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Nayuaiiua enoi/ieee E?uia

E?aoeee aaia?aoe/aneee i/a?e

N thaa e caiaaea E?uineee iieoino?ia iiuaatho aiaeu *a?iiai ii?y.

*a?iia ii?a caieiaao ieiuaaeue 442 oun. ea. eeeiiao?ia, iaeaieueoay
aeoaeia ?aaia 2.245 iao?ai. Ii?a ii/oe ia 90 % aacaeeciaiii, oae eae ia
aeoaeiao, i?aauoathueo 150-200 iao?ia, aiaea neeueii ianuuaia
na?iaiaei?iaeii, eioi?ue oaeaaao ii/oe ana aeeaua i?aaieciu.

A ae?aaiinoe ianoiua ieaiaia iacuaaee ii?a Oaia?oiaea, /oi a ia?aaiaea
icia/aao “Oaiiay io/eia”. Ae?aaiea a?aee nia/aea aeaee ii?th iacaaiea
Iiio Aeneineee – “Iaainoai?eeiiue” i /ai ?anneacuaaao eaaaiaea. Ii iinea
iniiaaiey e ?anoeaaoa a?a/aneeo eieiiee aai noaee iacuaaoue Yaeneineee –
“Ainoai?eeiiue”.

Ia ainoiea iieoino?ia iiuaatho aiaeu Ea?/aineiai i?ieeaa, a ia
naaa?i-ainoiea – Acianeiai ii?y e caeeaa Neaao. A thaeiie /anoe
E?uineiai iieoino?iaa aunyony E?uineea ai?u. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
neiaeiia ni/aoaiea iaaieueoeo ai?iuo o?aaoia, neaeenouo a?aaiae e
eioeiaei.

I?ea?aaeiay /anoue thaeiiai neeiia ai?iie a?yaeu io iuna Aey ia caiaaea
aei ai?u Ea?aaeaa ia ainoiea iacuaaaony THaeiui aa?aaii E?uia. Yoa oceay
iieina iiaa?aaeuey oe?eiie io 2 aei 12 ei, ?an/eaiaiiay iiiai/eneaiiuie
ia?aaaie e ?a/iuie aeieeiaie, eneeth/eoaeueii aeeaiienia.

Ioeoaea au au ie iiaeuacaeaee e sseoa, iia anaaaea aiacaiii ioe?uaaaony
ia?aae aaie. Aaeeeieaiiue thaeiue ai?iae ?aneeioeny ia aa?aao ii?y a
aeieeiao aeaoo ai?iuo ?a/ae ea?noiaiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey – O/ai-No
(Aiaeiiaaeiie) e Aea?aeieee (Auno?ie). N nooe ii ie?oaeai iieoeieueoeii
ai?: e naaa?o e naaa?i-caiaaeo io sseou i?ioiaeeo Ae-Iao?eineay yeea –
/anoue Aeaaiie a?yaeu E?uineeo ai?; e naaa?i-ainoieo io iaa iooiaeeo
io?ia Ieeeoneie yeeu n aa?oeiie Aaeiaea (1473 i), iinoaiaiii iiieaeaynue
e ii?th, ii caeai/eaaaony iunii Ieeeoneei (Ia?ueyi); e thai-caiaaeo io
sseou auneony eiioniia?aciay ai?a Iiaaae (804 i), thaeiue neeii aa
caeai/eaaaony o ii?y iunii Ae-Oiaei?. A i?aaeaeao yoiai n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoiai ai?iiai aioeoaao?a, ie?oaeathuaai sseoo, ?aeueao ianoiinoe
/?acau/aeii ?aciiia?acai. Caeanue e a?yaea aunieeo ai? ni oieeyie
Ae-Iao?e (1234 i), e io?iae ai? ni neeiiaie, iie?uouie aonouie niniiauie
e aoeiauie eanaie, e aeoaieea ouaeuey n aiaeiiaaeaie, e aeieeiu ai?iuo
?a/ae. Yoio aioeoaao? ecyuii iiae/a?eioo sseoeineei caeeaii.

A naiii ai?iaea aicauoaaony oiei Aea?nai, a ?yaeii – oiei Neaau.
Aeaeueoa, ca oieiii, ia/eiaaony io?ia Eia?ao. Oiei Aea?nai e io?ia
Eia?ao yaeythony aiaei?acaeaeii ?ae Aea?aeieee (Auno?ie) e O/ai-No
(Aiaeiiaaeiie). Iaa ?a/ee i?ioaeatho a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ai?iaea e
aiaaeatho a ii?a a ?aeiia iaaa?aaeiie.

Anee aeae enoi/ieea aucuaaao iiyoe/aneia iano?iaiea a aeooa nia?aiaiiiai
/aeiaaea, aeaeaei ioioaaeoaai naiath aeeciueth io i?e?iaeu, oi
ianeieueei neeueiaa aeieaeii auei auoue yoi /oanoai o iaoeo i?aaeeia,
aeeaoeo ia eiia naiie i?e?iaeu.

(Yeeca ?aeeth)

E?uineee iieoino?ia iaaeinoaoi/ii iaania/ai i?aniiaiaeiuie ?ano?naie e
iiyoiio o anao ia?iaeia, a ?aciua a?aiaia ianaeyaoeo yoio aeaaiaeaoiue
e?ae, nouanoaiaaei o?aiaoiia ioiioaiea e enoi/ieeai i?aniie aiaeu.
Caeanue, iiae iaeyuei nieioeai, iiieiaeinue enoeiiia cia/aiea eaaeaeie
eaiee aiaeu; aeaaea naiue iacia/eoaeueiue ?o/aae eee ?iaeiee aaiaeeeny a
nenoaio aiaeiniaaaeaiey e i?ioaiey, o?oaeynue ia aeaai /aeiaaea. E
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi aeae oieiaeiie i?ic?a/iie no?oeee aiaeu iin?aaee
aacaeeciaiiuo neae ca/anooth aiooae iaoei i?aaeeai aeaaiaiaaeiue no?ao
ia?aae neeaie, nioai?eaoeie yoi /oaei, iiyoiio iiiaea ?iaeieee a E?uio
iaiaeanoaeyeenue e noaiiaeeenue iauaeoaie ?aeeaeiciiai iieeiiaiey. A
anee n aiaeie enoi/ieea naycuaaeanue eaeay-ieaoaeue eaaaiaea eee
i?aaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, i aai oeaeaaiuo naienoaao, oi ?iaeiee noaiiaeeny
ianoii iaeiiie/anoaa aiaiiieueoeaa ni anao eiioeia iieoino?iaa.
Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth “nayouo” e?uineeo enoi/ieeia yaeyeinue oi,
/oi e iei ia iieeiiaiea ono?aieyeenue ethaee ?acee/iuo aa? e
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, – oeaeeoaeueiay aiaea iaeeiaeiai iiiiaaea anai
no?aaeaeouei. A E?uio, aaea eniieii aaeia i?ienoiaeeei ie?iia niaoaiea
ainoi/iie e caiaaeiie eoeueoo?, oeaeaaiua enoi/ieee yaeyeenue iaeiei ec
aeaaiuo neiaieia yoiai ninaaeneiai niaeeoaeuenoaa.

I?e auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue iaeaieaa e?oiiuo e cia/eiuo enoi/ieeia, n
oeaeueth aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia,
nii?oaeaeenue eneoniua a?oeoaeoo?iua nii?oaeaiey – eaioaaee,
niae?athuea, o?ainii?oe?othuea e ?aaoee?othuea iiaecaiiue noie.
Aieueoeinoai oaeeo eaioaaeae yaeyeinue iienoeia aaee/anoaaiiuie
iaiyoieeaie e?uineiai aeae?ioaoie/aneiai ciae/anoaa. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe io iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeia aicaiaeeeenue eoeueoiaua nii?oaeaiey,
iaeiie ec iaycaiiinoae neoaeeoaeae eioi?uo auee i?eniio? e ooiae ca
?iaeieeii e ie?oaeathuae aai oa??eoi?eae. Eae iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoiio –
neiaa ecaanoiiai aeae?ieiaa I. A. ?ooeiaa: “Ia ianoao auoiaea ia
iiaa?oiinoue ?iaeieeiauo aiae ia?aaeei iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?acaaeeiu
a?a/aneeo oea?eaae eee aeaaea iiianou?ae, e caeanue oaea auoiaeu
?iaeieeia oae eee eia/a iaaeaeaiu e oe?aieaiu” [17].

Iieeiiaiea enoi/ieeai aiaeu nouanoaiaaei ia oa??eoi?ee E?uia n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. Oae, a 8 ei naaa?iaa Ea?/e iaoiaeeony ?ac?ooaiiue
eaioaae enoi/ieea, a?aiy aicieeiiaaiea eioi?iai ioiineony e na?aaeeia I
aaea iaoae y?u. Eaioaae enoi/ieea i?aaenoaaeye niaith iiaecaiioth
aaea?ath, a eioi?oth aaea eaiaiiay eanoieoea e eieiaeaoe. Ia yoii
enoi/ieea nio?aieeenue yiea?aoe/aneea aeaiiua, enoiaey ec eioi?uo
yanoaoao, /oi ii iaoiaeeeny iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai
aiaa-oeaeeoaey Aneeaiey, oae eae iaeaaeae ea/aaiuie naienoaaie [1].
Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi a aioe/iie Oaa?eea nouanoaiaaee e ae?oaea
“nayuaiiua” enoi/ieee, naycaiiua n eoeueoii Aneeaiey.

Ii ana aea iaeaieueoaa /enei “nayouo” e?uineeo ?iaeieeia naycaii ia n
aioe/iui ia?eiaeii, a ni a?aiaiai i?iieeiiaaiey a Oaa?eeo o?enoeainoaa,
eioi?ia i?eauei nthaea aianoa n auoiaeoeaie ec Aecaioee. Eniiaaaeuaaaoea
o?enoeainoai a?aee, aeeaoea, i?aeiouanoaaiii, a thaeiiaa?aaeiie iieina
E?uineiai iieoino?iaa, aicaiaeeee caeanue aeanyoee iiianou?ae, i?e
eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo nouanoaiaae naie enoi/iee aiaeu. *anoue ec yoeo
?iaeieeia iaaeaeyeanue oeaeaaiuie naienoaaie iinea iino?ieee iiianou?y
eee oea?eae, a iaeioi?ua, iaiai?io, ca n/ao ii/eoaiey ianoiuie aeeoaeyie
naie neoaeeee ia?aii?e/eiie aicaaaeaiey eoeueoiaiai nii?oaeaiey. E
enoi/iee, e iiianou?ue /anoi eiaee iauaa iacaaiea e auee iinayuaiu
eaeiio-eeai o?enoeaineiio nayoiio. Ia ea?oa ai?iiai E?uia aei neo ii?
ano?a/athony a?a/aneea iacaaiey ?iaeieeia, aiai?yuea ia eo i?ioeie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iiianou?th e iaiiieiathuea i naiae aueie neaaa
“nayouo” enoi/ieeia. Oaeiau aeae?iieiu Ae-Aeaenee (na. Aeaenae),
Ae-Aiae?eo (na. Aiae?ae), Ae-Ianoane (na. Aianoaney) e Ae-ssi-Iao?e (na.
Eiaii e na. Iao?) a ie?anoiinoyo n. Aaia?aeueneia (a. Iaaa-Iioai,
Oeo-Ocaiue), Ae-Ei?e (na. Aai?aee) iaae n. Eciaeeueiia (a. Ei?aaeeu),
Ae-Eey (na. Eeuey) auoa iin. Iaeue Iaye (a. Aethe-Eaiaao), Ae-Eiinoaiaee
(na. Eiinoaioei) i?e n. Eo/enoia (a. Ooia, Aeaie?aeaee), Ae-ssi (na.
Eiaii) ieiei Eeaaaeee e o n. Ia?aaaeueiia (a. Ayi), Ae-Eocueia (na.
Eicueia) aaeece n. Aunieia (a. Aoaaa-Ea?iai/ee) o Ae-Aaneeue (na.
Aaneeee) a ie?anoiinoyo sseou e iiiaea ae?oaea [11].

Aiaea iaeioi?uo ec yoeo enoi/ieeia caae?aeanue a iiaecaiioth aaea?ath, a
naia oea?eiaue no?ieeanue iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaae iae. Oaeei ia?acii,
iieo/aeinue, /oi ?iaeiee auoaeae i?yii ec-iiae oea?eiaiiai aeoa?y
(enoi/ieee Ae-Eey, Ae-Aiae?eo, Ae-ssi e ae?.) [6]. Eaioaaee aea oao
enoi/ieeia, eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue ia iaeioi?ii oaeaeaiee io iiianou?y,
eiaee eaeoth-ieaoaeue o?enoeaineoth neiaieeeo: /aua anaai eaioaae aue
noeeeciaai iiae iaaieueooth a?a/aneoth /aniaaieo n aeaoneaoiie e?uoae,
ieoaie aeey eeiiie, eiiaaea aeaa?ueth. Oaeea eaioaaee-/aniaaiee au?
nio?aieeenue ia THaeiii aa?aao E?uia a naea Aaia?aeueneii (oiioaiu a
oi?ia a?a/aneeo /aniaaiie – Ae-Aeaenee e Oaeia-*ie?ae ii aei?iaa ia
Ea?aae-yeeo, oiioai Aeaeai-*ie?ae a naiii naea), a ie?anoiinoyo naea
Cai?oaeiia (a. Aeaaa?iaieie) – enoi/iee Ae-Oeie e a ?yaea ae?oaeo.

Ec-ca aeaaiinoe iino?ieee aieueoeinoai iaiyoieeia a?a/aneie
aeae?ioaoie/aneie a?oeoaeoo?u aei iaoaai a?aiaie ia nio?aieeinue. Iinea
enoiaea ec Oaa?eee a 1778 aiaeo e?uineeo a?aeia eaioaaee ai?iuo
enoi/ieeia ec-ca ionoonoaey ooiaea e ?aiiioa i?eoee a caionoaiea, a
ia?aaeei e niaoeeaeueii ?ac?ooaeenue inoaaoeiny ionoeueiaineei
ianaeaieai (a iaeieo neo/ayo a?a/aneea eaioaaee iieiinoueth
ia?aaeaeuaaeenue n o/aoii o?aaeeoeee ionoeueiaineie a?oeoaeoo?u, a
ae?oaeo – e iei aeiaaaeyeanue eaeay-eeai ionoeueiaineay neiaieeea).
Caeanue iiaeii i?eaanoe i?eia? oiioaia a n. Aaia?aeueneia, eaioaae
eioi?iai, noeeeciaai iiae a?a/aneoth i?aaineaaioth /aniaaieo, ii ia
ianoa ieoe aeey eeiiu eiaao oaoa?neoth caeeaaeioth ieeoo, yaii
aoi?e/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, n oaenoii ec Ei?aia, iniiaiay /anoue
eioi?iai ec-ca ieioiai ninoiyiey ia iiaeaeaaony ?anoeo?iaea. Eioa?anii,
/oi aa?oiyy /anoue ieeou, aaea iau/ii ecia?aaeaaony neiaie eneaia –
iieoianyoe, noa?aoaeueii caoa?oa /ae-oi ?oeie. Nei?aa anaai, yoi
ioaieinee niauoee ia?eiaea noaiiaeaiey niaaoneie aeanoe a E?uio, eiaaea
anyeia i?enoonoaea ?aeeaeiciie neiaieeee ia iauanoaaiiuo nii?oaeaieyo (a
oii /enea e ia oiioaiao) auei nianai iaaeaeaoaeueii. Oae, oiioai n.
Aaia?aeueneia (oaoa?neia iacaaiea Aeaeai-*ie?ae (“Aeooaaiue enoi/iee”),
a a?a/aneee oiiiiei iu oaea ieeiaaea ia ociaai), i?aoa?iae ia naiai aaeo
ianeieueei eciaiaiee, neoaeee e i?aaineaaiiio, e ionoeueiaineiio
ianaeaieth, a iuia yaeyaony aeaaiie a?oeoaeoo?iie
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoueth naea Aaia?aeueneia, ca /oi ?aeiiaiaeoaony
iaie e io?aia eae iaiyoiee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20 aaea ia ianoa iiiaeo ?ac?ooaiiuo
enoi/ieeia-oiioaiia auee aicaaaeaiu iiaua aeae?inii?oaeaiey: iaeiioeiiua
eaioaaeiua aoaeee, ia i?aaenoaaeythuea ieeaeie ynoaoeei-eoeueoo?iie
oeaiiinoe. Oaeea aaoiiiua, aue?aoaiiua aaeeeaie aoaeee, io eioi?uo
iooiaeeo nenoaia aiaeii?iaiaeiuo o?oa, niaaaeathuay aiaeie aeeceaaeauea
naea, iaoiaeyony ia ianoa iaeioi?uo “nayouo” enoi/ieeia: Ae-Eey iaae
Iaeui Iayeii (a. Aethe-Eaiaao), Ae-Eiinoaiaee o n. Eo/enoiai (a. Ooia,
Aeaie?aeaee), Ae-Ei?e o n. Eciaeeueiia (a. Ei?aaeeu), Ae-Oeie ieiei n.
Cai?oaeiia (a. Aeaaa?iaieie) e ae?.

Iaeiei ec naiuo ii/eoaaiuo a E?uio aue enoi/iee Ae-Aiae?eo (Na. Aiae?ae,
eee, eae aai iacuaaee ianoiua oaoa?u, “aiaeiiaae nayoiai Aiae?ay”,
“iiianou?ue Yiae?e”). Enoi/iee ?aniieiaeai a iieooi?a eeeiiao?ao e
thai-caiaaeo io n. Aaia?aeueneia (a. Iaaa-Iioai, Oeo-Ocaiue) a oii
ianoa, aaea, ii i?aaeaieth, a 1 aaea i. y. i?iiiaaaeiaae Na. Aiae?ae
Ia?aicaaiiue. Aai iieeoaaie aiciee yoio enoi/iee, caeanue aea iiiaea
aeeoaee Oaa?eee i?eiyee o?enoeainoai. A n?aaeiea aaea iaae ?iaeieeii
nouanoaiaaea oea?eiaue, iinayuaiiay na. Aiae?ath, ?acaaeeiu eioi?ie
nio?aieeenue aei iaoeo aeiae. Aiaeioie enoi/ieea aue caa?ai a eaiaiioth
aaea?ath-ooiiaeue, ?aniieiaeaiioth iiae oea?eiaiui aeoa?ai, ioeoaea e
auoaeaea nayoay aiaea. N?aaieoaeueii oi?ioi nio?aieaoeany inoaoee
oea?eae n oanaiiuie eieiiiaie auee ?acia?aiu ianoiuie oaoa?aie aaniie
1913 aiaea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi, nayoia aeey anao i?aaineaaiuo
e?ui/ai, ianoi aiiaue i?eoyaeaaao e naaa aieiaiea. Oae, 12 e 25 naioya?y
2000 aiaea e enoi/ieeo aue niaa?oai e?anoiue oiae, aicaeaaeyaiue
ianoiyoaeai aeoooeineiai o?aia Na. Oaaei?a No?aoeeaoa e Anao E?uineeo
Nayouo iooeii Ieoaeeii. Aiaea enoi/ieea auea aiiaue inayuaia, a o
?acaaeei oea?eae Na. Aiae?ay aiae?oaeai aea?aayiiue e?ano.

Oae aea aeaaii, ni n?aaeiaaaeiauey, eae e enoi/iee na. Aiae?ay, a E?uio
ii/eoatho enoi/iee nayoie Aianoanee Oci?aoeoaeueieoeu (“Ae-Aianoaney”),
?aniieiaeaiiue a Oea?eiaiii a?ioa “iaua?iiai iiianou?y” Ea/e-Eaeueii, a
i?aaii ai?oo ?. Ea/a o n. Aaooaiiaea (a. Iu/ee). Auoiae enoi/ieea
ioaeaeai a oi?ia iaaieueoiai ie?oaeiai eieiaeoea, au?oaeaiiiai a
ei?aiiie ii?iaea – ioaieiaii ecaanoiyea. ?aiueoa eieiaeaoe aue “iaeiaeai
e?oaii eaiiyie”, a iaae enoi/ieeii iaoiaeeeanue “e?uoa ia aeaeaciuo
noieaao”. ?yaeii iaoiaeeeanue “oaiaay oeaeeia, a eioi?ie iiiauaaony
iieoneiiaiiay e?iaaoue aeey aeaiuei, ?ac?aoathueony io a?aiaie”. Oaeei
aai iiaee aeaeaoue iooaoanoaaiieee eiioea 19 aaea, noaey ii iienaieth
Ea/e-Eaeueaia a iooaaiaeeoaea A. Iineae/a. Iicaaee enoi/ieea, a neaea
au?oaeai ?aeueaoiue o?enoeaineee e?ano e o?e ieoe aeey eeii, a eioi?uo
noiyee eeiiu Aiaiiaoa?e, na. Aianoanee e aaaiaaeenoa Iaoaay. Ia yoii
enoi/ieea oiiieiaao a 1837 aiaeo a naiai “E?uineii nai?ieea” I. Eaiiai.
Ii ieoao, /oi a naiii aieueoii a?ioa Ea/e-Eaeueaia nouanoaoao
“aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiue enoi/iee, ia?auaiiue a eieiaeacue e iacuaaaiue
eieiaeacai na. Aianoanee eee i?inoi Nayoith aiaeith”. Aaaaiee Ia?eia,
iooaoanoaiaaaoee ii E?uio a eiioea 19 aaea, aniiieiae, /oi enoi/iee aue
“iaaeaeai a eaiaiiue aannaei/ee, iiae eioi?ui eaaeeo noa?ay iieoenoa?oay
eeiia e aeaeiu neaaeu eiiioe e aineiauo naa/ae” [13].

Ia?iaeiay iieaa aeiianea i?aaeaiea i o?aa?ie aeaai/ea Aianoanee,
eioi?ay, nianay naia noaaei, iiaeaea a iaua?ao Ea/e-Eaeueaia io eai
aeeaoeo caeanue no?aoiuo /oaeiaeu e ciae. Oaeiai oaeana ia auaea?aeaea
neaea e iioi?iieea iiae naieie iaeiieaie anao /oaeiaeu. A iioo?o ec
aacaeeciaiiie neaeu ia/aea ni/eoueny no?oeea ?iaeieeiaie aiaeu – oi
ieaeae Ea/e-Eaeueai ii caaoaeaiiie aeaoneie aeooa. N oao ii? enoi/iee a
Ea/e-Eaeueaia, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “Nayoay Aianoaney”, n/eoaaony
“nayuaiiui” e aei neo ii? inoaaony iaeiei ec naiuo ii/eoaaiuo a E?uio.

Enoi/iee Ae-Aianoanee ii/eoaee ia oieueei ianoiua a?aee-o?enoeaia, a
iaeaieueoai eiee/anoaa niae?aaoeany caeanue 22 aeaeaa?y, ii e oaoa?u. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eieiaeaoe ?ac?ooai, aiaea a iai ia i?eaiaeia aeey
ieouey, eeiiu e “e?uoa ia aeaeaciuo noieaao” ia nio?aieeenue.

Eiiaaea enoi/iee iaaeaeyeny oeaeaaiuie naienoaaie e iaiaeanoaeyeny a
?acoeueoaoa /oaeaniiai enoeaeaiey aai aiaeie. Oae i?iecioei, iai?eia?, n
ecaanoiui anai neioa?iiieueoeai ?iaeieeii, ?aniieiaeaiiui a naiii
oeaio?a ai?iaea, a ia?ea ca e/o “Neioa?iiieue”, a oaienoii oaieea
iaaa?aaeiie ?. Naeae?.

Ii i?aaeaieth, a Neioa?iiiea aeee neaiie a?ae Aiinoie Naaiioei, eioi?ue
iaeiaaeaeu – 1 iay 1857 a. – iieo/ee enoeaeaiea io naiae aieacie
aeaaiaea?y i?iiuaaieth aeac aiaeie ec yoiai ?iaeieea. A oio aea aiae, a
/anoue naiaai /oaeaniiai aucaei?iaeaiey, Naaiioei nii?oaeee ia ianoa
?iaeieea e?aneaue oiioai, a aeaea oeao?iie ecaanoiyeiaie ieeou,
aai/athuaeny ?aciui ea?iecii. Auoiae enoi/ieea ii ioi?iee a aeaea
/aeiaa/aneiai eeoea, eci ?oa eioi?iai auoaeaea aiaea, niae?aaoayny a
iaaieueooth /aoo, a iin?aaeeia ieeou, a iaaeoaieie iieonoa?e/aneie ieoa,
aunae iaaeienue: “Nae oiioai aue nii?oaeai a?aeii Aiinoieii Naaiioei a
1857a”. N aeaoo noi?ii io /aoe ia oeaii/eao aenaee aeaa iaoaeee/aneea
e?oaeee aeey oaeianoaa aeaaeaeoueo. Oiioai iaiaeiie?aoii ?anoaa?e?iaaeny
– a 1881a, eaeea-oi ?aaiou i?iaiaeeeenue caeanue a aaaonoa 1906a, caoai
?oea ?anoaa?aoi?a i?eeinioeanue e iaio a 1994a. A ?acoeueoaoa iaaeienue
ia oiioaia neaaea eciaieeanue e ia?aei/aaaea ia ieeoo ec aaeiai i?aii?a,
onoaiiaeaiioth a 1994a, iinea oiai eae iaecaanoiua aaiaeaeu eco?iaeiaaee
oiioai a ia/aea 90-o aa.

O oiioaia Naaiioei nieiaeanue iaeia ec noeai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oeeueia
“Oioa? ia iaeei ?aen” (1981). Aeaaiua aa?ie (Ooeoeia n Ao?aiiaui), aoeyy
ii Neioa?iiieth, iai?aaeeenue e oiioaio e ieee oai aiaeo ec ?iaeieea.
No?ieoaeueioth iaaeienue ai a?aiy nuaiie oeeueia caiacaee.

A aeooiaiie aeecie aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai Neioa?iiiey oiioai Naaiioei ea?ae
iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue. Iaiyooy i /oaeaniii enoeaeaiee a?aea, ianaeaiea
ai?iaea n/eoaei yoio enoi/iee “nayuaiiui”. Ia iniaia ioiioaiea e iaio
oeacuaatho e ?acee/iua iacaaiey ?iaeieea ia a?a/aneii e oth?eneii
ycueao: Ae-Ia?i, Aey-A?ene, Ae-No, Ae-*aoia, Acen-No, Acen-*aoia – ana
yoi ia?aaiaeeony eae “nayoay aiaea” eee “nayoie oiioai”.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiae ii aeey e?uineeo oaoa?. Iaiiiai auoa e eaaaa
enoi/ieea iaoiaeeeanue iiaeea iaeiiai ec naiuo ii/eoaaiuo oaoa?neeo
nayouo – acena “Naeae?-aaaa”. Iiaeea yoiai nayoiai iinauaeanue iannie
aiaiiieueoeaa, inoaaeyaoeo ia ?anooueo aie?oa iiaeeu eonoao ne?aie
eineooee iaoa?ee, e aa?eaoeo, /oi n ieie iieeaeatho iie caeanue ana naie
aieacie. Iinea iieeiiaiey iiaeea nayoiai oaoa?u niaoeee e oiioaio, /oiau
oiuoueny oeaeeoaeueiie aiaeie. Aiaea ec “nayoiai” oiioaia,
?aniieiaeaiiiai o acena “Naeae?-aaaa”, n oniaoii i?iaeaaaeanue
niio?eoaeai iiaeeu anai eneaaoei enoeaeaiea io naieo aaae e iaacaiae.
N/eoaeinue, /oi eo/oa anaai aiaea enoi/ieea Acen-no enoeaeyao io
eeoi?aaeee.

?onneia aea ianaeaiea aa?eei, /oi ieouea aiaeu ec “a?a/aneiai oiioaia”
niinianoaoao en/aciiaaieth aieacie – eaooa?u aeaeoaeea. N aeaeueieo
eiioeia ai?iaea ethaee oiaeeee oo?ii oiuoueny aai aiaeie, e auieoue a?
iaoiuae, iaeaiueeeie aeioeaie, i?eieiay aioo?ue eae eaea?noai. A ia?iaea
oae aea oiaeeei iiaa?uea, /oi anee eoi ia?aui oiiaony e auiueao yoo
aiaeo 1 iay, oio ecea/eo naaa ethaoth aieaciue, a iaeaioia, ii/ueth,
ai?iaeneie naaeiaiee anaaaea eeae o oiioaia aoeao oeaaoia, eae
aeaaiaea?iinoue ca aai oeaeaaioth neeo.

E oioy aieueoa aaea i?ioei n oie ii?u, neioa?iiieueoeu ia caauaatho i
oeaeaaiuo naienoaao oiioaia: aaeaaeiaaii, a ethaia a?aiy aiaea, iiaeii
ano?aoeoue caeanue ethaeae n aaae?aie e aeaeii/eeaie, iaae?athueo
?iaeieeiaoth aiaeo [9].

Eioa?aniia ainiiieiaiea ec naiaai aeaonoaa, y?ei oa?aeoa?ecothuaa
aiaeanoaaiiia ioiioaiea e aiaea o e?uineeo a?aeia, i?eaiaeeo
neioa?iiieueneee e?aaaaae A. E. Aa?aaoey: “:Aaaooea oiueanue. I?ioa?ea
aeaca e ooe. Iiaenoaaeea niieiooua eaaeiie iiae no?oeeo aiaeu e,
i?eeanaynue eii/eeaie iaeueoeaa e eaiaiiie noaia oiioaia, ia/aea /eoaoue
ecaanoioth iia naioth aeaaioth iieeoao: “Ai eiy Iooea (iia naeaeaea
aeioie e niiaa iaiieieea eaaeiie) :e Nuia (iia i?iaeaeaea oi aea naiia)
:e Nayoiai Aeooa (niiaa oi aea naiia) : Aieiue! Oaia?ue ou (y iiaoi?ee,
/oi naeaeaea iia). Oae iinooiaee iaoe i?aaeee o yoiai oiioaia e o
ae?oaeo, e o ?iaeieeia” [3]. Anee /aeiaae caaieaaae, oi ii aeieaeai aue
i?i/eoaoue iieeoao e naeaeaoue /aou?a aeioea iinea neia “Ioaoe”, “Nui”,
“Aeoo nayoie” e “Aieiue”, ii iaycaoaeueii a iieiii iaeeii/anoaa.

Eioa?anii, /oi o e?uineeo a?aeia oeaeaaiie n/eoaeanue oieueei aeeaay,
aaaouay aiaea, oi anoue aiaea ec oiioaiia e ?iaeieeia. Eieiaeaciay aea,
noiy/ay aiaea n/eoaeanue ia?oaie, iioiio i?eaiaeiie eeoue ia
oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu.

Ia iaiaa o?aiaoiui, /ai o a?aeia-o?enoeai, ioiioaiea e ?iaeieeiaie aiaea
auei e o oaoa?neiai ianaeaiey E?uia. AEeciue e aeaaininoiyiea oaoa?eia,
/uee aeie i?ioaeaee iin?aaee auaeaeaiiuo ai?iuo neeiiia e nooeo
yeeeineeo ianoaeu, iai?yioth caaenaea io aiaeu ai?iuo enoi/ieeia. Oai,
aaea aue ?iaeiee, – oai auea aeeciue, oai caeaiaee naaeu e
aeiia?aaeieee, oai oieieeenue noaaea iaaoe e ei?ia, cao/ae aeaoneee niao
e ea?aea iocuea. Oai, aaea ia auei ?iaeieea, – auea nia?oue. Yoi i?aaeei
oi?ioi onaieee oaoa?u, e iiyoiio ethaoth, naioth oiiaiueeoth no?oeeo
aiaeu, iaeaeaiioth eie a ai?ao, n iaeiiaa?iui oii?noaii e oa?iaieai
?ac?aaaouaaee a no?aieoaeueiue ?o/aae.

Ecaanoiue e?uineee e?aaaaae A.E. Ia?eia a eiioea XIX aaea ienae: “Oaoa?u
euoo eeth/ae, eae cieioa, e aei?iaeao eie, eae cieioii: Oaoa?u eiatho
oaeia aea /oouea iiaecaiiuo aeee, eae cieioii?iiuoeaiieee /oouea
?oaeiiiniuo aeee. N iaiaueiiaaiiui eneonnoaii e oa?iaieai iie naa?aaatho
aiaeo e ioaiaeyo a? ia naie ieaioaoeee e naaeu: Oaoa?ei – iayno?i
i?ioaiey e i?iaaaeaiey aiae. Iiyoiio aea ii nai oae auniei oeaieo
aeaaiaeayiea iaiaeiaiey” [13].

I. A. ?ooeia, iaienaaoee a 1915 aiaeo na?ueaciue iao/iue o?oae “Iaci?
?a/iuo aeieei ai?iie /anoe E?uia”, n/eoae, /oi “naiui aeeaui e
aeieacaoaeueiui iaiyoieeii auniou ?acaeoey i?ineoaeueiiai aeaea a
noa?eio neoaeeo naii oaoa?neia ianaeaiea e?ay, aai iiuoiinoue e ethaiaue
e yoiio aeaeo, eneonnoai aai: anee ia a iino?ieea neiaeiaeoeo
aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee, oi a iaoiaeaeaiee n aiaeith. Yoi
eneonnoai nei?i e eaaei ia i?eia?aoaaony, a iioiio e ninoaaeyao aaaeiia
ianeaaeea, aeinoaaoaany nia?aiaiiiio E?uio” [17].

A oeaeyo oaaee/aiey aeaaeoa ?iaeieea, nio?aiaiey io caeeaiey e
caa?yciaiey aai iiaecaiiue aiaeioie ia?aaeei caeeth/aeny a eaiaiioth
aaea?ath-ooiiaeue, eioi?ay ia oieueei niae?aea eioeeueo?aoeeiiioth
aiaeo, ii e yaeyeanue iiuiui eiiaeainaoi?ii aoiinoa?iie aeaae a nooia
a?aiy aiaea. Naii aea ianoi auoiaea aiaeu ia iiaa?oiinoue ia?aieyeinue a
eneoniue eaioaae, aeae eioi?iai, caaeny io oaioacee no?ieoaey, iia
i?eieiaoue niaa?oaiii ?acioth oi?io. Anee oiioai (oae ?onneiycu/iia
ianaeaiea E?uia iacuaaei eaioe?iaaiiua enoi/ieee) no?ieeny ia n?aaenoaa
aea?aaie, oi aeey yoiai aeaea i?ecuaaeny ii?aaeaeaiiue ianoa? –
/aoiaaeaee, a aeey iineaaeothuaai ooiaea e i?eniio?a ca oiioaiii e
ie?oaeathuae aai aiaeinai?iie oa??eoi?eae iacia/aeny niaoeeaeueiue
/aeiaae – iooaaaee. Oaeea oiioaiu i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey iauanoaaiiiai
oiio?aaeaiey e iacuaaeenue aaeooiuie oiioaiaie. Ii /aua anaai eaioaae
enoi/ieea nii?oaeaeny neeaie eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai /aeiaaea. Yoi
iauyniyeinue oai, /oi ono?iaiea i?eaei?iaeiiai oiioaia ia aeaai iooieea
o oaoa? yaeyeinue aunoae caiiie aeia?iaeaoaeueth e neeueii iiiu?yeinue
Aeeaoii. Aiai?eee, /oi no?ieoaeuenoai oiioaia – yoi aeaei, “ca eioi?ia
I?i?ie oae ioioii ioe?uaaao i?aaiaa?iiio aeaa?e ?ay”. A nayce n oaeei
?aeeaeiciui cia/aieai oiioaiia ia aieueoeinoaa ec ieo au?acaeanue
no?ieoaeueiay iaaeienue – oa?eo, aaea i?eaiaeeeinue eaeia-eeai ec?a/aiea
ec Ei?aia, aiae iino?ieee, a oae aea eiy no?ieoaey, /oiau i?ioiaeyuee
ethae, ooieea aeaaeaeo, iia iiiieeoueny ca aai caei?iauea. I?eaaaeai
aeey i?eia?a iaeioi?ua ec e?uineeo oiioaiiuo oa?eoia:

“Neaaa Anaauoiaio, ieeinoue aaeeeiai E?ui-Ae?ay neaaii ono?ieea.
Iaonuiiuie aai noa?aieyie aiaea iaiieea yoo no?aio. Oiieinoueth oia ii
iaoae aiaeo e ono?iee i?ae?aniue oiioai. Anee eoi oi/ao iiaa?eoue,
ionoue i?eaeao. I, oaeoe! Eoi aoaeao ooieyoue aeaaeaeo, ioneae ycueii
naiei neaaeao neiai: I?eaee, iae aiaeo /enoaeooth, iia i?eiineo
enoeaeaiea” (oiioai Aao/ena?aeneiai aeai?oea) [2].

“Oai, a ?aeneii naaeo i?aaaaeiua aoaeoo ieoue aiaeo” (oiioai
Aao/ena?aeneiai aeai?oea) [2].

“Oio, eoi iino?iee yoio enoi/iee, iaia?oaeee aai ia yoii ianoa. E
iiyaeeny ii – enoi/iee aeecie. Enoi/iee Oaaeaee Aoiaaea, aea aeo?/eo
caiiei aai aiaea!” (oiioai a Noaeaea) [18].

“Aaeeeee oai – Eneai Ae?ae iino?iee yoio enoi/iee i?ae?aniue e /enoue.
Aai aiaea e eaiie iiaeiaiu oai, /oi a ?aeneeo enoi/ieeao. I?ae?aniue
?iaeiee – enoi/iee aeecie” (oiioai a Aaiaoi?ee) [18].

Eiiaaea oiioai no?ieeny ia aeaiueae eaeiai-eeai iaania/aiiiai oaoa?eia,
eioi?ue nai ia o/anoaiaae a iino?ieea, ii iiea/eaae ?aaioo ianoa?a
oiioaiiuo aeae – /aoiaaeaee. A oaeii neo/aa ia enoi/ieea iiiauaeanue
iaaeienue n eiaiai oicyeia-niiini?a. Iai?eia?: “Oicyei aiaaonoa Oaaeaee
Eo?o Iia? eai Oaaeaee Aoiaae. 1315 aiae Oeaeae?u. Aeoooa” (oiioai
*iaai-/ie?ae a o?i/eua Aeaeo?ea), “Oicyei aiaaonoa – aeia?uo aeae Aao
ae-Ea?ei ai Ionoaoa” (oiioai o o/a “I?eaae” a Aao/ena?aa).

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi neiaa oiioaiiuo oa?eoia iaaiaeeee ia iuneue i
nayoinoe e /oaeiaeaenoaee ?iaeieeiaie aiaeu, neaaenoaeai /aai
noaiiaeeinue aa?aaeiia ioiioaiea e enoi/ieeo e aai aiaeinai?iie
ieiuaaee, a yoi oaea yaeyeinue iniiaie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeiiieueciaaiey
e i?e?iaeiio?aiiie eoeueoo?u e?uineeo oaoa? [10].

N?aaee iauaai ii/eoaiey aiaeiuo enoi/ieeia, iniaui iieeiiaieai
auaeaeyeenue ?iaeieee i?e ia/aoyo, aiaea eioi?uo eniieueciaaeanue
ionoeueiaiaie aeey ?aeeaeiciiai iiiaaiey, a oae aea ?iaeieee ieiei
iiaeeu nayoiai i?aaaaeieea – acena. Iaeieie ec naiuo ii/eoaaiuo
enoi/ieeia a n?aaea e?uineeo ionoeueiai aue oiioai a i?aaeianouea
Aao/ena?ay Eu?e-Acenea?, aaea iioi?iiaii ianeieueei ionoeueiaineeo
nayouo, oiioai Acen-*aoia a Neioa?iiiea, iioa?yiiue iuia oiioai
Yoaiaee-*aoia o iiaeeu oaoa?neiai nayoiai Eaiaeue-aaaay ia Ea?aaeaaa,
oiioai ia thaeiie ie?aeia Aaeiai?nea. Iineaaeiee i?aaenoaaeye niaie
“enoi/iee, auoaeathuee ec eaiaiiiai aannaeia, inaiaiiiai iyoueth
ia?iiiuie aycaie”, ia aaoayo eioi?uo auee “?acaaoaiu ?aciioeaaoiua
o?yiee, ninoaaeythuea i?eiioaiey aaaeiuo ethaeae, auea/eaoeony
oiio?aaeaieai aiaeu ec yoiai enoi/ieea, neaayuaainy a ie?anoiinoyo
naiath oeaeaaiith neeith [16]”.

O ea?aeiia iniaui ii/oaieai iieuecoaony “nayuaiiue” enoi/iee
THnoo-*ie?ae, ?aniieiaeaiiue o iiaeiiaeuey thai-caiaaeiiai neeiia ai?u
Aaoee-Oao, ia ?acaeeea aei?ia, aaaeoueo e *oooo-Eaea, Oaia-Ea?iaio e
Euc-Ea?iaio. A iaae?ao yoie ai?u ii i?aaeaieth ne?uoa aieoaaiay
eieuaaeue, a eioi?ie aeieaeai ?iaeeoueny aoaeouee Nianeoaeue Ie?a.
Nia?aiaiiue eaioaae enoi/ieea THnoo-*ie?ae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaoiiiue
i?yiioaieueiue ?aca?aoa?, ii aaconeiaii, /oi ?aiueoa enoi/iee eiae
ae?oaie – aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiue eaioaae, eioi?ue ii iaecaanoiui nae/an
i?e/eiai aue ?ac?ooai. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e oi, /oi ia ea?oao ia/aea OO
aaea ia ianoa enoi/ieea noieo iaaeienue “oiioai”.

A 15-oe iao?ao auoa nia?aiaiiiai auoiaea enoi/ieea iaoiaeeony, iuia
canuiaiiue caieae, aoiae a iiaecaiioth aaea?ath, neoaeauoth aeey nai?a e
o?ainii?oe?iaee iiaecaiiuo aiae a. Aaoee-Oao. Aaea?ay iiaecaiiiai oiaea
ioee/aaony eioa?aniui a?oeoaeoo?iui eniieiaieai e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
28-iao?iaue ooiiaeue, ooiaeyuee aaeoaue ai?u, n aunioie naiaea 1.7 i e
oe?eiie ieiei 60 ni. Noaiu, naiae e iie aaea?ae aueiaeaiu oanaiuie
ieeoaie, i?e/ai naiae naeaeai a aeaea no?aeue/aoie aeaoneaoiie a?ee, a
ii na?aaeeia ieeo iiea au?oaeai aeaeiaie, ii eioi?iio oa/ao ?iaeieeiaay
aiaea. Aaea?ay auiieiyao ia oieueei o?ainii?oe?iaeo aiaeu, ii e
aiaeinai?ioth ooieoeeth. Ia yoi oeacuaaao iaee/ea 9 aieiauo eaiaeia,
ia?aoaaouaathueo eciee?iaaiiua aiaeiua iioiee, /oi iinooiatho a iniiaiie
oiae ooiiaey. Nia?aiiay a ooieeiaie /anoe aiaea, auoiaeeo ia aeiaaioth
iiaa?oiinoue ii i?eaoiaeiaiio io?aceo ooiiaey, aaea iina?aaeeia nieioiie
auiinoee ec ieioii iiaeiaiaiiuo ieeo, au?oaeai i?yiioaieueiue eioie, ii
eioi?iio e aaaeeo aiaea. Ia nai?i i?ioyaeaiee eioie eiaao aeaa
ei?uoiia?aciuo i?yiioaieueiuo ?anoe?aiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
inaaeaiey iaoiaeyueony a aiaea aeeienouo /anoeoe [8].

Iiaecaiiue eaioaae enoi/ieea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oieeaeueiia oai?aiea
iineoaeae o?aaeeoeee e?uineie aeae?ioaoie/aneie a?oeoaeoo?u, a anee e
yoiio o/anoue, /oi THnoo-*ie?ae yaeyeny aaaeiie nayouiae ea?aeineiai
ia?iaea (aiciiaeii eiaiii iiyoiio oiioai enoi/ieea e i?eaoiaeiaay /anoue
aai iiaecaiiie aaea?ae auee ?ac?ooaiu), oi ii ianiiiaiii iiaeao auoue
?aeiiaiaeiaai e io?aia eae iaiyoiee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u e?uineeo
ea?aeiia.

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey iieoino?iaa e ?inneeneie eiia?ee a 1783 aiaeo a
e?uineie eoeueoo?a aiaeiiieueciaaiey noae ianooiaoue iiaue yoai,
ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaaoeeny e na?aaeeia OIO aaea. Iinea aunaeaiey ec
E?uia cia/eoaeueiie /anoe a?a/aneiai e oaoa?neiai ianaeaiey, ainieoaiiia
aaeiauie o?aaeeoeeyie iianaianoiia o?aiaoiia, ?aeeaeiciia ioiioaiea e
enoi/ieeai aiaeu noaei iinoaiaiii oaanaoue. O ia?anaeaioeaa ec ?aaieiiuo
oa??eoi?ee ?innee, eeoaiiuo naiiai iiiyoey i ai?iii enoi/ieea,
enoi?e/anee neiaeeeny naie nianoaaiiue oei ioiioaiey e “iaeie aiaea”,
eioi?ue iie e i?eianee a Oaa?eeo. Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea ia/aeinue
aeoeaiia oicyenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea e?uineeo caiaeue, aicieeaei
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, oaaee/eaaeny i?e?ino ianaeaiey: aeey anaai
yoiai o?aaiaaeinue aieueoia eiee/anoai aiaeu. Aiaeu oioue e
iiiai/eneaiiuo, ii iaeiaeaaeoiuo oiioaiia ia?anoaei oaaoaoue: i?aeoe/iue
Caiaae noae iiei?youe ?iiaioe/aneee Ainoie – ii anaio E?uio no?ieeenue
aiaeii?iaiaeu e ?ueenue a?oaceaineea eieiaeoeu, a i aiaea ai?iuo
enoi/ieeia ia/aee caauaaoue, iaooiieiua o?oaeaieee-?iaeieee noaee
oaia?ue ia ioaeiu.

Ii aeooa /aeiaaea ia iiaeao aeeoue aac /oaea. Oae e iiaua iaeoaoaee
e?uineie caiee anei?a noaee iinauaoue iaeioi?ua ec ai?iuo enoi/ieeia,
neaaa i oeaeaaiie aiaea eioi?uo oiaeeea n?aaee ianoiuo aeeoaeae –
inoaaoeony a?aeia e oaoa?. A 50-o aiaeao XIX aaea ianeieueei oaeeo
ii/eoaaiuo e?uineei ia?iaeii enoi/ieeia ii aeaaineiaaieth
Oa?niinei-Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee auee i?eciaiu nayouie e aicea ieo aicieeee
i?aaineaaiua o?enoeaineea iiianou?e – Eiciiaeaieaiianeee, Eeceeoaoneee e
O?ieoea-Ia?aneaaneee Oiieianeee iiianou?ue. Ia oa??eoi?ee iiianou?ae
auea cai?auaia ethaay oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, nayoua enoi/ieee
caae?aeenue a eaioaaee e iiaeaa?aaeenue iinoiyiiiio i?eniio?o ni noi?iiu
iiiaoia, a eo ie?oaa aeieaeia auea niaethaeaoueny oeoeia e niieienoaea,
– iiianou?neea oicyenoaa noaiiaeeenue enoeiiuie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie
nia?aiaiiuo e?uineeo caiiaaaeieeia.

Iaeiei ec naiuo ii/eoaaiuo a E?uio aue iiianou?ue Na. Eicueiu e
Aeaieaia, ?aniieiaeaiiue o caiaaeiiai iiaeiiaeey ai?iiai ianneaa
*aou?aeaa, a aa?oiaueyo ?. Aeueiu. Iiianou?ue aue iino?iai a 1857 aiaeo
i?e enoi/ieea Eicueiu e Aeaieaia, aiaea eioi?iai ii/eoaeanue o ianoiiai
ianaeaiey enoeaeythuae io anao aieaciae. Ii iiaiaeo iacaaiey enoi/ieea e
iniaiai e iaio ioiioaiey oi/iuo enoi?e/aneeo aeaiiuo iao, ii n?aaee
e?ui/ai auooao ianeieueei naycaiiuo n iei i?aaeaiee. Iaeii ec ieo
aiai?eo, /oi iaeiaaea a E?uio i?aeoeeiaae a?a/aneee a?a/, eiaaoee aeaoo
o/aieeia – a?aoueaa-aeeciaoeia Eicueio e Aeaieaia. Ni a?aiaiai
oaeaioeeaua o/aieee i?aacioee a oiaiee a?a/aaaoue naiaai o/eoaey, e oio
ec ?aaiinoe oaee iaieo. Ii anei?a oaeeoea ?aneayeny e i?inee Aiaa, /oiau
ia ianoa aeaaee aai o/aieeia aicieeee ?iaeieee, aiaea eioi?uo ea/eea au
aianoi oaeouo a?aoueaa. Iinea aeieaeo iieeoa ia ianoa oaeenoaa caaeee
aeaa eeth/a n “/oaeaniie” aiaeie. A?a/ iinea yoiai iiiaoaeny, inoaaee
o?enoeaineoth aa?o e i?eiye iaaiiaoainoai. Aua a eiioea XIX aaea oaoa?u
iiaee iieacaoue aai iiaeeo aaeece iuiaoiaai iinaeea Iaeue Iaye (a.
Aethe-Eaiaao).

Ae?oaie aa?eaio eaaaiaeu i?eaiaeeo A. O. Eiiaea?aee a naiai eaieoaeueiii
o?oaea “Oieaa?naeueiia iienaiea E?uia”, auoaaeoai a naao a 1883 aiaeo:
“Ii ia?iaeiiio i?aaeaieth a ouaeuea, eoaea iuia noaeathony iaeiiieee, e
eioi?ia eiaiiaaeinue i?aaeaea Naaeuo-No, o.a. aiaeith, aica?auathuoth
caei?iauea, i?iaeeaaee iaeiaaea nayoua /oaeioai?oeu Eicueia e Aeaieieai,
ioeoaea iie i?eoiaeeee, nii?iaiaeaeaaiua eueaii ai aioo?ue E?uia e
enoeaeyee ia?iae. Aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey ia?aaeaaaaiiai noa?eee-a?aee
i?eaaaeyee, /oi io ?iaeeoaeae iie neuoaee i nouanoaiaaiee ieiei yoiai
enoi/ieea i?eciaeia aeaoo iiaee, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo yoei oaiaeieeai. I oii,
eaeei ia?acii ioe?uoa oeaeaaiinoue enoi/ieea, iie aiai?eee, /oi
iaeiaaeaeu e iaio i?eaeeceeny n eicaie ianooo, ii?aaeaiiue i?ieacith, e
aneaaenoaea ecio?aiey canioe. E iaio yaeeenue ai nia aeaia ioae/ei n
i?aieaie ia aeacao e, iauyaea, /oi eo eiaiotho Eicueiith e Aeaieieiaiii,
i?eeacaee aieueiiio iia?oceony a enoi/ieea, eioi?iio iie aeaee naienoai
enoeaeyoue no?aaeaeoueo aeooaaiuie e oaeaniuie aieaciyie. Ianooo,
i/ioaoenue, a?ineeny a aiaeo e, aunei/ea ec iaa, iiyoue canioe.
*oaeioai?oeu niiaa yaeeenue e iaio e neacaee: ou aoaeaoue niaa?oaiii
caei?ia naaiaeiy aea, ii iiiie, /oi ou aeieaeai aaeaaiaeii 1 ethey
yaeyoueny e iaoaio enoi/ieeo aeey iiiaaiey oaea. Niaaooe yoi e a?aoueyi
naiei, no?aaeaeouei e aieyuei, eioi?ua aa?yo a iaoo iiiiuue. E yoiio
i?eaaaeytho, /oi a iineaaenoaee o?enoeaia, iaeoaaoea a ie?anoiinoyo,
iino?ieee caeanue o?ai ai eiy yoeo nayouo e noaeaeenue nthaea ni anao
iano aieueiua, iieo/aaoea iaiaaeeaiiia aucaei?iaeaiea” [12].

I/aiue auno?i neaaa i oeaeeoaeueiie aiaea enoi/ieea ?acianeanue ii E?uio
e aaeaaiaeii 1 ethey iai?aaeyeanue e enoi/ieeo aeeeiiay aa?aieoea
aieiaueeo iiaeaiae ni anao eiioeia iieoino?iaa. Nthaea oeaeuie naiueyie
aoaee e oee nioie iaeiiieeia, i?e/ai ia oieueei o?enoeaia, ii e
ionoeueiaia-oaoa?u. Iie n/eoaee, /oi caeanue iioi?iiai nayoie
“i?aaiaa?iue” – acen, ec iiaeeu eioi?iai e auoaeaao enoi/iee. Nayoiai
iie iacuaaee Naaeuno acece (Acen nayoie aiaeu) e aa?eee, /oi eo/oa anaai
aiaea auea/eaaao io aeo?iiai naeaca e iaeaioieee.

“Iaaiiaoaia ii/eoatho nayuaiiue enoi/iee o?enoeai n oaeie aea aeaoneie
ene?aiiinoueth e noaaa?eai, eae ieeea?eiu iaoaai i?inoiia?iaeuey”, –
ienae A. E. Ia?eia [13]. Ca aa?noo io enoi/ieea iaeiiieee
inoaiaaeeaaeenue, ia?aiaeaaaeenue a i?acaeie/iua iaeaaeaeu e iaoeii oee
e iiianou?th.

“A oaeoaeaiee ia?aaa aeanoyo aeaa iaaieueoeo, /enouo, eae o?onoaeue,
enoi/ieea, – aniiieiaao i naiai i?aauaaiee a iiianou?a A. O. Eiiaea?aee,
– aeeaathueony a ono?iaiiue aannaei, oe?uoue aeineaie naa?oo e ii
noi?iiai – yoi e anoue enoi/ieee Na. Eicueiu e Aeaieieaia, ec eioi?uo
ieeea?eiu /a?iatho e n aeaaiaiaaieai iuetho aiaeo, a a aannaeia
eoiathony iaiiuiua e aieueiua. Aieueiua iinea aaiiu n/eoatho iai?aiaiiui
aeieaii i?eaaneoue e noaiai aannaeia, ii iau/ath oaoa?, eei/ee io
iaeaaeaeu naiae, a oii oaaaeaeaiee, /oi aianoa n ieie inoaioony caeanue
e oaiaoathuea eo iaaeoae. Ana yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo aiaineoaeaiea,
i?eee/iia eaioio i?acaeiiaaiey oea?eae a iaiyoue yoeo oaiaeieeia
Aiaeueeo” [12].

A n ?annaaoa 1 ethey a noaiiaeua ieeea?eiia ioe?uaaeenue eaaee n
i?iaeoeoaie e aeiaie, cao/aea iocuea e ianie, oei ia?iaeiia aoeyiea. Ii
oieueei caeii/eeny iaaae, oicyeee ieaii neeaaeuaatho a iaaea?u naia
eiouanoai, e aio oaea ea?aaai o?iaaaony a ia?aoiue iooue. “Aeeeay
ianoiinoue niiaa iionoaea e oai, aaea ianeieueei /ania oiio iacaae
ie?iaaee eeoea, nia?aaoeany n ?aciuo iano iieoino?iaa, – ana ia?oai ii
i?aaeiaio e ?acaa oieueei ianeieueei aieeia iaaeiaa?/eai
iiaee?aaeuaathony e inoaoeai eo i?acaeie/iuo iaaaeia” [12].

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Eiciiaeaieaiianeee iiianou?ue, iaoiaeyueeny ia
oa??eoi?ee E?uineiai i?e?iaeiiai caiiaaaeieea, yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
ii/eoaaiuo a E?uio: nthaea, ai ana au? aeeeoth ianoiinoue, iai?aaeythony
aiaiiieueoeu e aacaeanouea oo?enou ni anao eiioeia oaa?e/aneie caiee.

Ia caauoa e oeaeaaiay neea aiaeu Eiciiaeaieaiianeiai enoi/ieea – ia a?
iniiaa a Aeoooa auioneaaony ea/aaiay ieia?aeueiay aiaea “Naaeoo-no”.
Aiaea eiaao aeae?iea?aiiaoiue ninoaa n eaoeiiaie Ca (40-85 ia/aei3), Mg
(

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