.

Английские художники – исследователи в области дизайна У. Моррис и Д. Рескин

Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 653
Скачать документ

Ieienoa?noai iaoee e ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii ia?aciaaieth

?inneeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue i?ioanneiiaeueii –

iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao

Oeeeae a ai?iaea Eaia?iai.

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ?1 ii aeenoeeieeia: Enoi?ey e oai?ey
aeecaeia.

Oaia: Aiaeeeneea ooaeiaeieee – enneaaeiaaoaee a iaeanoe aeecaeia
Oeeueyi Ii??en e Aeaeii ?aneei.

Auiieiee:

I?iaa?ee:

Eaia?iai 2005 a.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

1. Aaaaeaiea
2

2. *oi oaeia aeecaei
3

3. Aeaeii ??neei
4

4. Oeeueyi Ii??en
6

5. Aeaeaeaiea eneonnoa e ?aianae
8

6. Caeeth/aiea
12

7. Eeoa?aoo?a
13

AAAAeAIEA

Eae /anoi iu nae/an neuoei neiai «aeecaei». «O iaa a eaa?oe?a
oaeie oeea?iue aeecaei! Iiaia aeecaeia?neia ?aoaiea!» – yoe e
iiaeiaiua ei auneacuaaiey iiaeii oneuoaoue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
aoeaaeueii ia eaaeaeii oaao. Ii /anoi ee eoi – ieaoaeue ec ian
caaeoiuaaeny, a /oi ia naiii aeaea icia/aao yoi iiiyoea?
Ioeoaea iii acyeinue? N /aai aiiaua ia/aeny aeecaei? Eoi noiye
o enoieia?

Aii?inu, ia ia?aue acaeyae, ia noieue oae aaaeiua. Ii yoi
oieueei ia ia?aue acaeyae. Enoi?ey aeecaeia – yoi oaeaeaoaeueiue
ie?, iieiue nth?i?ecia. Ociaaaoue yoio ie?, eco/aoue aai, ia
i?inoi eioa?anii, ii e iaiaoiaeeii ethaiio /aeiaaeo, ana?ueac
?aoeaoaio caiyoueny yoei aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe. Aio ii/aio a
naiae eiio?ieueiie ?aaioa y ?aoeea ?anneacaoue i aeaoo ethaeyo,
noiyaoeo o enoiea aeecaeia – Aeaeiia ?aneeia e Oeeueyia
Ii??ena. Iia aaeaieia i?eyoii yoi aeaeaoue, iineieueeo Aiaeey
anaaaea auea iia neiiaoe/ia e yaeyeanue aeey iaiy enoi/ieeii
iaen/a?iaaiuo eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee.

Iiyoiio y aoaeo iaaeayoueny, /oi iie ?anneac ia yoeo
eoeueoo?iuo aeayoaeyo iieaaeaony aai eioa?aniui. E oae…
iicaieueoa iia ia/aoue.

*OI OAEIA AeECAEI

*oi aea oaeia «aeecaei»? «Niuneiaua ei?ie oa?ieia «aeecaei»
ainoiaeyo e eaoeineiio «designare» – ii?aaeaeyoue, iaicia/aoue.
Eoaeueyineia «disegno» ni a?aiai ?aiannaina iaicia/aei i?iaeou,
?enoiee, a oaeaea iniiaiiieaaathuea eaeae. A Aiaeee iiiyoea
«design» ?ani?ino?aieeinue a XVI aaea». Naaiaeiy oa?iei «aeecaei»
oiio?aaeyaony aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai eee
ooaeiaeanoaaiii – oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ?acoeueoaoia yoiai
i?ioeanna – i?iaeoia (yneecia, iaeaoia, e ae?. aecoaeueiuo
iaoa?eaeia), a oaeaea inouanoaeaiiuo i?iaeoia – ecaeaeee,
iieea?aoe/aneie i?iaeoeoeee e ae?. Ii, oau, nooue,
i?aaeiacia/aiea e aiciiaeiinoe ia anaaaea yniu ia oieueei
iniiaiie ianna iauaaoaeae, i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e nooaeaioia AOCia.
Aeaaea i?aeoeee ni noaaeai, eneonnoaiaaaeu, iaaeaaiae e iniaaiii
oeeiniou ?anoiaeyony a ioeaieao oeaeae, caaea/ e ia?niaeoea
yoiai yaeaiey XX aaea.

Aeecaei, neiaii ?aaaiie, ?iaeeeny a ia/aea aaea e i?i/ii anoae
ia iiae a aai na?aaeeia eae niaoeeoe/aneee aeae i?iaeoe?iaaiey
ooeeeoa?iuo ecaeaeee ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ecaeaeee, eioi?ua
ioee/aeenue iaaeaaeiinoueth, a naiia aeaaiia – e?anioie. A
aiaeiycu/iuo, a caoai e ae?oaeo no?aiao yoi yaeaiea
iaicia/eeinue oa?ieiii Industrial design – eiaeono?eaeueiue aeecaei.

A aeecaeia noi?ie?iaaeny eiiieaen yaeaiee, naycaiiuo n
oicyenoaaiii – yeiiiie/aneie aeeciueth iauanoaa, yaeaieyie eoeueoo?u
a oeaeii e eneonnoaa a /anoiinoe, aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeaa?ythuae
ecaioiaeaiea ecaeaeee e nicaeaiea iauaeoia n?aaeu.

N naiiai iiiaioa ca?iaeaeaiey e iniaaiii n ia/aeii aia?eeaineiai
ia?eiaea (30 – a aiaeu XX aaea), aeecaeio noae i?enou
eiiia?/aneee oa?aeoa?. Iaeiia?aiaiii n iiauie oaoiieiaeyie,
i?eaeiaeueiuie eiaea ia?iuie ?aoaieyie, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie
iiaiaaaaeaieyie aeecaei noae iaiouaieaiui oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

A iineaaeiae o?aoe noieaoey aeecaei i?aa?aoeeny ai anaiauaiethuaa
yaeaiea iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa, ioaaoeaoaa iiaua iaeanoe
i?iaeoiie i?aeoeee, aeeth/ay aeaaea oa, eioi?ua ia eiatho
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n i?iaeoii – a?aoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie.

XIX aae noae aaeii iao/iiai i?ia?anna. Ana aieueoaa e aieueoaa
ianoi a i?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa caieiaee iaoeiu. Iaoea e
oaoieea oaaioee aia?aae oae neeueii, eae ?aiueoa iaaiciiaeii
auei e ia/oaoue. Iaeiaei aianoa n ?inoii iaoeiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?inei e iaaeiaieuenoai ei. A eoeueoo?iie aeecie
oiai a?aiaie oea?ee ?iiaioeci. Ana ynoaoe/aneia n/eoaeinue
aanei?unoiui, o. a. eeoaiiui eaeie au oi ie auei i?aeoe/aneie
oeaiiinoe. Iieaciua aea i?aaeiaou ec noa?u ynoaoe/aneiai
eneeth/aeenue. Iaoeiu, ianiio?y ia anth oo iieueco, /oi iie
i?eiineee, n/eoaeenue aa?oii o?iaenoaa. Ii i?aaenoaaeaieyi oiai
a?aiaie, iie i?inoi ia iiaee auoue e?aneauie. Eioaeeeaaioeey
n/eoaea iaoeiu enoi/ieeii nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, a iaacaeieaiiua
?aai/ea, anooiay a ?yaeu eoaeaeeoia, a?iieee iaiaaenoiua
nicaeaiey.

Ia yoie aieia iniaaiii neeueii auaeaeyeny iaeei /aeiaae – Aeaeii
??neei.
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??NEEI, AeAEII (Ruskin, John) (1819–1900),
aiaeeeneee ienaoaeue, eneonnoaiaaae, iiai?iee nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i.
?iaeeeny 8 oaa?aey 1819 a Eiiaeiia.

?iaeeoaeyie ??neeia auee Ae.Aeae.??neei, iaeei ec niaeaaeaeueoeaa oe?iu
ii eiii?oo oa?ana, e Ia?aa?ao Eie, i?eoiaeeaoayny ioaeo aeaith?iaeiie
nano?ie. Aeaeii au?in a aoiinoa?a aaaiaaee/aneiai aeaai/anoey. Iaeiaei
ioaoe ethaee eneonnoai, e eiaaea iaeue/eeo eniieieeinue 13 eao, naiuey
iiiai iooaoanoaiaaea ii O?aioeee, Aaeueaee, Aa?iaiee e iniaaiii
Oaaeoea?ee. ?aneei o/eeny ?enoieo o aiaeeeneeo ooaeiaeieeia Eiiee
Oeeaeeiaa e Aeae.Ae.Oa?aeeiaa, e noae eneoniui ?eniaaeueueeii. Ii
ecia?aaeae a iniiaiii a?oeoaeoo?iua iauaeou, iniaaiii ainoeuaynue
aioe/aneie a?oeoaeoo?ie.

Iniiaiay eaeay ?aaio ??neeia caeeth/aaony a i?eaeaiee eneonnoao
aieueoiai cia/aiey eae ii?aeueiiio oaeoi?o. Aoaeo/e nia?aiaiieeii
iaauaaei eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey oaoieee, ii naeaeae auaiae, /oi
iiaaaeiia oanoaea iaoei e ?anoouay aeanoue eaieoaea i?aa?auaao
ethaeae, iacaiaoii aeey ieo naieo, a ?aaia e o?iaeoao oeaeua
no?aiu. Aeui, eiiioue, ?ac?ooaiea /aeiaaeii i?e?iaeiiai
eaiaeoaooa, ooneeua e?anee, iaoeethaeea e a?oaua oi?iu eeoatho
aeooo noieue iaiaoiaeeiie ae yiioeeiiaeueiie ieue. N iaoeiaie ii
naycuaae aeaaeue eneonnoaa, a n aeaaeueth eneonnoaa – iaecaaaeiue
e?ao aeia?a e e?aniou a /aeiaaea. Oieueei ?o/iie o?oae niiaeao
aa?iooue /aeiaaea e aai enoeiiie aeecie e i?aaeiacia/aieth.

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia naith ooiie/iinoue a ynoaoeea ??neeia auea
e i?ia?anneaiay iuneue, ioee/aaoay aa io iiiaeanoaa iiaeiaiuo
eaeae oiai a?aiaie. Oae, ii ii?aaeaeye e?anioo o?aia
niioaaonoaaiii aai iieueca eae oaaaeeua io iaiiaiaeu, e?anioo
eoaea – i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aai iieaciinoe eae ninoaea aeey ieouey.

Ana aai nouanoai ainnoaaaei i?ioea, iaaiaeieaoeo i?eeaaee
«i?ae?aniuo aaueoe» oe?aaee?iaaiiuo iaoeiiui i?iecaiaenoaii,
«a?iiciauo iiaenaa/ieeia» naeaeaiiuo ec aeina, eee «aaeeeieaiiie
ciei/aiie» ?acueau ec iaiuea – iaoa. Iaeiaei i?e anai i?e
yoii, ??neei ia iia ia i?eciaoue acaeiinayce iaaeaeo e?anioie
aaue e iieuecie, eioi?oth iia i?eiineo. Aai ynoaoeea noaea oai
ee?ie/eeii, ia eioi?ii a aeaeueiae oai neiaeeeanue ynoaoeea
iaoeiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

OEEUessI II??EN

OEEUessI II??EN (1834 – 1896) – aiaeeeneee ooaeiaeiee, iiyo e
iniiaiiieiaeiee aeecaeia. Naiuey Ii??ena, eiaaoay oyeueneia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea, ia oieueei iaania/eea aiaaoia aeeoi?eaineia ie?oaeaiea,
a eioi?ii Oeeueyi ?acaeaaeny e ?in, ii e iiaeaea?aeeaaea iiiaea aai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aai aeecie. Aai
?iaeeoaee, Oeeueyi e Yiia Ii??en, eiaee aeaayoue aeaoae, ec eioi?uo
Oeeueyi aue o?aoueei e naiui noa?oei ec aeiaeeaoeo aei c?aeuo eao. A
1840 oaea/iay oeiainiaay iia?aoeey aai iooea ia iaaeiie oaooa a
Aeaaiioe?a, iicaieeea aai naiuea ia?aaoaoue ec Yei Oaon a Aieoainoio a
Aoaeoi?ae Oiee, a i?inoi?ioth aeeeo a Yiei Oi?ano.
Eaeeeee/aneia aeaonoai Ii??ena a Aoaeoi?ae Oieea ieacaei ia?iiiia
aeeyiea ia aai aeeciue. Aeii ?aniieaaaeny a iaeaieaa aeeaiieniii e
caeaiii i?eai?iaea Eiiaeiia e a aeaonoaa Oeeueyi i?iaae iiiai /ania,
?ane?uaay aeey naay e?aniou ie?anoiinoe. Ii oianeaaeiaae ainoeuaiea
naiaai iooea ia?aae N?aaeiaaaeiaueai, eioi?ui iie ianeaaeaeaeenue,
iinauay oea?eae a Ynnaena, Eaioa?aa?eeneee Eaoaae?aeueiue Niai?. Aeceou
a ioioie/ee caiie ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou I a *eiaoi?ae Oao/ i?iaoaeeee a
iieiaeii Oeeueyia eioa?an e o?aaeeoeeiiiiio aiaeeeneiio oa?ainoao
eioa?uea?a. Yoe ?aiiea aia/aoeaiey ieacaee aieueoia aeeyiea ia Ii??ena,
eioi?ia io?aceeinue ia aai aeecaeia iaiaa e aiieioeeinue a iienaieyo
aiaeeeneeo iiianoee a aai ienueiaiiuo ?aaioao.

Aeaoneia oaea/aiea Ii??ena N?aaeiaaaeiaueai i?eieiaei ?aciua oi?iu, io
nea/ae ia eioaaee a ieieaoth?iuo aeiniaoao, aei /oaiey «Oyaa?ee»
Aaeueoa?a Neiooa a aeaayoeeaoiai aic?anoa.

Aiineaaenoaee, eiaaea Oeeueyi au?in, ii noae i?iaeieaeaoaeai
eaeae ?aneeia, aieaa oiai, ii iioae aeaeueoa naiaai o/eoaey e
nai noae oai?aoe/anee e i?aeoe/anee ?ac?aaaouaaoue ynoaoeeo
i?iiuoeaiiie aaue. Ii ?acei aic?aaeae noi?iiieeai
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey eneonnoaa, i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?e/eneaiey i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa e ?ac?yaeo i?aaeiaoia
?ineioe. Ii aai iiaieth, eneonnoai iaioaeaeeii io o?oaea.
Ynoaoeea i?iyaeyaony a ethaii oai?aiee /aeiaa/aneeo ?oe, aoaeue
oi i?ae?aniue niai? eee iau/iue aeeiyiue ai?oie. Ii??en
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iiaeeeiiia eneonnoai i?enoonoaoao i?e iaienaiee
ea?oeiu, nicaeaiee iocuee, a oae aea auai?a oeaaoa e oi?iu
?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea, ?acaeaea iiey iiae iaoie
e ianoaeua, iiaeaea?aeaiee ii?yaeea a ai?iaeao e ia i?iacaeeo
aei?iaao, – iii i?iyaeyaony ai anao aniaeoao iaoae aeecie.
?acaeaeaiea eneonnoaa ia /enoia e i?eeeaaeiia ii n/eoae iaaoaiui
eae aeey iauanoaa, oae e aeey eneonnoaa, iineieueeo e?anioa,
ioaeaeaiiay io iieuecu, oa?yao naie ecia/aeueiue niune e
noaiiaeony ao?eaooii ?ineioe, eee caaaaiie ea?ooeie eo/ee aiaaouo
e i?acaeiuo ethaeae.

Aeaaiue nioeeaeueiue ii?ie iaoeiiiai aaea Ii??en aeaeae ia a
?acaeoee eaieoaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe, a a aeaaee ?o/iiai
o?oaea, a ioaeaeaiee o?oaea io ?aaeinoe oai?/anoaa, eneonnoaa io
?aianea, a eeoaiee eneonnoaa aai nioeeaeueiuo e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniia.

Aai, eae e ??neeia, inei?aeyee aoeueaa?iua a naiae iiiuoea
auaeyaeaoue ?ineioii aeaoaaua oaa?e/iua oiaa?u, eaaeiie caoiieaoea
?uiie.

AeAEAEAIEA ENEONNOA E ?AIANAE

Aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi Aeaeiia ?aneeia e Oeeueyia Ii??ena aicieeei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oa/aiea iiae iacaaieai «Aeaeaeaiea eneonnoa e
?aianae». Aai o/anoieee i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee aica?auaiea e ?aianeaiiui
ia?iaeiui enoieai oai?/anoaa, no?aieeenue nicaeaaaoue ynoaoe/anee
i?iaeoiaiioth n?aaeo iaeoaiey aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea. Eo aeaaiui
eicoiaii noaea o?aca: «I?inoi aeaeaoue /oi – eeai ?oeaie oaea
aeieaeii auoue oaeiaieuenoaeai». A iaen/a?iaaiui enoi/ieeii
aaeioiiaaiey aeey yoeo ethaeae noaei eneonnoai n?aaeiaaaeiauey,
eiaaea aua ia auei oeo?ioiiuo noaieia e iaoei, ooaiiiaaaoeo
«i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa». Ianoa?a «Aeaeaeaiey eneonnoa e ?aianae»
ecaioaaeeaaee aea?aayiioth iaaaeue, ?anienaiioth ieoieiae/aneeie
nthaeaoaie a n?aaeiaaaeiaie iaia?a e ioaeaeaiioth, iaiiaeiaea
?aianeaiiuo ia?iaeiuo ia?acoeia, iaoaeee/aneeie neiaaie, ieaieaie
e oo?ieoo?ie. Aeoeaii ?ani?ino?aiyeenue oaeaea iaie e oeaie, a
oii /enea n na?aa?yiui e cieioui oeoueai, eia?u. Ana aeaoaee
ioi?ieaiiuo ooaeiaeieeaie eioa?uea?ia, e aeaaea einothiu e
ieaouey aeeeueoeia auee auaea?aeaiu a aaeeiie oeaaoiaie iaia?a e
oeaaoiaie aaiia, /oi nicaeaaaei iuouaiea noeeenoe/aneie
oeaeinoiinoe e aa?iiie/iinoe i?ino?ainoaa. Ia?aaeien caeeth/aeny a
oii, /oi ?o/iia i?iecaiaenoai nianai ia auei aeaoaaui, e iaaei?iaay
oe?aaee?iaaiiay i?iiuoeaiiay «?ineioue» iiyoue ieacuaaeanue aia
eiieo?aioeee. Noeeue «Aeaeaeaiey eneonnoa e ?aianae», eae e aai i?yiie
ianeaaeiee – iiaea?i, ieacaeny eneonnoaii aeey eca?aiiuo, ecuneaiiui
noeeai aunieiai eneonnoaa. Ii /oi iiaeao auoue eo/oa
aunieiooaeiaeano-aaiiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e iaiiaoi?eiinoe! No?aieaiea
/aeiaaea e ie?o-aeaieth naay noeeueiuie aauaie ?o/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia
ineaaaaaao e ii nae aeaiue, e aieaa oiai, iu aiiaue iaaethaeaai ?ino
eioa?ana e ?oeioai?iiio eneonnoao.

E?iia oiai, ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu ??neeia e Ii??ena
auea i?aaieciaaia iaueia ooaeiaeieeia, eioi?ay ?aciauaeanue a
oae iacuaaaiii E?aniii aeiia (Red House), ee/iii eiaiee Ii??ena,
noaa-oay i?eia?ii aeey iiiaeo nicaeaaoeony iicaeiaa iauaaeeiaiee
iiaeiaiiai oeia. Aeey iaeoaoaeae E?aniiai aeiia iaueia neoaeeea
aiciiaeiinoueth nicaeaiey caieiooie eiiioiu ooaeiaeieeia, aaea iie iiaee
aeeoue e aiieiuaoue naie oai?/aneea eaeae, iie?aynue ia o?aaeeoeee
n?aaeiaaaeiauo ?aianeaiiuo ianoa?ia.

A 1861 a. A Aiaeee auea iniiaaia oe?ia «Ii??en, Ia?oae,
Oieeia? e E0 (Morris, Marshal, Faulkner & C0) i?ia?aiia yoiai
iauaaeeiaiey auea noi?ioee?iaaia Ii??enii: «Iaoa oeaeue aicauneoue
?ieue eneonnoaa, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ethaee ai ana a?aiaia
no?aieeenue oe?aoaoue iau/iua i?aaeiaou iianaaeiaaiie aeecie». Ii
aai ii?aaeaeaieth e?anioa aeaei?a yoi «aa?iiiey n i?e?iaeie».
?oea ianoa?a aeieaeia aeaenoaiaaoue eae naia i?e?iaea, «iiea
oeaiue, /aoea eee iiae ia noaioo auaeyaeaoue noieue aea
anoanoaaiii e noieue aea i?eaeaeaoaeueii, eae caeaiia iiea,
aa?aa ?aee eee ai?iue o?onoaeue».

E eiioeo 1880 – o aa. oe?ia Ii??ena i?aa?aoeeanue a naiaia?acioth
oeieo, aaea iao/aeenue iiiaea ooaeiaeieee e ?aianeaiieee (n?aaee
ieo aue aeeaeaeoee ae?oa e ni?aoiee Ii??ena Yaeaa?ae Aa?i –
Aeaeiin), eioi-?ua aiineaaenoaee nicaeaaaee nianoaaiiua
iauaaeeiaiey.

Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui i?eia?ii yoiai iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaaiiay a 1882
a. A?oo?ii Oaeaaeoii Iaeio?aei «Aeeueaeey aaea» (The Century Guild).
«Aeeueaeey aaea» Iaeio?aei no?aieeanue iiauneoue noaoon e i?anoeae
?aianae – no?ieoaeuenoaa, oea/anoaa, aii/a?iiai e eocia/iiai
aeaea, – /oiau iie iiaee caiyoue aeinoieiia ianoi ?yaeii n oae
iacuaaaiuie «ecyuiuie eneonnoaaie».

Ae?oaei i?eia?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeeueaeee, caeiaeaiiiai Ii??enii,
yaeyaony «Aeeueaeey e oeiea ?aianae» (The Guild of Handicraft)
*a?eueca ?iaa?oa Yoae.Ia iniiaa eaeae a?eoaineeo i?aaiecaoeee, a
iniaaiii aeeueaeee *. Yoae, a Ae?acaeaia a 1898 a. Auee iniiaaiu
Ae?acaeaineea ianoa?neea, a 1899 a. Auea nicaeaia Aea?iooaaeoneay
eieiiey ooaeiaeieeia ia Iaoeeueaeaioaa, eioi?ua a iineaaenoaee noaee
iniiaie Aa?iaineiai nithca ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ?aianae e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe (Werkbund).

A 1903 a. a Aano?ee /eaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey
«Noeanneii» iniiaaee Aaineea ianoa?neea (Wiener Werkstaette),
i?iecaiaeeaoea iiiai/eneaiiua i?eia?u thaaee?iuo oe?aoaiee,
na?aa?yiie iinoaeu e i?aaeiaoia noieiaiai na?aa?a. A ?innee
i?eioeeiu Ii??ena i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee e aeoeaii eniieueciaaee a
naiai oai?/anoaa /eaiu Aa?aioeaaneiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e?oaeea
Aeecaaaou Iaiiioiaie e Oaeaoeeineeo ianoa?neeo Ia?ee Oaieoaaie.
Iaeiei ec iineaaeieo iieioia o?aaeeoeee «Aeaeaeaiey eneonnoa e
?aianae» noae i?aaieciaaiiue a 1919 a. iaiaoeeee Aaooaon
(Bauhaus).

CAEETH*AIEA

XIX aaeo iu iaycaiu ?acaeoeai oaoieee. A aeeciue aioee
ia?iaicu, ia?ioiaeu, iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuea, oaenoeeueiua e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iaoeiu; ia niaio ia?iaui aeaeaaoaeyi
i?eoiaeyo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaee, aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey,
aeecaee, oo?aeiu e o. i. Ii aieueoeinoai ethaeae n/eoaao iaoeiu
a?aaeiuie, oaeaniuie e o?iaeeeauie. N?aaee i?inouo iauaaoaeae,
ianiiniaiuo iieoe aeaeueoa neiaaniiai i?ioanoa eee caaanoiaee,
auaeaeeeinue aeaa ee/iinoe – Aeaeii ??neei e aai o/aiee Oeeueyi
Ii??en. Iie niiaee aiiaue ioe?uoue ethaeyi aeaca ia aaaeiinoue
?o/iiai o?oaea e e?anioo ecaioiaeaiiuo a?o/ioth aauae, ii
n?aaiaieth n iaaiaeieaoeie i?eeaaee oaeueoeaeaie, ooaiiiaaiiuie
ia noaieao. Iaeiaei, aua aaaeiaa oio oaeo, /oi aeaaiaea?y eo
aeayoaeueiinoe auee ioe?uou ?aciiia?aciua aeeueaeee ?aianae,
cia/eoaeueii eciaieaoea e i?aia?aceaoea ie?oaeathuoth ianoaiiaeo
aeeeuo iiiauaiee oiai a?aiaie. Eiaiii yoi iineoaeeei oie/eii
aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeecaeia eioa?uea?a e iiyaeaiey oaeeo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee eae Aa?eaoiae e Aaooaon. E, /oi
ia iaiaa aaaeii, aeaaiaea?y ??neeio e Ii??eno noaei aiciiaeiui
aiai?eoue i naiaia?aciie ynoaoeea iaoeiiiai o?oaea.

Ia yoii y oioaea au caeii/eoue naie ?anneac ia yoeo
caia/aoaeueiuo ethaeyo.

EEOA?AOO?A

1.© Art-eco.ru, Aeecaei eioa?uea?a, eaiaeoaooiue aeecaei, 2002,

3. Yeea A?eai?ueaaia Oeuaaieiaa. O enoieia aeecaeia. I.: Iaoea, 1977;

4. E. I. Oieiyineee, A. N. Ueiaiia Aeecaei: Eieaa aeey o/aueony.— I.:
I?inaauaiea, 1985;

5.Oaeaaaa A. I., Eaoeineay E. A., Eaieoea O. N., Neoieeia A. I.. Ana
iai anao: I.: 2000.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020