeai (iaeaeaea).

Iieeoe/aneee iaioaeeoao a?aeia, auno?iaiiue ii no?iaei ia?eai
i?aanoaaiiinoe e eoeueoo?u (a aeaiiii neo/aa ia nooue aaaeii
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie), eiae no?iaoth ainoaea?noaaiie/aneoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. Eiuie neiaaie, niaeaenoaiaaoue oaeiio ainieoaieth
/aeiaaea, eioi?ia iiiiaaei au i?aa?auaieth aai a noa?a i?aanoaaiiinoe e
iieeoeee a a?aaeaeaieia. Yoeiieiaey oa?ieia “iieeoeea” iaaeaoniuneaiii
oeacuaaao ia i?aaie/aneoth naycue aai n ai?iaeii-ainoaea?noaii (?ieeo),
n a?aaeaeainoaii (?ieeoassa), n oiaieai oi?aaeyoue ainoaea?noaii
([?ieeoaoia ), n ainoaea?noaaiiie, iieeoe/aneie iaoeie (?ieeoe/c
Y?ssoocic). ssnii, /oi oaea oiaaea n?aaee aaaeiaeoeo oeaeae iieeoe/aneie
iaoee auaeaeaaeanue oeaeue niinianoaiaaoue yooaeoeaiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, eeeaeaeaoeee ieoaoaeueiie ii/au no?aoiiai
nioeeaeueiiai cea—ei??oioeee, neiioiiu eioi?ie iiyaeeenue, i?e/ei
ath?ie?aoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea, iiyaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai ieaeeecia e iaaaoeaecia.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a aeoaiei nioeeaeueia. Iia —
o?aieoaeueieoea iaua/aeiaa/aneeo eaeaaeia e oeaiiinoae, i?aaenoaaeyao a
iauanoaa ia/aei ?acoiiia, i?aaieciaaiiia a i?aaiii?yaeie, ieacuaathuaa
i?aaaioeaiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ethaui nioeeaeueiui eiioeeeoai,
oa?iaeathuei anyeiai ?iaea yoie/aneeie, eeanniauie, iaoeeiiaeueiuie
eaoaeeeciaie, aeaaaeueae?othueie eee ?ac?ooathueie iniiaiiieaaathuea
nioeeaeueiua caaiaaaiey. Ca/anooth iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a —
aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi i?ioeainoieo oa?ica nioeeaeueiiai oaina,
iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai i?iecaiea, o?iie/aneei aieaciyi aeaiie?aoee.

Iieeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a ae?aaieo a?aeia ii-ianoiyuaio /aeiaa/ia. Iia
eiaao /aeiaa/aneoth i?e?iaeo, eaeao io /aeiaaea, /a?ac /aeiaaea e
/aeiaaeo, iia niioaaonoaoao ethaeneei iiiyoeyi e i?aaai, iia iineeueia
/aeiaaeo e aiiaua eiaao niune oieueei a oneiaeyo /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey.
E a yoii niunea iieeoeea eae eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey ethaeueie iiieiaeanue
ae?aaieie a?aeaie aua e eae aio?iiiiiieea (Ueienu?iiiie/c). A oeaio?a aa
noieo /aeiaae, ia /oi oeacuaae aua Nie?ao e n /ai auee niaeaniu e Ieaoii
e A?enoioaeue. Ii a eeoa?aoo?a oeacuaaaony ia oieueei ia
aio?iiioeaio?eci aioe/iie iieeoe/aneie iaoee, ii e ia aio?iiieiaeci, e
ia aio?iiinioeci, e ia aio?iiiii?oeci. Iaeiaei a aae iao ?aeeaeiciiai
aneaoecia, naeoaioneiai oaiaoecia, oaie?aoe/aneie “i?iieoaiiinoe” anao
nioeeaeueiuo naycae e ioiioaiee, ionthaea ooaa?aeaeaiea oeeinioneie
aeiieiaiou iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai niciaiey, aeaiie?aoeci a iauanoaaiiie e
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie. Ionthaea e?anioa e naaeaine?iaaiiinoue,
aa?iiie/iinoue iieeoe/aneie oai?ee (Ueniiissa — i?aaeeueiia, e?aneaia
niioiioaiea anao /anoae a iaeiii oeaeii, eo ni?acia?iay naycue).

N o/aoii /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu aioe/ioth iieeoe/aneoth iuneue iacuaatho
aaaeiienoe/aneie (io a?a/. ?aeiiTH — ianeaaeaeaiea), ii i?eiaieoaeueii e
aeeaaeo A?enoioaey a iniiau iieeoe/aneie iaoee aa oi/iaa ii?aaeaeeoue
eae yaaeaiiienoe/aneoth (io a?a/.aaaeaeiiissa — n/anouea, aeaaeainoai),
eai, ii A?enoioaeth, n/anouea anoue ia i?inoi oaeiaieuenoaea,
i?iaeeaiiia ai a?aiaie, a ianeaaeaeaiea, i?aaeiieaaathuaa
naiiia?aie/aiea, aneaco. Ieaoii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi n/anouea /aeiaaea
ninoieo ioithaeue ia a oaeiaeaoai?aiee anao aac ?acai?a iio?aaiinoae, ia
a oii, /oiau eiaoue aieueoa e eo/oa ae?oaeo, eai iauanoai iio?aaeaiey —
yoi ooiee.

Aio?iiiii?oeci e iaiaeanoaeaiea n?aaeu, naienoaaiiua aioe/iie
iieeoe/aneie oai?ee, oiaea o?aaotho ecaanoiuo iaiai?ie. Ie? a?a/aneeo
aiaia — yoi eaeaaeece?iaaiiue /aeiaa/aneee ie?, aaea ethaee eae
aannia?oiua aiae, a aiae iiaeiaiu nia?oiui ethaeyi. A i?aaenoaaeaiee aea
Aa?aeeeoa aia anoue neea, ?aceeoay a i?e?iaea. ?aeeaeiciinoue ae?aaieo
a?aeia ni/aoaeanue n noaoaie i?aeoe/iinoueth, /aeiaae inoaaaeny ia?ie
aauae (I?ioaai?). Ai?i/ai, ia oaeiaeaoai?aiiua nianoaaiiui iaioaiiii, ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao aiinoiea Iaaea, a?aee caaeieai aei o?enoeainoaa
aicaeaaaee aea?oau “iaaaaeiiiio Aiao” (Aeayiey, 17, 24).

Iniaaiiinoue iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u a?aeia a ouaoaeueiie ?ac?aaioea
i?eioeeieaeueiuo iiceoeee oeeinioee i?aaa. Nie?ao, Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue
—iooeu-iniiaaoaee oeeinioee i?aaa. Iie iinoaaeee aa ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
i?iaeaiu, aeaee iiaeaee ?aoaiee. A?enoioaeue eae au caaa?oee aa aioe/iue
yoai a A?aoeee. Nie?ao iiae/a?eeaae oeaiiinoue i?aaa eae
iauaiaycaoaeueiiai ieieioia i?aanoaaiiinoe. Ii ?aoae i?iaeaio
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ni?aaaaeeeainoe, au?aaeaiiie a
caeiia, o/ee, /oi caeiiiiineooaiea anoue a?aaeaeaineee aeiea
ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe, oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey caeiiiinoe e
i?aaiii?yaeea. Ieaoii iiae/a?eeaae iauaiaycaoaeueiinoue i?aaa a
iieeoe/aneii iauaiee, iineieueeo iii au?aaeaao aiaeanoaaiioth
ioae?inoue, iicaieyao iiaeieoe e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu niaiauaiey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeia?iaeaoaee e nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.
Nianoaaiii, oo aea i?iaeaio ?aoaao e A?enoioaeue — i?iaeaio niioiioaiey
naiaiaeu e iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aeieaeiiai e aeiionoeiiai, o?aaieoaeueiinoe e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. Ii aeaao naith eiino?oeoeeth i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey:
a?aaeaeaineea, o?oaeiaua, naiaeiua ioiioaiey ainoaea?noai .?aaoee?oao n
iiiiuueth o?aaieoaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iauanoaii
e /aeiaaeii, ainoaea?noaii e a?aaeaeaieiii — n iiiiuueth
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie, o. a., eiuie neiaaie, ii oeacae ia aaco aeaeaiey
i?aaa ia ioaee/iia —/anoiia, e /aio e i?eaeoo iicaeiaa a ?eia.

A o?aaeeoeeyo ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u iaiaei
iniaaiiinoae. Ii, iiaeaeoe, aeaaioth ninoaaeyee ethaee, aa eaeaieiae.
Nie?ao, ia iaienaaoee ie no?i/ee, iaoiaeeeny anaaaea n ia?iaeii e a
ia?iaea — ia aaca?iie ieiuaaee, a nia?aiee, ia oeeoeao. Ii iinoiyiii aae
aeeaeiae n eaaeaeui: i?inoiethaeeiii e iaaeno?aoii, aaeaa a?aiioiui
?aianeaiieeii e eneooaiiui oeeinioii, Nie?ao auiieiye ?ieue
nioeeaeueiiai oa?iaioa, iiaeieiaaoaai eae ia ae?iaeaeao i?aainiciaiea
nia?aaeaeai, caaeaaae aunieoth ieaieo i?aaiaie eoeueoo?a, auaeeaae
e?iieae ?inoee i?aaiaiai ieaeeecia, aiieeoe/iinoe, aioeiauanoaaiiua
acaeyaeu. Aai e?iiey — ia oieueei neeaae ianiaoeeaiai oia, ii e
i?iyaeaiea e?eoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea. Ii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi iieeoe/aneay
ioae?inoue anoue ?acoeueoao iai?yaeaiiuo caiyoee, oneeee ?acoia. Ii
no?iai ioiineeny e naaa (ciaiaieoia “y ciath, /oi ie/aai ia ciath”), ii
?acei aunooiae e i?ioea iiaa?oiinoiiai ciaiey nioenoia, aoaeo/e oaa?ai a
oii, /oi iieociaiea a iieeoeea iiaeao i?eianoe aieueoea aaaeu
ai?iaeo-ainoaea?noao. Ia neo/aeii io “iieena” i?ienoiaeeo e “?ieeoassa”
—iieeoeea e “?ieaiio” — aieia. O/eoaeue Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey cayaeye,
/oi iieeoeeie ia caieiaaony, eai iaeneonai, aunooiae i?ioea
aeieo?eia?noaa, iieeoe/aneiai /anoiethaey, ei?unoe e, ii-aeaeeiiio,
i?aaeaeaeae iianiinoue aaniethoiie iieeoecaoeee iauanoaa.

Iiaeiaioth ooieoeeth a ?eia auiieiyee ?eineea th?enou, ii iie
eiinoeueoe?iaaee ianaeaiea ii eiie?aoiui aii?inai i?aaa. A Aoeiao
“o/eoaeyie aeecie” aunooiaee o/aieee Nie?aoa Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue,
ae?oaea iuneeoaee. Ia ei anai ec ieo noaeueaa ieacaeanue aeaaineeiiiie:
Aa?aeeeo ec Yoana, Aeaiie?eo ec Aaaea? ooee a ie? eiie aac iaaeaaeaeu ia
i?eciaiea, Nie?ao ieacaeny i?eaiai?aiiui e nia?oe, Ieaoiia iinoeaea
iaoaea/a a i?aeoe/aneie iieeoeea e ?aaeecaoeee naiaai i?iaeoa
eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa. I?ioaai?, Aiaenaai? nianaeenue aaanoaii ec
Aoei. A /oi n A?enoioaeai? Ii iiaeoaa?aeee iauaa i?aaeei eee noae
eneeth/aieai?

Aaeeeee A?enoioaeue i?iaeee /ooue aieaa oanoeaeanyoe eao. Ii
enoi?e/aneei (aea a nouiinoe e ii /aeiaa/aneei) ia?eai — iaeii
iaiiaaiea. Ii naa?eioe eae iaoai?eo ia ii/iii iaaa ethaeneiai
caaeoaeaeaiey, ii iiiaea e iiiaea aiaeu oyiaony ca iei naiaia?aciui
oeaeoii a?enoioaeaaaaeaiea. A “iaoai?eoiii oainoa” eaeoo naie i?ioeannu:
a?aiaiaie neo/athony aniuoee aeeneonnee, ii “iueue aaeia” ioeaaeaeaao
ino?ioo nii?ia e oia?yao y?einoue aueuo e?anie. Oieeaeueiua oaeou e
ioe?uoey, aeanoyuea ica?aiey aacaeaeinoiia a?aiy iecaiaeeo aei iaueo
iano e iao/iuo aaiaeueiinoae. E, iaiai?io, ?anoiaeea, aaciniiaaoaeueiua
ooaa?aeaeaiey neeie iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey iiae/an i?eia?aoatho
aeaai?iaeiue iooaiie aeneiiu. Neo/athony noauaeoeaeci e iiaea?iecaoeey a
enoieeiaaiee niauoee, a ii?ie e ioe?iaaiiua eaeaieiae/aneea ooaiiu. Oae,
iuneeoaeue, iaoiaeeaoeeny n aeaonoaa e aei eiioea naieo aeiae a oaai?a
oea?ae e aeaaeue ie?a, iacaaaeny i?aieii aiieiiai ian/anoeeaoea.
AEaiaoue aeaaaeaeu oaeoe/anee ia ?aauiyo, ae?oaeeaoee n auaoei ?aaii,
iioii aieueiiioiouaiieeii, caaauaaoee aieueioth naiei ?aaai, ii
iaeiicia/ii e i?yiieeiaeii auaeaaony noiinoaoii, i?oiaeienaeueiui
eaeaieiaii e caueoieeii ?aanoaa. I?ioeaiai?noaa e noieeiiaaiey, i?eioeei
ninoycaoaeueiinoe — aaii (aaui — ai?ueaa), i?iiecuaaaoee ana noi?iiu
aioe/iiai iauanoaa io nii?oa e oaao?a aei, ?acoiaaony, iieeoeee,
?anoeaieaathony eae oaea?u noaeueau, ia?niiaeueii iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea
o/aiiai. Ioae?iio iaaethaeaoaeth aeecie, aiaeeoeeo e oeeinioo, ioithaeue
ia no?aieaoaiony e ia?aiaieoaeueiui aeieaeiinoyi noaeuee eee iaaeno?aoa,
ni/oanoaaiii iaiytho, /oi ii — eiiieaiaiiee a Aoeiao, i?eoaeaoe, iaoae n
oua?aiuie i?aaaie. N ianoie/eainoueth, aeinoieiie eo/oaai i?eiaiaiey,
iiaoi?yaony oacen ia oneiaeyo oiaaeea e e?ecena, a eioi?uo aeee e oai?ee
A?enoioaeue, caauaay, /oi yoi ia icia/aao e?ecena aai oai?/anoaa. A
oiaaeea e e?ecena iaoiaeeeanue aoeineay iaiin?aaenoaaiiay iieeniay
aeaiie?aoey, ii A?enoioaeue e ia i?aoaiaeiaae ia eaa?u i?aeoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey, ii ?acaeaae a?a/aneoth iieeoe/aneoth
eoeueoo?o, ?ac?aaaouaae iieeoe/aneoth iaoeo, iaania/ea ei caiaea/iue
aceao e i?ioeaaoaiea.

Iao/iay aeia?aoey A?enoioaey a eieaa ec na?ee “AEeciue caia/aoaeueiuo
ethaeae” (1960 a.) i?aaeaa?yaony noeoioai?aieai Iineaeeia “I aeecie”:

A aeecie eaeoth eca?aoue iai aei?iao? A iauanoaaiiii ianoa —

Oyaeau aea nii? i aeaeao, aeiia — naiy noaoa;

Naeueneay aeeciue iiiaio?oaeia; o?aaiae iieii ii?aoiaenoai,

No?aoii a /oaeeo iai e?ayo, anee eiaai iu /oi,

Anee aea iao ie/aai, — iiiai ai?y; aeaiaoui caaiou

Ia ieiiaaoue, oieinoui — aeie iaeeiiei aea/eoue,

Aeaoe — iaoca, aacaeaoiay aeeciue — iaiieia; a iieiaeaaee

Aeaai?acoiey iao, noa?inoue naaeay neaaa.

I?aai, iaeii eeoue ec aeaoo inoaaony iai nia?oiui ia auai?:

Eeue ia ?iaeeoueny nianai, eee nei?ae oia?aoue.

A i?eioeeia iiaeiaiay iiyoe/aneay eeethno?aoeey aeeciaiienaiey
A?enoioaey ii?aaaeaiia e oianoia, eai ii nai eco/ae caeiiu iiyoe/aneiai
eneonnoaa (o?aeoao “Iiyoeea”), ee/ii ia aac oniaoa caieiaeny
noeoineiaeaieai, no?iee, nicao/iua Iineaeeio, oeeoe?oao a iaeiii ec
aeeaeiaia (“Aaaeai”). Aaecaiao?u iiyoa, aiciiaeii, ia?aaeatho
ineoieiae/aneoth aoiinoa?o oiai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei ee?e/aneee ianneieci, a
eioi?ii i?aauaae nia?aiaiiee A?enoioaey, nianai ia iaycaoaeueii n/eoaoue
eaeaieiae/aneei au?aaeaieai yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai oiaaeea
eiioea V — ia/aea IV aaea aei i. y. a Aooeea eee ca?eaeii aioo?aiiaai
iano?iy naiiai o/aiiai. Enoaoe, yeaae/aneea (Yeaaio — aeaeiaa, iea/)
iano?iaiey naienoaaiiu iiyoai, ienaaoei e aei e iinea A?enoioaey, oioy
au Eaiieaeo Oa?aioneiio eee Oaiaieaeo:

Iuia ian/anoey aeia?uo noaiiayony aeaaii aeey ieceeo

A?aaeaeai; caeiiu oaia?ue no?aiiua anthaeo oea?yo;

Niaanoue a aeooao ethaeae ia eue; eeoue aannouaenoai e iaaeinoue,

I?aaaeo iiaaaeii iii?aa, anath aeaaeatho caieae.

Ioae?ue e o?aaiiaaoaiiue caeiiiaeaoaeue Nieii oiaea nie?ooaeny i
iaaeinoieiii iiaaaeaiee nia?aaeaeai, iineieueeo “…i?aaaeu nayuaiiue
caeii a i?aiaa?aaeaiuea o ieo”.

Aeoiaaony aianoa n oai, /oi e A?enoioaeth aieueoa iiaeoiaeyo, eae ie
ia?aaeienaeueii, ia ieii?iua noeoe aai nia?aiaiieea Iineaeeia, a eo
aieaa iioeienoe/aneee ia?ao?ac, ni/eiaiiue iiiai nionoy Iao?iaei?ii e
icaaeaaeaiiue oaeaea “I aeecie”:

A aeecie ethaay aiaeeony aei?iaa. A iauanoaaiiii ianoa —

Neaaa e ioae?inoue a aeaeao, aeiia — iieie io o?oaeia;

A naeao — i?e?iaeu aeaaea aea?u, a ii?aieaaaiuea — i?eaueue,

A e?aa /oaeii iai ii/ao, anee eiaai iu /oi.

Anee aea iao ie/aai, iu iaeie yoi ciaai; aeaieoueaa

E?aneo i/aa, oieinoui — aieaa eaaeay aeeciue.

Aeaoe — io?aaea, aacaeaoiay aeeciue aac caaio. Iieiaeaaee

Neea aeaia, noa?oea aeaai/anoeau aeooie.

Aiana ia ioaeii iaeii iai ec aeaoo auae?aoue — ia ?iaeeoueny

Eee nei?ae oie?aoue: anyeay aeiey aeaaa.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiaiii aeey A?enoioaey ieacaeanue “anyeay aeiey aeaoa”.
Aio nianai ia naienoaaiia, ii iocuaai nioiaa?euae, ie?iaay einie/aneay
nei?aue aai nia?aiaiieea Ieaoiia eee i?aaeoanoaaiieea Aa?aeeeoa Oaiiiai
ec Yoana. Aunooiaoue n yeaaeyie, aeaeiaaoueny A?enoioaeth auei iaeiaaea
— ii nin?aaeioi/aiii, aaea/anii e eaaeaeiaeiaaii ?aaioae, iaeiio — ie o
eiai ia nouanoaiaaei aieueoaai aaoi?eoaoa, /ai ii nai, ia ia /oi — ii
iaeaaeae anai, i /ai iiaeao ia/oaoue o/aiue, e, iaeiiaoe, ia a aai
i?aaeeao, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaeou aai aeia?aoee, aai nianoaaiiua
iinooiee.

A “Iioaaeao aiaeanoaaiiie ioae?inoe” Aeaenaiae? Iaeai (XIII aae)
iacuaaao A?enoioaey “o/eoaeai Aoei, aiaeaeai, aeaaie e neaaie
Anaeaiiie”. I/aaeaeii, /oi iniciaoue aaaeiinoue e cia/eiinoue aeeaaea a
iaoeo iiaeao ia iaycaoaeueii eoi-oi /a?ac iieoi?u ouny/e eao, ii e nai
o/aiue, iaoiaeynue a aeia?ii cae?aaee. Iao aieueoiai niunea naouaoue
“eaeaieiaeci” iioeaia eee iaino?youe “eeanniainoue” oi/ee c?aiey aeey
ioeaiee aiieia aeaaiiieo/iiai aeeciaiiiai e oai?/aneiai iooe oai?aoeea e
iaaeaaiaa, i?eciaiiiai e oaaaeaaiiai i?e aeecie, oioy e eiaaoaai ii oie
aea i?e/eia iaiaei caaenoieeia e iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeae. Aai ainieoaiieee —
a /oi iiaeao aeinoaaeoue aieueoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea aeey o/eoaey, /ai
oniao naieo o/aieeia, — aeinoeaee iiiaiai. Oaio?ano (oaio — aia,
oenaooTHn — oeacaoaeue, aiaeaoue, niaaoiee), iieiinoueth ii?aaaeaa
cia/aiea naiaai eiaie, noae ae?oaii, nio?oaeieeii e i?aaiieeii
A?enoioaey, aieaa o?eaeoeaoe eao aa?ie e i?aaaeie i?iaeieaeae aai aeaei.
Noiea?o (o/ieTH — oeiea, Uen/TH — aeanoue) —?oeiaiaeeoaeue, ?aeoi? Eeeay
n 322a. aei i.y., ii i?aa?aoee aai a iao/ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiue oeaio?
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ianooaaa, eoaea nioiyie noaeaeanue iieiaeaaeue ni anao
oaieeia Yeeaaeu. ?ani?ino?aiyoueny i ae?oaii ainieoaiieea A?enoioaey,
Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineii, icia/aao eiieoueny a ioe?uoua aeaa?e: i iai
ciaao eaaeaeue. Ioiaoei oieueei, /oi ia?ainoaoaeiue aiaia/aeueiee e
no?aoaa aioae a enoi?eth e eae auaeathueeny ainoaea?noaaiiue oi,
iieeoee, aeeieiiao e o/aiue.

A?enoioaeue — aai eiy (Ueneooio) ia?aaiaeeony n ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai eae
“naiue eo/oee”, “ioee/iaeoee”, “ciaoiaeoee” — aeaenoaeoaeueii ia?aue,
“naiue eo/oee” nui ae?aaiae Yeeaaeu, “naiay anaiauaiethuay aieiaa n?aaee
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia”, “aa?oeia aioe/iie oeeinioee”, ii ecaanoiie
ioeaiea E. Ia?ena. Iaeiaei oiio?aaeoue i?aainoiaeiua noaiaie oianoii e a
iienaiee aai ?acaanenoiai aaiaaeiae/aneiai ae?aaa. Aoaeouee o/eoaeue
A?enoioaey Ieaoii ioee/aeny ciaoiinoueth i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ii iniiaaoaeue
nianoaaiiie ia?eiaoaoe/aneie oeieu e iniiaiiieiaeiee iieeoe/aneie iaoee
iia iioaanoaoue ia iaiaa aeoaieeie, ooiaeyueie a eaaaiaea?iua a?aiaia,
a?enoie?aoe/aneeie ei?iyie. Ii i?ienoiaeee, ii i?aaeaieth, ec neaaiiai
?iaea Aneeaieaaeia. O Aiia?a Aneeaiee — oannaeeeneee eiycue, nui
Aiieeiia, aia a?a/aaaiey, iao/aiiue yoiio eneonnoao ioae?ui eaioaa?ii
Oe?iiii. A ?eineie ieoieiaee Aneeaiee ia?ainiuneai a Yneoeaia. Eaea?ai
ieacaeny e nui Aneeaiey Iaoaii, aeoeaiue o/anoiee O?iyineie aieiu. Ioaoe
A?enoioaey Ieeiiao oaeaea ?aaioae a?a/ii, i?eaeai?iui a?a/ii
iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Aieiou II.

Iiaeao neiaeeoueny aia/aoeaiea, /oi A?enoioaeth ia iniaaiii iiaacei n
ianoii ?iaeaeaiey. Ai?iaeie Noaae?u ia iiaa?aaeuea Yaaeneiai ii?y, a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie aai /anoe, i?aaenoaaeye niaie iaaieueooth a?a/aneoth
eieiieth a ie?oaeaiee eeee?eeneeo e o?aeeeneeo ieaiai, iaoiaeeaoeony ia
?iaeiaie noaaeee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Ii ?aniieaaaeny ia a?aieoea
a?a/aneie ieeoiaiu, a aeooie i?iaeioeee, aeee naiae niieieiie aeeciueth,
ia neiiaoece?oy iniaaiii ie Aoeiai, ie Iaeaaeiiee. Iineaaeiyy a ia/aea
IV aaea aei i. y. noiyea iniaiyeii ii ioiioaieth ei anaio yeeeineiio
ie?o, ioee/aynue aeaniioe/aneei i?aaeaieai, aieaa no?iaui eeeiaoii,
aieaa ?aceei ia?a/eai, naeueneioicyenoaaiiui oeeaaeii aeecie, caneeueai
aiaiii-?iaeiaie a?enoie?aoee ai aeaaa n oea?ai. Ii?yaeee a noieeoea
ai?iaea Iaeea aanueia eiio?anoe?iaaee n iieeoe/aneei ?aaeeiii Aoei,
Ieeaoa, Aeaeueo e aeaaea Nia?ou n eo ooiiuie ia?iaeiuie nia?aieyie,
iiiaiethaeiuie noaeaie, auai?iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeieaeiinoyie.
Iaeaaeiiey auaeyaeaea cia/eoaeueii iiuiaa naieo ninaaeae yeiiiie/anee e
oeiaeniai. Caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey iaeaaeiineie ciaoe ia oee ie a eaeia
n?aaiaiea ni ne?iiiuie iaaeaeaie a oanoue oaa?ia, iieaaaaoeieny
e?anoueyieio a a?a/aneeo iieenao eee iiainaeo-eieiienoo. ?yae iiaaae a
aiaauo nou/eao e n?aaeaieyo, iaea?aeaiiuo “iieoaceaoneie” Iaeaaeiieae,
oeacuaae ia aa ?anoouoth aiaiioth neeo.

N o/aoii yoiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa a?aiy ?iaeaeaiey A?enoioaey— 384 aiae aei
i. y.—oaeaea ia ia?aue acaeyae ia auaeyaeeo iioeiaeueiui. Aceao aioe/iie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e yoiio a?aiaie niaieeny oiaaeeii a oaeeo ie?iauo
oeaio?ao oeeaeeecaoeee, eae Aoeiu, aaea yeiiiieea, oi?aiaey, oicyenoai
aaaenoaiaaee. A o?aiao Ae?iiiey ineoaeaaae cieioie caian, oaye
iauanoaaiiue iioeieci, iaeaieeaaeenue onoaeinoue, aiaoey, ii ia a niunea
aanno?anoiue e, iaa?aaeeiinoue, a. a Cia/aiee aan/oanoaaiiay ooiinoue e
?aaiiaeooea. Iaino?eeenue i?ioeaiai?noai e niia?ie/anoai ia?oee e
a?oiie?iaie aioo?e no?aiu. Oneeeeinue i?ioeainoiyiea ia a?aieoeao.

Ii ae?aiaoece?iaaoue ianoaiiaeo, i/aaeaeii, ia neaaeoao. Aea,
ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?acaeoey auaeaeaaea O?aeeth e Iaeaaeiieth. Enoiuaiiay
aeaiie?aoeae, i?aioae?ay, ii iae?yoeaaoay Aooeea ia?aaeaaaea, oioy e
iaioioii, ?oeiaiaenoai a aieaa e?aieea ?oee. Oae i?ioeann niaiu
iieeoe/aneeo e ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey. Ii
a?a/aneee Ieeii inoaaaeny Ieeiiii, Caan — Caanii aeey anao yeeeiia.
Aaeeeieaiea “cieioiai aaea”, nin?aaeioi/aiiia a Aoeiao i?e Ia?eeea,
noaei eae au ?anoaeaoueny aoe?ue i?e Oeeeiiao e oai aieaa i?e
Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineeo. Auni/aeoee aioo?aiiee ?anoeaao niaieeny noieue
aea auni/aeoei aiaoiei iiaouanoaii. N?aaee i?e/ei iai?eyoey Iaeaaeiiee,
aiciiaeii, aeaaiie aunooiaea ineoieiae/aneay: /oanoaa ?aoeie?iaaiiuo
aoeiyi caaeaaaeenue oai, /oi “iieoaa?aa?u” auoiaeeee a aaaaiiia iaoeee.
Ii, no?iai aiai?y, yoi oa aea a?aee, eioi?uo aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey e
iniaaiiinoe enoi?e/aneiai yoaia, nianoaaiiay aeiaeanoue e
naiiioaa?aeaiiinoue, aiaiiay oaea/a auaeaeioee ia ?ieue iauaaeeieoaey
A?aoeee e iiaaaeeoaey Ia?nee.

Aeaeueiiaeaeiia ?oeiaiaenoai e ainoaea?noaaiiay ioae?inoue iaeaaeiioeaa
aia/aoeyee. Iie ia?aianee noieeoeo e ii?th, ?acei ?acaeee ii?aoiaenoai e
oi?aiaeth, iiaeiyee aianiiniaiinoue aienea, aaaee cieiooth aaethoo,
?anoe?eee oa??eoi?eth, ioneay a oiae iaeeiaeiai oniaoii e i?oaeea e
aeaiueae. Ei oaeaaaeinue noaaeoue naaa ia neoaeao aeaaea iao/iua e
oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey a iiei?aiiuo ai?iaeao-ainoaea?noaao. Eo
i?aaenoaaeoaee, niaaaeaiiua iieiiii/eyie—aeeieiiaie, niiaaee ii anai
no?aiai. Aeeieiiaoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue (aee?eueio — aeaieiie,
eoeaaue, eiaa?iue), iiaaaeu ia anao o?iioao iiiaeeee /enei eo
noi?iiieeia, iniaaiii n?aaee caaeeoi/iie /anoe ianaeaiey, e?oiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, iauaaeeieaoeony ai aeeyoaeueioth iaeaaeiiioeeueneoth
ia?oeth.

Iaeiaei aoaeouaai oeeinioa e iieeoeea ana yoi aua i?yii ia eanaeinue. A
iieiaeua eaoa aai aieueoa caieiaea ?ineioiay thaeiay i?e?iaea,
ineaieoaeueiay eaco?ue ia?auaiiiai ia tha No?eiiineiai caeeaa, aaeua
io?iae ai?, oaienoay i?ioeaaea iiia?aioeaauo ?iu, oeaaou e ioeoeu
?iaeiuo Noaae? — iiyoe/aneiai oaieea n iiaeeie aaeeeiai Aa?eieaea e
“oeoei”, aiineaaenoaee nayoui, Aoiiii. Aeie n/anoeeaua eaoaee ca aeiyie
a oea?neii aeai?oea a iauanoaa ae?oaa aeaonoaa, a?yaeouaai iauaaeeieoaey
e aeanoaeeia Yeeaaeu oea?y Oeeeiia II, aeinoa /a?aaeiaaeny n caiyoeyie,
o/aaie, iiiiuueth iooeo a iaaeeoeeineie i?aeoeea e iiaeaioiaeie e oiio,
/oiau oianeaaeiaaoue aai i?ioanneth. Ii a 369 a. aei i. y., eiaaea
aoaeouaio oeeinioo eniieieeinue anaai iyoiaaeoeaoue eao, oie?atho aai
?iaeeoaee. Caaiou ia io?iea i?eieiaao iiaeoi I?ienai, ?iaeii ec Aoa?iae,
caiaieaoee aio e iooea e iaoue. Ii i?eia?aoaao eieae, i?eaeaaao aeon e
iao/iui enneaaeiaaieyi, o/eo iaaethaeaoue i?e?iaeo, aeaeaoue aa?aa?ee,
niae?aoue eieeaeoeee. A?enoioaeue nio?aiee ia anth aeeciue oaieua
/oanoaa aeaaiaea?iinoe, ioieaoea oie aea caaioie e ?a/eoaeueiinoueth:
iinea nia?oe I?ienaia iiiiaae aai aaeiaa, onuiiaee nuia Ieeaii?a, auaeae
ca iaai naith aei/ue Ieoeaaeo.

Iiaeiuaiiue anoanoaaiiiiao/iuie ecuneaieyie a ae?aiioiuo Noaae?ao,
A?enoioaeue oai ia iaiaa neuoae ?anneacu ia Aoeiao— eoeueoo?iie noieeoea
no?aiu, i aa ioae?aoeao Nie?aoa, Ieaoiia. Ii aeieai ?aciuoeye, ?inei
aeaeaiea o/eoueny a ieaoiiianeie Aeaaeaiee, neaaa i eioi?ie a?aiaea ii
anae Yeeaaea. Iaeiiaoe a 367 a. aei i. y. naiiaaeoeaoeeaoiee thiioa
iieeaeaao naiueth I?ienaia e ioi?aaeyaony a iooue.

?aniieiaeaiiay ia caiaaea ai?iaea, ia iaeioi?ii oaeaeaiee io iaai, a
caeaiie ?iua, ie?oaeaaoae o?ai ieoieiae/aneiai aa?iy Aeaaeaia (ionthaea
aa iacaaiea), — iaiieiaiiay iaieai ioeoe e aeo?/aieai enoi/ieea, n
nieia/iuie aeeeaie ia i?aii?a neoeueioo? e iaeeeai oeaaoia, — Aeaaeaiey
inoaaeyea iaecaeaaeeiia aia/aoeaiea. Iia nouanoaiaaea oaea ieiei
aeaaaeoeaoe eao, e caeanue aea A?enoioaeth noaeaeaii auei inoaaaoueny
oaeaea ieiei aeaaaeoeaoe eao, nia/aea neooaoaeai, a caoai e eaeoi?ii. Ii
n?aco iiciaeiieoueny n aa noiea?oii ia oaeaeinue. Eiaiii a oi a?aiy ii
oaoae ai aoi?ie ?ac ia Neoeeeeth. Iiacaeea caoyioeanue ia oeaeuo o?e
aiaea. Aiciiaeii, yoi iioei ia iieueco A?enoioaeth. Ii iinoaiaiii aioae
a o/aaioth ianoaiiaeo, iniio?aeny, iiiuoaeny aieeiooue ai ana nai, a
aeaaiia, nio?aiee naiinoiyoaeueiinoue noaeaeaiee e e?eoe/iinoue
iiaeoiaea, ia iiaeiaaeay iiae aaoi?eoao iyo?a, e niieieii aioiaeeny e
aai i?eacaeo.

Aeaaa Aeaaeaiee — A?enoiee ieacaeny /aeiaaeii e?aieiai neiaeaiey, n
oe?ieei eaii e iieiinoueth ii?aaaeuaae i?icaaiea, aeaiiia aio aua
Nie?aoii, — Oe?ieee (?eUeoui). N iaa?aaeii ia?aa?ioaiiui /a?ac iea/i
ieauii — aaiaoeiiii (nai A?enoioaeue iaeaaaeny uaaieuenee),
iaeaioiee/iue e iaoeua/eaue, ii eae au eeethno?e?iaae auoiaaaooth
iiaiai?eo: “A?onoai eae Ieaoii”. Iioii iie aeecei nioeenue.
Oanoeaeanyoeeaoiee o/eoaeue, iaoiaeeaoeeny a caieoa naiae neaau, noae
ae?oaii iieiaeiai ainieoaiieea, eioi?iio ia eniieieeinue aua e
o?eaeoeaoe. Iaaei ciaoue, eae a aioe/iinoe auniei noaaeee ae?oaeao,
/oiau iiiyoue cia/aiea yoiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Ieaoii ioeaiee aeeaie,
eieoeeaoeaiue oa?aeoa? A?enoioaey, aai eioaeeaeooaeueiua aeaiiua,
oaeaio, iacaaa aai “/enoui ?acoiii”. N?aaieaay aai n ae?oaei
auaeathueiny, ii iaaeeeoaeueiui o/aieeii, Enaiie?aoii, O/eoaeue
aiaa?eaae: “Ia?aue ioaeaeaaony a ocaea, a aoi?ie — a oii?ao”.

A?enoioaeue aeoaiei oaaaeae Ieaoiia, ii aue iacaaeneiui a naieo
noaeaeaieyo e ia oa?iae i?aaeienaiee. Ii oneeaiii caieiaeny, ii eiae e
aeinoa. Nianoaaiii, o/iec e icia/aao naiaiaeiia a?aiy, i?acaeiinoue,
/oaiea, aanaaeu. A?enoioaeue ethaee aeeciue ai anao aa i?iyaeaieyo, ia
a?inae iaaeeoeeineoth i?aeoeeo, oniaaae iiiaia…

A aeeciaiienaiee A?enoioaey o?oaeii i?eaanoe eaeie-oi naaaeee iiai?io:
ana oaeou, eioi?ua iiaeii auei iouneaoue ca nioie eao, iaeaeaiu, niauoey
?anniio?aiu, aeieoiaiou eco/aiu. Ii eiiaeiaoeee yoeo oaeoia, a iiaeao, e
oaeoeeia, eo enoieeiaaiea caaenyo io “oaea c?aiey”, io aaoi?neie
iiceoeee, aa a?aoiaioe?iaaiiia™. Iu ainiieuecoainy iaoiaeieiae/aneei
niaaoii A. N. Iooeeia, aeaiiui I. A. Aycaineiio a iiya?a 1825 a. ec
Ieoaeeianeiai a Iineao: “Inoaaue ethaiiuonoai oieia e aoaeue caiaeii n
aaieai”. Oioy aa?eaiou aiciiaeiu naiua ?aciua: aei?aaiethoeeiiiue (A. O.
Eeoaeiiaa. A?enoioaeue. NIa., 1892), niaaoneee (A. I. Coaia.
A?enoioaeue. I., 1963), ca?oaaaeiue (A. Aiiia?. A?a/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey.
I., 1996).

Naiiaaeoeaoue eao, i?iaaaeaiiuo ?yaeii n Ieaoiiii, i?ieaoaee iacaiaoii.
Iaia?oaeeeinue naiaia?aciia ?iaenoai aeoo. A “Ieeiiaoiaie yoeea”
A?enoioaeue niciaaony a oii, eae ii?aeueii oyaeaei enoeiu ?aaee aio
e?eoeeiaaoue O/eoaey. Aei iineaaeieo aeiae aeecie Ieaoiia ii
nio?oaeie/ae n Aeaaeaieae, i?aiiaeaaae eiaeeo, ?eoi?eeo, aunooiae n
aeeaeiaaie. Iiyaeeenue naie o/aieee. Iaeei ec ieo, ?aa aoi?iaeneiai
oe?aia Aa?iee, iniaaiii oaeaioeeaue, aeaaiaea?y naiei niiniaiinoyi e
ae?oaeaa n oe?aiii noae i?aaiieeii iineaaeiaai.

A 348 a. aei i. y., a aic?anoa ainueieaeanyoe eao, oie?aao Ieaoii.
A?enoioaeue oyaeaei ia?aaeeaaao nia?oue aeeceiai /aeiaaea, ioeeeeaaony
noeoaie ia yoi o?aae/aneia niauoea. Ii aai iiaieth, Ieaoii aeieacae
naiae aeeciueth e o/aieai, /oi auoue aeia?iaeaoaeueiui e n/anoeeaui —
yoi aeaa noi?iiu iaeiiai e oiai aea no?aieaiey. A?enoioaeue ia iiaeao
aieaa i?aauaaoue a Aeaaeaiee. I?e/ei iouacaea, aeaeeii, auei ianeieueei:
eciaiaiea ianoaiiaee e eeeiaoa a Aeaaeaiee, aaea noiea?oii ooaa?aeeeny
iaaeaeaeee ieaiyiiee Ieaoiia, ianeaaeiee aai eiouanoaa. Aiciiaeii, noaei
ineoieiae/anee o?oaeii iaoiaeeoueny oai, aaea ana, eacaeinue, i?iieeiooi
aeooii O/eoaey, aaea aacaea neuoaeny aai aiein. Aa?iyoii, e oiio a?aiaie
A?enoioaeue ana aieueoa oaaaeaeaeny a aanieiaeiinoe iao/iiai
iai?aaeaiey, eca?aiiiai Aeaaeaieae. A iiaeao noaoueny, ii
ainiieueciaaeny i?eia?ii naiiai Ieaoiia, eioi?ue iinea nia?oe Nie?aoa
n/ae ca aeaai ioi?aaeoueny a iooaoanoaea aeey ?anoe?aiey e?oaici?a. Oae
eee eia/a, A?enoioaeue aianoa n Enaiie?aoii auacaeaao Ec Aoei, ii ia oae
aeaeaei, eae Ieaoii, ia a Aaeiao e Iaeanoeio, a a ai?iae Annin e Aa?ieth
ia iaeiaceeneee aa?aa oiai aea Yaaeneiai ii?y.

Aa?iee, i?aaeoaeue ai?iaea, a i?ioeii aeaaaeaeu i?iaeaiiue a ?aanoai,
caoai aieueiiioiouaiiee, caoai neooaoaeue ieaoiiianeie Aeaaeaiee, aeaaii
caae A?enoioaey e naaa. Annin — ia Aoeiu, ii aeey o/aiiai aeaaiia oeoeia
e iaaeeaaeauea oneiaey aeey ieiaeioai?iiai o?oaea. Ii/oe o?e aiaea
aeeeeinue aaciyoaaeiia auoea, ii?aaeaeyaiia a?a/aneei neiaii “eaeeeeey”:
iauaiea, ianiaoiua aanaaeu ia iao/iua, iieeoe/aneea oaiu. Ianoaeaeaeny
aii?in e i aeaeaoaeueiinoe inaiaiaeaeaiey anao a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia a
Iaeie Acee io ia?nia. Ii ai?a-no?aoaae naie ieacuaathony aea?oaaie
caaiai?a. Aa?iee aeaiao, caoaa/aiiue a?aaaie. A?enoioaeue oyaeaei
ia?aaeeaaao oo?aoo ae?oaa, iinayuaao aio aeaa i?i/oanoaiaaiiuo
noeoioai?aiey, iicaea noaaeo iiioiaio a Aeaeueoeeneii o?aia. Ii aeaieony
ia ieaaeoae nano?a (ii ae?oaei aa?neyi, ia i?eaiiie aei/a?e eee
ieaiyiieoea) Aa?iey, Ieoeaaea, eai iia inoaaaeanue iaeia. Ianoaiiaea
naouaaony. Aiaa ia?neaeneiai aeaaeuee A?oaena?ena aioia ia?ooeoueny ia
inoaaoeony a aeeauo. Enaiie?ao aica?auaaony a Aoeiu, A?enoioaeue —
iiainoeoue e ae?oao e o/aieeo Oaio?anoo ia ino?ia Eanain, aaea i?iaiaeeo
i/a?aaeiia o?aoeaoea. AEeciue iinoaiaiii iaeaaeeaaaony, aeaia aea?eo
A?enoioaeth aei/ue, eioi?oth ii ia?aeaao aa aea eiaiai. Iaeiaei anei?a
iinooiaao iiaia i?eaeaoaiea io naiiai Oeeeiia II.

A ienueia iaeaaeiineee oea?ue e ae?oa aeaonoaa i?ecuaaao A?enoioaey
noaoue o/eoaeai aai o?eiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai nuia Aeaenaiae?a, eioi?iio
aeaaiaea?y aiaai iin/anoeeaeeinue ?iaeeoueny ai a?aiy aeecie A?enoioaey.
Iiyoiio neaaeothuee, 343 aiae canoaao A?enoioaey a noieeoea Iaeaaeiiee
ai?iaea Iaeea, aaea aoaeouee iieeiaiaeaoe, caoaea aeuoaiea, neooaao
o/eoaey. Oio, eacaeinue, ciaao ana. Ii aeaao /eoaoue naiaio o/aieeo
Ieiaea?a, Aa?iaeioa, Aa?eieaea, i?eiauay ath e yeeeineie eoeueoo?a e
i?eaeaay eioa?an e aunieei aeooiaiui oeaiiinoyi, eioi?ue anth aeeciue ia
iieeaeae Aeaenaiae?a.

Iineaiea aeaaeuee, ee/iay ia?aienea Aeaenaiae?a ni naiei ianoaaieeii,
caaiou iaeaaeiineiai oea?y i nai?a aiaaouo eieeaeoeee ?aaeeeo caii?neeo
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo aeey enneaaeiaaiee, ainnoaiiaeaiea ?ac?ooaiiie
Oeeeiiii ?iaeeiu A?enoioaey Noaae?u ii oiaeaoaenoao oeeinioa, iienoeia
oea?neee aiii?a?, iaiyoiee o/eoaeth i?e aeecie e o. i. —yoi ianiiiaiiua
oaeou naiuo ae?oaeanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainieoaoaeai e
ainieoaiieeii.

*a?ac i/a?aaeiua o?e aiaea, a 340 a. aei i. y., Aeaenaiae? aieath noaeaa
(aeaaeue iooea Oeeeiia II iaeaioia aeoau i?e Oa?iiaa) noaiiaeony
i?aaeoaeai ia?iiiie aea?aeaau. Caiyoey i?ae?aoeeenue, e i ieo iioiieai
iaiiieiaea eeoue oeea?iay i?aii?iay neaiuey, ia eioi?ie neaeeaaee
O/eoaeue e o/aiee. (Neaiuey inoaaaeanue oeaeie aua iiiai nioai eao
nionoy.)

A?enoioaeue i?iaue aua iaeioi?ia a?aiy a Iaeea, aeieacuaay Aeaenaiae?o
aeaeaoaeueiinoue aieaa niieieiie iieeoeee nithca Iaeaaeiiee e A?aoeee.
Ii “ioaiaoe” aicioaeae. Ii i/aiue nei?i aeae iiiyoue, /oi oaea aiieia
i?i/ii “anoae ia e?uei”, eiaao naie acaeyae ia no?aoaae/aneea aii?inu
iieeoe/aneie e oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, nianoaaiiua i?eaioe?u e caiuneu. Ii
ia iia oaeiaeaoai?eoueny oaniuie a?aieoeaie iaiyeeeiecia, aai caieiaee
ie?iaua ianooaau.

Eoae, iinea ii/oe aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai ia?a?uaa, a 335 a. aei i. y., a
aic?anoa oaea iyoeaeanyoe eao, A?enoioaeue aica?auaaony a Aoeiu. Ii
iiaeoiuaae i i?iaeieaeaiee iao/iie e iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
?aoaiea oe?aieeinue iinea i?eoiaea aeaiooaoeee aoeineeo a?aaeaeai,
i?ineaoeo ia ioe?uoee oeieu iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii. Iaoeinue e oaienoia,
ooiaeaiiia ianoi a iai?aaeaiee, aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiii io
ieaoiiianeie Aeaaeaiee, ia thai-ainoi/iie ie?aeia Aoei. Oeiea iieo/eea
iacaaiea Eeeae (Ey/aeii) — ii iacaaieth aeiianey, ?aniieiaeaiiiai ?yaeii
n o?aiii Aiieeiia Eeeaeneiai. Ae?oaia eiy a aoaeouai anaie?ii ecaanoiie
oeiea aeaea e?uoay aaea?ay — “ia?eiaoin” (?anss?Ueoio), i?eniiniaeaiiay
iiae eaeoeeiiiue cae. N/eoaaony, /oi aa-oi aianoa n ie?oaeathuei naaeii
e i?eia?ae ninoiyoaeueiue o/aiee, a iioii eieeaaa oeeinioa Oaio?ano e
caaauae (e niaeaeaieth, aac aeaeeioaee e eieeaeoeee A?enoioaey, ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao Aeeiaaia Eay?oey) oeiea. Oaeiai ?iaea iaueiiaaiea
neo/aeinue nieioue e ?yaeii. Iacaaiea aua iaeiie iiioey?iie oeeinioneie
oeieu —noie/aneie aeaea “noiea” (ooia — ii?oee, eieiiiaaea), ii nouanoao
a?oeoaeoo?iay aeaoaeue.

Ae?oaia ?ani?ino?aiaiiia iauyniaiea iacaaiey o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey,
ainoiaeyuaa e Aa?ieiio (io ?ane?aoau — i?iaoeeaathnue), neaaeoao
i?eciaoue aa?iui eeoue io/anoe, a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?aaiou oeieu.
Iiioey?iinoue aa ?inea iaiau/aeii. A auoiinoue noiea?oii Oaio?anoa
(aieaa o?eaeoeaoe eao — n 323/322 ii 288/287 a. aei i. y.) caiyoey
iinauaei aieaa aeaoo ouny/ neooaoaeae, eioi?ua a?yae ee iiaee,
“i?iaoeeaaynue”, iineaaeiaaoue ca eaeoi?ii.

Ii yoi i?iecioei iicaeiaa, a iiea ana o?oaeiinoe eaaeao ia iea/ao
A?enoioaey. Ii o/?aaeaeaao Eeeae, iaeaaeeaaao aeaei, iiaeae?aao
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, i?iaeoiuaaao ana io o/aaiuo ieaiia aei eiioeaioeee e
no?aoaaee, nai /eoaao eaeoeee iaeeiiaaeoeaoue ia?auo, naiuo neiaeiuo
naciiia (335/334—323/322 aa. aei i. y.).

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe iyoenio eao nouanoaiaae yoio ?annaaeiee (a
ia?aiia/aeueiii, iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea neiaa) i?inaauaiey, ii?iaeea
iiaia aa?iiaeneia iiiyoea eeoeay, iineoaeea i?ioioeiii ?aaeueiiai
nia?aiaiiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai einoeoooa. Aianoa n oai a?enoioaeaaneee
Eeeae aue caaeoiai aai iniiaaoaeai ia oieueei eae aunoay oeiea aoeineie
iieiaeaaee. I/aiue nei?i ii noae e?oiiui iao/iui o/?aaeaeaieai. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aeeaeiaeci, i?enouee i?iaeonoe/aneie aioe/iie eoeueoo?a,
i?iyaeeny caeanue a oii, /oi ieaoiiianeie oeiea ia/aea
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoueny ieayaea o/aiuo, e?eoe/anee iano?iaiiuo e
ieaoiiecio. I/aiue nei?i a?enoioaeaaneia iai?aaeaiea aeieacaei naith
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ii ioiioaieth e aaaeouei a oi a?aiy iaoeeiiaeueiui
oeieai—ieaoiieeai a Aeaaeaiee e eeieeai a Eeiina?aa (Aioenoai e ae?.).
Ii nouanoao aeaoeua A?enoioaey, Eeeae niaaeeiye ooieoeee aunoaai
o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey n caaea/aie naiaai ?iaea aeaaeaiee iaoe, o. a.
nenoaiaoece?iaae ?ac?aaioeo anao iaeanoae ciaiey ia iniiaa iaoiaea
naiaai iniiaaoaey e eii?aeeie?iaae iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee ia?eiaoaoe/aneie oeieu (iineaaeiei e?oiiui nenoaiaoeeii
e oai?aoeeii aei iaoae y?u aue No?aoii ec Eaiinaea. Aa?oeia
a?enoioaeecia ia?auo aaeia iaoae y?u — Aeaenaiae? Ao?iaeeneeneee).

Eiaaea n o?oaeii iaeaaeaiiia aeaei noaei i?eiineoue ia?aua
iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou, ianoaiiaea ?acei eciaieeanue. A 323 a. aei
i. y. ec Aaaeeiia, eioi?ue Aeaenaiae? Aaeeeee oioae naeaeaoue noieeoeae
naiae naa?oaea?aeaau, i?eoiaeeo ecaanoea i aai nei?iiinoeaeiie nia?oe a
aic?anoa o?eaeoeaoe o?ao eao. Iiaeieiaao aieiao aioeiaeaaeiineay ia?oey
Aeaiinoaia —Eeeo?aa. A?enoioaeth a?icyo iai?eyoiinoe. Aa?oiaiue ae?aoe
Yeaaneineeo oaeinoa iaaeiyao oeeinioa a eiuoinoaa: aai noeoioai?aiea ia
nia?oue Aa?iey eaaeeoeoee?oaony eae iaai — aeii a /anoue aiaa, /oi ia
iiaeiaaei nia?oiui e n/eoaeinue nayoioaonoaii.

Iianiinoue, eae iiaeoaa?aeeeinue aiineaaenoaee, ieacaeanue
i?aoaaee/aiiie, no?aoe — i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiuie. Ii, ia aeiaeeaeaynue
aiciiaeiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, A?enoioaeue ia?aaeaao oi?aaeaiea Eeeaai
Oaio?anoo e ioi?aaeyaony a Oaeeeaeo ia ino?iaa Yaaay ia aeeeo,
inoaaoothny aua io iieieiie iaoa?e Oaoeaeu. Ii iieeaeaao Aoeiu, /oiau
“ia aeaoue aoeiyiai aiciiaeiinoe niiaa i?iaeieoueny ia?aae oeeinioeae”.
O?aca, iiaoi?aiiay aiineaaenoaee iiiaie?aoii ai anao aeia?aoeyo o/aiiai,
iiaeao auoue, einaaiii eee “io i?ioeaiiai” iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aunieoth
cia/eiinoue iieeoeei-i?aaiauo i?ioeaaeo?, iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey,
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u a aioe/iii ie?a. I?e aunieie iieeoe/aneie e
i?aaiaie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey ieeaeie ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue, eae au
auniei ii ie noiye, ieeaeie oai?aoee eee eaeaieia, eaeei au aaoi?eoaoii
ii ie iieueciaaeny, ia /oanoaiaae naay naiaiaeiui io iiaeio/aoiinoe eee
iiaeeiio?ieueiinoe ia?iaeo. Yoi auea ii?ia oiaaeaoieo iieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee, oi?ia naiii/euaiey e naiioe?aieaiey iieeniie aeaiie?aoee.
O?oaeii iaeoe eiai-oi ec caiaoiuo ia?niiaaeae aioe/iie enoi?ee, eoi ia
eniuoae au ia naaa aeaiiue aniaeo nouanoaiaaaoaai iieeoe/aneiai
ii?yaeea. Ia?eee, i?eciaiiue eeaea? e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue Aoeineiai
ainoaea?noaa, auioaeaeai aue ioaee/ii io/eouaaoueny ca
ia?a?anoiaeiaaiiua n?aaenoaa ia no?ieoaeuenoaa Ia?oaiiia. Nieii,
eaaaiaea?iue caeiiiaeaoaeue, oaoae iooaoanoaiaaoue, iaeaeaiiue ia
aoeiyi. “Aeinoaeinue” e A?enoioaeth.

Aiiaua, aoi?ie ia?eiae aeecie a Aoeiao a ee/iii ieaia aeey oeeinioa e
o/aiiai aue ia naiui eo/oei. Oia?ea iieiaeie ethaeiay aeaia Ieoeaaea
(nionoy ianeieueei eao A?enoioaeue aeaieony ia iaeiaeieoea Aa?ieeeeaaea
e ?iaeeaoaainy nuia iaciaao a /anoue aeaaea Ieeiiaoii). A yoi aea a?aiy
iaino?yaony aieaciue aeaeoaeea, aaniieieaoay aai anth aeeciue, io
eioi?ie ii e oie?aao, ?ania/aoaa-naaeueiie aeanyoie eao.

A Neenoeineie eaiaeea Aaoeeaia ia o?anea ?aoayey “Ieaoiiianeay
Aeaaeaiey” n?aaee iiiaeanoaa oeao? auaeaeythony aeaa, noiyuea iniaiyeii.
Eo ?aniieiaeaiea, iicu, aeanou iiae/a?eeaatho eiio?ano e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea. Ciaiaieoue ooaeiaeiee ecia?acee “eae aeeauo”
aaee/aeoeo iuneeoaeae ae?aaiinoe Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey a iiiaio eo
o/aiiai nii?a. C?eoaeue, eaaeaony, neuoeo e?ueaooth o?aco o/aieea:
“Ieaoii iia ae?oa, ii enoeia aei?iaea!” Ii oae ee i?ioeaiiieiaeiu iie a
naieo aicc?aieyo? Ianeieueei aeaeioe aia?aae iieeoe/aneoth iaoeo
A?enoioaeue ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie? A /ai iiaecia e
aeooaeueiinoue aai eaeae? Aeey ioaaoa ia yoe e iiaeiaiua aii?inu
i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui ?anniio?aoue eo oai?aoe/aneea iiceoeee. Eo
aiaeec eiaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey ioeaiee iao/iiai aeeaaea
A?enoioaey, oyniaiey aai ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo acaeyaeia ia ainoaea?noai,
aeanoue, i?aai, aeey iiieiaiey e iauoiuaaiey “ianoueo eiino?oeoeee” aai
iieeoe/aneie eiioeaioeee.

Eiaaea A?enoioaeue anoae ia e?eoe/aneea iiceoeee e Ieaoiio? Ia nae n/ao
nouanoaotho nae/an a iniiaiii aeaa oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeia, “aaiaoe/aneay”,
iaiaoeeiai o/aiiai A. Eaaa?a (1923 a.) ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a auoiinoue
naith a Aeaaeaiee Ieaoiia A?enoioaeue aunooiae eae i?oiaeienaeueiue
ieaoiiee, i?eciaaae “ioaeaeueiinoue” eaeae. Ii iinea nia?oe Ieaoiia ii,
ia?aaeea ie?iaicc?ai/aneee e?ecen, ia/ae e?eoeeiaaoue oai?eth eaeae e
caoai aei eiioea aeecie yaiethoeeiie?iaae a noi?iio anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai
yiie?ecia.

Ii ae?oaie oi/ea c?aiey oaaaeneiai o/aiiai E. Aeth?eiaa (1966 a.),
A?enoioaeue n naiiai ia/aea aue i?ioeaieeii o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoe eaeae.
Iaeaieaa ?aceei oiiii ii aunooiae a ?aiieo ?aaioao. Iaiai?io, a aai
c?aeuo ni/eiaieyo iieaie/aneee ca?yae nieaeaaony, ii ii nouanoao
aica?auaaony e ieaoiiianeie i?iaeaiaoeea naa?o/oanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe.

I?iaeaia i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo A?enoioaeai e aai o/eoaeai noaiiaeeanue
i?aaeiaoii iao/iie iieaieee e ?aiueoa. Aua a XIV aaea AEai Ao?eaeai
caaeaaae “Aii?inu” e “Iieeoeea” A?enoioaey. A XV aaea Ieeoii
?annoaeaeaao “I i?iaeaiao, ii eioi?ui A?enoioaeue ?anoiaeeony n
Ieaoiiii”. Iioii ia yoie ieaa aunooiaee Aai?aee Noiea?ee e iiiaeanoai
ae?oaeo, ii?aaeaeeaoeo oeaeia iai?aaeaiea “ai?ueau ieaoiieeia e
a?enoioaeeeia” a Eoaeee XIV — XV aaeia. Ai?i/ai, a ei?ioeie
anooieoaeueiie noaouea iao aiciiaeiinoe ia oieueei iiae?iaii
inoaiiaeoueny ia enoi?eia?aoee aii?ina, ii e niinii i?aaenoaaeoue
yaiethoeeth iieeoe/aneeo aicc?aiee naiiai Aaeeeiai Noaae?eoa, ii iiaiaeo
eioi?uo a ie?iaii a?enoioaeaaaaeaiee ia nouanoaoao iieiiai aaeeiiaeooey.
Ii i/aaeaeii oi, /oi, aoaeo/e o/aieeii Ieaoiia n ?aiiaai aic?anoa, n
naiiaaeoeaoe eao, iaoiaeynue a oaniii iauaiee n iei ii/oe aeaa
aeanyoeeaoey, A?enoioaeue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noi?ie?iaae naie
acaeyaeu iiae aeaaioai?iui aeeyieai Ieaoiia. ssnii, /oi eo iiiaia
?iaeieo. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai iauay ie?iaicc?ai/aneay iniiaa,
iai?aaeaiiinoue ono?aieaiee, iaiieieaaeiay oaa?aiiinoue a eiia/iie
iiaaaea aeia?a iaae ceii, a o?eoioa caeiia e i?aaa, a oi?aeanoaa
oea?noaa ?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Iao/iia nio?oaeie/anoai, onoaiiaeaoaany aua a aiaeu ?aaiou Ieaoiia a
Aeaaeaiee ni naiei eo/oei o/aieeii, i?iaeieaeaeinue, eae ie
ia?aaeienaeueii, e iinea aai nia?oe. Ieaoiieci inoaeny a iao/iii,
iiiyoeeiii aiia?aoa A?enoioaey. Ieaoii onoaiiaee a naia a?aiy aeaeaiea
iiiyoee, A?enoioaeue ?ac?aaaouaaao eiae/aneea eiino?oeoeee n eo
eniieueciaaieai. A oai?/anoaa Ieaoiia ai anai aeanea i?iyaeyaony
oa?aeoa?iaeoay oi?ia a?a/aneie i?iaeonoe/aneie eoeueoo?u— aeeaeia.
A?enoioaeue ia iniiaa aeeaeiaa ?acaeaaao oeaeinoioth oai?eth iao/iiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Nieeaea?ece?oynue n o/eoaeai, A?enoioaeue
iiae/a?eeaaao aaaeiinoue iaueo ia/ae. Caaea/o iienea iaueo iniiaaiee
auiieiyao o iaai ia eiaeea, a oeeinioey, “iaoaoeceea”. Iineaaeithth ii
iacuaaao e “ia?aie oeeinioeae”, e oaieiaeae iioiio, /oi aa i?aaeiaoii
aunooiaao o/aiea i nouai, i ia/aeao e i?e/eiao anaai nouaai.

A?enoioaeue, i?e anai no?aieaiee i?aiaeieaoue ieaoiiianeia o/aiea ia
eaeayo, ia auoiaeeo ca a?aieoeu eaeaaeenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey,
iineieueeo ia?ae/iay oi?ia eae iiiyoea aunooiaao o iaai oai aea
“niuneii” aaue. Oi/ii oae aea, eae e o Ieaoiia, “eaeay”, “oi?ia” o
A?enoioaey a ?aaiie noaiaie iaeciaiia, aa/ia e anaiaua, oioy, iiaeao
auoue, e oa?yao a ecaanoiie noaiaie naith ienoe/aneoth iaeooaaeaiiinoue.
Eiae/aneea iino?iaiey A?enoioaey oiic?eoaeueiu a naiae iniiaa. “Oi?ia” e
“niaea?aeaiea” niioiinyony ianoieueei auniei e aano?aeoii, /oi
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, niaaeeiythuaai “oi?io” n “niaea?aeaieai”,
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony ?aoathuae. Ia neo/aeii a o/aiee i iaoa?ee ii
i?eciaao eeoue “iioaioeeth”, o. a. oo eee eioth aa?iyoiinoue iaoa?ee
auoue ioi?ieaiiie. ssnii, /oi i?e enoiaeiie iinueea niaiaaeaiey
ia?ae/iie oi?iu n aa nouiinoueth, ninoaaeythuae nooue auoey a oceii
niunea neiaa, iaoa?ey ieeae ia iiaeao noaoue ia?ae/iie. Iaoa?ey
i?aaenoaaeyaony eeoue iaoa?eaeii, ioaeaeathueiny a naiai ioi?ieaiee.
Iaoa?ey a yoii neo/aa ianneaia, ia iiaeao auoue enoiaeiie oi/eie
?acaeoey, aeaeaeaiey, iia naia — iauaeo aiaoiaai iaieioee?iaaiey,
aiai?e?iaeiiai oai?/aneiai aicaeaenoaey. ?acoiaaony, o/eoaeue e o/aiee
i?enoonoaotho a ?aaiie ia?a a oeeinioneeo eiino?oeoeeyo n?aaeiaaaeiauo
aiaineiaia. Eiae/anee aeieacuaay nouanoaiaaiea ia?aii?e/eiu, noieanou
eniieueciaaee a?aoiaioaoeeth A?enoioaey a aai o/aiee i i?e/eiao.

A?enoioaeue neaaeoao Ieaoiio a ooaa?aeaeaiee aunoaai, anaiauaai e
aa/iiai ?acoia, iuneyuaai io aaea, iaieiathuaai ana aiciiaeiua oi?iu
aauae. Ia?aainoai e aeaaainoai oi?iu iaae niaea?aeaieai, o. a. iaoa?eae,
aeooe iaae oaeii, oia iaae /oanoaii, i?aaa iaae aani?aaeai e i?iecaieii,
aeia?a iaae ceii a aunoae noaiaie naienoaaiii eae ia?aie (iaoaoeceea),
oae e aoi?ie (oeceea) oeeinioee A?enoioaey. Oeacaiiia niioiioaiea
ia?aiineony ei e a oeeinioneoth iaeanoue, a ioiioaiey yoe/aneea,
iieeoe/aneea, ainoaea?noaaiii-aeanoiua.

Iiaeiaii naiaio o/eoaeth, A?enoioaeue yoeea e iieeoeea i?aaeiinueaao
iiieii eiae/aneeo iino?iaiee aiaeec i?e/ei e iniiaaiee i?ienoiaeaeaiey
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e iauanoaa,
/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u, oai?/anoaa. Naiui aunoei au?aaeaieai
/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u e Ieaoii, e A?enoioaeue iieaaaee iieeoeeo e
iauanoaaiii iieacioth iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Oi/ii oae aea eae
iaeaieaa iieiui i?iyaeaieai i?aeoe/aneie i?aanoaaiiie oeeinioee, o.a.
yoeee, — i?aai, caeiiu e niaa?oaiioth oi?io ainoaea?noaa. Aeaeaei ia
neo/aeii A?enoioaeue, eae e Ieaoii, ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi naiui
cia/eoaeueiui aeaeii eneonnoaa, eioi?ue ii i?aao iiaeao auoue iacaai
eneonnoaii aaieaeueiiai ooaeiaeieea, yaeyaony eneonnoai iieeoeee.

Aiiaua a i?iaeaiaoeea aioe/iiai iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey ia?aiia/aeueii
iiae aeeyieai Nie?aoa e Ieaoiia aeiieie?iaaea yoeea. E oaea io yoeee
A?enoioaeue, eae e Ieaoii, ia?aoiaeeo e iieeoeea, ineoieiaee,
iaaeaaiaeea, iaoo?oeeinioee, oai?ee iiciaiey e o. i.

N o/aoii anaai ioia/aiiiai auoa a iiceoeeyo e eaeayo A?enoioaey e
Ieaoiia oai ia iaiaa iaee/anoaotho aaaeiua ?acee/ey. Nouanoaoao iiaiea,
/oi ia?aua ?inoee iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe e ?aci/a?iaaiey iieiaeie
A?enoioaeue eniuoae a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae i?aauaaiey a Aeaaeaiee. Ieaoii
i?iiiaaaeiaae nica?oeaoaeueiue noeeue, eiino?oe?iaaiea oiiiinoeaaaiuo
aeiioac, inoaeaeae iaaethaeaiey iaae i?e?iaeie, iiuoiua enneaaeiaaiey.
Aai anoanoaaiiiiao/iua acaeyaeu eacaeenue A?enoioaeth, aai eo/oaio
o/aieeo, ionoaeuie aeaaea a aai a?aiy: aaeeioeaio?eci, iaiiue, aicaeoo,
caiey, aiaea —ia?aiyeaiaiou aa?iiiee, iaaeiioeaiea oi/iiai ciaiey,
ianiio?y ia aeaaec Aeaaeaiee, auaeoue ia aa ai?ioao: “Ia ciathuee
iaoaiaoeee ionoue nthaea ia aoiaeeo”. N aiaeaie ?anoiaeaeaiea
noaiiaeeinue ana aieueoei. N/eoaaony, /oi i?eia?ii e ?oaaaeo aeaaaeoeaoe
iyoe eao A?enoioaeue noaiiaeony oaea aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiui
i?eaeiaeueiui o/aiui, no?iyuei naie auaiaeu ia enoi?e/aneii, iiuoiii
iaoa?eaea, /ai ?acei ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo ieaoiieeia. Aiciiaeii, yoi e
oae, ii nei?aa aieaa i/aaeaeii oi, /oi Ieaoii —iuneeoaeue ?aaeeeaeueiue,
aaneiii?iienniue, ethaeo e?aeiinoe, a o?oaeao —iieao oaioacee,
niaeinoue, ecuneaiiue noeeue. A?enoioaeue — i?ioeaiee anyeeo e?aeiinoae,
noi?iiiee na?aaeeiu ai anai, aai i?aaeei — iniiaaoaeueiinoue e
iainiiaaiiinoue oeeinioneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

Ieaoii aiaeee?oao e aiaioai?/aneie neea eaeae, iie aea aeey iaai — iii?a
ii?yaeea e aa?aioey oi?aeanoaa caeiiia, aeaaiia — eo niioaaonoaea
aiaeanoaaiiui i?aaeiacia/aieyi. A?enoioaeue aea aiaeee?oao e cae?aaiio
niuneo ethaeae, iii?o i?aaiii?yaeea aeaeeo a aa?iiiee, caeiaeaiiie a
i?e?iaea. Neea ?acoia iaania/eaaao aaeeinoai nouaai e iuneeiiai.

Ieaoii — eeannee eaeaaeia, aeooiaiinoe, iinea iaai oeeinioey, ii
ia?aciiio au?aaeaieth Oaeooaaea, nouanoaiaaea a aeaea i?eia/aiee e
Ieaoiio. A?enoioaeue aieueoa eiaee, iinea iaai eiaeea ia naeaeaea, ii
auneacuaaieth Eaioa, ie oaao aia?aae. A?enoioaeue oiaea caieiaaony
oeeinioeae, ii ia a iai?aaeaiee caiaea/iiai ie?a eaeae, a a noi?iio
naeeaeaiey ioaea/aiiiai iuoeaiey n iiuoii, oiic?eoaeueiiai iiciaiey
caeiiiia?iinoae n anoanoaiciaieai.

A ioee/ea io Nie?aoa e Ieaoiia A?enoioaeue aeaeae i?aanoaaiioth
aeia?iaeaoaeue ia a i?aaeeueiii ciaiee, a a aeia?ie aiea, iaoeaeaiiie ia
/aeiaa/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iia caaeneo io ?acoia, naycaia n iei, ii
ia oiaeaeanoaaiia aio. “Aaaeue a ?acoiiie /anoe aeooe ca?iaeaeaaony
aiey, — aiai?eo iuneeoaeue, — a aia iniiauaathuaeny ia ?acoia — aeaeaiea
e no?anoue” (I aeooa, 432i.5). Ionoaeaay aieaaia iiieiaiea
i?aanoaaiiinoe i?aaa, A?enoioaeue ii nouanoao ooaa?aeaeaao
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe e iacaaeneiinoue ?acoia io aiaeanoaaiiie
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii a ainoaea?noaaiiie,
iieeoe/aneie noa?a.

A?enoioaeue iiaeaa?aaao iainiiaaiiie e?eoeea eiiioienoe/aneee i?iaeo
eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia, a /anoiinoe ca aai aeiioaoe/aneia
“iiiieeoiia” aaeeinoai. Iineaaeiaa, ii A?enoioaeth, iaaeinoeaeeii a
i?eioeeia, eai eeoue eiaeeaeae anoue “nioeeaeueiue aoii” — iaaeaeeiay
/anoeoea, a ainoaea?noai anoue iaeay iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, ninoaaiay
neiaeiinoue ?acii?iaeiuo a naiae iniiaa yeaiaioia.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue Ieaoiio A?enoioaeue ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iauiinoue
aeaaeaiey, o/?aaeaeaiiay a eiiioia, nianai ia oie/oiaeaao iniiao
iauanoaaiiiai ?aneiea, a, iaiai?io, iiiaie?aoii aa oneeeaaao.
Anoanoaaiii i?enouee /aeiaaeo yaieci, iiia/aiea i naiuea, caaioa
i?aaeaea i naiai, iaaeaee iauai, — iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai auoey. Io?eoeathuee naiueth e /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue
eiiioienoe/aneee, ooiie/aneee i?iaeo Ieaoiia eeoaao iaiaoiaeeiie
iiaoaeeoaeueiie neeu iieeoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea.

A?enoioaeue ia niaeanai n o/eoaeai e a aii?inao nioeeaeueiie
no?aoeoeeaoeee, aa e?eoa?eaa e iaoaiecia aeaenoaey. Iauanoaaiiua eeannu
ia nooue i?iecaieueiia aeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa, iooaeeeaathuaainy io
naienoa aeooe /aeiaaea, a caeiiiia?ii aicieeathuee ?acoeueoao
iauanoaaiiiai ?anneiaiey.

Ieaoii iaauniei ioeaieaae ?eoi?eeo eae “iaenoeiiia eneonnoai”,
“aeiiaee?iaaiea neiaaie”, A?enoioaeue aea iinayuaao ae oeaeoth ?aaioo,
iaeiieiaiii iacaaiioth, n/eoaao, /oi iaaei o/eoue i?aoi?neiio eneonnoao,
eai yoi anoue, ii aai iiaieth, /anoue a?aaeaeaineiai ainieoaiey.
Iieeoeea iiaeao noaoue aeinoiyieai anao a?aaeaeai ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y
i?aoi?neiio e?anii?a/eth.

Anee Ieaoii caiyo ?ac?aaioeie nia?aiaiiuo iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeoia,
eaeaaeueiie eiinoeoooeee, oi A?enoioaeue — ?aaeeno, ii i?aaeeaaaao
oaeoth ainoaea?noaaiioth eiino?oeoeeth ec anao nouanoaothueo e
nouanoaiaaaoeo, eioi?ay eo/oa anaai iiaeioea au a aeaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey
aeaiiiai ia?iaea. Ii ia n/eoaao ainoaea?noaii enoeiiie aeia?iaeaoaee ie
iiia?oeth, ie a?enoie?aoeth. Iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey e iaeiieaiiue
iiuo oaaaeaeatho aai a iioeiaeueiinoe iieeoee — eiinoeoooeeiiiie
oia?aiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee.

Anee aea a?a/aneea oeeiniou-i?aaeoanoaaiieee, ia/eiay n Ieoaai?a e
eii/ay Ieaoiiii, ooaa?aeaeaee eaeaaeueii aeieaeiia, oi A?enoioaeue
no?aieeny iainiiaaoue aiciiaeiinoue i?aoai?eoue caaeoiaiiia a ?aaeueii
nouaa.

Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee oa?aeoa? ianeaaeey A?enoioaey aaeeiiaeooii
ioia/aaony anaie enneaaeiaaoaeyie. Yoi aa?ii, eai a iai cao?iioou ana
iaeanoe ciaiey: eiaeea e oeeinioey, anoanoaiciaiea e enoi?ey, iaoaiaoeea
e yoeea, eeoa?aoo?a e ynoaoeea e, /oi aaaeii a aeaiiii neo/aa, iieeoeea,
ainoaea?noai e i?aai. I /ai au ii ie ienae, ii?aaeaao iaeeea
oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Eae i?aaeei, yoi iniaaiii ioiineony e
iieeoe/aneei i?iecaaaeaieyi, iaae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuie iaoa?eaeaie
o?oaeeeenue a?oiiu o/aiuo. Iaeiaei eo ia?aaioea, aiaeec, eaaeeoeeaoeey e
eeanneoeeaoeey, ieii/aoaeueiay ioeaiea inoaaaeenue ca A?enoioaeai. Aai
?aaioiniiniaiinoue aia/aoeyea anao, ea/anoai e iauaiu “iao/iie
i?iaeoeoeee” — oaeeaeyee.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaienaii A?enoioaeai iiiai, oioy e a yoii aii?ina anoue
iiey?iua oi/ee c?aiey. Iaeie n/eoatho, /oi ana auoaaeoaa ec-iiae ia?a
iuneeoaey ioiineony e iineaaeiei aiaeai aai aeecie, ae?oaea, iai?ioea,
iieaaatho, /oi aoi?ie ia?eiae i?aauaaiey a Aoeiao A?enoioaeue iinayoee
eneeth/eoaeueii onoiiio iauaieth, aanaaeai e i?iaoeeai n eeoeaenoaie.
Nia?aiaiiee Oeeoea?iia ?iaeinaoe Aiae?iiee, i?eaeoiaaoee oa?iei
“iaoaoeceea”, i?i/ii i?eeeaeaoeeny e oeeinioneei ?aaioai o/aiiai, acye
ia naay o?oae ninoaaeoue ia?aue nenoaiaoe/aneee oeacaoaeue ni/eiaiee
A?enoioaey, aaea oeao?e?iaaea aia/aoeythuay oeeo?a — ii/oe ouny/a
naeoeia. Ioieaiae Oeeaaeaeueo a iaeiii ec ia?auo aeeciaiienaiee
A?enoioaey (ia?aay aai aeia?aoey auea ninoaaeaia aua a III a. aei i. y.
Aa?ieiiii) niaeaoaaony n yoei iiaieai. Aeeiaai Eay?oneee oaea a III a.
i. y. auaeaeyao ec nienea “ianiiiaiiua”, ia aai acaeyae, i?iecaaaeaiey
Noaae?eoa iauei eiee/anoaii ia iaiaa /aou?aonio eiea (a nia?aiaiiii
iiieiaiee yoi iiaoo auoue ioaeaeueiua, eiae/anee caaa?oaiiua eo /anoe
eee aeaau). Naiia iineaaeiaa ioa/anoaaiiia iao/ii-ni?aai/iia ecaeaiea
(“Aiaoiiey ioae?inoe, 106 oeeinioia. AEeciue, noaeueaa, o/aiea”) aeaao
i?aaeaeueii oi/ioth aaee/eio—aeaaaeoeaoue ainaiue eiea iauaiii a 445 270
no?ie.

Enoi?ey o?oaeia A?enoioaey iiaeoaa?aeaeaao noa?eiioth iiaiai?eo — habent
sua fata libelli — eieae eiatho naith noaeueao. Ii/oe aeaa nioie eao iie
oiieeenue a nu?ii iiaeaaea, a aeiia ianeaaeieeia Iaeay, o/aieea
Oaio?anoa, iiiaaeaee a aea?eea aaeiaoneea ianee. Iie aaeaie inoaaaeenue
iaecaanoiuie e iioii aiiaue ioe?uaaeenue, eo i?iaeaaaee, oa?yee,
iiiauaee a iocae (ia?aue ?ac a Aeaenaiae?eeneee) e aeaaea “a?aee a ieai”
(?eineee aeeeoaoi? Noeea ia?aaac ?oeiiene ec Aoei a ?ei a ea/anoaa
aiaiiie aeiau/e a 70 a. aei i. y., aaea iie aiineaaenoaee auee
?aciiiaeaiu).

Enoi?ey “Aoeineie iieeoee”, i?aaeeaaaaiie aieiaieth /eoaoaey, yaii ia
eeoaia iaeaoa nainaoeeiiiinoe e aiiaua canoaaeyao aniiiieoue i /oaea. A
eiioea 1890 a. a eiiaeiineie “Oaeia” iiyaeeinue ecaanoea i oii, /oi
n?aaee iaie?onia, i?eia?aoaiiuo A?eoaineei iocaai a Aaeioa, anoue
o?aaiaiou ec ieaoiiianeiai “Oaaeiia”, ec “Aioeaiiu” Aa?eieaea, “eonee”
ec Aiia?a, Enie?aoa, Aeaiie?eoa, “ieieaiau” (issicia—iiae?aaeaiea)
Ai?iaea. Ii naiia iaaa?iyoiia—iaia?oaeai o?aeoao ia aoeineii
ainoaea?noaaiiii ono?ienoaa, i?eienuaaaiue A?enoioaeth e ninoaaeythuee
/anoue aai ciaiaieouo “Iieeoee”, ia oo?aoa eioi?uo oae nei?aaee enoi?eee
e ainoaea?noaiaaaeu. Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, eaeie iiuiue oie/ie
iaiaeeaeaiii iieo/eee a?enoioaeaaaaeaiea, ecuneaiey a noa?a iieeoeee,
iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, i /ai ieoao i?ioanni? Aocaneoe a naiae eieaa
“Aoeineay iieeoey” A?enoioaey”, iaia/aoaiiie a 1895 a.

Ana iaienaiiia A?enoioaeai i?eiyoi iiae?acaeaeyoue ia o?e eeanna. E
ia?aiio ioiinyony i?iecaaaeaiey ia?eiaea Aeaaeaiee, eeoa?aoo?ii
ia?aaioaiiua, ee/ii io?aaeaeoe?iaaiiua, iioaeeeiaaiiua i?e aeecie aaoi?a
e iacaaiiua ei “yecioa?e/aneeie”, o. a., aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii,
iao/ii-iiioey?iua, yoi a iniiaiii aeeaeiae. Ei aoi?iio eeanno
i?eiaaeeaaeao iiiai/eneaiiua auienee, oaeoieiaey, ?aai/ea,
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu aeey oai?aoe/aneeo aeieeaaeia, eieeaeoeaiua
o?oaeu aai ioeieu. A o?aoee eeann aoiaeyo iao/iua o?aeoaou ?aciuo eao,
oae iacuaaaiua i?aoiaoee, eae au “eaeoi?neea eiiniaeou”, ia
iioaeeeiaaiiua i?e aeecie, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey naay, “ycioa?e/aneea”
ii oa?aeoa?o, caiene neooaoaeae.

Ana o?aeoaou e aeeaeiae ?aiiae ii?u iiaeaee, iu ciaai eeoue a ia?aneaca
eo niaea?aeaiea. Ec aieaa c?aeuo ?aaio eia-/oi nio?aieeinue aeaaiaea?y
nooiio ao?eeaineiio eeeiaoo e auei neo/aeii iaeaeaii a eiioea XIX aaea,
/anoue o?oaeia nouanoaoao a neeueii enii?/aiiii aeaea. Eae i?aaeei,
aeioaaeoay aei ian /anoue iao/iiai ianeaaeey i?eiaaeeaaeeo e o?aoueaio
eeanno, ca eneeth/aieai iiiauaiiie a ianoiyuai oiia “Aoeineie iieeoee”.
Aieueoay e, aiciiaeii, eo/oay /anoue ni/eiaiee (ia?aue, aoi?ie eeannu e
/anoue o?aoueaai, anee noaeeoue ii aioe/iui eaoaeiaai), e aaeeeiio
niaeaeaieth, — ooo ia iaieoenue aac ia/aeueii-ieii?iie iiou, acyoie a
naiii ia/aea i?aaeeneiaey, — aacaica?aoii i?iiaea, oioy e inoaeenue
o?aaiaiou, oeeoaou, ioaeaeueiua caaiuey e yeaiaiou a eceiaeaiee o/aieeia
eee eiiiaioaoi?ia.

I?iecaaaeaiey A?enoioaey, aeeth/aiiua a aeaiiia ecaeaiea, ii naiaio
iao/iiio aano e cia/aieth, oiio?aaeyy au?aaeaiea iaeiiai ec
aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo ienaoaeae, “ia iiaoo auoue iinoaaeaiu a ia?aeeaeue”
ie n eaeei ae?oaei i?iecaaaeaieai iiaeiaiiai aeai?a. O i?iecaaaeaiee,
ninoaaeaoeo aeaiiue oii, — “Iieeoeea” e “Aoeineay iieeoey”—naiy
iai?aaeaiiinoue, naia iainiiaaiea, eae aeaeei, naiy enoi?ey iaienaiey e
iiyaeaiey a naao, naiy no?oeoo?a. “Iieeoeea” /ooue aieueoa ii iauaio e
?acaeaeaia ia ainaiue eiea, “Aoeineay iieeoey” ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae.
Ia?aia—/enoi oai?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea, iaiiieiathuaa “Ainoaea?noai”
eee “Caeiiu” Ieaoiia eee oa i?iaeou, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony ai aoi?ie
eieaa “Iieeoeee” A?enoioaey. Aoi?ia — ii/oe eiie?aoii-nioeeieiae/aneee
aiaeec iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, einoeoooia e ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy
Aoei n VII aei V aaea aei i. y. (ia?aay /anoue) e eiioea IV aaea aei i.
y. (aoi?ay /anoue), eee, eae ii?aaeaeyeinue a eiioea i?ioeiai aaea, yoi
— “iaioa? ia aoeineii ainoaea?noaaiiii ono?ienoaa”. Iaeiaei e oi e
ae?oaia aei oaeie noaiaie naycaii n ?aaeueiie aeeciueth a?a/aneeo
iieenia, ianoieueei “i?iieoaii” aeooii aioe/iie yiioe e iaeiia?aiaiii
iauaeoeaii iao/ii, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nionoy iiiai noieaoee
eniieueciaaoue iacaaiiua ni/eiaiey a ea/anoaa ia caiooiaiiuo
eaeaieiaeae, “yeieiae/anee /enouo” enoi/ieeia aeey oyniaiey ?acee/iuo
noi?ii ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai auoey, ioeaiee o?iaiy
iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai niciaiey eiaeeaeaeia, a?oii, iauanoaa a oeaeii,
iiieiaiey cia/eiinoe oiaaeaoiae iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.

I?aaenoaaeaiiua a ianoiyuai oiia i?iecaaaeaiey ?iaeiyony naiae
niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiie, i?iaeaiaoeeie, aeoaeiie ?anniao?eaaaiuo
i?iaeai, i?enoonoaothuae aacaea aaoi?neie, anoanoaaiii ianoaie e
noauaeoeaiie, iiceoeeae. Aaieaeueiue “iuneeoaeue-iaaethaeaoaeue”, eae
iacuaaao Aaaaeue A?enoioaey, e oai e caeanue niaa?oaiii io/aoeeai
iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi nioeeaeueiay aa?iiiey anoue ia iaeiioiiiinoue, a
iiiaioeaaoea. Oeaeue ainoaea?noaa anoue n/anouea, iii iaaiciiaeii aac
iieeoe/aneiai eneonnoaa, eioi?ia auaeaeyao ?acee/iua ainoaea?noaaiiua
oi?iu e eeanneoeoee?oao eo ii aeaoi i?eciaeai: ii /eneo i?aayueo eeoe e
ii oiio, i?aneaaeotho ee iie ee/ioth auaiaeo eee iauoth iieueco. Ii
?anniao?eaaao oanoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i: o?e i?aaeeueiua — iiia?oeth,
a?enoie?aoeth, iieeoee) e o?e iai?aaeeueiua — oe?aieth, ieeaa?oeth,
aeaiie?aoeth.

I?aaeaea /ai ii?aaeaeeoue ainoaea?noai, A?enoioaeue nia/aea ii?aaeaeyao
a?aaeaeaieia, iioiio /oi aicieeiiaaiea ainoaea?noaa ii naycuaaao n
einoeieoeaiui no?aieaieai .ethaeae e iauaieth. A iniiaa ainoaea?noaa
eaaeeo naiuey, aaea a ca?iaeuoa i?enoonoaotho ana oi?iu i?aaeaiey:
iiia?oey — a ioiioaiee iooea e aeaoyi e ?aaai, a?enoie?aoey — a
ioiioaieyo ioaea e aeaiu, aeaiie?aoey — ai acaeiiioiioaieyo aeaoae
iaaeaeo niaie.

I?e/eiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aai?ioia, oeacuaaao Noaae?eo, — a
yeiiiie/aneeo ei?iyo e no?aieaiee ecaaaeaoue eiouanoaaiiuo e?aeiinoae.
Iiyoiio i?e eaeaaeueii oi?ioai no?ia n?aaeiee eeann aeieaeai ea?aoue
ia?aoth ?ieue (“Iieeoeea”, VI, 9, 8 — 11).

A?enoioaeue ioe?ue anoanoaaiiue, ie?iue iooue ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaa
(neiieeeci) ec naeueneie ninaaeneie iaueiu a ai?iaeneoth a?aaeaeaineoth.

Anee aeey Ooeeaeeaea iieen—ethaee, ioaee, aeey Ieaoiia — aiieiuaiea
eaeae ni?aaaaeeeainoe, oi aeey A?enoioaey — yoi iauiinoue,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuay no?aieaiea e iaeaunoaio aeaao.

Ianiio?y ia ia?aie/aiiinoue yeiiiie/aneie iniiau, iieen caaauae ie?o — e
yoi iiae/a?eioe A?enoioaeue—?yae iieeoe/aneeo eaeae, oeaiiinoue eioi?uo
iaaiciiaeii ia?aioeaieoue:

— eaeath eoeueoo?u, iieeoe/aneie, ainoaea?noaaiiie; oieueei ia?iae,
eiathuee aieaa aunieoth eoeueoo?o, iniiaaiioth ia i?aanoaaiiinoe e
aoiaiiuo ia/aeao, iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia auaeeaaiea (niaaeeiaiea
e?aniou e aeia?a);

— eaeath a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoe, eoaea aoiaeeee i?aaa—iaycaiiinoe, aeiea,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue, i?e/anoiinoue e aeecie anae iaueiu, ii?aaeaeythuaa
cia/aiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, i?eciaiea aeinoieinoaa a?aaeaeai, aac
iaiaea ia io/oaeaeaiea: ia auei ie “y”, ie “iie”, a auei “iu”;

— eaeath aeaiie?aoee, aia?aua a enoi?ee i?aaenoaaeaiea i aiciiaeiinoe
oi?aaeaiey ia?iaea naiei niaie, aeeth/aiiinoe eaaeaeiai a iauanoaaiioth
aeeciue;

— eaeath ?anioaeeeaiecia, n aa i?eioeeiii auai?iinoe anao i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey, ia aeiioneaaooth aaeeiiaeanoey, ianeaaenoaaiiuo iiia?oee,
aeaniioee, iiaeeciaiiuo nao?aiee, ie?oaeaaoeo a?aeia ni anao noi?ii
naaoa. Iaiai?io, a?aee i?ioeaiiinoaaeee anai eieeaeoeaiinoue,
e?aoein?i/iinoue iaaeno?aoo?, iiaeio/aoiinoue, eiio?iee?oaiinoue
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

?acoiaaony, A?enoioaeue e aai o/eoaey nio?aiytho o?acainoue e aeaeyo
io/aoeeai, /oi ana aeinoieinoaa iieena nouanoaotho ia oiia aai
nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia: caieiooinoe, ia?aie/aiiinoe aeaiie?aoee,
ia?aaainoaa i?aa a?aaeaeai, yeeoa?iinoe iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna, ?ac?uaa
iaaeaeo i?aaaie i?iaicaeaoaiiuie e ?aaeueii nouanoaothueie. Iiyoiio e
ioiioaiea aioe/iuo iuneeoaeae e oiaaeaoiae aeaiie?aoee iaeini/oanoaaiiia
— Ieaoii noaaee aeaiie?aoeth iinea ieeaa?oee, A?enoioaeue i?aaeii/eoae
aeaiie?aoee iieeoee).

A oi a?aiy eiaaea Ia?neaeneia oea?noai ?ooeeinue iiae iaoeneii a?a/aneie
eiiieoeu e iiae oyaeaeie iinooiueth iaeaaeiineeo oaeaiaenoia, eiaaea
niaeue iieeiaiaeaoe, aaaeoee eo, iniiaae ie?iaoth aea?aeaao, auei
naiaa?aiaiiui iiaeaanoe eoia oiio, /oi niaa?oeea Yeeaaea, a /anoiinoe
Aoeiu, a iaeanoe iieeoeee. Yoio eoia iiaeaae A?enoioaeue. ?acoeueoao
aeanee: no?ie Aoei aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue e aeaaea oi?ioee aeey
iieena — iaaieueoie ?anioaeeee, i?aaieciaaiiie eae ai?iae (“aaea
oa??eoi?ey e ianaeaiea eaaei iaic?eiu”, ii A?enoioaeth, eee ninoaaeytho
5040 naiae, ii Ieaoiio), ii aanoe iieeoeeo aaeeeie aea?aeaau a iiauo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo aoeineiio ia?iaeo ia ii neeai. Ii aiceaaaao ia
naay caaea/o, eioi?oth ia a ninoiyiee aoaeao auiieieoue.

O?oaeu o/aiiai aeieaeiu auee i?eie?eoue aoeiyi n ianoiyuei, iieacaoue
/eoaoaeth, /oi e?eee i iioa?a naiaiaeu, eioi?ua A?enoioaeue aaeaaeiaaii
neuoae ia ieiuaaeyo, — i?inoua aeaeeaiaoeee e /oi ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeieie a?aiaiaie iieiaeaiea Aoei iiae aeaaeu/anoaii Aeaenaiae?a a oao
ne?iiiuo a?aieoeao, eioi?ua ei ioaiaeeeenue, auei caaeaeiui.

Ai?i/ai, ana yoi ia iiaeao ie iieieaaaoue, ie i?eoiaiueoeoue aeeaaea
aioe/iuo a?aeia a iieeoe/aneoth enoi?eth — iaeaeaiiuo iieeoe/aneeo oi?i
e ?ac?aaioaiiuo eaeae — ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?ieiaey, iieeoieiaey, nioeeieiaey,
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaay iaoea, anoanoaaiii, noiyo ia eiuo ?oaaaeao,
aeinoeaee eiiai o?iaiy, ii A?enoioaeue e aai o/eoaey, ae?aaiea a?aee,
iaania/eee iao/ioth iinoaiiaeo oaeeo iaua/aeiaa/aneeo, “aa/iuo” i?iaeai,
eioi?ua ia oieueei ia oa?ytho naiae aeooaeueiinoe nionoy aieaa aeaoo
ouny/ eao, ii e i?eia?aoatho ana aieueoaa cia/aiea a iieeoe/aneii e
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa.

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