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O????? ????i ? ?????th

A??????? ???????? ????? a??? ????????i ?????y

O???? A??????? I??????e O?a???o

O???? ???a e ?????? ???a

E??? ????i-????? ?????

I?e I??u, ?e ??? ????e e ???a

E???y ???

E???o?ue:

I??uey A????a A?a

???o 201 ???

????? ???a e ?n????i ???a

I??? ??????:

I??uey A????a N?e, e.i.i., ???

A???i?? 2006

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA??????????….?…..?…3

AEAAA I. IAUAss OECEEI-AAIA?AOE*ANEAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?AEIIA
ENNEAAeIAAIEss???????…?.?…5

1. A?????? ???? e ??? …?………….?…….???5

2. E??o e ???……..?????????…….……5

3. A??……??????????.?….?…9

4. ???????ue e ?????……?????……?.10

5. AE???e ??…?…?????????……12

AEAAA II. ?AE?EAOeEIIIUE E OO?ENOE*ANEEE IIOAIOeEAE?16

1. ??????? ?????……………….??????…16

2. O?e????e ????e?????????……20

CAEETH*AIEA????????????….41

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U??????????….42

AAAAeAIEA

Ia n??iy?? ?? ??? y?y?ny ??e ? ???o e ???? ????? ???? y??i?e. Ca ???a
??u ???ey ? ?e?? y?????? ????i ???ey. E???ey ???a ???? ??? ??i a y????
?????a ??i, a ?i ??a e a y???? ?????e O????.

Y?????? ???u ????o ?o ? ????e ???n e ???o a ???e, n??a, ??aeath?e ???i
????? e ??????i ?????i, ? ???th?e ??????oth ?eth (??a 1,5%) a ???i ?????
???.

O?? ???? ???? ??? ? ??e ???? ??o ??a ?????e e ??o ??????o ????. Ii a ??
??y ? ??? ???e ??o ????ue ?? ??????e, y?????e ??o. Y? ?y?? n ???e
????ueth ??o ?????e. A ?y? n ???e ?iy??ueth ????y ? ???o ???, ??o?
??ey???th ???th?y ???????a ?????y e ??? ???i? ?y.

A?????a – ?????? ??ae, ?a ?????i ????y ???? ? ???o ???ey?y. E??e ?? y?
eth? ????tho ? ?? ???a ?????, ????a e ???????a ????, ??? ?? ?e ????atho
???a ????? y??? ia ????? ??????e ???. N??????, ? ????? ???y ?y ????e, ?
?? ?y ??????ey ??o ?e, ?????????, ??u n ??? ??? ??i??ue ???oth ?y????ue.
I???i ??u ??????? ???u e ???ey?y ??i?i ???ey, a ?y? n y???? a??? e ????
???a ? ???a ???e. A A?????? ?? ?a ?????e ?y ???ey ???a e ????e a ?????,
???ath?o e ???.

Iiy?? ??th ??? ???-????????e ?a?u ?? ???i ????a ??????? e ??????? ?????
???????e ?? ????? I?? I??u, ?e ??? ec ??o ????? e ??????o ?? aeey ???ey
???a a ?????a O???.

I???i ??? ??? y?y?ny i?e I??u, a ????i ?????ey ??????e e ??????e ????e
??? ?????.

A ?????? n ??th ?? ????? ??oth?a ???:

1. ???ue ?????e ???-???????i ????y ??? ?????e

2. ???ue ???? ????? ????a e ????i-?????? ???u

3. ???? ???oe??? e ??????e ????e ????o e ????i-?????? ????

Ae??y ???ay ??? ???o ? ???ey, ?? ??, ??th??y e ??? ?????. A ??? ??a
?????y ???-??????ay ??? ?????ey, ?i ????a ?????e. Ai ??? ??a ???????y
??????e e ??????e ????e ????o e ????i-?????? ???? I?? I??u, a ?e ?
???e?y ??? y??????i ?????i ???? ? ??o e ???ath?i e ?? ?????yi.

E???a e ???? ???? ????e e ???a a ?????yo a??a A?????? ??ue ????i, a ?y?
n ????? ???? e ???i ????i ?y e ???????i ?????yi.

I?????y ????? ??? ???o a ?i, ?i ???????a ???uey ??o ?? ????u ?y ?????e
????e e ?e ?????e ????o ????? ????a, ?e ? ?????o O???, ?e e ? ?????e
????? i?? I??u.

AEAAA I. IAUAss OECEEI-AAIA?AOE*ANEAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?AEIIA
ENNEAAeIAAIEss

1. A?????? ???? e ???

I?e I??u ????? a ??? ????o ????e O??, ???, a ??? ????? ???, ???, ?y?e,
???a ?????tho ??oth ??? O?? e ?????i ??aath?y ????? ????y?.

O????y ia? ????anue ? ???o ? 260 ? 280i. I? ????eytho ?y??a ??y?a, ?atho
??? ???a ?????a. N??i ???????a ?y? ????u ????.

A ???a ????? ????i ?iy?y?ny ?y? n ??????i ????i. I???a ???a i??? ?y?? n
???? ????, ?????e e ????e ???e ????e: ???, ??????e e ????, ?????
(???????).

A?????? ???? ????? I?? I??u ?????? ???a. Ii ??o ? ?????? ????? O??,
?ath?o ??a??th e ???th ???th. A ????, ?? ????? ? ???e, ??y???ny n ??? ?
tha ???, ??? ???a (???o?, ???o), ????, ????? e ??a. N??u ??????, ???
????, ? ??e ?iyo ??e ?????i e oyio?y ??????i. I??? ??i ????ue ??????
????a y?o ??ae. N?? ???????o ???a ?????? ???tho ??????????a ?????? n
???? ???-?????o ??ae. C???e ??? ?????u, ?????u, a ?o ??oi ???u ??oy?a
“???a ????ey”. O? ? ? ?????th ??a ???o ??? ???. A??u y?o ??ae ?????th?y
? ???? ??? a ??e ??a O???. [6,n.21]

Ii ??? ?? e ???i ??a ??????ue ??a ???a ??? – ????a. A?a ????o ??i ???i
??a e ????e ??. A?? ???a ???u ?? ?????? ? ?o, ??? ??y?y ?? ? ???th. Y?
???u ?? ??a?o ? ??ae, ??ath?o ?i e ???. Ia ????o ???? ???u ??a e ??u
???th?y e ???thony ??? – ?eth?e. [1, n.27]

2. E?i? e ???

??????e ???

N??? ???a ??i ??a ????? ?y?y ??????? ??i 1780 – y? 40% ? ????e ??????i??
????? ?y?y. I????ay ??????i?? ????? ?y?y ??th??ny a ae??? (40/), ?i ?y??
n ?????i ??i?????? ?y e n ?????i ????? ??iy?y ??.

I?????y ????????ue ????? ?y?y ??th??ny a eth? e eth?: 267-269/ ? 531/
?????? (??i 40%). E?? ?????y ????? e ??e???ny ??i y?? ??.

E????i ????, ?????e ??? ?????ueth, ???o ? ???i. *? ??? ??????y ?????ue
?????e, ?i ??? ????y ???ey ?????y e ?i ?e?? ?????y ?????ue. A??? ??????
???o ? ???a ??. E?? ? ?y (?????ue ??e e ??u ???? ???u ???th) ? ??y?y
(????? ????), ??a? ???ey? ? 5 ? 28%. A ??? ?? n??? ??? ?????o ???i ?
50-70%, a e ???th ? 70-85%.

?a????? ??? a ???i ? ?ae ???ey? 1211 IAeae /i2, ? ?? ???ey? 32% ????e
????. N ??ey ? ?oy?ue ?????? ??? ?????i, n ????? a eth? e eth?, ??? 310
IAeae /i2. I??? ????ny a ???a e y??a (-50 IAeae /i2).

Oe??ey?y ????o ??

I???a ??a e ???? ??u ???a A?????? a ??i e I?? I??u a ????e ?y?? n
?????y? ???y?e ????u, ?y ???e ????? ??oth?a ???a ????:

· I????? ????o ?? n A???? a ??yo ????, ???th?o ??i ????oth ????th ???, a
??e ????? e ????u;

· A???? ?????o ?? ???a a ?e ???? ???? e ?????eth ???????? ??a? ???y?e
????o ?? e e ??? ????yi ???: ????? ?????a ??e e ??i, ???? ???a ??? e ???
?????y ??ueth;

· I??????y ???y?y ????o ?? ??ue O???? ?? ? ???? C???-N???? ???a. A?????
???? ??? n ??? ??i?o e ?????eth ???e, i???e i??u ??e e ????, ????e –
??i. O??a ????a ??u ? ????o ???a N??? A?e – ???a ??ue ??? ?i e ??? ?o;

· A ??? ??? ?????y ?ey?a A????i i????, ? ??????o ???????e ???? ??iae n
??ue ???e ??????e. [6,n.23-25]

A?y?a ????th?e ?????e

O???ee ???, ????y ? ?????? ????a ???, ??? ????e ? ?? ????ath?? ????i
???? ????o ??. I? ?ey?? ?? ?iy?ny ?????a ?????ey ???? e ??????, ???y?ny
? ????. Y? ???? e ?????e ???? ??tho ??? ???? ?y ????y ?????? ???a e ?y
??????y n th? ??? ????o ?? ???????o ???ue. Y?i ?uy?y?ny ??????a ??????
???? ????: ???-???? ?e ????? ??? ??, ??? ?e ???? ????e ??? ??i, ????
a???? ???a e ??? ????? a e?? ??.

A???? ?ey?a O???? ?? ????e?? ?????? ??????a ????y ????i ?????a e ????o
????e O?? ?? ??tho y? ???ey ??a ??o?? e ???e. I?y?ny ??i e ????ai ???a:
a ????o ????yo a ?ae ? ???? ? 100-200? ???, ?i ? c???i ?????a. A ????o
??ai?yo ?? ??? e ?? ??? ?i????. [5, n.67]

A????? ????

Ia a??a 280 i ???a ???a ?????a ???? ??i 738 ? ?.?. A ??? ??? ??a?a ????o
????? ???? a ???a-o???, ??a ??? ??? N???? ?o???i. I????a ???a ?ny??
??a?a ????ny ??i n ????i a eth?. [6,n.30]

O????? ???a

O???o?a ???a ???o ? ????e ????, ???y?e ????u, ???a e ??? ?iy?ny ? ???i
??.

N??yy ?????a y??y ???ey? -15,3°N, ??iyy ?????a ethey – +17,4°N. O?
?????u ?iy?ny ? ??i. I????y ? ????o ???? ???eytho 8-10°N a y?a? e 3-4°N
a eth?.

N?????ay ?????a ???a ???ey? 1,2?N. [1, n.34]

O????? ?y A????o?a a ??i, e ?y ???????e I?e ????? a ????e, y??? –
???a-???a ????e. [6,n37]

I???????? ??????? ???a 162 ?y, ?????? -117. *?? ??a ????? ?y?y – 1781.

A ???i ????????ue ??u (? ???e ???a ??? ? ????ey ?y??) ???ey? ??i 71 ?? –
n ??a ??a ? 5 ethiy; ???? ?? ??ny 80 ?? – n 5 ethiy ? 24 ???a (??y
????ey ??c); ??ue 66 ?? – n24 ???a ? 30 ?oy?y (????? ??). C?a ??a
i???eo??? ??y ?? – ??ny 148 ??: ? ?y??ey ?????i ???? ???a ? 5 ??a – ???e
???? n??????e ?????u ???a ??c -5?N. [1, n.34]

A???? ???a e ?i???? ???

I????a ???ey ??????e ????e ???a ???th?y a ???? ??? (75-80%) e ????? a
??? ??? n ???i? a ?a (58%). N ethey ? ???ey ???oatho. I?????y ??????y
????ue ???a ??th??ny a ??? e ???? ??, a ???i ??.

Ii ??????e ????e ??o? ??i ??? i ???e ?e ????e ???. E???? ?????i ???e ???
??? ??i ?? n ??????e ????ueth ???a 30% e ??. I????a ??i ??o ?? ????ny a
?a (12-24 ?y). A ???? ??? ??i ?? n ????ueth 30% e ?? – y??? ??? (0,1 – 1
? 2 – 6 a ????a ??). A??? ?e n ??????e ??i??th 80% e ??a (a 13 ??a)
??th?th?y ??a?i ??i a ???? ??i e ???eytho a ???a a ???i 17 ??, a ?a,
eth? – ??i 3 ??.

O????y ??a ??????ny a c?a ?????? ????ey. Ca ?ae ??ue ???? 430 -500?
???a. A ???i ? ?ae ? ?eth ???o ???a ????ny 24%, ? ?eth ??? – 65% e ?
?eth ????o (??ue ??, ?? n ??? e o.ae) – 11%.

A ???a ????i ???a, n ?y?y ? ??, ???tho ???????i ???a ???; a ??? ???, n
??ey ? ?oy?ue, ????atho ??? ???. A ?i?e ??? ???? 330-390 ? ???a, a a
???? 100-115 ?. O??? ????ny ????? ?????i ???a 14 ?. A?ueoa ?a? ???a ????
a eth? – 78 ?.

A ???i ? ?ae ????ny 158 ?? n ?????i ???a 0,1 – 10 ? e 69 ?? ? ???e ???a.
Ae?e n ???? ? 10 ? 20? ? ?ae – 10-12; n ???? 20? e ?e? ????ny ??i 3 ?y,
30? e ??a – 1 ??. N ?oy?y ? ?? ?? ???th?y ???? ???. N ??ey ? ??y?ue –
????atho ???? ???. I???????? ???uo ???a ?? ??i ??? ??a 2 ??a. I???a ??a
?i a ???? ???a ???atho 6 ??a, a a 8% ???a ??th?thony ??a ??e. O????a
???????n? ????y ???a ??e ??? ????o ? ??????ue. A ??? ??? ???a?u ?????a
????????a ??e.

A???i ??th?th?y ????? ?e a ??? n ??ey ? ??y?ue. Ca ?ae a ???i ?a?o ? 16
?? n ???e e ????. *?a ??i ?e ???yth?y a ??a ?i?a ?ny?: ?a, eth?, eth?.

O????e ???e ??? ???????y a ??? ?y?y e ?????y a ??a ??ey. O?? ???i, ??
??o a ???a 6 ?ny?a.

I???a ????? ??a ????? a ??? ??, a ?y?a-???a. A ????? ????? ??? ???? ???a
?? ????. N??yy ??oa ???ey? ? 50 ? 67 ?.

O?????e ?????? y??ey? ??i ???ue ??i e ??o, ???a ???th?y a ???a a?? ??. A
???? ??? ??i ??th?th?y ???, ????, ???ae. E?? – ??? ??u, ??? ?????th??y
???. [6,n.34-35]

3. A?u

O????y I?? I??u ????y e ???? ?? I??. ??a I?ia ??o ??? ? ??o ? th?? ???ie
???a A??yy I?? e ??o ?? ?? a O?? e ??o ??o 603?. O?? ??th??ny ?y? n
O????, ? ???? ??? ??th??y ?? a I??. ??a ????? ??th ???oth ??ue ?????e,
????o ??? ??? – E???? n E????e, ??i ??e – A??i e ???? ???u ???. I?ay ??a
I?iu a ???? ????? ????? ??i 10 ?. A?a a I?? ???y, n ??i ?????i ?? e
?????o ??e. Oe?o ? ?iya?y a ?????e ? ??ae, ??e ???o ????o ??, ???e ?aea,
??iy?y ??? e ??? ???e. A ??e ?e? ?? ?????o ??-??th ???o (? ?? ????ey a
?e ????o ???). I???i ??? ?? ????ny ???, ??a ?? ???yth?y ??? ???? n ??. A
????a ?ny???y ?????i c??y?y?ny ?? ???? ??? ?????? e ???o ???ey?e.

I??? ?? ????a: ???????i ???? e ???e ???? e ????a. Iiy?? ?? ??o ???? ???
??, ?yc??e n ?y?? ??a, ???oth ??thth ?ae?ue, ????ioth ????e, ?y???e n
??y?, e ???a ??iy a ???-??? ??y.

A???? ???? ? ?? ? ??th?a?y: ?ae ???o ? ?i e ????? o?o n ????a ?????u
???a. A???e ??? ?? ??? ? ????o 1-3 i. a??ay ?? ???ny a ???i ?a, ??a ?e
??? (? ??a ??ey ? ????u ?y), ??a ?? ????o ?? ??. I??th, ??ae ???i
???????y, ? ??? ??o ??th??ny ????a ???u ??, ?y??? n ???? ??y?, e a
?????e n ?????i ???iey. E??????? ?????ny ? 3-4 ? 10-12 ??. Io ??? ?y?y ?
??a ??ey ?? I?? ????ny ??i e ?????y ???. A y? ??y ???ue ?? ???, e ??
????o ? ???a ????? ???. [1, n.36-38]

I??a ??i a ??a ??i?o i?? O???, ??? – ??? ??i. A 1928 a?o ia thai-????i
???, a ?y? ? ??????? O??????, ?y ???????? ??e ?? ????u ???? ???? 30-50i.
N y?o ??? ????? ???? ????i a c???oth ??????th ?? ???? 4800 ?i ????e
?th??e ??, ???y ? ??a?? a ????. E??e ?? ??a, ??yay ???a ? ???i e ???th?a
?? a ?????e ??e ??a y?yth?y ???i?e ????e ?y ????? e ???? a?. E????? ???
?aeu ? ???i ??? ???a ????a ??iy ?? a ??a. A 40-a ?. ? ??a ???? ??
?????ay ????a n ????i ??i ??? ??. O? ??? n ????? ??? ???? e O???.

A ??? ??? ?a ??? ??a c??? ??i, ???? e ?????. I? ??? ?????, ???a e ??? ??
?o.

I?? ??o ???u 2,5 ? 2 ??a, ?oy?o? n th?-???a ? ???-??ae. A ??i ???o ????i
???, a ???? a ???-???? ??e ?? ?? ????y ?/? I??. Ae??a ?? Iu?u ??i i????a
????? ???, ??? ??? ??, ???? ??? a ??? ????i ?a??.

I?? ??o ???? ?i n ???? ???? ??ae a ????e e ???? ??yo a ?? ????o ??e.
I????, Cay?y ??a a ????e ??e. Ia ???? ?ae??? ??o ??? ?? ??? ????e ???? a
????i ???. A ???? y? ????ue. O?oy?a ?? ?????u ? ???i, ???a ? ??????a.
I?? ??o ??? ???i ?? ??i 1/3, ????y ??ue ???a ?????i e ?aea ????? ????
??i a ???? ??e ??a.

4. ??o????? e ??u

I?e I??u ????y a ??i? th?? ??e ???????? ???a, ?i ??????o ???a ???????a
??ue th?i-???o ???? ??a.

C???? ????a ??????o ???? ???i-?????o ??, ???? ?y ???u th?? ??e. Y? ??u
??? ????i, ?e ?e ??? ??u e ???a ??uey ???? ???atho ??u ?????? ????i. E
?oy y? ??u ? ??? ????, ???i, ????, ??? e ae??? ???? y????e ?e ?atho
i???????th ????o, ???th ?????ue e ??a ???? ?y ????ey. I??? ?e ???aeyo a
??a ??? ??u. Y? ??u ????? ?y ?e ??e ??, ?a ??? ????? ??ae. Y? ??a ???a
??u n ??? e ??? ??a??? ?????. I?????? ? ?????? ? ???, ?????ue ??????a.
[2, n.40]

Ia ???o ???, ???, ?y?e y? ??u ????atho ???? ???. Aeey ?o ????? ?????
???? ????? ???y, ????? ?????e e ????a ??? ?????e. A ????e, ?y?yth?y ???
?? ??? ??, o?????a ???o ??i ?y?? n ????noy? ???a, ????a ????ey, ????th?o
??? ??ae.

Ia ?? ????o ???? ??a e ???i-i????? ?? ??????? ?o?????y ??????? e ??u ??u
??, ???a ?????oth?y ??? ???i ????ey. Aeey I?? e O???a ????? ?????ay ??ay
???????.

I????a ???e ???? ??ye ?????? ? ???i-?????o ??? n ???i e ??? ???? ??y?i
????. N??? ???o ??u a ?o 140-150 ?o. A ???? ???a ??y?a ?????? ??e??u ??e
e ??? ?????a. I???a ???????? ??: ?? ???yy, ??? ??ay, etho? ??e, eth?e
???????, ?????e ????, ??ue ?????ay, ???? ??????y, ??y??. Ec ??? ??????
??????, iy?? ???, ????? ????.

A??e ???, ? ???i e ??? ?ey?i, e ??a ??????y ???, ????? – ????a e ????. A
?????a ???a ?e ???? ??a ???a e ???e ? ??a ???? ???? ??a. I? ??? ???
???oth?y ??a ?n?a ??u. [6,n.40-41]

A ??a ?????o ??? ?ae ???i ??u ??? ?????? e ??. Ee? – ???? ??????y ?
??????i?o ????o ??ae. A ???? ??o th?ie ??e ?a ??? ??? a ?? ?????, ?? –
????? ???. O?ay?e ??? ???o ??ue ? ???o ?? (n??a ????y, ??ue ?????ay,
??e??, ???a, ??oe, ????) e «??? ????? ?? (???? ?????e, ??? ?????ay).
N?iy? n ??e ??i ????ue ? ???o ?? *??? A???a. [1,n.43]

E??a ??i a ???? ??? ??? ?????y ?? ????e, ? ? ????? ??a, ? ????e ????
???e a ???a E???, ???y ???? ??o ? ???? ???a, ??e ??? ??. C?? ?? ???a
???o ???. I? ??? ? ??o (???i ? e ????ny ????e ???? ???), ??? ???e,
???iua a ??e ? iy? ?? (a ? ? ?a, ?e o ??u), ??e??? ???a. E?? ??a – ???y,
ye???ay, n ?????? ????.

E??????y ??????? e ??u ?y?? n ??? ???i ????ey ?? ?e e ??o. A ????yo ???a
????? ????? ?????o ???a, ??? i??aeyo ????a ??. E????a ????a ????? ???? e
?????eth ???? ???????e e ??, ????? ????a – ????o ?? e ???????. [6,n.42]

??? ?? I?? ????u ???e ?ai??? ???o, ???e ????????, ???? ???? e ?????a
(???). A??a ???e ????o ? (???e, ???, ??? e ???) ??i ??iyth?y ?ae ??e,
??? eth?y? ??i ?????. Ca ?? ???ath?y ?y? ??e e ??? ??e, ae???e ????. A??
????th?y ???, ????a, ????ue, ??i, ????. Eo ??? ???? ??ue – ??a ??o ????
??a. [1, n.44-45]

I??a ??i ???? ??????? O?a??, ???i ??a, ?? ?a ???. Ii ???i ??? ???o???y
??y?y n?? – ???? ??? – 8?, ??? 7-10i, ??o ???o 120 e ??a ?o.

5. AE???e ??

AE???e ?? ??a ??o ????a ???. Ec ????ath?o e ???? ??????yi ????e ???e ??u
??ny?y ??, ??ey, ???, ??a, cayoe, ????, ???e, ????e, ?oy ?????ue ? ?ae ?
?? ?????y.

N?ay ??????ay ??? ???u. N?? ?o: ??y ???a, ??y ???a, ???y ??. Ia ?? e ??a
???o ???a e ?aey?y ???a (?aey?y ??a). N?? ??? ??????e ????ath?o –
???i?e- ????e.

N?? ????? ??? y?y?ny ??????ue ????a ?th??? – cy??. Ae??a ??????e y??
????a: ????, ????a, ??e, ?ae, ?th?e. O?? a ??a ??atho ????i ??a ???a:
??y?, ?y???, ??? e ?????. N?ay ????y ??a ?? – ???a (???y, ????a, ????).
O? ? ???? ??y?a (????a). Iae? ? ??o ???? ?? – ?????a.

N?? ???o ??, ???a ???ath?y a ???a ??i ??: aey?u (???e, ???e, ??e ???e,
???, ?????e), ??? (???y, ???-?????a, ????, ??????y, ?e ????), ????ue e
???. Ia ??? ?? ??i ???ue ?ny?o, ???th ???, ???i ???. Ia ????o ????
??atho ?aei?y ???a?, ??? ???e, ?????.

Ec ???? ?? ??????u ??? e ???. A???th?y ???e (?????ay e ??ay). I?? ??i
??i.

C????? ?????? ?????? ???ii, ?????? ??e, ?????e ey???, ??y?e ey???.
I???ath??y: y??? ???y, ? ?????? e ?aeth?. [6,n.50-53]

A ?? ???y ???y ?y ???e ??? ??: ??ue, ??e, ???, y?, ?u, ??, ??yi, ??i.
[1, n.51]

I?nth? ??i ????ue ??????o ?a?????e ?????/?o, ????, ????o ?a a ??? ??ey
?y?yth?y ??? ???a ???e-????? (5 ??ey), ??i ??ua ????u (24 ??ey). I??, a
??? ??, ???tho ???e-???e, ?y???u e ??? ???. N ?? ? ??? ???tho ?e?? n
???eo ???? ???th?a? ??u. Ii ???i ??, ? ??? ???? e ???i ???ny ????. I??
????o ??a (??-???u, ????, ????, ??e ???e, ??e), ??????o (??? ????u,
????u, ??e), ????, ????? e ??i?; ??????u ??y? ae???? ????o: ?o, ???i ??a
e i?????o ???a; ???e e ?ey??? ?i?.

O????? ???? ??e ???e – ?i ???ue ??i 2200 ?. Ii ????o e ??i ????i O???a.
A ??? ????a ??i O???. I???a ?????ay ??ue ? th?-???a ????a ????ny ???
Ii??. ???o y?? ????a ????e e ae???i ??????. N???a ?? ?????? e ???e ????a
??yth?y ???y??. E?a ??? y??? e ???e: ???, i????e?? e ???????e, ??yo?e, a
a ???y?o ??i ???e e ?yo. [6,n.56]

AEAAA II. ?AE?AAOeEIIIUE E OO?ENOE*ANEEE IIOAIOeEAE

1. ??????? ????e

A 1975 ??, ??a ????o ???o ?? ??o ???? e ??? ?? ????i ?y «I?? I???, ?i ?a
?? ???a? ????? ???e, ?????u ?????a ??? ???, ???a ???a ????, ?n??, ?????
?????? ????? ??y?. Y? ???o i ?i, ?i ??? ????? O??? ??i ?????? ??oth
????eth ?y ???, ??????ey ?e ??a o???o ??? ? oy??i ??????. A ??a ?? ???u
?a ???y ?y ????e, ?y?io a ???? ?e ??i ?i ??? ?ei ??i ???. Eth? ????e ??
? ??? ??y?, ? e ???? ??????, ???a?e ?????ey, ??? a ?e??e e ???. A ??a
????e ???? ????? e ???ny IOO. A ??? a?iy a ?? ??? ???ny ? ??o e ? ???.

A??a ??? ????i ???ey ?????i ???a, ?e a 80-o ??o OO ??, a ??e ??? ? ??
???a. E ?yae ? ??a-??? ?i ???y ???ue ??o ? ?????a

N ???i 90-o ??a, ??a a ??? ???ny y?????? ??? e ?a ???th?a ? ?? ?????y,
????a ???i?? ????? ??i ?????ue. Eth? ?? ?iy? ??? ?????, e ? ?? ? ? ???.
Ii a y? ??y ?? ???i ?? e ????e ? ??e ??th???. Ae???a ??u ? ? ????ey ?
???? ath??a ??i ?????ue, ?y ??????? ??a ??a ????? ???ue e ?????y, eth? ?
oi?? ???? ????i e ??? ???e. Ii ????y ?i ?????i, ???a ??? ???? y?o ??? e
???? ????u ??? ??, ?a ????e ???ath?a e ??? ? ?o ?? ??tho ??o ??o???.

Ia ?? ??th??? e ?? I??u. E???, a ??? ??? ?i ??????? ? ?e ???, ?e a 80-a
??, ? e ???? ? ?? ????o ???? e ????i-???????o ?????, ? ??? ??????ey ???o
???y ??????e ????e ??a ??i ?????.

N??? ????, ?i ?????e ?iae a ?? ???? a ??a ??u E??????e, ???y ? ??????
??o ??????a ????a O??? ?? ????a ?e ???y ???y ??y, ?? ??? ?ae ??? ??? e
y??e. Ii ?? ??a ??u, ?ae ???e ???? ?????? ????e, a ???e ?? ? ?o ? ??e
??a. I???i y? ??o ethayo ???, ?-???, ??? ?i ?a ???y ? ??y???? e
????????ay. A, ?-???, ??? ?i, ????? ??ue ?a ???y ??tho ???, ??ue ? ?
??i, ii ??.

O ??a a ?? ????? ?a ??u, ? ??e ???? «I?e I??? n y???e ??? ???, a ? ???
– ???? ???? ???, e ?? ????a ??u 1941-1945. O ??e ??u a 1994 ?? ???a?i ??
O-34, ? y?y?ny ???i ???? a???y o ??e, ???a ??o ???ue ? ?? ???.

E? ?????a ??u E??????e a ??, ? ???e, ????a ???????ay ??? ? ??? ???a.
A??i e ??i ?? ?????a ???e, ????? ???i. C?? ?????u ??? ?y i??a.

I?e ??o ????i ???. I??a ?? ? A?? ??e ? ???? ??? ??o ???th ?????th
???i-?????th ?oue, ?i ???y? ??? e ????i ??????y ? ??. A 60-a ?? ??ue ?
??? ?? ????a ??ay ?? ????? ????, ???y ???? e ? ?e ??. C?? ??oth ??
???y?y ??ae?? e ???? ??? ?????ey, ????u ??????? ??? ??? ? 3,5,10 e 15 ?.
Aeey ????? ????a ?????-???e ????e ??? ??ith 20 ? ? *??aa A???a. O?a e
???i, a ??a 40 ?, y? ???y ???? ?y ????? e ?????eyi ????. A??e e ??i ?
???? ??a ???y?y ??? ?????a OCOI e ??o ?????e. I??i y?? ? ??? ? ??? ?? ??
????ay ????, ? ???e ?????u ???a ???e, ??? ?o ???? ???y ???a ??ith a 250
i. A ??? ??y ??ue ??? ??i ????ue ??? ??e ? ?????o ?? ???th??y ?????
????e. O??u ????? ???? y?? ?????i eth?? ???a ??a I??u.

E? a y?e ??e ? A?? ??e ? ???? ??? ???????i ????, ?y?????e, ???? ??e e
??i. A? ???o 120-130 ?o. I???e e ????th ??i??? ????: ???? ???e ??? ???
???e e ?????th ??. N??a ??? ??? ???y ? ??th, ???ay ?????? ???e. I???
???y ??? e ???e ???, ???ay ????oth ???????ue ?y ?? a ??a ??y ??.

N?? ???? ??? ?e ??i 1988 ??. Ca ??? ???? ??i a ??e ??? ????e ?????e ???
? i?oy??e ????a ? ???a ???th?o ?c??e ??y?a ???. O?oy?y ???a ??ue ??a
???o 0,5 – 1,5i. ???e ??? ???, ?????y ?i ????, ???? ???i ??e ??? ? ??e.
I??uei? ??e ?????ue a ?????th ?i?, ?? ???e, ???e ??e ??i e ??c, e ???y
??e. O?oy?e ??? ia ??a O??? ?????y ?a ?? ??e e ??i. O??u ??y?a ???,
???i? ?y ?? ? ??i ?????yi.

Ca ???? ???e a ?? ?? ????? ?ey?, ???a ?y ????i ???. N?ay ???y ? ?o
????th n ????? ?? ??o ?? ???a ???e ? ?ayi. C?? ??i e ??e ???tho ???a
?????. Aeey ????? e ?a??y IOO ? y?e ?ey? ??aeyo ???e??? ??u, ? ???o ?ay?
????tho ?ith ????oth ?????, ???? e ????.

???a ?????i y?? ??a I??u ?e ????e ???e. Ii ?????ny ??i ???u ???a o ?????
????i a???. Ia ???ath?e e ??o ?ey? ?i?a ?iy? ????? ? ??? ???a ????a ???
? ???o ???? ???, ? ??? ????? ???ey I?? I???? A??a. Ii e ???? ????th ???e
? ??? ??? ? ??y ???i? ??? a 1988 ??. N??iy ? ?i ??a ??aeyony ????i ???o
???e, ??i ???o ?? ???u e ?????. A ??? ?y ? ???a ??i ???ue ?? ? ??i ????,
? ?? ??i ??th?? ???, ?aey ? ??e ? ???e.

E? ??ue ?? ???????i ????, ? ?e ???a e ??? e??? ??? ???a ???y ????y ??,
?????y ?y?? ? ??o ???a a eth?a ??y ??. Io ?? ???a ? ??? ??a ?? ????i
????o ??e. I? ?? ?????u ????e ?y ???. Cae?ue ??i ??? ??? ? ????e ???.
Y?o ??? ethayo ???? e ???? e ??.

Ca C???? ???? ???e a ???a E???, ???y ???? ??o ? ??ue?e ???a, ?? ??ue
????? ??? ??a ???. C?? ?? ???e ???o e??a. E ????th, ???th?a a ?? ??iy?i
????tho ??? ??e. E?? i?? ? ???. A?? ??? ??a a e?o ????i ???. I? ?atho
???? «Cay?e A??». I??e ??? ?atho ????i ???o ???a a ???o ??a. Y? ??a ????
????u ??e.

N??i-????y ??ue ??a ????? ??y?? ????e ????? ???. I? ???yo ???oth e ????
???, ???yy ?? ??th ???o ?? ?y ??? e??o ??n e ?????o ???e ??i.

A??????y ??? A?????a-N??yn ?e ? ???? ?? I??u ? ??ai?i ???a ??, ???????
??o ??? O??? e ???i A??yy I??.

A y?i ???a ????i ?? ??? ???e «N??ay» ?? ??? ??i-??????, ? ??i 400 ?o. Ca
??? ???? ??? e ??? ? ???e ?? ??u, ???i ??iath?a ??i ??aeyi. I? ?? ???, ?
???o ?? ???? – 250-300 ?o, a ??o e ??a, ??i ? ? ???.

N?i ??i O??? ? ???y?? ?? ??ue ??i ??y??? e ?? ???th?o, ????a e ????a.
I??? ? ??a ??ue ?y??? ?a??? ? ???e ???a ??? ??. Ia ??i ? ???a ?y??y ??e
?yae. Eth? ???yo ?aea, ?y ?? ??u ????ue e ?????. O? ? ???i a y?o ??? ??i
????ue ???a, ???a ??atho ? ??a ???? ???o ???e, e ????a, ??eyth?o ??, ?
?o ?? ?????.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?e Iiaaaeu aiiaue noaiiaeony iaeiei ec ethaeiuo iano
aeey ioaeuoa ianoiiai ianaeaiey. I?eoie ioaeuoathueo oaaee/eaaaony n
eaaeaeui aiaeii. A ia?ea anoue ana aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey
?ae?aaoeee. Inoaeinue oieueei iaeoe eiaanoeoeee, aeey oiai /oiau
naeaeaoue eio?ano?oeoo?o ia?ea aieaa iieiie. ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue noa?ua
nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua eiiieaenu e iino?ieoue iiaua, iaeaai?iaeeoue
oa??eoi?eth aaeece i?iaoei/iuo aei?iaeae e iieyi, i/enoeoue ica?i
Ooaaeeo e iaono?ieoue ieyae, nicaeaoue eiaei/ioth noaioeeth. Oiaaea ia?e
iiaeao noaoue ia oieueei ianoii ioaeuoa aeey ianaeaiey, ii e ianoii,
eioi?ia aoaeao i?eiineoue i?eaueue. Iai?eia?, io ieaoiiai caacaea ia
oa??eoi?eth eaniia?ea e ia?eiaeo, ca i?ieao iaiaaeia, eiaeie e ae?oaiai
nii?oeaiiai eiaaioa?y e iiiaia ae?oaia.

2. O?e??? ????e

Ia ????? ??a I?a? e ? ?????o ????eyo ??i ?ae??ue ?yae ????o e
????i-?????? ???? ????o ??, ??u ? ?eth?? a ????u y???? e ????a, ?e ? ???
??? Ae?????o, ?e e ? i?? I??u.

Y?????ay ????ay ??a ?. A?iy N????i Nith? I??ay E???? E????

A????? ???ey ???a a ??a ? ??i ?????ue ? ???a ???? ? y?????? ??????e o??
?. A?iy N????i Nith? I??ay E???? E????, ???y ???? ? ???????e ?? ?????.

I???a ??u ??iy?? 27 ethey 1986 a?a. A ?? 75-??y ? ?y ???ey I.E. E????.

O?? ???? ? ??? ????? ????e, ? e ??????e ?iy?e?? ? ???e y?? ? ??o ??.
????e ? ???o ??a O??? ?y?? ?iy?e ???? ????, ????? ??ue 3000 ?o ?? ??ae.
Ae?? – ??u ??? ? ??? ????????o ???a ? O??, ???ay ???, A?ay A?iy, Ae??oe
E???u, ?iy?? I.E.E????.

O?? ????ny o ?iy??a A?ith N????i Nith? I??ath E???? E????. Ii ???? ?
????, ????a ??????e, e ??? 7 ?y 1985 ?? ? ???? E???u. O?? ???? n ??e
???u Ae??? ???? II «O???» e A?? a??, y?yth??y ?iy??? ?????u ????i??
??????a 1930 ??. Y? ?????ay ??y, ?????y ? ???o I. ????, ?o???? ? ??????o
?????? ??? e ????? O???a.

I????a ??u ????ny n ??? ?? ???? ??, ??????e ??o ca A?? ???. C?? a ??
?????a ??ay ??, ??????? ????? ??ae? e ????ay ????. C?e ??? ??y ??o e
???? ???, ????? ? e ?? ??? ?y?i n ???? ??a?.

I??a ?a ????a ??a ???? ? ????? ?? ?????a O???. Io A?? ??e ? ???a ??a
O??? – ????e ?n ? ???? ??i, ???a ??? ????e ?th ?????oth ???? O??????.
I???e ??? ?? ??o ae?? ??e?i e ??? a ?????? ?? ????i a ?? n ?????e ????e,
???? ???, ???? ???? ?????, ????e, ?????e ??y??. Y?? ???o ?? a 1975 ??
????i ?y «I?? I???.

Ca ???? ???e ?????ny ???????i ???? ?n. I??? y? ???e ?? ???u ????e y??.
Y? ??u ?y????e ????. C?ey ? ???o ??a O??? e ?? I?? ?? ???????? ??e, e ??
???a ?? a e???? ???o. C??????e a ?? ??u???? ???ey O?? ?ny???y? ?? ?????
?????? ???. I?? e ae??oth ???oth ??? n ????ey? ??? ???? ? ??? ???? e ??i
e ??yi ?y ????y, ???? e ??a ???.

Ia ???y?e ??? ????a ? ?a??e ??e ???? ??? ??a ???? ? ????o ?ath ???a ?y
??? ??u O?????i ????? ???. E???, ??????a ? y?i ??aea, ???c???ue ?
??????a ??a O???a, ??o ??a, ??, ???oe e ?????. A ??iy?a ??y ???? ???
???. Ae??a ??u ???y a ??i ???a e ?a?o ? ???.

N ??e ???u ??u ??i ???i ????e ???? ???, ??? ? ???th E???.

I?? ???? N??ay ??a ???? ?ae ???? ???e ??c ???ue. C?? ???y ???a 5 ?. Ca
???? ??a ?ao ? ??? ???, ????? ???????th ??th ? E????i ??? ? ???th O???,
a ?e ? ??a? n ??????? ??? y???????.

Ia ???a e ? ???o ??a O?a?o ?????u ?????? ?? ????? O??????. C?? ???ath?e
e ??o ?n, ???????i ???? n ???e ???? ? ??? ?? e a ???a ?i. A?? e ?a? ??
????a ??.

O ???e N??ay ??a ??i ?????? ??i e ??? ? ??ae ???e ????e.

Ia ???y?e 3 ? ? ???e N??ay ??a ????? ???oth ???, ??oth ? ?a?? O??? ?
???ey?y ??? A??yy I??. Ca ?e ???? ???? a ????? ??? ????o ?? I??.

O?, ?a ?? ???? ??c ?? I??, ???y ????y ??a n ??? ?y ??a ??. I?a ? ???th,
a 50 ??? ? ??u, ? ??? ??? ?? ??e?? ?th?e a ??ay?? ??a. A?? ?? ia ???i
??? ??i ???ue i??e ? ?? e ???ue ??? ? ?ath??y ?????o.

Ca ??? ????? ???? ? ??auey, ???? ? ??? ??? ?? e a?? ? ??oth ??? a ?????e
? ???. *?? ?a ????a ??? ????ao ???o. C?? ????? ????o ?i???? ???ey ?
??ae. Ia ????i i????? a ???? ???e ??u ???eyoey A??? I??. O?, a ??? I???
???a, 1919 ?? ?e ?????? A?????? ??? ?????? ?e n ??????e ???ie. Io ?th??
???a ??o ? ??????i ?????? ????e e ??a N????e-N??. I? ??? ? ?? e ??a
????? ?o? ??ey?ny ? ??a ???? ??u ????i ??a ??a, ???a?? ?y ??a ????? ?ae
?ae ??a. Ae? a ??a ??a. Aeey ?????? ?????y ??a ???? ???o ????ue ?ae ??a
? ??a.

N??a ? ??a ?????y ?ae ??i ???? ?? – A??ay ??a. Aei ?a ? ??u 500 ???. I??
????ue ?????e ? ?? e n ????????? ??e ??o?? ???th?a ?? e ???e A??thth I??
e N??????. Ia ??? ??i ???atho ????a ??e ???a O????i ???.

C?? A??ay ??a – ??i ????i ???y ? ??o ??? ??????.

Io ???? ??u ??a ?? ??? ? ??ae ????. C?? ???? ????a ?? n ?????e ?ey??, ?
???o ??i ?????? ??o e ??. *?? 3 ? ????e ?n ???. O ??? n ????e 50/60 ?
?????e ??? ???o ???o? ??? ? ???? ? ???o, ???? ??????oth ??th e ?? ? ???o
??, ??y ? ?????e ? ????e ???e. *?? 2 ? ??a ????? ???oth ??? ? NOA?YN,
?????th a 1930 ?? ia ??? ??a E???a.

*?? 1 ? ? ???? ??? ??a ???o ? ??? ?? e ?? ??ue ?a. N??a, ???e ?ey, ?
???y?e ??? ????a ? ??u ?????y ???? ????i ??i ??. Y? E?uey ???. C?? ???y
????? ???. N ???? E??e ??e ?????? ??c ????e ??e O????i ??? e E???? ???a.

Ca E??e ??? ??a ????? ??????oth ??th, a ? ?e ??? a??i, ???? ???? e ???
????. A??i ??i ??? ??? ? ??oth?e ??????? ??e ?e ??? ?y? ? ???o ? ??ae.
Ca ???i ?? E?? n ???e ?????e ????. I???? ??c E?? e ???e A?ue ??a ?? ?
??ith ???i ???a, ????a??i ??o ???? A?ue e *???i A?i??i. I??e ??????e ??
??u ????y ? ???i ??a, ???i ??o ? ???? ???? ???.

O?? ? e?iy ?? ? ??????? ??e ??o ??o ??? e ???a?. Ia ???a ??e, ? ???, ??a
?????o n ??????? ??e ???, a ?n, e ?? ??e 6 ? ? ??iyi i???? ??e, ????
???? ??i. I??? ???th?y ???a ???i?? ? ???? a ?a-?e ???a.

I? ??? n ????e ??e ????ony ?ae ? ????a ??? ???, a ca ?i – ??? *???
A???a. N?e ? ??i, ?e ??? ???? ???e. O ??? ??? ????? ???? ????i ???a. C??
??i ????ue ???e, ???ue ??? o ???? ??. A??i ?? ?y ?y e ??.

*??? A???a – ?????? ???? ???u – ?????? ??????a ????o ?? ???e ? 39 i n
???? ? ??ie e ???i ???? n ???. A???a ??o ?i??oth ???? n ????. N ?a
?????? ??? ???? ??? ? ???, ??a E???? ? ???a, ia ??? ???? A?????? ??????a
e ?? A???

I???? e *??? A???o ??c ?e?i ???? ???y. I???y ??? ? a??o ????y ?ae ??e ?
???a ? 0,5 ? 0,7 i. A ??? ??y ?????e ???e ??? ??i ????? ??ae. A?i? e
??ueth ?????? ??? ???o o??i a ???o, ??a ? ??? ??ue ????? ??e. Ca ???i
??a ?? ??? ? ???ci? ???, ???e e ???o e ???e E??.

N?y?o ??i ???ue ? ???y?e 1 ei ? *??? A???a, o ??y. O ?? *??? A???a ?iy?e
??? ? ??a??ny, ??i ????ue ??? ???? y????.

Io *??? A???a ? ???e E?? ???y?a 5 ?. O?? ?? ? ??? n ???e ????e e ????.

?????th?y ???? ?????y ????? ????a: ? ??? – ??i ? ??? I???, I???, a ?
*??? A???a – ?? ??i, ? ??? ? ??? ????, ? ??i I???a e n??eth N???.
[4,n.7-19]

I??i ???? ? y?????? ????? ??a ?. A?iy N????i Nith? I??ay E???? E???? a
??a e ? ?????o ????eyo ?? ??a ????a e ????i-?????? ???u, ????a ???i
???ey. Y? ???u ??i ?eth?? a ????u y????, ?e ? ??? ?????o O???, ?e e ?
??o I??u. [7,n.7-17]

A?????y ??y ??? OCOI

I??? ???ey ?????o ??????a ?????, ??aey??y ??c ??? ? ??a, ???? ??? ?cu,
????? a ??? «??e ???». Y? aiaeiiaii?iay aaoiy caaiaea O?aeiao (1928-31
aa.) iino?iaia ii i?iaeoo a?oeoaeoi?a I. ?aeoa?a. Ii caiuneo aaoi?a,
iiieii naiaai ooeeeoa?iiai i?aaeiacia/aiey, aaoiy eniieiyea ?ieue
i?ino?ainoaaiiie aeiieiaiou, caaa?oathuae aoeueaa? Eoeueoo?u, iaeio ec
oeeoe «eeanne/aneiai o?aoeo/ey», eioi?ua, ?anoiaeynue io aeaaiie
ieiuaaee nioeai?iaea O?aeiaoa, oi?ie?iaaee ieaie?iai/ioth no?oeoo?o
anaai ?aeiia. Naaiaeiy aaoiy n ieiuaaee aieueoa ia i?iniao?eaaaony, aa
aeaeii eeoue n ia?eoa?eeiuo oeeoe Aeiiaanneie e Aaeeineeo Eiienna?ia. C
naiiai iiiaioa naiaai iiyaeaiey aiaeiiaii?iay aaoiy noaea a?oeoaeoo?iie
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoueth O?aeiaoa e iaeiei ec aai neiaieia. Iaeiaei,
iaiiiaei ecaanoii ianeieueei o yoiai nii?oaeaiey iai?aeeia?iay enoi?ey.

Naa?aeeiane, 1928 aiae. Aeaaio nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?ee, O?aeueneee
caaiae oyaeaeiai iaoeiino?iaiey, oieueei ia/eiaao ia?aoiae n /a?oaaeae
ia no?ieieiuaaeeo. Aeey no?iyuaainy ?yaeii aeeeiai ia?aciaaiey o?aaoaony
aiaeiniaaaeaiea. I?iaeaiu ioiieaiey iinaeea auee oaea ?aoaiu i?e iiiiue
caaacaiiiai iacooa, yeaeo?e/anoai iinooiaei n AECa, a aio aii?in n
aiaeii?iaiaeii ?aoeoue, iiia/aeo ia oaeaaaeinue. Aiaeo ia O?aeiao
i?eaiceee a ai/eao, ia eioaaeyo. Iinaeeo auea ioaeia aiaeiiaii?iay aaoiy
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iinoiyiiiai iaii?a a aiaeii?iaiaeiuo naoyo iinaeea.

A eiioea 1928 a E. ?iaa/aaneee, a?oeoaeoo?iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
Iaoeiino?iy, ianiio?y ia iiaeaeeiathuea n?iee i?iaeoe?iaaiey e
oeiainiaua ia?aie/aiey, i?aaeeiaeee no?ieoue aiaeiiaii?ioth aaoith ii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio i?iaeoo. Eaeay auea iaeia?aia aeaaiui eiaeaia?ii A.
Oeaeea?ii. N?aco iinea yoiai, a?oeoaeoi?ai i?iaeoiiai ioaeaea aue
iauyaeai yeni?ann-eiieo?n n?ieii a iaeio iaaeaeth. Aucia i?eiyee o?ia:
I. I?aineee, A. Aac?oeia e I. ?aeoa?. Ia onoaiiaeaii eae auaeyaeaee
yneeciua i?iaeou I?aineiai e Aac?oeiaa, ecaanoii oieueei, /oi iaeei ec
ieo eiiaeie?iaae eiaeaia?iia nii?oaeaiea n aeeeuie eaa?oe?aie. Iiaaaeee
yneec I. ?aeoa?a ca «i?eaeiaeueiia, eiae/iia e au?aceoaeueiia ?aoaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai iauaeoa», ii iiaieth aeth?e. «I?eaeiaeueiia ?aoaiea»
iiaaaeeoaeue i?eaeoiae ca iaeio ii/ue ia?aae naea/ae, ana inoaeueiia aai
a?aiy ooiaeeei ia ?aaioo ii caaiaeneei oeaoai.

I?iaeoiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aeoa?a auei aaieaeueiui a naiae i?inoioa. Iii
iniiauaaeinue ia ia?ana/aiee aeaoo aaiiao?e/aneeo oae: i?eciaoe/aneie
ieanoeiu eanoie/iie eeaoee e oeeeeiae?a aaea, iiaeiyoiai i?eaeeceoaeueii
ia 1/2 auniou i?eciu. Yoei i?eaiii aaoi? iuoaeny aeinoe/ue i?aaeaeueiie
aeeiaie/iinoe iaeeea nii?oaeaiey, a oaeaea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naieo eaeae i ieieioia iii?iuo oi/ae, iaiaoiaeeiii aeey
“oeenaoeee oaea a i?ino?ainoaa”. Ia aa?oeia aaoie ?aeoa? i?aaeoniio?ae
aeaa niio?iaua ieiuaaeee, ia e?iaea aaea e a iaeaiueeii eiinieueiii
iauaia, aai/athuai eanoieoeo e aae. Yoa ooieoeey auea eiae/ia a i?iaeoa
aaoie, ia oieueei enoiaey ec auniou naiiai iauaeoa, i?eaeeceoaeueii
?aaiythuaeny 29 i., ii e ianoa aai iaoiaeaeaiey ia naiie aunieie oi/ea
?aeueaoa.

Au?aceoaeueiie auea oaeaea e eiiiiceoeey oanaaea: aa?oeeaeueiua oyae
ieiiiuo i?iaiia a oi?oeao eanoieoeu eiio?anoe?iaaee n aeaoiy
?aciiaunieeie noaeeyiiuie i?i?acyie ii ieco e aa?oo iauaia aaea, aeooay
aaoiiiay noaia eioi?iai aeiiieieoaeueii ia?oi?e?iaaia oeaii/eie e?oaeuo
ieioa/ae a o?iaia iaoiaeiie aaea?ae. Iaeaiueeee i?eiethniooue iauai
aa?oiae niio?iaie ieiuaaeee n iaoiaeiui aaeeii/eeii iaaenaao ianeieueei
aeoaaea oeaio?a ie?oaeiinoe aaea, /ai eanoie/iay eeaoea, iiyoiio
eiinieue yoiai iauaia oaeaea iinoaaeaia ia aeaa oiieea iii?u.
Ai?eciioaeueiay uaeue ieia a o?ao aai noaiao i?eaeaao aio eaaeinoue,
io/aai eiiiiceoeey aaoie iieo/aao yeaaaioiia caaa?oaiea.

Auai? iaoa?eaea aue iniaaiii niaeui – aaoiy caaeoiuaaeanue a
aeaeaciaaoiia, iaoa?eaea aei oao ii? a Naa?aeeianea ia eniieuecoaiii.
?aeoa? eae ?ac a yoi aea a?aiy ?ac?aaaouaae ia?aua a NNN? oeaoa ec
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo yeaiaioia. Ca iaeiaieai iiuoa ?aaiou n aeaeaciaaoiiii,
aaoith a ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea ni/ee oaoie/anee iaauiieieiie, e i?e
aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa o ?aca?aoa?a “au?inee iiaeee”, /aou?a
oiieea aaoiiiua iii?u, ?ani?aaeaeaiiua ii ?aaeeono. Iianaynue ca
onoie/eainoue nii?oaeaiey, eiaeaia? Oeaeea? ee/ii iiae?eniaae “iiaeee”
iiae aaeii. Ii aea ianoiye ia oii, /oiau, ai ecaaaeaiea ?enea, aae aue
auiieiai a iaoaeea.

AEaeaciaaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee aaoie auee ?ac?aaioaiu iineianeei ath?i
Oaoaaoii, iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eiaeaia?a I?ioi?iaa, inouanoaeyaoaai oaeaea
eiio?ieue iaae no?ieoaeuenoaii. I?iaeo iaoaeee/aneiai aaea-?aca?aoa?a
“Eioea” (ii nenoaia iaiaoeeiai eiaeaia?a-aeae?aaeeea e a?oeoaeoi?a Otto
Intze) aieinoueth 750 eoaiiao?ia aue ?ac?aaioai a ath?i iaoaeee/aneeo
eiino?oeoeee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii N. Ei?ioeiaa. Aia?aua a Naa?aeeianea,
i?e nai?ea aaea, oaoieea neeaiee auea caiaiaia yeaeo?inaa?eie.
Iineaaeiee naa?iie oia aue iaeiaeai nionoy iyoue ianyoeaa io ia/aea
?aaio, 5 ethiy, 1931 a. Ea/anoai naa?ee iieo/eei aunieoth ioeaieo
niaoeeaeenoia ec Iineau. Iniaui ianoiyoaeuenoaii auei aua e oi, /oi aae
o?aeiaoaaneie aaoie a oi a?aiy aue naiui e?oiiui a ie?a.

Aa?iyoii, ii yoie i?e/eia, ?aca?aoa? ia auaea?aeae ia?aiai eniuoaiey:
“*a?ac /an iinea caiieiaiey aaea aiaeie e iiaeienaiey aeoa i i?eaia
aaoie a yenieoaoaoeeth i?iecioei iaiaeeaeaiiia – aeieua aaea auaioeinue,
iai?aaeinue, e nioie eoaiiao?ia aiaeu oeuioee aiec ii oeeoea, niua ia
naiai iooe ana neo/aeiua i?aa?aaeu, a oii /enea e aii?oaeaiiiai
iinoiaiai, i?iiany aai ia 15-20 iao?ia io aaoie”. ?acoiaaony, iinea
yoiai i?ienoanoaey eiaeaia?o A. Oeaeea?o i?eoeinue iauyniyoueny n IEAAe.
Iaeiaei yoa ano?a/a i?iecioea ia ?aiueoa, /ai ana iineaaenoaey aaa?ee
auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu. Iiaia aeieua aeey aaea ?aoaii auei aeaeaoue a
aeaeaciaaoiia. «Eiaeaia?a I?ioi?iaa aucaaee a Naa?aeeiane, e iiea ii
aoae ia ia?ioiaea io Ieaeiaai Iiaai?iaea aei Ia?ie ca 4-5 aeia ii
i?iecaae ?an/ao iiaiai aeieua, ecaioiaee /a?oaaee e auaeae i?iaeo e
eniieiaieth». Oaeeie aea ?aei?aeiuie oaiiaie i?iaeo aue inouanoaeai.
Iiaia aeieua aaea ieacaeinue iaaeaaeiui. Oae auee ?acaayiu inoaoee
i?aae?annoaeeia i i?i/iinoe aeaeaciaaoiia.

Ii caaa?oaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa aaoiy auea ie?aoaia aaeie ecaanoueth,
aeaaiaea?y /aio ca iae cae?aieeinue eiy “Aaeay aaoiy”. Yoi eiy inoaeinue
aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea a aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1941-45 aaoith
iie?uee caueoiui oeaaoii, eae aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneee iauaeo.

N iiiaioa ioe?uoey aieioue aei ia/aea aieiu aiaeiiaii?iay aaoiy OCOI
cia/eeanue ai anao no?ieoaeueii-oaoie/aneeo ni?aai/ieeao eae ia?acaoe
i?iiuoeaiiiai ciae/anoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, aaoiy noaea i?ioioeiii aeey
?yaea iauaeoia aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey.

A 1960-a aiaeu aaoiy ia?anoaea ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae eiaeaia?iia
nii?oaeaiea. Oiaaea aea aia?aua anoae aii?in i aa aeaeueiaeoai
eniieueciaaiee. I. ?aeoa? i?e nio?oaeie/anoaa a?oiiu ooaeiaeieeia,
?ac?aaioae i?iaeo i?eniiniaeaiey aaoie iiae iieiaeaaeiia eaoa n caeii ia
50 iano, ?aniieiaeaiiii ia aunioa 24 i. Ia aa?oieo o?iaiyo
i?aaeeaaaeinue ?aciauaiea eeinea “Ii?iaeaiia, aiaeu” e iaci?iay
ieiuaaeea. I?iaeo aue iaeia?ai aee?aeoeeae O?aeiaoa, ii ia iieo/ee
iiaeaea?aeee aeaaiiai a?oeoaeoi?a.

A 1970-a aiaeu a noaeueaa aaoie i?ienoiaeeo ae?aiaoe/aneee ia?aeii.
Caeaiea AeE OCOI, iino?iaiiia a eiiieaena ni noaaeeiiii, iieiinoueth
caai?iaeeei aeae ia aaoith io ieiuaaee, acya ia naay ?ieue caaa?oaiey
aoeueaa?a. Oieeaeueiue iauaeo eiino?oeoeaecia, iinyuee oaea oiaaea
noaoon iaiyoieea, aue aueeth/ai ec aeecie ai?iaea, e ia?a/ai ia aeaeeia
nouanoaiaaiea iin?aaee ionou?y, ia caaeai?eao aia?aaeenoiyuaai caeaiey.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeoony iaoe?iua aeeneonnee i aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa
Aaeie Aaoie. [9]

Oaieiaay aei?iaa

Nionoeaoenue iaiiiai aiec ii oeeoea Aaeeineeo eiienna?ia e iiaa?ioa ia
Ee?iaia?aaeneoth, iu auoiaeei ia aeeath, aaaeouoth e Oaieiaie aei?iaa –
auaoee iieeaii O?aeiaocaaiaea aeey iaeaoee ecaioiaeaiiuo oaieia e
naiioiaeie. Noiaeyuea n caaiaeneiai eiiaaea?a a aiaeu Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu oaiee o?aaiaaee iaeaoee aeey i?eoe?ee aeaoaeae.
A?oioiaua aei?iae auno?i ?acaeaaeenue iiae oyaeanoueth o?eaeoeaoeoiiiuie
iaoeiu. Iiyoiio, iinoaiiaeaieai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Eiieoaoa Iai?iiu io 4
ethey 1943 a. Auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i no?ieoaeuenoaa oaieiaie aei?iae ia
O?aeiaoa.

Ianoi aeey iaa auei aua?aii a aeece caaiaea ca Aaeie aaoiae a eano,
/oiau ceiie ia caaeoaaei aei?iao niaaeiuie noa?iaaie. Oaieiaay aei?iaa
i?ieeaaeuaaeanue neaaeothuei ia?acii: au?oaaeenue niniu e aa?acu,
ei?/aaaeenue iie, ?ueanue aeoaieay o?aioay (ianoaie aei 2 iao?ia), caoai
ianuiaeny uaaaiue auoa o?iaiy i?eeaaathuae ii/au. Ia iaai oeeaaeuaaeenue
ieineea eaiie. Ia a?on/aoea, a eiaiii eaiaiiua aeiee, niiniaiua
auaea?aeaoue iiiaie?aoiua oaea?u noaeueiuo o?aeia oaieiauo aonaieoe io
aeaeaeaiey aeanyoeia iaoei, i?ioiaeyueo ii iae a nooee. Ii e?ayi aei?iae
?ueenue aeoaieea ethaaou aeey ioaiaea n aei?iae oaeie aiaeu e
aeiaeaeaauo aiae eaoii e inaiueth. Oaieiaay aei?iaa – yoi auea ia?iaeiay
no?ieea. Nthaea i?eoiaeeee ?aaioaoue a?eaaaeaie e ioaeaeaie iinea
iniiaiie ?aaiou a oeaoao. Oaoieee, aaoiiaoei e o?aeoi?ia auei iaei,
iiyoiio iiiaea ?aaiou i?eoiaeeeinue auiieiyoue a?o/ioth. Iniaaiii
oyaeaeie /anoueth ?aaiou ia iieioia auea oeeaaeea eaiiae. Eaiie
iai?aaeeueiie oi?iu, iaiaoanaiiua iaaei auei iiaeae?aoue e iiaeaiiyoue
ieioii ae?oa e ae?oao, /oiau iie ia auneaeeaaee ec naieo aiacae i?e
i?ioiaeaeaiee iaoei. Eaiie aoeaaeueii aaeaaeenue a a?oio oyaeaeie
aea?aayiiie o?aiaiaeie.

A ia?iaea aoeoiiieeo iacuaaee oaieiaoth aei?iao aei?iaie e?iae e neac.
Nthaea i?enueaee i?iaeieaoeony ia caaiaea ca a?ae, ca nii?u n
ia/aeuenoaii, ca ?aciua iaeeea i?iaeiiinoe.

Aeeeia aei?iae auea 6800i. oe?eia ia i?yiie /anoe 25i, a a iaoeyo
?acai?ioa oaiea 10i. ia i?yiii o/anoea aei?iae oaiee oee iaano?a/o ae?oa
ae?oao e aeieaeiu auee ?acieiooueny aac noieeiiaaiey. A iaoeyo ?acai?ioa
oaiee oee oieueei a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Oaieiaay aei?iaa auea iino?iaia anaai ca 4 ianyoea. 21 iiya?y 1943 ii
iae i?ioee ia?aua oaiee. Oaieiaay aei?iaa eiaao oi?io ainueia?ee n
oaeeeiaiiie n?aaeiae /anoueth. Naaa?iay iaoey ?aniieiaeaia nae/an ia
o?iaia oeeoeu Iiaaaeu, a thaeiay iai?ioea iaaaceiia nii?ooiaa?ia
«Aeeiaii» ia oeeoea Aaeeineeo eiienna?ia. E yoie iaoea iiaeoiaeeea
aei?iaa aeey oaieia, noiaeyueo n caaiaeneiai nai?i/iiai eiiaaea?a. Iia
auea aueiaeaia ia eaiiyie, a a?iiaauie ieeoaie. Aaniie ieeou iooaeaaee e
i?inuoaee ?aiueoa anao aei?ia a ?aai/ai iinaeea, e aeaoe ec i?eeaaathueo
aa?aeia, /a?oeee ia ieeoao eeanneee, e ea?aee, iiea ia i?ioiaeee n
caaiaea i/a?aaeiie oaie.

Nae/an oaieiaay aei?iaa ii?inea o?aaie, ianoaie cano?iaia aa?aaeaie e
aeiiaie. Eaiie aeaeiu eeoue ianoaie, aaea oaieiaoth aei?iao ia?anaeatho
iaeeaeaiiua iaoaoiaeiua o?iiu. E?iiu aa?ac – ?iaanieoe aei?iae, au?inoeo
a ethaaoao n 1943 a. Ii/oe niieioeanue iaae aei?iaie a iaoeyo ?acai?ioa.
Ean ea/eo naie aiaiiua ?aiu. Aei?iaa aieiu noaea o?iiie caei?iauey
o?aeiaoaaoeaa. Naaiaeiy caeanue ceiie i?ieaaatho euaeiua o?annu, a eaoii
aaaatho e?innu nii?oniaiu, eaeoo a?oiiu caei?iauey, aoeytho iaineiia?u e
oeieueieee. Oaieiaay aei?iaa caueoeea eo aeeciue, i?iaiaeea ia o?iio
ouny/e oaieia, ecaioiaeaiiua ?oeaie o?aeiaoaaneeo ?aai/eo. Nae/an iia
aea?eo ethaeyi caei?iauey, /enoue aicaeoo, eaneiaoth o?aao, ie?iue
iieie.

Oaieiaay aei?iaa O?aeiaocaaiaea – yoi iaeei ec iiiaeo iaiyoieeia Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ia O?aea, eioi?ui iiaeao e aeieaeii ai?aeeoueny
iieiaeia iieieaiea.

«O?aeiaoaaneay aaoea»

(AEaeaciiaei?iaeiay eeiey Aeaoa?eiao?a – E?aniia)

Iiaeieiaynue aaa?o ii ia?eo e ica?o Ooaaeeo, ia iooe ano?a/aaony iieioii
aeaeaciie aei?iae, eaeouae ia noaioeeth E?aniia. Naaeiaiaeu e
i?iaoeeaathueany ii eano ethaee niieieii ia?aoiaeyo /a?ac iaai, ia
ia?auay iniaiai aieiaiey. E ia ciay oiai, /oi yoe ooiaeyuea a aeaeue
?aeuenu yaeythony iaeiie ec iniaaiiinoae iaoaai ai?iaea, noiyueo a ?yaeo
naiuo oieeaeueiuo e naiuo iaeiecaanoiuo. Aeaoa?eiao?a – yoi
aaeeinoaaiiue a ?innee e?oiiue ai?iae, a eioi?ii aei neo ii?
nio?aieeinue iannaaee?neia niiauaiea ia aaaeiinoaaiiie
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie eeiee.

No?ieoaeuenoai O?aeueneiai caaiaea oyae?eiai iaoeiino?iaiey
?acaa?ioeinue ia naaa?iie ie?aeia Naa?aeeianea a 1928 aiaeo.
Iaeiia?aiaiii aicaiaeeeny aeeeie ?aeii, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ?aai/eo
caaiaea – oae iacuaaaiue aeeeeiiaeiao, aiieiuaaoee a naaa eiioeaioeeth
«eaeaaeueiiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ai?iaea».

?acoiaaony, aeaaioneee caaiae ia niia au nouanoaiaaoue aac iiuiie
?acaaoae?iiie naoe aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iiaeuacaeiuo iooae. Ion/?o enoi?ee
caaiaeneiai i?aaei?eyoey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa ia/eiaaony n
ia?auo aeiae no?ieoaeuenoaa caaiaea.

Aeaoa ioe?uoey aeaeaciie aei?iae aei iin?eea E?aniia e ia/aea
iannaaee?neiai aeaeaeaiey ii iae ia ecaanoia. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, yoi
i?iecioei ia iaiiiai iicaeiaa ionea caaiaea-aeaaioa. A ie?anoiinoyo
iin?eea E?aniia aue nicaeai iieeaii, ia eioi?ii eniuouaaeanue
i?iecaiaeeiay ia «O?aeiaoa» aiaaay oaoieea. A iin?eeao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo
ia yoie aaoea, iiyaeeenue iaaieueoea i?aaei?eyoey-niaaeieee

Niaeanii ea?oa Naa?aeeianea 1940-o aiaeia, eeiey ia E?aniia a /a?oa
ai?iaea i?ieaaaea ii eiiio iai?aaeaieth – iooiaeeea io «O?aeiaoa» a
?aeiia ainoi/iuo i?ioiaeiuo, i?ieaaaea ia?aeeaeueii iuiaoiaio i?iniaeoo
Einiiiaaoia (ii aai eaaie noi?iia), e auoiaeeea e nouanoaothuae iiiuia
noaioeee Eaeeiiaea.

Ia?aua o?e inoaiiai/iuo ioieoa ia ia?o?ooa aeaeaeaiey iannaaee?neeo
iiacaeia (Naaa?, OCOI e Iiaue) iaoiaeyony ia oa??eoi?ee caaiaea.
Iiianoue ia ieo iiaeii oieueei i?e iaee/ee i?iionea. Inoaiiai/iue ioieo
Naaa? ?aniieiaeai iaaeaeaei io aeaaiie i?ioiaeiie

Naycue n aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie naoueth IIN («?AEAe») inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
noaioeee Aeiniaay e Caacaea (iie ?aniieiaeaiu ia o/anoea Oa?oao –
Ooaaeeo, ia eiathuai iannaaee?neiai niiauaiey).

Aeey iannaaee?neeo ia?aaicie ia «O?aeiaoaaneie aaoea» eniieuecothony
i?eoeaiiua aaaiiu aeecaeue-iiacaeia Ae?1. Eo aaae?o iaiaa?iaue oaieiaic
OYI2. Aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii, /oi ?aiueoa caeanue ?aaioae ii?iaeueiue,
«naiioiaeiue» aeecaeue-iiacae. Ii neiaeiinoe n ?aiiioii aai iioi?iuo
aaaiiia canoaaeee ia?aeoe ia eieiiioeaioth oyao.

Noaioeee e inoaiiai/iua ioieou eeiee IAEO AI “O?AEIAO”:

E?aniia – Aeoaieee Eia – E?aiiaaa?aeaene – Aea/iay – Cae?iue Ai? –
THaeeaeiay – Aaeoui – Iin?eie Iuoia – Naaeiaay – Eiiniiieueneay – Iiaue
– OCOI – Naaa?

Ninoaa iiacaeia: iaiaa?iaue oaieiaic e 7 aaaiiia io aeecaeueiiacaea.

Aueaey ca i?aaeaeu caaiaeneie oa??eoi?ee, «iannaaee?neee» oiae
ia?anaeaao ii iooai?iaiaeo iaeeae?iioth ai?iaeneoth iaaeno?aeue – oeeoeo
Aaaaey. Iooai?iaiae iauee n eeieae IIN («?AEAe»). Aii?aee cae?aaiio
niuneo, iannaaee?neiai inoaiiai/iiai ioieoa caeanue iao, oioy ii oeeoea
Aaaaey i?ioiaeeo iiiai ia?o?ooia ai?iaeneiai o?ainii?oa.

Noaioeey Eiiniiieueneay yaeyaony aeaaiui ai?iaeneei «aiecaeii» yoie
aaoee. Caeanue naaeyony a iiacae iannaaee?u, ia eiathuea i?iionea aeey
aoiaea ia oa??eoi?eth «O?aeiaoa». Iaeiaei ai?iaeneie o?ainii?o nthaea ia
iiaeoiaeeo. *oiau iiianoue ia noaioeeth io aeeaeaeoae o?aiaaeiie
inoaiiaee «oeeoea Eoeeiuo», o?aaoaony i?ieoe aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiia
?annoiyiea ii ?aeiio iaeiyoaaeiie cano?ieee e ii eaniia?eo.

Naaeiaay – aeaenoaothuay noaioeey, ni anao noi?ii ie?oae?iiay eanii.
Eiaaony iyoue iooae, aaoiiiia aeaaiia caeaiea (oeiiaia aeey
«O?aeiaoaaneie aaoee»), ei?ioeay iannaaee?neay ieaooi?ia. Ana no?aeee –
aaoiiaoe/aneea. A naaa?iie ai?eiaeia ia/eiaaony aeaenoaothuee iooue a
noi?iio ai?iaea Aa?oiyy Iuoia. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa /ai eeeiiao?a ii
i?ieaaaao ia?aeeaeueii iniiaiie eeiee.

Inoaiiai/iue ioieo «Iin?eie Iuoia» ?aniieiaeai o iooai?iaiaea iaae
i?iniaeoii Einiiiaaoia, e naaa?o io aeeeuo ianneaia Aeaoa?eiao?aa.
Caeanue aiciiaeia ia?anaaeea ia ai?iaeneie o?ainii?o, ii ii i?aaenoaaeai
oieueei ?aaeeeie aaoiaonaie.

Ia 13-i eeeiiao?a eiaaony iooaaie iino. Caeanue iooiaeeo «aieiaay»
aaoea, eiaaea-oi yaeyaoayny /anoueth aeaaiiai oiaea. I?ieaey ii yoie
aaoea i?eia?ii aeaa eeeiiao?a, iiaeii aeaeaoue a?ociaoth noaioeeth
Eaeeiiaea, ?aniieiaeaiioth aaeece iao?iaeaii. Noaioeey ianeoaeeaaao
ianeieueei i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, n?aaee eioi?uo anoue e «niaaeieee»
OCOI.

Aeaeaa eiathony au? o?e aeaenoaothuea noaioeee – Aaeoui,
E?aniiaaa?aeaene e E?aniia. Iau?i a?ociaie ?aaiou ia ieo iacia/eoaeai.

Iannaaee?neia aeaeaeaiea ia aaoea n 2003 aiaea auei nouanoaaiii
nie?auaii: ec /aou??o ia? iiacaeia inoaeenue eeoue aeaa, a ceiiaa a?aiy
ii auoiaeiui aeiyi aeaeaeaiey aiiaua ia noaei, ianiio?y ia i?ioanou
aeeoaeae ianeieueeeo iin?eeia. [3,n.38-49]

Ooaaeeo

I?ieaey /a?ac aeaeaciiaei?iaeioth eeieth Aeaoa?eiao?a – E?aniia n?aco
aeaeiu aa?aaa ica?a Ooaaeeo. Yoi, n aeaeo ca?inoaa aieioi, eiaaea – oi
auei aieueoei ica?ii, eioi?ia iieei caaiae OCOI e nioeai?iaeie.

Auai? ianoa no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyeny enoi/ieeaie
aiaeu: aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaeae e aeey ieouey. N/eoaeinue, /oi aeey
ieouey Enaoneay aiaea iai?eaiaeia. Eae ?ac iaiiaeaeaeo io no?ieieiuaaeee
ieaneaeinue iieiiaiaeiia ica?i Ooaaeeo, ia iaai e aue iniiaiie ?an/ao.

Ii nia/aea au?uee eieiaeaoe. Ia?aue eieiaeaoe iaoiaeeeny a oii ianoa,
aaea nae/an ia?anaeathony oeeoeu Noaoaiianeay e Iiaaaeu. Oiaaea caeanue
i?ioaeae ?o/ae Eaeeiiaea, ianoi auei oiieia: ei/ea?iee aea iecei?ineua
eonou. I?ieoe iiaeii auei oieueei a aieioiuo naiiaao. Iaae eieiaeoeai
n?oaeee iyoenoaiiee, a iaeiie iieiaeia iinoaaeee ai?eciioaeueiue
oeaio?iaaaeiue ianin e yeaeo?iiioi?, a ae?oaie ono?ieee eaioa?eo aeey
iioi?enoia. Aiaea iiaeaaaeanue ii a?aiaiiiio o?oaii?iaiaeo. Anei?a
au?uee aoi?ie eieiaeaoe, a caoai e o?aoee, e /aoaa?oue…

Ii ii?a oaea auei iiaenooiaoueny e ica?o. Aaniie 1930 a. ai?o?ano ia/ae
ao?eoue oaea?ioth neaaaeeio ia aa?aao Ooaaeeoa. Ia?aoth neaaaeeio ia
aeiao?eee — iaeiiaeinue aeieioi, e aai ia niiaee aeinoaoue. Iiuoa
ao?aiey neaaaeei aieueoiai aeeaiao?a ia auei, iiyoiio ia?aoeeenue e
iaioeai. Caeeth/eee n ieie aeiaiai? ia ao?aiea iyoe neaaaeei aeeaiao?ii
500 ii e aeoaeiie 80 –100 iao?ia. Aoi?oth neaaaeeio iacaaee ? 1a.

I?ioanni? aeae?iaaieia Iiaeano Iieneiiae/ Eea?, i?iiaaethaeaa ca
ioea/eie aiaeu ec yoie neaaaeeiu, naeaeae aaaeiia caeeth/aiea:
iaia/aiiue aeey ao?aiey ?aeii ia?niaeoeaiue e iiaeao aeaoue aei 5000
eoaia aiaeu a nooee.

A ia?oa 1930 a. ?acai?a/eaathony ?aaiou ii no?ieoaeuenoao iinoiyiiuo
nii?oaeaiee e naoae aiaeii?iaiaea, /oiau iaania/eoue iiaea/o aiaeu e
oeaio?aeueiiio iinaeeo e ia caaiaeneoth ieiuaaeeo, i?ieiaeeoue oee/iua
naoe e aaiaeu a no?iyueany aeiia, caeiaeeoue naoe e oeaoai. Ia?aeeaeueii
caeeaaeuaathony eieeaeoi?u eaiaeecaoeee.

Oaea 15 naioya?y auea iiaeaia aiaea ec neaaaeeiu a iinaeie. Ethaee
iieo/eee aiaeo i?ae?aniiai ea/anoaa e aac anyeie ia?aaioee oei?ii.

A a ia/aea neaaeothuaai aiaea auea iino?iaia eaiaeecaoeeiiiay
ia?aea/a/iay noaioeey, 1 ai?aey aa ii?iaiaaee, auea iouaia iinaeeiaay
eaiaeecaoeey.

Ia ana neaaaeeiu, i?iao?aiiua iaioeaie, auee oaea/iuie. Ia?aay,
/aoaa?oay e iyoay ieacaeenue iaeiaiaeiuie. Caoi aoi?ay e o?aouey
aeinoaoi/ii aiaeiiaeeueiuie.

A 1931 a. no?ieeenue aieiaiua nii?oaeaiey oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaaiai
aiaeii?iaiaea. No?ieeenue ?aca?aoa?u, oeeaaeuaaeenue aiaeiiaii?iua
o?oau, i?ieeaaeuaaeenue eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/e. ?aaiou i?iaiaeeeenue
eiioi?ie niaoe?aaio, ia/aeueieeii eioi?ie aue A.A. Iaaeia, caianoeoaeai
e oaoie/aneei ?oeiaiaeeoaeai I.I. Aaeaeoei.

Iinoaiiaeaiea AIIO ia oaaee/aiee iiuiinoe caaiaea canoaaeei
ia?aniio?aoue anth nenoaio aiaeiniaaaeaiey. Nioeai?iaeo iyoe neaaaeei
auei yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii, ?aoeee i?iao?eoue aua /aou?a, oaea aac iiiiue
iaioeaa, naieie neeaie. Niaoii aioiayony ?aai/ea /a?oaaee aeey
i?iiaiaeii?iaiaea e aiaeicaai?iuo nii?oaeaiee ec Aa?o-Enaoneiai i?oaea.
E oaea a yiaa?a 1931 a. i?yii ia eueaeo i?oaea ia/eiathony ?aaiou.

Caaiae-aaeeeai o?aaiaae aiaeu ana aieueoa e aieueoa. I?iaaaey
i?iiuoeaiiue aiaeii?iaiae, iino?ieee ieioeio ia *oniaie, a ?aeiia ai?u
Aie/eoa, e na?iniaue eaiae a ?aeo ?aoaoea, iaaeaynue iiiieieoue caianu
aiaeu a Aa?o-Enaoneii i?oaeo. Iiieii O?aeiaoa a Naa?aeeianea e aai
ie?anoiinoyo iiaeieiaaony aua ianeieueei aeanyoeia caaiaeia, e eaaeaeue
oiaea ioaeaeaeny a aiaea. Aeoiaee oieueei i oii, eae i?aaeinoaaeoue
caaiaeai aeinoaoi/ii aiaeu, ii ia i oii, /oi iiaeao noaoue n ?aeaie e
ica?aie. Aiaea ?anniao?eaaeanue eae nu?ueaaie ?ano?n, iieaciia
eneiiaaiia. Aeiaieueii nei?i iaoe e?aneaaeoea, iaaeaaii aua
noaeioiaeiua, ianouea /enoua aiaeu ?aee Enaoue e *oniaay
aeaa?aaee?iaaee.

Iiiaea aeoiatho, caaiae-aaeeeai i?eiee e ica?o — e iii noaei auno?i
iaeaoue. Iaaeiaii ooi/ieoue: ia caaiae, a nioeai?iae, ethaee. Ec
neaaaeei oea ieoueaaay aiaea. Iniaaiii caiaoii Ooaaeeo naeae a
o?eaeoeaoue aeaayoii. I?eoiaeeeinue neuoaoue, /oi aiaea ooea /a?ac
enoie. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aue enoie. Ec ica?a auoaeaee ia oieueei ?aea
Iuoia, ii e ?o/ae Eaeeiiaea, ii a 1937 ia aa enoiea auea iino?iaia
ieioeia, /oi ica?o ia iiiiaei. Iii iaioa?aoeii nie?auaeinue,
naeeiaeinue, /enoua aiaeiua i?ino?ainoaa ia?auaeenue a aieioi.
?anneacuaatho, /oi aua a aeiaeaeeeaoth inaiue ni?ie o?aoueaai naaa?iay
noi?iia acaeanioea aiaeie, ii yoi oaea auei iineaaeiee ?ac. E iineaaeiee
?ac caoae n naaa?iiai aa?aaa, aueoiaeny a Ooaaeeoa
i?ioanni?-aeae?iaeieia Iiaeano Iieneiiae/ Eea?, aeaeaaoee aua ia oae
aeaaii aia/aoeythuea i?iaiicu ioiineoaeueii aiaeiiiniinoe neaaaeei.

E anei?a ica?i nianai aunioei, oai, aaea auea aiaea, — noiaa naia.
Caoai, a 60-a, aiaea niiaa noaea i?eauaaoue.

Naaiaeiy io i?aaeiaai ica?a inoaeny eeoue ieaaiie, i?eia?ii iyoay
/anoue. Naeeiaaony, iiaea?aeaaaony ?yneie, ii?anoaao eaiuoaie, oie?aao.
Aua eao aeanyoue iacaae io eieeaeoeaiuo naaeia ?uaaee i?iaeaaeenue ia
“?aceieao” /a?ac eaiuoe e aieueoie aiaea. Oaia?ue yoi iaaiciiaeii. A
ianinu ia neaaaeeiao aeaaii ia ?aaioatho. Oieueei no?iaiea 1a ?ac?ooaii,
inoaeueiua caeiina?ae?iaaiu, iioiaea, aeaeoo naiaai /ana. E, eae ie
no?aiii, iaeia ec neaaaeei aeiaeaeaeanue: ianeieueei eao iacaae aa
?aaieie?iaaee, iiea/aea aiaeo eaeia-oi a?aiy e iiyoue caaeioea.
[4,n.11-15]

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue o?iaaiue aiaea a ica?a Ooaaeeo iaiiiai
i?eiiaeiyeny. O oao, eoi aeeaao ?yaeii n Ooaaeeoai, iaaaaeuaaaony ia aai
aa?aaa, anoue iaaeaaeaea nianoe ica?i, oioy au yoio iaaieueoie aai
ineiei/ae. Ii/enoeoue, i?eaanoe a ii?yaeie aa?aaa… aeaeei…
Ooaaeeo-oi aue e?aneaaa Aaeouia e Oa?oaoa. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
nouanoaoao a?oiia «Ooaaeeo – ica?i /anoiou», eioi?ay caieiaaony oai?eie
e niaoeeaeueiie au?oaeie.

N?y?e ???o eth?e ? ??a O???

Iiiai oaei o?aieo aua oienoay oi?oyiay iiaeooea ia aa?aaao ica?a
Ooaaeeo. A?oaieiae caeanue ?aneiiaee noieaeua, aic?ano eioi?iai
en/eneyaony /aou?ueiy ouny/aie eao. Iioiio /oi caeanue aeey aeecie auei
ana iaiaoiaeeiia: ean, a eioi?ii aiaeeeinue iaiaei anyeiai caa?uey,
ica?a e ?aee, iieiua ?uau, iaaeiua e aeaeaciua ?oaeu, /oiau ieaaeoue
iaoaee…

Iiiaineieiia iinaeaiea yiio iacieeoa, iaieeoa, yiaieeoa, ?aiiaai aeaeaca
auei ioe?uoi ia naaa?i-ainoi/iii aa?aao ica?a Ooaaeeo. Iii caieiaao
iuniaeaeiue o/anoie aunioie 3-4 i e ieaeieythuee aai caoi?oiaaiiue
oeaeo, ia?aciaaiiue ?oneii ?aee Oeoianeie Enoie e aa?aaii ica?a.
Aa?aaiaay /anoue iinaeaiey ioe?uoa A.A.Ai?coiiaui, oi?oyieeiaay
N.I.Iiai?aeiaui. Enneaaeiaaee I.I.*ae?eeia e N.I.Iiai?aeia.

Yiioa aeaeaca i?aaenoaaeaia ianeieueeeie o?aaiaioaie ea?aieee
eoeoeueneiai oeia Iniiaiie eoeueoo?iue ai?eciio, aeaoe?oaiue
aoi?ie-o?aoueae /aoaa?oueth III oun. aei i.y., ia?ee?oao aauaaie
eiiieaen yiioe yiaieeoa, enneaaeoaiue a ieia?iaaiiie e oi?oyieeiaie
/anoe iinaeaiey.

Yiaieeoe/aneay ea?aieea i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoiy oeiaie: a?aaai/aoui
(ooaaeeoneei) e iaeieue/aoi-ionooiathuei (eei/eineei). Iniiaiay ianna
eiaaioa?y yiaieeoe/aneiai eiiieaena – ooeeeoa?ii-oicyenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey: n?aaenoaa ioiou, ?uaieianoaa, ia?aaeaeaeaiey, auoa. Iaeaeaiu
aea?aayiiay e aeeiyiay iinoaea, aea?aayiiua (aanea, eiiaoiia?aciia
i?oaeea, eieioooee, eieuey, iiieaaee; o?aaiaiou eoeia, ae?aaeia no?ae) e
eaiaiiua (iaeiia/ieee no?ae, iaoiy, ioaieieee, oeeoiaaiiua oiii?u,
oanea) aaue.

A yiaieeoe/aneii neia iinaeaiey iaia?oaeai aauaaie eiiieaen, naycaiiue,
aiciiaeii, n ia?yaeiai-eoeueoiauie i?ioeaaeo?aie: ia?oi?e?iaaiiue aeene
n a?aae?iaaiiui ecia?aaeaieai ?ua, aeeiyiay ii?aea iaaeaaaey,
aea?aayiiia aanei n ?enoieii, auiieiaiiui /a?iie e?aneie, eaiaiiua e
einoyiua iiaeaanee eaieaaeaeiie oi?iu.

Yiioa iaieeoa i?aaenoaaeaia ianeieueeeie o?aaiaioaie ea?aieee
eioeeineiai oeia, eaiaiiuie i?oaeeyie o?oaea. Aa?iyoiay aeaoa yoiai neiy
iinaeaiey I. – II iieiaeia V oun. aei i.y.

Iacieeoe/aneee eiiieaen iaia?oaeai a ainoi/iie, iaeaieaa, aunieie, /anoe
iuna. Eaiaiiue eiaaioa?ue i?aaenoaaeai eiioniaeaeiuie e i?eciaoe/aneeie
ioeeaonaie, iee?iieanoeiaie n ?aoooueth e aac iaa, n ?acoeiauie neieaie,
iouaiaie, iaeiieii einoyiiai aeeaaeuoaaiai ecaeaeey. Aa?iyoiay aeaoa
eiiieaena – VI – na?. V oun. aei i.y.

N??e ??ae ? ??a O???

Naaiaeiy iaei eoi ciaao, /oi a ianeieueeeo eeeiiao?ao e caiaaeo io
ianoa, aaea oaia?ue ?aniieiaeai O?aeiaocaaiae, o ica?a Ooaaeeo, oai,
aaea ne?iiiui ?o/aeeii a iaaeoaieie aeieeia i?ioaeaao ?aea Iuoia, aua a
iao?ianeea a?aiaia o?oaeeeny caaiaeee, ieaaee aeaeaci. Ienaoaeue A.I.
Iaea?ia a eieaa «Ioaoe caaiaeia» ieoao: «Aua a aeaaiaa a?aiy, eiaaea
acaeuaeaiiay Iao?ii ?inney aiiaue ii?aceea ie? naiae iiuueth, oaea oei
yoi aaeeiiai?noai. Yia?ae/iue e ecai?ioeeaue ooeueneee eociaoe Aeaieaeia
caeiaeee oiaaea ia O?aea ia?aue eaiaiue aieueoiai aeaea. A oo aea ii?o o
iaaieueoiai ica?a Ooaaeeo ?yaeii n ianoii, aaea aua oieueei noaeaeaii
auei iiaeiyoueny Aeaoa?eiao?ao, ae?oaie ia?aiaeiauo/ee aeaeaciie ?oaeu
iino?iee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae. Ieiei ieioeiu «aaeieue – iyoiaaeoeaoe
naaeai, iiia?ae oanoe», eo?eeenue nu?iaeooiua ai?iu e iiooeaaee /aou?a
iieioa. Oieueei ia niia ii ?acaa?iooueny: aianoa n aeaiie e aeaoueie aai
«acaaeea acye», oi anoue cae?aiinoee, iaeee aiaa/. Iiiaea ec oea?neeo
i?eniaoieeia, ae/iuo aei eaaeie iaaeeau, i?ioyioee naie ?oee e
aiaaonoaai O?aea, aiaee nthaea ouny/e iiaeiaaieueiuo oieiiia, iiaeaa?aay
eo ia eaoi?aeiue, ecio?eoaeueiue o?oae».

Iaaae Iao?iae/ Aaaeia, ciaiaieoue o?aeueneee ienaoaeue e neaci/iee,
eioa?aniaaeny enoi?eae ica?a Ooaaeeo e auaae ia aai aa?aaao. A aai
ainiiieiaieyo oiaea anoue naaaeaiuey i Ooaaeeoneii caaiaea.

Aei ian aeioee naaaeaiuey, /oi a eiioea XVII – ia/aea XVIII aaea a oii
eano o ica?a Ooaaeeo iaoiaeeeny aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiue caaiae. Iaaaaaie
aaoee? caaiae ia ?ac ?ac?ooaeny. Ei aeaaeaee oi a?aieeueneea e?anoueyia
*aaueei e *oniaeoei, oi ieaeaai?iaeaoe Ianeyieoea, oi ooeueneea
?oaeiieaaeeueueee Ieiaaeaa e A?iieia, a iioii neaaeu «ioaeeoeeiai
caaiaea» oa?ythony a enoi?ee.

Oae ?anneacuaae i iai ni neia noa?iaeeeia I.I. Aaaeia. E, ii oai
?anneacai, ica?i Ooaaeeo – nianai ia ica?i, a auaoee i?oae. Aue caaiae,
auea ieioeia n aiaeiaeaenoaothueie eieanaie, i?eaiaeaie e iieioai e
ia/iui oeaoai. [7,n.10-11]

A aio /oi ienae ia yoii i?aaei?eyoee iaeei ec ia?auo o?aeueneeo
e?aaaaaeia Ia?eec Eiinoaioeiiae/ *oiei: “Ia aeaeaa 20 aa?no e naaa?o io
Aeaoa?eiao?aa a 1705–1715 aa. nouanoaiaae iacia/eoaeueiue /anoiue caaiae
Ooaaeeoneee, i?e enoiea Iuoiu ec ica?a Ooaaeeo; ooo aeiauaaeinue a
iaaieueoeo ia/eao ec ?oaeu i?yii aeaeaci, a ia /oaoi e iioii
i?ieiauaaeinue iiae aiaeiaeaenoaothuei iieioii. Ii iicaea 1715 a. ia
yoii caaiaea oaea ia oiiieiaaony”.

Caaiaeee yoio a auoiinoue naith ia ?ac iiaeaa?aaeny iaiaaeaieth aaoee?,
iinea o?aoueaai iaaaaa aai oaea ia ainnoaiaaeeaaee. E oiio a?aiaie
enoiueeenue ne?iiiua caeaaee ianoiiai oae iacuaaaiiai aieioiiai aeaeaca.
[4,n.18]

Ii/oe o?enoa eao i?ioei n oie ii?u, ooee iiae caieth no?iaiey, oieueei
caioaeua inoaoee ieioeiu iaiiieiatho, /oi ica?i Ooaaeeo auei eiaaea-oi
caaiaeneei i?oaeii.

Niniu aeieaiaeeoaee

Iaaeaeaei io ieioeiu, ia i?inoi?iie iieyia, noieo a?oiia ninai. Ai?aeua
aa?oeiu aciaoioeenue ia aunioo iyoeyoaaeiiai aeiia. Aieco o iniiaaiey
niniu eiathony ie?oaeiinoe a iieoi?a – aeaa iaoaaoa. Niaoeeaeenou
ioeaieaatho eo aic?ano a 150-200 eao. Yoi oieeaeueiaeoea niniu, ?aaeeea
aeey o?aeueneiai eana. Aaoa?aiu oo?ecia ?anneacuaatho, /oi Ieeieae
Eaaiiae/ auaae aicea yoeo ninai ai a?aiy iioiaeia auoiaeiiai aeiy,
ethaiaaeny eie eae ciaoie o?aeueneeo eania. A?aiy, a?icu iiuaaeeee
eaniuo aaeeeaiia, e nae/an iaiaoiaeeii aa?aaeiia ioiioaiea e
iei.[7,n.11]

A 2003 aiaeo ianoiue enneaaeiaaoaeue Noaieneaa Ai?neee neo/aeii
iaia?oaeee aea?aai- aeieaiaeeoaeue. Aic?ano yoie oieeaeueiie niniu
ninoaaeyao ieiei 500 eao. Yoi aea?aai iiiieo Ioaa/aaneea ainnoaiey e
iioiaeu A?iaea.

Aea?aai ia noieueei ia?iiii, /oi iaeiiio aeaaea aeeaiao? niniu ecia?eoue
o?oaeii – i?eoiaeeony a?aoue n niaie iiiiuieeia.

Ciay aeeeio ie?oaeiinoe, iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue, /oi aea?aai ca anth aeeciue
i?e?inei a ?aaeeona ia 50 naioeiao?ia. Anee oieueia aiaeiaiai eieueoea 1
ieeeeiao?, oi ianeiaeii au/eneeoue, /oi ninia aeaenoaeoaeueii i?inoiyea
500 eao.

Noaieneaa Ai?neee aiaeeo ii Ooaaeeoneiio eaniia?eo yeneo?nee – ii
?ac?aaioae ia?o?oo: inoaaee iaoee ia aea?aaueyo e auionoee
iooaaiaeeoaeue. Naaiaeiy yoi oieeaeueiia aea?aai ii aeeth/ee a i?ia?aiio
naieo yeneo?nee e iieacuaaao aai oeieueieeai e anai aeaeathuei.

CAEETH*AIEA

A ??iy?a ??y ???? ????? ????e ?? ???? ???e. Aeey ???? ????i ???ey ?????i
e ????i ???a i????i ???ue e ?a??? ?????i? e ????? ???u, ???? ?????o ? ?e
?ay ????ey.

I????? A?????? ??ue ???u. C?? ?? e ????? ??a, ??o? ??????a, ???? ??e e
???e, a ?e ? ??. E ?a y? ????i ???i ???? ???? e ???i-a???? ??a. A?????a
????u ?????ue ?? a ?????, ???a ??e eth??? ???e ??? ???o ???e a ????
????e ??u. E??i ? y?? ???y ????? ???? ??? ???? ? ????? e ?e????? ????e
????? ??? A??????.

A ?? ????y ??? ???-????????e ??? ?? ???u e ???u ????a e ????i-??????
???u, ??aey??y ? ????ey ??a I??u.

A ?????? n ???e??? ???ie ?? ??ay ???-??????ay ??????? ?????e ?? ?????
??a I??u, ? ?? ??? ???, ??? e ???, ??, ??????? e ??u, a ?e ? ???? ??. E
?i ??i ????? ??????a i ??? ????ee. E??? ???? ????? e ??????a ?y ???ey
???a e ????e ????a e ????i-?????? ???u.

Ia ??? ????? ?a??e ??i ???ue ??ae, ?i ??? ?? ???? ??e ?????y? ?y ?????e
????e e ???a.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. A???a I.I. I???? ??????????e A?????? e ?i ??????. – A?????a:
AEAA-I?ANN, 2001. – 226 n., ?

2. A?? N????e? ???e /?ae ????e Oth?th?? I.A, Ie?? E.N. – A?????a: OAOI
«O???ay ???????ay ??e?», 2003. 25n.,?

3. A???? N. AE?? ???. – A?????a: AE???????, 2005

4. AE????e ?e O?e, 2003 N6 N??e A??, TH?e A?? – I????ue O???

5. E???i A.A., E??a E.I. N?????y i???: ???a, ????a, ?cy??i, y???y: O???
???a ?y ???ny ???o ???a ? ??o «A???ey N?????e ????. – 2-a ?ae., ??. E
?i. – A?o????: E?-? Ae?a ???y, 2000. – 300n.,?.

6. E??a E.I., E???i A.A. A???ey A?o????a: E?? i ??? n ???e ???????: ???a
???a ?y ???ny ???o ???a ? ??o “A???ey N?????e ???e”. – A?????a: E?-?
“N??o”, 2000. – 208n., ?

7. O?? ??e A?iy N????i Nith? I.E. E????: ?????? ????e ??u /?ae ????e
E?uey?? A.I. – N?????.: ?EI O????????, 1991.- 33n.,?

8. http://northcongress.ural.ru

9. http//www.1723.ru

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