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Миграционные портреты сельских районов Ставропольского края

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EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

«Iea?aoeeiiiua ii?o?aou naeueneeo ?aeiiia

Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay»

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea
4

1. Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a ?innee
6

1:1 Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiuo iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia

a ?innee
6

– auaiaeu
8

2. Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ia Noaa?iiieuea
11

2:1 Iniiaiua /a?ou iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia ia Noaa?iiieuea 11

2.1.1 aiaoiyy iea?aoeey
12

– oa?aeoa?enoeea iea?aioia
13

– i?e/eiu iea?aoeee
13

– auioaeaeaiiua iea?aoeee
14

2.2 Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu naeueneie ianoiinoe ia Noaa?iiieuea 16

3. ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a

naeueneeo ?aeiiia Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay
20

3.1 yoie/aneea iea?aoeee
23

3.2 iea?aoeee e ?annaeaiea ia?iaeia Eaaeaca ia Noaa?iiieuea
24

Caeeth/aiea
26

Aaaaeaiea

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu yaeythony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iiiaeo no?ai ie?a. Oaeoi?u,
ii?aaeaeythuea iea?aoeeth, ioia/aeenue a ?aciua ia?eiaeu. A eiioea
20-ai aaea iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca i?eia?aee iniaoth
aeooaeueiinoue a nayce n ?inoii naeueaei iea?aoeee, eciaiaieai oi?i
iinaeaiee, oneeaieai ?aaeiiaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iea?aoeeiiiie
neooaoeee a ?aaeiia. Noaa?iiieue ieacaeny i?ea?aie/iui ?aaeiiii, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, A?aie/auei n iiuiuie i/aaaie aiaiiuo e iaaeyoie/aneeo
eiioeeeoia a i?ea?aie/iuo ainoaea?noaao THaeiiai Eaaeaca, ioeoaea
ono?aieeny iiuiue iioie auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia, n ae?oaie noi?iiu nai
noae ciiie ianniaiai enoiaea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia ec cii eiioeeeoia.
Aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie i?iaeaiu aic?anoaao a nayce n i?iaeieaeathueieny
oa??i?enoe/aneeie aeoaie. A iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea ia oieueei a
?innee, ii e a ie?a a oeaeii, aeoeaece?iaaeenue iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu.
Aaeaaiaeii ?anooo ianooaau iea?aoeee. Ana ino?aa noaiiaeony i?iaeaia
«aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ac?uaa» a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao e i?iaeaia
aeaiiioeyoeee a ?acaeouo no?aiao. Aeoeaece?iaaee iiuiua iioiee
auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia aii?oaeaiiua eiioeeeou, a oii /enea ia
yoie/aneie ii/aa. Oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony auyaeaiea
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo iniaaiiinoae iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia ia
Noaa?iiieuea. A caaea/e ?aaiou aoiaeyo:

1) Ii?aaeaeaiea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia oa?aeoa? iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
ia Noaa?iiieuea ia ?aciuo yoaiao ?acaeoey.

2) I?iaanoe oeiieiaeth ?aeiiia Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay ii oa?aeoa?o
iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

3) Auyaeoue i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua iniaaiiinoe iea?aoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia a Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa ia ?aciuo yoaiao ?acaeoey.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ia
Noaa?iiieuea.

I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe iea?aoeee
ianaeaiey a naeueneeo ?aeiiao Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay.

Eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco enneaaeiaaiey ninoaaeee noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua
Aineiinoaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e naaa?ieaaeacneeo noauaeoia, oaeiiu
noaoenoe/aneiai o/aoa auauoey e i?eauoey iea?aioia ii Noaa?iiieueneiio
e?ath, o?aiaiea aiaeeca aieaoiuo aeaiiuo «Iea?aoeey»,?ac?aaioaiiuo a
eaai?aoi?ee ia?iaeiianaeaiea eaoaae?u yeiiiie/aneie, nioeeaeueiie e
iieeoe/aneie aaia?aoee Noaa?iiieueneiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Oieaa?neoaoa.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony iaoiaeu:
noaoenoe/aneee, ea?oia?aoe/aneee, enoi?e/aneee, n?aaieoaeueiue,
iiaeaee?iaaiey, oeiieiae/aneie a?oiie?iaee e iaoaiaoe/aneee.

1.IEA?AOeEIIIUA I?IOeANNU A ?INNEE

1:1 INIIAIUA OAIAeAIOeEE NIA?AIAIIUO IEA?AOeEIIIUO I?IOeANNIA A ?INNEE
A 80-A AIAeU E 21 AAEA.

Iea?aoeey – iaeia ec oi?i aeoeaiie ?aaeoeee ethaeae ia oa eee eiua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea, iaaeyoie/aneea eciaiaiey a
iauanoaa.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ethaua iauanoaaiiua ia?aiaiu, n iniaaiiie ino?ioie
/oanoaotho i?aaenoaaeoaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa. A auaoai NNN?
?onneea, yaeyeenue yoie/aneei aieueoeinoaii ii ioiioaieth e inoaeueiui,
aeaaea naiui iiiai/eneaiiui yoiinai no?aiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii iie aunooiaee
a ?iee yoie/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa a nithciuo ?anioaeeeao aia ?innee e a
iaeioi?uo aaoiiiieyo ?NON?. N iniaie ino?ioie noaoon yoie/aneiai
iaiueoeinoaa aini?eieiaeny ?onneeie a oao ?anioaeeeao, aaea
ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoie aeaiia?aoe/aneee aan ?onneiai ianaeaiey
niaaeeiyeny ni cia/eoaeueiie eoeueoo?iie aeenoaioeeae iaaeaeo iei e
oeooeueiui yoiinii. Oaeay neooaoeey auea oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?anioaeee
N?aaeiae Acee e Caeaaeacuey. A n?aaeiaaceaoneeo ?anioaeeeao e
Aca?aaeaeaeaia aeaiia?aoe/aneee iioaioeeae ?onneeo aue ia oieueei
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoei, ii e iinoiyiii oiaiueoaeny aneaaenoaea
ai?acaei aieueoaai, /ai o ?onneeo, anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa oeooeueiiai
ianaeaiey. Iieiaeaiea ?onneeo a yoeo, aea e ae?oaeo ?anioaeeeao aua a
niaaoneia a?aiy ia iiaei ia onoaoaeyoueny oaeaea auno?ie nioeeaeueiie
iiaeeueiinoueth oeooeueiiai ianaeaiey, ana aieueoa iooaniyaoaai ?onneeo
n eo i?aaeieo i?anoeaeiuo ?ieae.

Eiiaoe 80-o-ia/aei 90-o aa. XX a. – yoi ia oieueei ia?eiae ia?aoiaea
iaoae no?aiu e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, o?ainoi?iaoeee iieeoe/aneiai no?iy,
ii oaeaea e ia?eiae ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey a oa?aeoa?a e iai?aaeaieyo
iea?aoeee ianaeaiey eae e?oiiiianooaaiiai nioeeaeueiiai yaeaiey,
ioaaoeaoaai ?inneth a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiua aa ?aaeiiu a /anoiinoe.
I?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi iea?aoeey ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
i?eia?aea eiie, e niaeaeaieth, iaaeaaii?eyoiue oa?aeoa?. Noeoeeiua oi?iu
iea?aoeee ianaeaiey noaee aeiieie?othuae oi?iie6, ?aaoee?iaaoue eioi?ua
i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii eee i/aiue neiaeii, iiyoiio iie i?eaaee e
iaino?aieth nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai a no?aia.

Ninoiyiea iea?aoeee ia iinoniaaoneii i?ino?ainoaa, ia/eiay n 1991 a. ii
ianoiyuaa a?aiy, oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie iniiaiuie /a?oaie:

1) o?ainoi?iaoeeae iaae?anioaeeeaineie iea?aoeee a ?aieao NNN?) a
iaaeainoaea?noaaiioth (iaaeaeo no?aiaie NIA);

2) ?inoii iea?aoeeiiiiai iaiaia ni no?aiaie aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey
(yiea?aoeey);

3) iinoaiaiiui nie?auaieai iauaai /enea iea?aioia aneaaenoaea
nieaeaiey eioaineaiinoe iea?aoeee;

4) eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a iea?aoeee aneaaenoaea cia/eoaeueiiai
oiaiueoaiey anoanoaaiiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie iea?aoeee (ia
?aaioo, o/aao, ca?aaioee, ii naiaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai e o.ae.) ?aceiai
aic?anoaiey auioaeaeaiiie iea?aoeee, aucaaiiie /?acau/aeiuie
neooaoeeyie (oa?icie aeecie ec-ca aiei, iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia,
yeieiae/aneeie eaoano?ioaie, yoie/aneie aeene?eieiaoeeae, iaoeeiiaeeciii
e ae?oaeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie).

5) ?inoii i?ioeanna ?aiao?eaoeee, ioaaoeaoae aeaii?oe?iaaiiua ia?iaeu
auaoaai NNN?.

6) eciaiaieai iai?aaeaiey aioo?aiieo iea?aoeeiiiuo iioieia (n ie?aei – a
oeaio?aeueiua ?aeiiu no?ai, eioi?ua ioithaeue ia eniuouaatho iaaeinoaoea
a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao ec naaa?iuo ?aeiiia – a iaaeeoua ?aeiiu thaa
no?aiu);

7) noaaiaoeeae o?aaiecaoeee – iiai?ioii aaeoi?a iea?aoeee a noi?iio
naea;

8) iacia/eoaeueiuie ?acia?aie eaaaeueiie o?oaeiaie iea?aoeee e ?inoii
ianooaaia iaeaaaeueiie iea?aoeee, a oii /enea e?eieiaeueiie.

«?inney auoea ia o?aouea ianoi a ie?a ii o?iaith iea?aoeee. Iaiaoiaeeiu
yeno?aiiua ia?u ii aic?iaeaeaieth ?inneeneeo ia?iaeia. Eia/a iai a?iceo
auie?aiea» — niiauaao eaiaeeaeao iieeoe/aneeo iaoe aeaiia?ao Ieaa
Neiaio/eeia a aacaoa «AeO» ? 46 (io 17.11.05).

Iniiaiie iaoeeae a ?innee yaeythony ?onneea — aieaa 115 iei. /aeiaae,
eee 79 % io iauae /eneaiiinoe. Iaeiaei, ca iineaaeiea 50 eao ?onneeo a
?innee noaei iaiueoa ia 5 ieeeeiiia.

Eaaaeueiay eiiea?aoeey a ?inneth, ca iineaaeiea aiaeu,
noaaeeece?iaaeanue: aaeaaiaeii e iai i?eacaeaao i?eia?ii 300 oun.
/aeiaae. Iniiaiie ethaeneie iioie — yoi 2/3 — eaeao ec N?aaeiae Acee
(aieueoay /anoue ec Eacaonoaia). Eaaeaeue iyoue i?eacaeee — n Oe?aeiu.

Ii ioeaieai IAAe, a ?innee ?aneaa?oe?iaaia iaeaaaeueiay o?oaeiaay a?iey
/eneaiiinoueth nauoa 5 iei. /aeiaae. Ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea eiee/anoai
i?eacaeeo eeoaeoeaa ia ?inneeneie oa??eoi?ee ninoaaeyao io 2–2,5 aei
5–10 iei. /aeiaae. I?eacaeea iaoiaeyo ca?aaioie ia oieueei a I?eii?uea,
ii e a e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo ai?iaeao.

Iea?aiou aeeaathony a yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue no?aiu, oae ii
iioaeeeiaaiiui aeaiiui, a 2002 aiaeo auoiaeoeu ec o?ao caeaaeacneeo
?anioaeee auaacee ec iineianeiai ?aaeiia ia naith ?iaeeio ii/oe 10
ie?ae. aeieea?ia. I?eacaeea oeaeeeii ieeoie?iaaee iaeioi?ua io?anee:
iauanoaaiiue o?ainii?o, no?ieoaeuenoai, aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiia
oicyenoai, oi?aiaeth. Ana oi?aiaua iooe — e?iaaiiniay nenoaia no?aiu —
iaia?oai noaa/aiu ia?aceaeaioaie.

Naaiaeiy a einoeoooao, oeieao, aeaoneeo naaeao o/aony e ea?atho aeaoe
eiuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, iaaeaee 10 e oai aieaa 30 eao iacaae. Oieueei a
Iineaa ca iineaaeiea 15 eao ei?aeoeaa noaei aieueoa a 2 n eeoiei ?aca,
a?iyi, a?ocei e a?aaia — a 3 ?aca, aca?aaeaeaeaioeaa e iieaeaaai — a 5
?ac, eiaooae — a 6, /a/aioeaa — a 7, oaaeaeeeia — a 12. Naiua aeoeaiua a
noieeoea — yoi aueaoiaioeu e eeoaeoeu, eo /eneaiiinoue au?inea a 14 e 35
?ac niioaaonoaaiii. A aio i?eaaeoia, iieyeia, aaei?onia, /aoia, aa?aaa a
Iineaa noaei cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.

Ii ioeoeeaeueiie noaoenoeea IAAe, aaeaaiaeii 35 ouny/ i?anooieaiee ia
oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu niaa?oatho iaeaaaeueiua iea?aiou.

I?eaiiny yeaiaiou naiae eoeueoo?u, iea?aiou ?aciuaatho eoeueoo?o
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, a aoaeouai yoi iiaeao iiaea/ue ca niaie
o?aaiaaiey i?enoonoaey naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a i?aaiao aeanoe, caoai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aaoiiiiiinoe, a a aeaeueiaeoai, aiciiaeii, e
i?eniaaeeiaiey e enoi?e/aneie ?iaeeia.

A i?ioeii aiaeo i?eacaeea eiiiaine?iaaee anaai 10 % anoanoaaiiie oauee
ianaeaiey, ii yoiio iiaiea i oii, /oi iea?aoeey nianao ?inneth — ia
aa?ii.

Aa?iyoiaa anaai, i?e nio?aiaiee yoie neooaoeee a ?innee eiee/anoai
ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae ?innee ii-i?aaeiaio aoaeao oiaiueoaoueny, a a?aeia n
i?eacaeeie, aoaeao iaiiiai. *a?ac 20-30 eao ianaeaiea iaoae no?aiu
iiaeao no?aieoaeueii nie?aoeoueny: eaaeaeue o?aoee ieaaeaony iiaeeeui
/aeiaaeii, oiaaea i?eae?ony iaieiaoue eiino?aiiuo ?aai/eo, eioi?ua iiaoo
?anoai?eoue, a iioii e niuoue o?aaeeoeee, eoeueoo?o, enoi?eth e aanue
?onneee ia?iae.

Auoiae iaeei — yoi iiauoaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe a ?inneeneeo naiueyo. A yoiai
iiaeii aeinoe/ue oieueei i?e niaia eiioeaioeee oi?aaeaiey no?aiie n
/oaeaeie iai caiaaeiie eiioeaioeee ia naith nianoaaiioth EIAo. Naiuey —
yoi y/aeea iauanoaa, io aeaaiiieo/ey naiuee caaeneo aeaaiiieo/ea
ainoaea?noaa. Eaa?oe?a e ?aaioa ia aeaeatho /aeiaaea n/anoeeaui. Iiaeao
auoue eeethcey n/anouey, ii ia n/anouea. Aeaiia?aoey a ?innee eciaieony
oiaaea, eiaaea eaaeaeay ?inneeneay naiuey aoaeao eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
aeeoue a «…aeiia onaaeaaiiai oeia n naaeii e iai?iaeii iiae ieiaie…»
(I?ia?aiia EIA), eia/a aiai?y, a nai?i ?iaeiaii aiacaea. Oai naiuey
niiaeao aeeoue 3-4 iieieaieyie, ia noaniyy ae?oa ae?oaa. Oieueei a
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, iiae naiueth nianoaaiiiai naaea e eana, i?e
oaa?aiiinoe a aeaaiiieo/iii caao?aoiai aeia (/oi iiaeii aeinoeaiooue
oieueei ia aaca EIAu), o aeaiuei iiyaeony aeaeaiea a ethaae ?iaeeoue
?aa?iea, e ia iaeiiai. Aac yoiai iiauneoue ?iaeaeaaiinoue, a iaoa a?aiy,
ia oaeanony.

Enoaoe neacaoue, i?aaeuaeouee anieane ?iaeaeaaiinoe a ?innee aue a 1943
aiaeo, ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey E. A. Noaeeia, ii oiaaea auei ae?oaia a?aiy.
Ethaee noaee, oaa?aiu a a?yaeouae iiaaaea iaae a?aaii e o ieo iiyaeeanue
oaa?aiiinoue a aeaaiiieo/iii aoaeouai, nai?i e naieo aeaoae. Oi anoue
oiaaea ethaee aeeee a iaeeaeaiee eo/oaai, a oaia?ue ana aeeaoo a
iaeeaeaiee ooaeoaai. E ia aica?aoea yoo iao?eoeo ioiioaiey e aeecie a
iauanoaa ia i?aaeithth (iaeeaeaiey eo/oaai), neooaoeeth eciaieoue, ia
oaeanony.

2.IEA?AOeEIIIUA I?IOeANNU IA NOAA?IIIEUeA

2.1. INIIAIUA *A?OU IEA?AOeEIIIUO I?IOeANNIA IA NOAA?IIIEUeA.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy THa ?innee, ii-i?aaeiaio, inoaaony naiui neiaeiui
?aaeiiii n oi/ee c?aiey iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe e
onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Caeanue ian/eouaaaony
ieiei 20 «oeathueo» i/aaia eiioeeeoia ia oa??eoi?eaeueiie,
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie e ?aeeaeiciie ii/aao, /oi io?aaeaaony ia anao noa?ao
aeecie iauanoaa.

Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae caieiaao oa??eoi?eth 66,2 ei. A?aie/eo ia caiaaea n
?anioaeeeie Ea?a/aaai-*a?eannee, E?aniiaea?neei e?aai, ia naaa?a n
?inoianeie iaeanoueth e ?anioaeeeie Eaeiueey, ia ainoiea n ?anioaeeeie
Aeaaanoai, ia thaa n *a/aineie ?anioaeeeie, ?anioaeeeaie Naaa?iay Inaoey
e Eaaa?aeeii-Aaeea?ey.

Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu yaeythony aaaeiuie iieacaoaeyie, iineieueeo
io?aaeatho ?aaeoeeth ianaeaiey ia eciaiythueany neooaoeeth a no?aia.
Iea?aoeee a ia?eiae n 1989 ii 2002 a. ?acei ioee/athony io iea?aoeeiiiie
aeoeaiinoe aei ia?aieniiai ia?eiaea. Iaaeaeo ia?aienyie 1979 ii1989 a.
iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee ioee/aeenue noaaeeueiinoueth. ?ieue iea?aoeeiiiiai
i?e?inoa a iauai i?e?inoa a 90-a aiaeu i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey. Anee ?aiiaa, a 70-80-a a. iia ia?yaeo n anoanoaaiiui
aeaeaeaieai niinianoaiaaea iauaio i?e?inoo ianaeaiey. N 1993 ii 1999 a.
– ia?ae?uaaea i?aauoaiea /enea oia?oeo iaae /eneii ?iaeeaoeony, oi
nae/an iea?aoeey ia eiiiaine?oao anoanoaaiioth oaueue ianaeaiey, e iauee
i?e?ino aei 1991 a. iaania/eaaeny oieueei iea?aoeeae. Aeinoeaioa naiaai
ieea a 1994 a. e ia/aa nie?auaoueny a iineaaeiea aiaeu, iea?aoeeiiiue
i?ioeann inoaaony, oai ia iaiaa, aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii oiaiueoaiey
anoanoaaiiie oauee ianaeaiey e?ay. Ca ia?eiae n 1998 ii 2002 a.
ianaeaiea e?ay nie?aoeeinue ia 20 oun. /aeiaae. A iineaaeiea aiaeu
iaaethaeaaony oooaeoaiea aeaiia?aoe/aneie neooaoeee. Ca 2002 a.
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey e?ay oiaiueoeeanue ia 9,8 oun. /aeiaae.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia iea?aoeeiiiia naeueaei ia niiaei eiiiaine?iaaoue
anoanoaaiiua iioa?e ianaeaiey. A 1989-2002 a. iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino a
e?aa ninoaaee 270,4 oun. /aeiaae. Oae a 2002 a. iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino a
e?aa ninoaaee 3,8 oun. /aeiaae.

Aiaoiyy iea?aoeey

Ca 1989-2002a. a Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae ia?aaoaei ec no?ai NIA e Aaeoee
160,8 oun./aeiaae, i?e/ai /enei ia?aaoaaoeo ca iineaaeiea 5 eao
ninoaaeei13,3%,/oi nouanoaaiii ieaea, /ai a i?aaeoanoaothuea aiaeu. ?ino
i?eoiea ianaeaiey a Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae aue ia?aaiiia?iui.
Nea/eiia?acii ?inee iioiee ec ?aaeiiia, aaea auee aii?oaeaiiua
eiioeeeou. N 1998-2002aa. aeaaiuie iinoaaueeaie iea?aioia a e?aa
inoaeenue ainoaea?noaa Caeaaeacuey, N?aaeiae Acee-19% e Eacaonoaia-17%.

Ca iineaaeiea 5 eao ianaeaiea e?ay nie?aoeeinue ca n/ao auacaeathueo a
Aaei?onneth ia 757 /aeiaae. N 1998 ii 2002 aa. eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa a oeaeii ii ?innee ninoaaee ieiei 11%,ii
Naaa?iiio Eaaeaco -11,6%.Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiae ii aue a «?onneeo»
?aaeiiao.

A Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa iee iea?aoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe a 2002a. i?eoaeny ia
etheue e yiaa?ue. A ia?aii eaa?oaea aiaea a iea?aoeee o/anoaiaaee
iaiueoa ethaeae. A naioya?a, ieoya?a e aeaeaa?a 2001a. ioia/aaony iooie
ianaeaiey.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iea?aioia

A aic?anoii-iieiaie no?oeoo?a iaeaieueoae iiaeaeaeiinoueth ioee/athony
iea?aiou a o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa-70% io iauaai iioiea iea?aoeee.
Iaeiaei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iea?aoeeiiiii i?e?inoa ianaeaiey e?ay
ca ia?eiae 2000-2004aa. nouanoaaiiia ianoi caieiatho iea?aiou noa?oa
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa (aieaa 50%),oiaaea eae ia aeieth eeoe
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa i?eoiaeeony a n?aaeiai oieueei 33%.A 2001a. e
2004a. ioee/aeny iaeneiaeueiue ?ino aeiee eeoe noa?oa o?oaeiniiniaiiai
aic?anoa. N?aaee iea?aioia, o/anoaiaaaoeo a iea?aoeeiiiii i?ioeanna a
aic?anoa 14 eao,14 eao e noa?oa a 2001-2004aa. ii/oe 60% eiaee n?aaeiaa
i?ioanneiiaeueiia e n?aaeiaa iauaa ia?aciaaiea, aunoaa ia?aciaaiea eiaee
ii/oe 20%.

Iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee
iieiaic?anoiiai e iaoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey ie?a. Iea?aoeeiiiue
iioie a yoie/aneii ioiioaiee onoie/eai nio?aiytho ?onneea /a?ou. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?onneea eiatho naioth aunieoth anoanoaaiioth oaueue
ianaeaiey.

Iinea ia?aiene 1989a. a iniiaiii ca n/ao iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeanue /eneaiiinoue a?iyi, aca?aaeaeaeaioeaa, a?ocei,
oo?ie.

I?e/eiu iea?aoeee

A 2002a. n?aaee i?e/ei ia?aacaea, iea?aiou a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
oeacuaatho ee/iua, naiaeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa. A i?aaeaeao e?ay iniiaiuie
i?e/eiaie ia?aiauaiee, e?iia oeacaiiie, yaeyaony oaeaea aica?ao e
i?aaeiaio ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea ?aaioa e o/aaa.

O?oaeiinoe ia ?uiea o?oaea oiaiueoeee aeieth o?oaeiaie iea?aoeee a iauai
iauaia n 8,4% a1997a. aei 7,1% a2002a.

iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie i?e/eiaie yaeythony «ianiioaaonoaea
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneei oneiaeyi» e «yeieiae/aneia iaaeaaiiieo/ea».N
1998a./enei iea?aioia ia?aaoaaoeo a e?ae ii i?e/eia iaino?aiey
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee e e?eieiiaaiiie ianoaiiaea i?iaeieaeaei
oiaiueoaoueny. *enei auacaeathueo ii yoei aea i?e/eiai oiaea
nie?auaaony.

Auioaeaeaiiua iea?aoeee

Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae a ianooaaao THOI anaaaea caieiae eeaee?othuaa ianoi
ii eiee/anoao auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi naycaii n
aaiiieeoe/aneei iieiaeaieai. N ia/aeii aii?oaeaiiiai eiioeeeoa a
*a/aineie ?anioaeeea Noaa?iiieuea noaei iaeiie ec o?aiceoiuo cii, /a?ac
eioi?oth inouanoaeyeanue iea?aoeey iino?aaeaaoaai ianaeaiey a ae?oaea
noauaeou ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A 1993 aiaeo 21% anao auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia, i?eauaoeo ia oa??eoi?eth
nia?aiaiiiai THOI, i?aaeii/ee Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae e, ii eo aaniethoiiio
eiee/anoao, Noaa?iiieuea oiaaea caieiaei aoi?ia ianoi iinea Naaa?iie
Inaoee. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie Noaa?iiieuea auoei ia ia?aia ianoi a ?innee
ii /eneo iaoiaeyueony ia oa??eoi?ee ?aaeiia auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia. Eo
caeanue ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, ian/eouaaaony aieaa 61 oun. /aeiaae.

Ia?aiia/aeueii auioaeaeaiiua iea?aiou ia oa??eoi?eth Noaa?iiieueneiai
e?ay auee iaoneiaeaiu niauoeyie a Iaai?iii Ea?aaaoa e Nieoaeneei
caieao?ynaieai a A?iaiee. A aeaeueiaeoai /enei /?acau/aeiuo oaeoi?ia,
aucuaathueo no?anniaua iea?aoeee, oaaee/eaaaony, a oaeaea ?anoe?yaony
a?aae oaeeo oa??eoi?ee: ?aniaae NNN?, iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua eiioeeeou e
aiaiiua aeaenoaey a Caeaaeacuea (THaeiay Inaoey,
Aaoacey),Oaaeaeeeanoaia,ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca (Naaa?iay
Inaoey,Eiaooaoey,*a/aineay ?anioaeeea).

Aeiey auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia a iauai iioiea ?inea aei 1993 aiaea,
aeinoeaioa, ieea – ieiei 28% (i?e n?aaeia?inneeneii iieacaoaea – 7%).Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia aeiey auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia, i?eauaoeo ia
Noaa?iiieuea, ia/aea nieaeaoueny e a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeea 15,5%.Oai ia
iaiaa, ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie noauaeoaie THOI,yoa oeeo?a n 1997 aiaea
yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiie.

Iniiaiui ?aaeiiai enoiaea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia, i?eauaoeo a
Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae, yaeyaony *a/aineay ?anioaeeea, ioeoaea i?eauee
64% io iauaai eiee/anoaa auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia Noaa?iiieuey, iaania/ea
e 1997 a. 37%iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa a ?aaeiia. Iea?aoeey ec *a/aineie
?anioaeeee ia/aeanue a 1991a. Iioie auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia ec *a/aineie
?anioaeeee yaeyaony iieeyoie/aneei. A iai i?aaenoaaeaiu 48
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, oioy yaii i?aiaeaaeatho ?onneea.

*aoaa?oay /anoue auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia i?eauea ec no?ai Caeaaeacuey, a
iniiaiii ec Aca?aaeaeaeaia e A?ocee, eioi?ua «?acaee?atho» a?aaeaeaineea
aieiu.

2.2. IEA?AOeEIIIUA I?IOeANNU NAEUeNEIE IANOIINOE IA NOAA?IIIEUeA.

A e?aa iiaeii ioiaoeoue nouanoaaiiua aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey ii
aeiea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia, i?eauaoeo ia Noaa?iiieuea. Aieueoa anaai
auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia «i?eiye» ai?iae Noaa?iiieue(10% io iauaai
eiee/anoaa). Aoi?ay a?oiia oa??eoi?ee – yoi ?aeiiu, eioi?ua i?eiyee io
4000 aei 6000 auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia. E iei ioiinyony i?eai?iaeiue
Oiaeianeee, aeeaea e *a/ia, ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n iath ia a?aie/auea –
Aai?aeaaneee e Iaooaeoineee, a oaeaea Aoaeaiianeee e Aeaaiaea?iaineee
?aeiiu. E o?aoueae a?oiia ?aeiiia ii /eneaiiinoe i?eauaoeo iea?aioia
ioiinyony iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ninaaee *a/ie e oa??eoi?ee, aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiua e e?aaaiio oeaio?o.

A 1997 a. a e?aa auaeaeyaony 3 ciiu, ioee/athueany iaa?oceie
auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia e noi?ie?iaaaoeony ii i?e/eia ia?aaiiia?iiai
?annaeaiey aaaeaioeaa e ia?anaeaioeaa. Ia?aay ciia aeeth/aao ?yae
naaa?iuo e naaa?i-ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia e?ay ioiineoaeueii oaeaeaiiuo io
?aaeiiia enoiaea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia-?anioaeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca eee
iaeaaeathuea iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?ie e
neiaeiuie i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie. Caeanue eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiie iaa?ocee ninoaaeyao aei 3%,/oi i?eia?ii niioaaonoaoao
n?aaeiae?aaaiio o?iaith-2,9%. Aoi?ay ciia, aeeth/athuay ?aeiiu,
aeinoaoi/ii aeoeaii noyaeaathuea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia ii ?aciui
i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, yoi Aai?aeaaneee, Aiae?iiianeee e Ei/oaaaaneee
?aeiiu, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ioiaeeo aaoiiiaeeueiay o?anna ana?inneeneiai
cia/aiey Ieia?aeueiua Aiaeu – ?inoia, a eiaiii ii iae e inouanoaeyeny
ianniaue enoiae auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia ec 4 ?anioaeee Naaa?iiai
Eaaeaca. Ai-aoi?uo, «i?ea?aie/iua» ?aeiiu Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay:
Eo?neie, Ee?ianeee e Iaooaeoineee, ?aniieiaeaiiua a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe io ?aaeiiia enoiaea auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia. A-o?aoueeo,
Aeaenaiae?ianeee, O?oiianeee e A?a/aaneee ?aeiiu, oa?aeoa?ecothueany
oeaio?aeueiinoueth iieiaeaiey ai aoi?ii yoaeiia io ?aeiiia, a eioi?uo
?aniieiaeaiu n?aaeiea e e?oiiua ai?iaea. A eaaeaeii ec yoeo ?aeiiia
?annaeeeinue ii 1,5-6 oun. iea?aioia, a eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiie
iaa?ocee eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao io 3 aei 5%.O?aouey ciia – eiiiaeoii
?aniieiaeaiiua o?e ?aeiiu Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay-Aoaeaiianeee,
Aeaaiaea?iaineee e Noaiiianeee, ni/aoathuea oeaio?aeueiinoue iieiaeaiey
e aeecinoue e aeaaiiio ?aaeiio enoiaea – *a/ia. Aeaiiua oa??eoi?ee
eiatho iaeneiaeueiue iieacaoaeue iea?aoeeiiiie iaa?ocee a e?aa:
niioaaonoaaiii 6,8:5,9:9,1 % .

Iea?aoeey ianaeaiey a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaee a no?aia a oeaeii e a ioaeaeueiuo
a? ?aaeiiao. A ia?eiae e?eceniuo yaeaiee a iauanoaa iniaia aeeyiea
ieacuaaao iaino?aiea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
ia thaa ?innee.

Aeey iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a naeueneie ianoiinoe Noaa?iiieuey ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 20 a. oa?aeoa?ai aieiiia?aciue oa?aeoa?. A oeaeii ii
e?ath eioaineaiinoue iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa naeueneiai ianaeaiey n 1965
ii 1988 aa. eieaaeaony io 2,4 aei 8,3 /ae. ia 1000 aeeoaeae a aiae, i?e
yoii iea?aoeeiiiua iioa?e auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey 60-o – ia?aie iieiaeiu
70-o aiaeia. A aeaeueiaeoai aeey iaoaie/aneiai i?e?inoa oa?aeoa?ia
noaaeeecaoeey e iiaeu?i a eiioea 80-o – ia?aie iieiaeia 90-o aa. e
niaae, ia/eiay n 1995 a. A 1965–1969 aa. naeueneia ianaeaiea
ia?anaeyeinue i?aeiouanoaaiii a i?eai?iaeiua ?aeiiu – eioaineaiinoue
iaoaie/aneiai i?e?inoa a Oiaeianeii, I?aaeai?iii e Aai?aeaaneii ?aeiiao
i?aauoaea 10%. A oi aea a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo iooie ianaeaiey ec Ainoi/iie e
Oeaio?aeueiie cii O?aaiecaoeey a Oeaio?aeueiie ciia i?iyaeyaony a
ia?aciaaiee iiauo ai?iaeia (Naaoeia?aaea e Caeaiieoinea), iooai
i?aia?aciaaiey ec e?oiiuo naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, /oi iiaeeyei ia
oneeaiea iea?aoeee ianaeaiey a yoe oeaio?u aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiia. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iyaeaiey yoeo i?ioeannia iea?aoeeiiiay oaueue a i?aaeaeao
naeueneie ianoiinoe ninoaaeea 14,8% e 18%.

Oeacaiiua auoa oaiaeaioeee au? aieaa oneeeeenue a 1970-1978 aa., eiaaea
aic?inea ?ieue Ainoi/iie e Oeaio?aeueiie cii, eae ?aeiiia auoiaea
iea?aioia. Ec 18 aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiia yoie oa??eoi?ee oieueei aeaa
eiatho iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei. A yoio iaaeia?aieniie ia?eiae
i?iaeieaeaaony i?ioeann ia?aoiaea naeueneeo iinaeaiee a eaoaai?eth
ai?iaeneeo.

A 80-a aiaeu ia/eiatho i?ienoiaeeoue ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a oa?aeoa?a
iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Ii-i?aaeiaio iniiaiuie «iiethnaie i?eoyaeaiey»
ianaeaiey inoathony i?eai?iaeu e?aaaiai oeaio?a – a. Noaa?iiiey e
Eaaieiaiaeneie aaeiia?aoeee. A yoio ia?eiae eciaieeanue ?ieue
oeaio?aeueiuo e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia a iea?aoeeiiiii iaiaia.

Iea?aoeeiiiue iooie ianaeaiey i?ienoiaeee oieueei a Aiaianaieianeii,
Eiaoianeii, E?aniiaaa?aeaeneii, Iaooaeoineii, Oo?eiaineii ?aeiiao. Yoi
o?aaeeoeeiiii iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeey aeecie e naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoi/iua aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?aeiiu (Yaiethoeey
?annaeaiey,1993).

Ia ?oaaaea 80-90-o aiaeia a oa?aeoa?a iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia i?iecioee
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Iea?aoeeiiiue aaeain ai iiiaeo naeueneeo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiao iiiaiyeny ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiue.

A yoio ia?eiae ia?aaiiia?iia nie?auaiea i?yiiai e ia?aoiiai iioieia
i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth i?e?inoa aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca. Aiaeec iea?aoeeiiiuo
iioieia iieacuaaao, /oi iee iea?aoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe i?eo?eny ia 1994 a.
e ninoaaee 41,4 oun. /ae. Aieioue aei 1995 a. aeey anao naeueneeo
?aeiiia e?ay aue oa?aeoa?ai iieiaeeoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino.
Aoi?ay iieiaeia aeanyoeeaoey ioee/aaony iaaeaieai iea?aoeeiiiiai
i?e?inoa, eioi?ue ninoaaee a naeueneie ianoiinoe a 1998 a. 8,3 oun. /ae.

Iaeaieaa /aoeei eiaeeeaoi?ii, oeacuaathuei ia i?ino?ainoaaiiua naeaeae
ianaeaiey, yaeyaony naeueaei iea?aoeee. Ii aeaiiiio iieacaoaeth ?aeiiu
Noaa?iiieuey a 1998 a. iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia 3 a?oiiu. Ia?aoth
ia?acotho ?aeiiu n ioeaauie e io?eoeaoaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie naeueaei
iea?aoeee. E iei ioiinyony ia?eoa?eeiua ?aeiiu, ?aniieiaeaiiua a
ainoi/iie, canooeeaie /anoe e?ay, iaoiaeyueany aia ciiu aeeyiey e?aaaiai
oeaio?a e aaeiia?aoeee Eaaeacneeo Ieia?aeueiuo Aiae. Ai aoi?oth a?oiio
aoiaeyo ?aeiiu oeaio?aeueiie /anoe e?ay, aicaeaaeyaiua iaeuie ai?iaeaie,
e io/anoe, eniuouaathuea aeeyiea aieueoeo e e?oiiuo ai?iaeia. Iieacaoaee
naeueaei iea?aoeee a ieo eieaaethony a i?aaeaeao 0-8%, i?e
n?aaeiae?aaaii ii naeueneie ianoiinoe – 6,8%. O?aoueth a?oiio ia?acotho
?aeiiu, iaoiaeyueany a ciia aeeyiey aieueoeo e n?aaeieo ai?iaeia,
aaeiia?aoeee EIA Eneeth/aieai yaeyaony ia?eoa?eeiue Eo?neee ?aeii,
iaoiaeyueeny ia a?aieoea n *a/aineie ?anioaeeeie e eniuouaathuee a yoi
a?aiy cia/eoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue «i?ann» ni noi?iiu a? aeeoaeae
(Oo?oi,2003).

Oaeei ia?acii, iea?aoeey ianaeaiey a i?aaeaeao Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io aeeyiey yeaiaioia iii?iiai ea?eana
?annaeaiey. Ianniaue enoiae ?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey ec Caeaaeacuey e
?anioaeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca oiaiueoee iea?aoeeiiiue iioaioeeae yoeo
oa??eoi?ee, /oi i?eaaei e nie?auaieth iioiea i?eauaathueo a e?ae a
oeaeii e, i?aaeaea anaai a i?ea?aie/iua ?aeiiu, iniaaiii ainoi/iie /anoe
e?ay.

3. ?AAEIIAEUeIUA INIAAIIINOE IEA?AOeEIIIUO I?IOeANNIA A NAEUeNEEO
?AEIIAO NOAA?IIIEUeNEIAI E?Ass.

Enneaaeoy a?aoeee eiyooeoeeaioa iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa
naeueneeo ?aeiiia Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay, y iauaaeeieea ?aeiiu a a?oiiu
ii iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeai. Oae y auaeaeeea 4 a?oiiu. A ia?aoth
a?oiio aoaeoo aoiaeeoue ?aeiiu, aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?iu iieiaeeoaeueiua
iieacaoaee. Aoi?oth a?oiio iauaaeeiytho ?aeiiu n io?eoeaoaeueiui
eiyooeoeeaioii iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa. O?aoueth a?oiio ninoaaeytho
?aeiiu, a eioi?uo eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa eciaiyaony ii
oaeie aea noaia eae a naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aeey /aoaa?oie a?oiiu
oa?aeoa?iu ?aeiiu, eiathuea ianoaaeeueiue oa?aeoa? eiyooeoeeaioa
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa.

E ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony Aai?aeaaneee, Ee?ianeee e Eciaeeueiaineee
?aeiiu. Eiyooeoeeaiou iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa caeanue anaaaea auee
iieiaeeoaeueiuie. Ai anao o?ao ?aeiiao iee i?eoiaeeony ia 1994 aiae.
Oaeie iioie iea?aioia iauyniyaony ?acee/iuie i?e/eiaie. Ai-ia?auo, yoi
?aniaae NNN?. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi niauoey a Aca?aaeaeaeaia, Iaai?iii
Ea?aaaoa e A?iaiee. Oaeaea a yoeo ?aeiiao iaaethaeaaony ianoaaeeueiue
oa?aeoa?. Iaeaieueoae ianoaaeeueiinoueth ioee/aaony Aai?aeaaneee ?aeii.
Iieacaoaee caeanue eciaiyaony iinoiyiii. A iineaaeiea aiaeu ai anao
?aeiiao iaaethaeaaony niaae eiyooeoeeaioa iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa. A
aeaeueiaeoai iieacaoaee iiaoo noaoue io?eoeaoaeueiuie, iiyoiio ioaeii
i?iaiaeeoue ia?u ii oeo/oaieth neooaoeee a naeueneeo ?aeiiao.
I?aaenoaaeoaeyie aoi?ie a?oiiu yaeythony oaeea ?aeiiu eae
Aiaianaieianeee, Aoaeaiianeee, A?cae?neee, Eaaieoineee, Iaooaeoineee,
Iiainaeeoeeee, Noaiiianeee e Oo?eiaineee. A yoeo ?aeiiao ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo 10 eao iinoiyiii iaaethaeaaony io?eoeaoaeueiue eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa. Iaeaieaa y?eei i?aaenoaaeoaeai yoie a?oiiu
yaeyaony A?cae?neee ?aeii. A yoii ?aeiia n 1992 aiaea eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa io?eoeaoaeueiue, i?e/ai iieacaoaee n eaaeaeui
aiaeii iioneathony ana ieaea e ieaea. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi yoio ?aeii
iaeiaiaa aeaaiiieo/ai a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo.
Caeanue aeinoaoi/ii aunieee o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu e i/aiue ieceay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa. Yoio ?aeii eiaao naioth ieceoth n?aaeithth ca?aaioioth
ieaoo, onooiay eeoue Aiaianaieianeiio ?aeiio. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa
ninoaaeyao 926 ?oaeae, oiaaea eae a Iaooaeoineii ?aeiia 2735 ?oaeae.
Caoi n?aaeiyy iainey a yoii ?aeiia auoa, /ai a Iaooaeoineii. Ii yoio
oaeo ia oaea?aeeaaao ianaeaiea a ?aeiia, iineieueeo n?aaee auacaeathueo
a iniiaiii yaeyaony o?oaeiniiniaiia ianaeaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aeii
i?aa?auaaony a ?aeii iaineiia?ia.

A o?aoueth a?oiio aoiaeyo ?aeiiu: Aiae?iiianeee, Aiaianaieianeee,
Ee?ianeee, Ei/oaaaaneee, E?aniiaaa?aeaeneee. A yoie a?oiia eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa iinoiyiii eaeao ia oaueue e a 2000 aiaeo oaea
noaiiaeony io?eoeaoaeueiui. Eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo oaeaea eae e a
naeueneie ianoiinoe a oeaeii. E?aniiaaa?aeaeneee ?aeii aiiaua i?ioiaeeo
ii/oe ii iaeiie i?yiie n naeueneie ianoiinoueth, eiay eeoue iaaieueoea
?acee/ey. Iooie ianaeaiey naycai n oai, /oi ana no?aiyony ia?aaoaoue a
aeec eaaeauea ai?iaea. Ia yoi eiathony ?acee/iua i?e/eiu. Aeaaiuie
n?aaee ieo yaeythony ?aaioa, o/aaa e ee/iua ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Iineieueeo
a naeueneie ianoiinoe aieueoie i?ioeaio aac?aaioeoeu, oi ana no?aiyony a
ai?iaea ia ca?aaioee. E oiio aea a naeueneie ianoiinoe neiaeiaa
ono?ieony ia ?aaioo ii i?ioannee, oae eae naiaiaeiuo iano iao. A ?aeiiao
iao ia?niaeoea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea. Iiyoiio y aeoiath, /oi iooie
ianaeaiey aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue e aeaeueoa, anee neooaoeey ia eciaieony.

*aoaa?ooth a?oiio iauaaeeiytho oaeea ?aeiiu eae Oiaeianeee, Oo?eiaineee,
O?oiianeee, I?aaeai?iue, Iaooaeoineee, Eaaieoineee, Eo?neee, Eiaoianeee,
A?a/aaneee, Aai?aeaaneee, Aiaianaieianeee, Aeaaiaea?iaineee,
Aoaeaiianeee. Caeanue aeinoaoi/ii ianoaaeeueiue oa?aeoa? eiyooeoeeaioa
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa. Iieacaoaee iinoiyiii eciaiythony, i?e/ai nea/ee
aeinoaoi/ii caiaoiua. Iai?eia?, a Oiaeianeii ?aeiia iieacaoaeue iaiyaony
n +60 a 1997 aiaeo aei -20 a 1998 aiaeo. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?eiaea,
n 1979 ii 2005, iaaethaeathony iiaeiaiiai ?iaea nea/ee, ii oaea ia
noieue n aieueoeie eciaiaieyie. Anee aiai?eoue i Oiaeianeii ?aeiia, oi
caeanue aieueoie eiyooeoeeaioa iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa naycai, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue n oai, /oi ?aeii aeecei ?aniieiaeai e a. Noaa?iiieth.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai aiciiaeii e oaeea aieueoea nea/ee. *oi eanaaony
inoaeueiuo ?aeiiia, oi iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?aeiiu iauaaeeiythuea yoo
a?oiio ioiinyony ?aeiiu, eiathuea aeaaiiieo/ioth ianoaiiaeo e oaeiaiia
ianoiiieiaeaiea. A Iaooaeoineii ?aeiia oi?ioi ?acaeo i?iiuoeaiiue
naeoi?. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoio ?aeii ioiineony e neeueii canooeeaui
oa??eoi?eyi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ieceia. N
yoei naycai ianoaaeeueiue oa?aeoa? ?aeiiia. I?aeoe/anee ana ?aeiiu,
aoiaeyuea a yoo a?oiio, ioiinyony a ?aeiiai, eiathuea aeaaiiieo/ioth e
ioiineoaeueii aeaaiiieo/ioth neooaoeeth a e?aa, eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho
Oo?eiaineee e Eo?neee ?aeiiu, aaea neooaoeey e?aeia iaaeaaiiieo/iay.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino, oi iiaeii auaeaeeoue ieeiaua aiaeu
?aeiiia. 1970 aiae yaeyeny ieeiaui aeey I?aaeai?iiai, Eaaieoineiai,
Aai?aeaaneiai ?aeiiia.1979a. – A?cae?neee e Eo?neee ?aeiiu, 1989 a. –
aeey Aiae?iiianeiai, Aiaianaieianeiai, Oo?eiaineiai, Noaiiianeiai,
Iao?ianeiai e Eiaoianeiai ?aeiiia. 1994 aiae yaeyaony ieeiaui aeey
aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia. Yoi naycaii n oaeeie niauoeyie eae ?acaae NNN?,
inaoeii-eiaooneee eiioeeeo, a?iyii-aca?aaeaeaeaineee eiioeeeo,
caieao?ynaiea a A?iaiee, /a/aineay aieia. Eiaiii Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae
ieacaeny oaaaeeuai aeey iiiaeo. Aieueoia eiee/anoai iea?aioia naeeeenue
a naeueneie ianoiinoe. A naeueneie ianoiinoe eaa/a auei i?eia?anoe
aeeeuea, iaaeeee a ai?iaeao, iiyoiio iea?aiou e ?aciauaeenue caeanue.
Oaeaea a 1994 a. iaaethaeaaony naiue aunieee iieacaoaeue
iea?aoeeiiiiaii?e?inoa e ninoaaeyao aieaa 1500. Eiaiii ia yoio aiae
i?eoiaeyony naiua aunieea iieacaoaee.

3.1. Yoie/aneea iea?aoeee

Aaaeiaeoae /a?oie yaiethoeee yoie/aneie no?oeoo?u ianaeaiey
Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay yaeyaony onoie/eaia e aieaa aeoaiei au?aaeaiiia, a
n?aaiaiee n iaua?inneeneeie oaiaeaioeeyie, nieaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana
?onneeo a ninoaaa eae ai?iaeneiai, oae e naeueneiai ianaeaiey.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee i?ioeiai aeanyoeeaoey a aaia?aoee ?annaeaiey iea?aioia
auyaeeenue i?eciaee, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i ?aceii eciaiaiee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee aeey eo ?annaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee
noauaeoia ?aaeiia. A ioee/ea io i?ioeuo aeanyoeeaoee, a 1990-a aiaeu
iaicia/eeenue neaaeothuea /a?ou aeeiaieee /eneaiiinoe e ?annaeaiey
?onneeo ia Noaa?iiieuea. Ai-ia?auo, oaiiu i?e?inoa eo /eneaiiinoe
inoaeenue aunieeie e ninoaaeytho 0.5% a aiae, /oi niioaaonoaoao
iieacaoaeyi i?ioeiai aeanyoeeaoey.

Ai-aoi?uo, a 1990-a aiaeu ianooiee iiaue yoai a canaeaiee ?onneeie
noaiiiai I?aaeeaaeacuey e Noaa?iiieuey a /anoiinoe. Aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae
onoie/eaiai nie?auaiey eo /eneaiiinoe a naeueneie ianoiinoe ?aaeiia
niaieeny aeoeaiui ?inoii.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1990-o aiaeia iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu o ?onneeo ia
oa??eoi?ee e?ay nouanoaaiii eciaieeenue. Ia Noaa?iiieuea iiyaeythony
oa??eoi?ee n aunieei eiyooeoeeaioii iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea ?onneeo
(Oo?eiaineee, Iaooaeoineee, Eaaieoineee, Eo?neee, A?cae?neee), a oaeaea
ni n?aaeiei e ieceei. Oaeei aue eaaeaeue /aoaa?oue ?aeii Noaa?iiieuey

O.i. e 2000 aiaeo ia oa??eoi?ee e?aa ia?aciaaeanue iaoe?iay ciia
iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea ?onneeo, aeeth/athuay ia ?yaeo n aieueoei /eneii
naeueneeo ?aeiiia, e o?aaiece?iaaiiua oa??eoi?ee. A 2001 aiaeo a
naeueneie ianoiinoe e?ay ciia iea?aoeeiiiie oauee ?onneeo aeeth/aao
ii/oe 2/3 ?aeiiia. A?oiio ?aeiiia n aunieei eiyooeoeeaioii
iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea ia Noaa?iiieuea ia?acotho, i?aaeaea anaai,
ainoi/iua ?aeiiu – Iaooaeoineee, Eaaieoineee, Eo?neee, Oo?eiaineee, a
oaeaea A?cae?neee, Noaiiianeee. Iniiaiay /anoue ?aeiiia e?ay ioiineony e
oa??eoi?eyi n ieceei eiyooeoeeaioii iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea ?onneeo, ii
o?aaiaeeo, ai-ia?auo, aa iaoe?iinoue – 1/3 ?aeiiia e?ay, ai-aoi?uo, aa
aaia?aoey, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao ?aeiiu ia oieueei ainoi/iie /anoe e?ay, ii
e caiaaeiie, oeaio?aeueiie.

Iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino a naeueneie ianoiinoe o ?onneeo ioia/aaony a
iieiaeia ?aeiiia, iaeiaei i?aiaeaaeatho a iniiaiii ?aeiiu ni n?aaeiei e
ieceei iea?aoeeiiiui i?e?inoii.

Iea?aoeee e ?annaeaiea ia?iaeia Eaaeaca ia Noaa?iiieuea

Aaaeiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a e?aa
yaeyaony oneeaiea eaaeacneiai eiiiiiaioa a iea?aoeeiiiii i?e?inoa ca
n/ao a?iyi, /a/aioeaa, aea?aeioeaa e ae?oaeo yoiinia.

Aoi?ui ii /eneaiiinoe e aaee/eia iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa yoiinii n?aaee
i?eauaathueo ia Noaa?iiieuea ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae /anoe 1990-o aiaeia
e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony a?iyia.

Aeoeaiiio ?annaeaieth a?iyi ia Noaa?iiieuea niinianoaotho enoi?e/aneea
oaeoi?u e a /anoiinoe o?aaeeoeeiiiia ?annaeaiea yoiai yoiina ia
Noaa?iiieuea. Aua a 19 aaea a e?aa noi?ie?iaaeanue a?iyineay aeeanii?a.
?aeiiaie o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?annaeaiey a e?aa noaee ai?iaea EIA,
Aoaeaiiiane, Eo?neie ?aeii.

Aunieee eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ioia/aeny a aieueoie a?oiia
naeueneeo ?aeiiia, aaea a?iyia ?aiaa eiiiaeoii ia i?iaeeaaee –
Aeaenaiae?ianeii, Aeaaiaea?iaineii, A?a/aaneii, Eciaeeueiaineii,
Eiaoianeii. Anaai i?eia?ii a 88% naeueneeo ?aeiiia e?ay ioia/aeny
aunieee eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa a?iyi, a oaeaea a
aieueoeinoaa iaeuo ai?iaeia. Iooie iaaethaeaeny a Oo?eiaineii,
Eaaieoineii, Aiaianaieianeii ?aeiiao. Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a aaia?aoee
?annaeaiey a?iyi ia Noaa?iiieuea – iaeiii ec o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e e?oiiuo
a?aaeia eo i?iaeeaaiey a ?innee, iauyniyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
onoie/eaui e iiuiui iioieii auioaeaeaiiuo iea?aioia ia oieueei ec
Iaai?iiai Ea?aaaoa, ii e ae?oaeo ?aeiiia Aca?aaeaeaeaia, a oaeaea
A?ocee, A?iaiee e ?anioaeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu
eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa a?iyi nieceeny, e eciaieeanue
aaia?aoey ?annaeaiey iea?aioia. A 2000 aiaeo aeoeaece?iaaeinue
?annaeaiea a?iyi a naeueneie ianoiinoe e?ay.

Nia?aiaiiua iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu nouanoaaiii iaiytho a?aae ?annaeaiey
a?iyi. A?aae n iieiaeeoaeueiui iea?aoeeiiiui i?e?inoii a na?aaeeia
1990-o aiaeia aeoeaii ?anoe?yeny. Aunieee eiyooeoeeaio iea?aoeeiiiiai
i?e?inoa ioia/aeny a iiauo ?aeiiao ?annaeaiey – naeueneea ?aeiiu
naaa?iie e caiaaeiie /anoe e?ay, iaeua ai?iaea, Noaa?iiieue, a oaeaea
oa??eoi?ee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ?annaeaiey – Aoaeaiiiane, Eo?neee ?aeii.
Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue iea?aoeee yoiai yoiina ia ai anao ?aeiiao
ieacaeanue aunieie. Naeueneea ?aeiiu, aeaaea ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?uo
noi?ie?iaaeinue yae?i aea?aeineie aeeanii?u – Eo?neee, Eaaieoineee,
oa?ytho aea?aeineia ianaeaiea e eiatho naiue aunieee eiyooeoeeaio
iea?aoeeiiiiai iooiea. Yoa /a?oa iea?aoeee aea?aeioeaa auea oa?aeoa?ia
aeey anao naeueneeo ?aeiiia e?ay, aaea i?iaeeaaee aea?aeioeu.

E 2001 aiaeo aaee/eia io?eoeaoaeueiiai iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa o
aea?aeioeaa ia Noaa?iiieuea ii n?aaiaieth n 1993 aiaeii (aiaeii ia/aea
iooiea eo ec e?ay) nie?aoeeanue aieaa /ai a 5 ?ac, a a 2002 aiaeo
ainnoaiiaeeny iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino.

A 1970-1980-a aiaeu ianooaau iea?aoeee /a/aioeaa a I?aaeeaaeacuea
?inee. Iinea 1989 aiaea o /a/aioeaa neiaeeeinue io?eoeaoaeueiia naeueaei
iea?aoeee, ii, ia/eiay n eiioea 1980-o aiaeia, e ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoae
/anoe 1990-o iaoaie/aneay oaueue ianaeaiey eiiiaine?iaaeanue
anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii, ca n/ao /aai iaania/eaaeny e iauee i?e?ino
ianaeaiey. A na?aaeeia 1990-o aiaeia anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino oiaiueoeeny, a
io?eoeaoaeueiia naeueaei iea?aoeee i?iaeieaeaei ?anoe, /oi i?eaaei e
a?aiaiiiio nie?auaieth /eneaiiinoe /a/aineie aeeanii?u ia Noaa?iiieuea.
Ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, a nayce n ainnoaiiaeaieai iieiaeeoaeueiiai
naeueaei iea?aoeee a ni/aoaiee n aunieei anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii, ?ino
/eneaiiinoe /a/aineie aeeanii?u ia Noaa?iiieuea aiciaiiaeeny.

Aiaeec iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a 1990-a aiaeu iieacuaaao, /oi a oeaeii
oa?aeoa? aeaiia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a e?aa eciaieeny. Iea?aoeey,
iaania/eaay aanue i?e?ino /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey a e?aa, nouanoaaiii
aeeyao ia yoie/aneoth no?oeoo?o ianaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiua iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea a
oeaeii ia ?annaeaiea ia?iaeia a e?aa. Ainoi/iua ?aeiiu Noaa?iiieuey
oa?ytho ?onneia ianaeaiea, aeoeaece?iaaeny iooie e naaa?ieaaeacneeo
ia?iaeia. A naith i/a?aaeue, oneeeeenue /a?ou iieeyoie/iinoe
iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa a ai?iaeao, caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao e ia EIA.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aeaenaaa A.E. Naeueneia ?annaeaiea eae oaeoi? ia?aca aeecie//Aii?inu
aaia?aoee. – I.,1986.2. Aeaenaaa A.E., Ea?a/o?eia E.A. Auioaeaeaiiua
iea?aiou e oa??eoi?eaeueiua iauiinoe a ?innee//Ia?iaeiianaeaiea:
nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iao/iiai ciaiey. –
I.,1997.3. Aaeica?ia A.N. Yoie/aneay ea?oa Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca –
I.:IAE,20054. Aaeica?ia A.N. Yoiiaeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu ia Naaa?iii
Eaaeaca. – Noaa?iiieue,2000.5. Aaeica?ia A.N., Aaeica?iaa E.I., Oo?oi
I.I. Yaiethoeey ?annaeaiey ia Noaa?iiieuea e Ea?a/aaai – *a?eanee. –
Noaa?iiieue,1994. 6. Aaeica?ia A.N., Aaiaaaa A.E. Iea?aoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu ia Noaa?iiieuea//I?iaeaiu ?annaeaiey: enoi?ey e
nia?aiaiiinoue. I.,1997. 7. Ai?iaueaa N.I., A?ioei A.I. Aeeyiea
iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca ia ?acaeoea
yoiiiieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a ?aaeiia//?annaeaiea, yoiieoeueoo?iay
iicaeea, aaiiieeoeea e aaciianiinoue ai?iuo no?ai. – Noaa?iiieue,2001.
8. Aaiaaaa A.E. Nia?aiaiiua iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu ia
Noaa?iiieuea//I?iaeaiu iea?aoeee e iiuo aa ?aaoee?iaaiey a iieeyoie/iii
Eaaeacneii ?aaeiia: oacenu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. –
Noaa?iiieue,2003.9. Aaiaaaa A.I. Nioeeaeueii – aeaiia?aoe/aneea
i?ioeannu ia Noaa?iiieuea//Aii?inu aaia?aoee e aaiyeieiaee: iaoa?eaeu
iao/iie eiioa?aioeee «Oieaa?neoaoneay iaoea – ?aaeiio».
Noaa?iiieue,1998. 10. Aeaienaiei I.A.,Eiioeaa A.A.,Oi?aaa A.N.
Iea?aoeeieiaey. – I.,1989.11. Ieeieaaa I.I. Iea?aoeey ianaeaiey
Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay ia ?oaaaea 21 aaea//?annaeaiea, yoiieoeueoo?iay
iicaeea, aaiiieeoeea e aaciianiinoue ai?iuo no?ai (naioya?ue 2001 a.). –
Iineaa – Noaa?iiieue, 2001.12. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu e iioiee iea?aoeee
ianaeaiey ia Noaa?iiieuea a 1997 aiaeo: Aiaeeoe/aneay caienea.-
Noaa?iiieue,1998.- 18 n.13. Ia?aaaaeaioeaa A.E. Iaoiaeu eco/aiea
iea?aoeee ianaeaiey.- I.,1979 a. 14. ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey i?ioeannia
iea?aoeee a Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa. Io/ao i iao/ii – enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
?aaioa/Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue Aaeica?ia A.N. – Noaa?iiieue,1989.-179n.
15. ?ycaioeaa N.A. Nia?aiaiiue aeaiia?aoe/aneee e iea?aoeeiiiue ii?o?ao
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.- Noaa?iiieue,2003.- n.78-81.16. Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae
e aai ?aaeiiu: Noaoenoe/aneee nai?iee. –Noaa?iiieue,2002.- 320 n.17.
Oo?oi I.I. Iea?aoeey ianaeaiey a naeueneie ianoiinoe Noaa?iiieueneiai
e?ay//I?iaeaiu iea?aoeee e iiuo aa ?aaoee?iaaiey a iieeyoie/iii
Eaaeacneii ?aaeiia.18. Oo?oi I.I. Yaiethoeey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
naeueneiai ?annaeaiey Noaa?iiieueneiai e?ay: Aaoi?ao. aeenn. ….eaiae.
aaia?ao. iaoe. – I.,1995.- n.10-11. 19. Yoie/aneea iea?aoeee a
Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa: i?iaeaiu aaeaioaoeee e iea?aoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea
yoiinia. Iao/ii – enneaaeiaaoaeueneee io/ao./Iiae ?aae. Aaeica?iaa A.N.
– Noaa?iiieue,2002.N.5-14.20. Brettell C.B., Hollifilld J.F.Migration
Theory: talking across.- New York,2000.21. Castles S., Miller M.J. The
Age of Migration: international Population Movements in the Modern
World. – London, 1998.

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