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I?eeeaaeiua ?aianea Eoaaie

Eneonnoai ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ia?aaioee aea?aaa eiaao ia Eoaaie aeoaieoth
o?aaeeoeeth e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei ?acaeaaaony. Eaniua aiaaonoaa
Eoaaie ecaeaaia naeaeaee aea?aai iaeaieaa aeinooiiui e ethaeiui
iaoa?eaeii a ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneao: oaeaaeiii, eieaniii, iaiciii,
ei?uoiii, eeaii/iii e ae?oaeo. Aea?aayiiay iinoaea – ai/ee, aaae?a,
ei?uoa, /aoe, eiaeee, nooiu, iaoaeee e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou
ecaioaaeeaaeenue ai anao ai?iuo e i?aaeai?iuo noaieoeao, aiaaouo eanii.
Ec aea?aaa eacaee ethaeee ianoa?eoue iaaaeue, ?aciua ca?eaea, iaee/ieee
ieii, aea?aayiiua ?aciua iaaee?uea/iua ciiou, noiaeoee n ?inienueth.

Aii/a?iia ?aianei ia Eoaaie auei ?ani?ino?aiaii a ianoao, aaea eiaeanue
aeeia, i?eaiaeiay aeey ecaioiaeaiey ea?aieee. E?aaaaae E.Ae. Iiiei
iacuaaao /aou?a iniiaiuo ?aeiia, aaea aii/a?iia aeaei iieo/eei
cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea. Yoi noaieoeu Iaoeianeay, Noa?iua?aeiianeay,
?iaeaeanoaaineay e Aaoaeiaoeineay. Noaieoeu Iaoeianeay e Aeecaaaoeineay
iaeaaeaee eo/oeie ia Eoaaie caeaaeaie aii/a?iie aeeiu. A iniiaiii,
auaeaeuaaeanue i?inoay iinoaea, iacaoaeeeaua ea?ooee aeey aeaoae, /anoi
aii/a?iia i?iecaiaenoai niaaeeiyeinue n auaeaeeie ee?ie/a.

O?oaeii auaeaeeoue oeie/iua, oa?aeoa?iua oieueei aeey Eoaaie /a?ou
ea?aieee. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei yaeyaony oi, /oi ?aianeii caieiaeenue,
aeaaiui ia?acii, eiiai?iaeiea e ia?anaeaioeu ec ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia
no?aiu. Iie i?eiineee n niaie i?ioanneiiaeueiua iaauee, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
i?eaiu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?aeiia.

Ia Eoaaie aii/a?u iieueciaaeenue aieueoei ii/aoii e oaaaeaieai, i ieo
neaaaeenue ianie, neacee, iineiaeoeu. Oi?iu eoaaineie ea?aieee i?inou,
i?iaiaio y?eee, ?anoeoaeueiue.

Iaiaoiaeeiua a auoo eoaoeiu – «aey/eee», ei?/aae aeey oanoa, «iaeeo?u»,
ienee, neoa/ee, e?oaeee, ?oeiiieieee iie?uaaeenue ei?e/iaaie eee
oaiii-caeaiie aeaco?ueth – «iieeaie». A oi?iao, i?iaiaioa i/aiue /anoi
ia?aeeeeaeenue iioeau ?onneie, oe?aeineie e eaaeacneie ea?aieee.
Ecaeaeey ia?iaeiuo ianoa?ia ec aeeiu auee oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ia?auo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e i?iiuoeaiiuo aunoaaeao, eioi?ua i?ioiaeeee a
ai?iaea Aeaoa?eiiaea?a a 1900-1903 aiaeao.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?aaeeoeeth aii/a?iiai ?aianea i?iaeieaeatho
ea?aie/aneea ianoa?neea iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aeaenay Iaeneiaiei (noaieoea
Oieineay Aaeineiai ?aeiia), Aeeoi?a Oo?eiaa (ai?iae E?aniiaea?),
Aiaoieey Ooaiueei e Ieeieay Iaaeoi/eaaa (Eaaeineee ?aeii), Ieoaeea
*oaeiiai e Aaiiaaeey Iaoea?eia (ai?iae Neaayine-ia-Eoaaie), Ieoaeea
Neai?oeiaa (iin?eie Iaciae Aioa?iineiai ?aeiia) e ae?oaeo oiaeueoeaa.

Iaeiei ec ae?aaiaeoeo ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneia ainoi/iuo neaayi yaeyaony
eiciieaoaiea. Ia Eoaaiue iii auei caaacaii /a?iiii?neeie eacaeaie ec
Oe?aeiu a eiioea XVIII aaea. Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aeiiaoiae ooaa?e – io
iaiuiuo ei?cei aei ieaoiae e oicyenoaaiiuo iino?iae aeeoaee Eoaaineeo
noaieoe aeaeaee ec eicu. Anaaiciiaeiua aa?oe, ei?ceiu, ?aciiia?aciua
ieaoie, eioaee (aieinoe aeey o?aiaiey ca?ia), ia/a?ie ieaeenue ec
aeaeie, cieioenoie eaiaie eicu. Aeaaea ia?aua ei?aeiiiua iino?ieee
ecaioaaeeaaee eacaee ec eicu.

A iaoe aeie ianoa?a E?aniiaea?neiai iiuoiiai eaniiai oicyenoaa aeinoieii
i?iaeieaeatho o?aaeeoeee eoaaineiai eiciieaoaiey. A a noaieoea
Iaoeianeie aeea?o iioiinoaaiiay ianoa?eoea ec eaca/ueae naiuee Aaeaioeia
O?ioeiiaia AEoe. A? ei?ceiee, aa?oe, ei?iau e aeaaea ia?noie ec oiieie
eaiaie eicu n oaeiaieuenoaeai oaicyo n niaie ca a?aieoeo oo?enou, eae
ia?acaoe enoeiii eoaaineiai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ia?iaeiiai
i?iiunea.

Enoi?e/anee ia Eoaaie iaeaieaa oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea eiaaiue
– eocia/iia ?aianei. Eociaoeu auee aeaaiuie ianoa?aie. A eaaeaeie
eoaaineie noaieoea n eiioea XIX aaea ?aaioaee aei iyoe eocieoe. Caeanue
ecaioaaeeaaeinue an? iaiaoiaeeiia aeey auoa noaie/ieeia – iiaeeiau,
caiee, ooaaou, aeuiieee aeey o?oa, a oaeaea i?aaeiaou eioa?uea?a.

Eoaaineea eociaoeu nicaeaaaee ianoiyuea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey
ec iaoaeea: eiaaiiua iaaee?uea/iua ciiou – «eicu?ueee», ?aoaoee aeey
ieii, aeaa?ae, aaeeiiia, ia?aaeiua eanoieoeu, ia?aaeu, oethaa?a. Iie
aeaaea au?aaioaee naie i?eaeiaeueiue i?iaiaio e nicaeaee a noaieoeao e
ai?iaeao Eoaaie i?ae?aniue ainaiaeue e?oaeaa ec iaoaeea. Eoaaineay
eiaaiue, oe?aoathuay a?oeoaeoo?iua iaiyoieee enoi?e/aneiai oeaio?a
E?aniiaea?a, yaeyaony oieeaeueiui iaiyoieeii ia?iaeiiai
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa. A ia/aea OO aaea a Aeaoa?eiiaea?a
i?iaeeaaei ieiei 500 ianoa?ia. A oiiiieieea ai?iaea nio?aieeenue
iacaaiey oeeoe – Eocia/iay, Iiaieocia/iay.

A 1905 aiaeo a Aeaoa?eiiaea?a nouanoaiaaei iauanoai eoaaineeo eociaoeia,
eioi?ia ecaeaaaei niaoeeaeueiua eaoaeiae ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eiaee.
Nouanoaiaaee neaaeothuea oeiu i?iaiaioa eoaaineie eiaaie: ?anoeoaeueiue
(eenouey, a?icaeuey, noaaee, ceaee, oeaaou), aaiiao?e/aneee, ciiii?oiua
ecia?aaeaiey (ioeoeu, ae?aeiiu, ii?neea eiiueee), iaaiae?iaue.

Nia?aiaiiua eoaaineea eociaoeu e aeecaeia?u ii iaoaeeo Ieoaee Neai?oeia
ec iin?eea Iaciae Aioa?iineiai ?aeiia, e?aniiaea?oeu Ieoaee Niaaethe,
Na?aae Coaa?aa, A?eai?ee Aieyi, a oaeaea Aiaoieee Oo?oeei ec noaieoeu
Iiaioeoa?ianeie Aeeineiai ?aeiia, aea e iiiaea ae?oaea ianoa?a aiinyo
ia?iiiue aeeaae a aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai ?aianea.

O?aaeeoeee thaeii?onneie e oe?aeineie eoeueoo? iaoee y?eia io?aaeaiea a
i?acaeie/iii eoaaineii aeaineii einothia e ioaeneie ia oi?iaiiie
iaeaaeaea.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi oi?iaiiue einothi aeey eacaeia aue aaeeiue e
ninoiye ec /a?eanee, aaoiaoa eee /aeiaiy, a?the, naiia e a ceiiaa a?aiy
ao?ee e aaoeuea.

O?aaeeoeeiiiue aeaineee eaca/ee einothi noi?ie?iaaeny ei aoi?ie iieiaeia
XIX aaea, a iai neeueiu o?aaeeoeee oe?aeineie ia?iaeiie iaeaaeaeu.
Iniiaie yoiai aeaineiai einothia yaeyaony ?oaaoa, eioi?ay oeeanue ec
aeiiioeaiiai eueiyiiai, eiiiieyiiai oienoa eee aaeie oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie
oeaie oaa?e/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. ?oeaaa, ai?io, iaiaeaou e ieaeiyy /anoue
iiaeiea iau/ii auee aiaaoi i?iaiaioe?iaaiu auoeaeie. I?iaiaio
oeaaoi/iue, ?anoeoaeueiue, aaiiao?e/aneee. Iie?ie ?oaaoe i?yiie
naiaiaeiue. Iec iiaeiea /anoi oe?aoaeny ia?aaeeie, i?ioaie, oaoieea
auoeaee – e?ano.

Aieiaiuie oai?aie eacaeia auee oaiee-iaiaoe ec ia/eiu. A XIX aaea iie
auee aunieeie n noeiiiui e?aniui aa?oii e eaioii. A ia/aea XX aaea noaee
oeoue ieceea iaiaoe-eoaaiee. A eaoiaa a?aiy ?ac?aoaeinue iineoue
nieiiaiioth oeyio a oi?ia eioaeea – oae iacuaaaioth «a?ueue».

A eeiaeiuo eoaaineeo noaieoeao a aeaineie ia?iaeiie iaeaaeaea aue
iiioey?ai na?aoai e aieiaiua oai?u – eieioieee.

Iaeiei ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeaeia ?aianae auea ia?aaioea eiaee,
ecaioiaeaiea iiynia, iaoae, n?aeae.

A ninoaa ioaeneiai einothia aoiaeeee naiiae e iiaiaeoeu. I?acaeie/iie
iaoaueth auee naiiae. Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae caaeeoi/iuo eoaaioeaa auee
naiiae ec o?iiiaie e oaa?aiaaie eiaee. A ia/aea XX aaea n?aaee
iieiae?aee ?ani?ino?aieeanue iiaea ia eaee?iaaiiua naiiae.

Noaaoea iuia o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aunoaaee «Eoaaiue ianoa?iaay», i?iaiaeeiua
e?aaaui iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneei oeaio?ii eoeueoo?u, niinianoaotho
aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth ia?iaeiiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa e?ay.
Eioa?an e naiui ?acee/iui aeaeai e aeai?ai ia?iaeiiai
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai e ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa iinoiyiii
?ano?o.

Eneonnoai auoeaaiey anaaaea oeaieeinue ia Eoaaie. Auoeoua oci?u ia
oieueei oe?aoaee iaeaaeaeo e auoiaua i?aaeiaou ec oeaie, ii e neoaeeee
iaa?aaaie io ceuo nee. A eaaeaeie naiuea, iacaaeneii io nioeeaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey, aeaiueiu aeieaeiu auee aeaaeaoue ?acee/iuie aeaeaie
?oeiaeaeey: oea/anoaii e auoeaeie. A aeiiao eiycae, aiy?, aiaaouo
ethaeae ia ?one e caaeeoi/iuo eacaeia Eoaaie eiaeenue auoeaaeueiua e
oeaoeeea ianoa?neea, aaea i?iaiaeeee naie aeinoa ana aeaiueiu aeiia. Eae
i?aaeei, oai?/aneei i?ioeannii ?oeiaiaeeea oicyeea aeiia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?aaeeoeeth ia?iaeiiai auoeaaiey e oea/anoaa
i?iaeieaeatho ianoa?a Aaeeia ?oaai ec E?aniiaea?a, Ieia Iaeneiaiei ec
Iiaieoaainea, E?eia *oi?eia ec noaieoeu Acianeie Naaa?neiai ?aeiia,
E?eia e Aeaenaiae? Ee/a ec iin?eea Iaciae Aioa?iineiai ?aeiia e iiiaea
ae?oaea.

N?aaee iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo oai?/aneeo nooaeee ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee aeaoneea nooaeee «Aieoaay ?ica»
(a. Ei?aiiane) e «Iu ?enoai» (a. E?aniiaea?a). Eo ?oeiaiaeeoaee oiaei
iai?aaeytho oaioaceth aeaoae, noa?aynue auyaeoue iniaaiiinoe e
iaeeiiiinoe eaaeaeiai ?aa?iea a ioaeaeueiinoe, i?eaeoue thiui
aea?iaaieyi iaauee oai?/aneiai o?oaea n i?eiaiaieai ?aciiia?aciuo
iaoa?eaeia e oaoiee. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaoe oaea iniuneaiii auiieiytho oa
eee eiua iiaeaeee, iiieiay, /oi iaei ai?aeeoueny eneonnoaii naiaai
ia?iaea a i?ioeii, iaaei auoue aeinoieiui i?aaiieeii eo/oeo o?aaeeoeee.

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