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История и современное состояние духовной культуры города Серпухов

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AIO NII II Iineianeee Iaeanoiie Aoiaieoa?iue Eieeaaeae

?aoa?ao

ii aeenoeeieeia: E?aaaaaeaiea

ia oaio: Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u ai?iaea
Na?iooia

Auiieieea nooaeaioea 2 eo?na

a?oiiu IO-77

Ieoaeeiaa E.A.

Na?iooia 2009 aiae

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1. Na?iooianeee Aunioeeee ioaeneie iiianou?ue

2. Aaaaeaineee Aeaaeu/iue aeaineee iiianou?ue

3. Ieeieueneee Niai? a. Na?iooiaa

4. Nianneee o?ai ai?iaea Na?iooiaa

5. Oea?eiaue ?aniyoey Ainiiaeiy

6. O?ieoeeee niai?

7. Oea?eiaue Anao Nayouo (eeaaeaeuaineay)

8. Oea?eiaue nayoie O?ieoeu

9. *aniaiy Oeoaeineie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e

10. *aniaiy Eaa?neie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e

11. Oea?eae nayouo AEai-Ie?iiineoe

12. Oea?eiaue Oniaiey I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu

Caeeth/aiea

I?eeiaeaiey

Aaaaeaiea

I?iaeioeeaeueiue Na?iooia aiieia iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia neiaie
?inneeneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Iniiaaiiue Eaaiii Eaeeoie, ii noae
aeaaiui ai?iaeii «io/eiu» aai aioea – eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a
O?aa?iai.

Eiycue Aeaaeeie?, ainieoaiiue Ieo?iiieeoii Iineianeei Aeaeneai, no?ieo
ia i?inoi iai?iieoaeueioth e?aiinoue. Yoi aue iieio aa?u i?aaineaaiie ia
thaa e?aiiouaai Iineianeiai eiyaeanoaa. A 1360 aiaeo ianoaaiee eiycy
Ieo?iiieeo Iineianeee Aeaenee a /anoue Aeaaeu/eoeu Aiai?iaeeoeu iniiaae
ia ieceii aa?aao Ia?u Aeaaeu/iue iiianou?ue. Niai? iiianou?y eiaiiaaee
Aaaaeaineei a /anoue i?acaeieea «Aaaaeaiea ai o?ai Aiai?iaeeoeu». Ii
Aeaaeuea Aeaenee caeiaeee aua iaeio, iiaeaeoe, aieaa aaaeioth eaeath:
«aaaaeaiea ai o?ai» ?one. N?aaeioi/ey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey
noaiiaeeny O?ai – iniiaa aaeeinoaa iaoeee e iiaouanoaa.

Ainieoaiiee Ieo?iiieeoa Aeaeney eiycue Aeaaeeie? Aiae?aaae/ i?iaeieaeaao
aeaei naiaai ianoaaieea. Ii aai i?eaeaoaieth a Na?iooia i?eoiaeeo Na?aee
?aaeiiaaeneee e a 1374 aiaeo inayuaao iniiaaiea Aunioeeiai iiianou?y.
Yoio iiianou?ue noae iaeiei ec oeaio?ia i?inaauaiey ?one.

E, iaeiiaoe, naiia aeaaiia niauoea, iinea eioi?iai i?iaoaeeeinue
naiiniciaiea ?onneiai ia?iaea e ?onue noaea nianoaaiii Ainoaea?noaii
?inneeneei: aeoaa n oaoa?i-iiiaieueneei aieneii ia Eoeeeiaii iiea. A
1380 aiaeo na?iooianeie canaaeiue iiee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai eiycy
Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a anooiee a aie e ?aoee aai enoiae a iieueco
?onneeo.

Iao, iaaaae oaoa? aua i?iaeieaeaeenue, ii iie oaea ia iiaee ?acae?iaeoue
e neiieoue iniiau oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa.

*oi aea inoaeinue iai a ianeaaenoai io oao aaeeeeo aeiae? Ecaeaiiue
ii/oe noi eao iacaae «Aeueaii oea?eaae e iiianou?ae a. Na?iooiaa» aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iiiyoue oyaeanoue oo?aou. Ii neyiea e?anoia ?anoaa?e?oaiuo
o?aiia aiai?eo: aa?ueoa e aeanony aai ii aa?a aaoae.

1. Na?iooianeee Aunioeeee ioaeneie iiianou?ue

Iniiaai ii a 1374 aiaeo Na?iooianeei eiycai Aeaaeeie?ii Aiae?aaae/ai
O?aa?ui ii aeaaineiaaieth i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai,
iinoaaeaoaai a ia?aua ianoiyoaee iiianou?y naiaai o/aieea Aoaianey.
Iacaaiea naia “Aunioeeee” iieo/ee iiianou?ue io ianoa, ia eioi?ii
ono?iai, a ae?aaiinoe i?icuaaaoaainy “AunieiaIniiaaiea Aunioeeiai
iiianou?y e ia?aua ianoiyoaee.

Na?iooianeee Aunioeeee ioaeneie iiianou?ue — iaeei ec naiuo ae?aaieo
iiianou?ae ?one. Ii aoiaeeo a /enei aeaayoe iaeoaeae, iniiaaiiuo naiei
Eaoiaiii caiee ?onneie I?aiiaeiaiui Na?aeai ?aaeiiaaeneei. A?aiy aai
aicieeiiaaiey ioiineony e 1373 aiaeo. Ia?aua ianoiyoaee iaeoaee,
i?ineaaeaiiua a niiia ?aaeiiaaeneeo nayouo, i?aiiaeiaiua Aoaianee
Aunioeeee noa?oee, Aoaianee Aunioeeee ieaaeoee e Ieeeoa Na?iooianeee,
yaeyeenue o/aieeaie i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey. Iniiaaiea iiianou?y naycaii
oaeaea n eiaiai aeaai/anoeaiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a Aeiineiai
(O?aa?iai) — neaaiiai aa?iy Eoeeeianeie aeoau, niiaeaeaeieea e
aeaith?iaeiiai a?aoa nayoiai aeaaiaa?iiai eiycy Aeeieo?ey Aeiineiai.

Eaoii 1373 aiaea cieioii?aeuineea iieee Iaiay iiaeaa?aee aeanoieiio
iaiaaeaieth ?ycaineia eiyaeanoai. «O?enoiethaeaue eiycue Aieiaeeie?
Aiae?aaae/» ?aoee aicaeaeaiooue iiianou?ue, eioi?ue a neo/aa a?aaeaneiai
iaiaaeaiey iia au neoaeeoue i?aaea?aaeeai, a a aeie ie?a oe?aoae e
o?aiee au iiaue ?onneee a?aae iieeoaie, — «ayoa ai eiycue ethaye
iiiano?e e /anoue aaeeeo aucaeay iieoueneiio /eio».

I?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee Aunioeeee noa?oee ?aaiinoii i?eiyeny ca ono?iaiea
iiianou?y n iiiiuueth aeaai/anoeaiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a, ia
aeaeaaoaai n?aaenoa ia no?ieoaeuenoai. *enei ianaeueieeia iinoaiaiii
?inei. N?aaee ieo i?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee nei?i ia?ae aeinoieiuo o/aieeia,
i?ineyaoeo aiineaaenoaee nayoinoueth naiae aeecie: i?aiiaeiaiuo Ieeiia
?aaeiiaaeneiai e Aoaianey Aunioeeiai ieaaeoaai. I?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee
noa?oee noyaeae naaa neaao o/aiiai ioaea e oi?ioaai eieaiienoea, iiiai
o?oaeeaoaainy aeey aic?iaeaeaiey oo?a/aiiie ia ?one i?aainoaaiiinoe
Aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u. Yoi iai?aaeaiea ii iniai ?acaeaae a naiae
Aunioeeie iaeoaee, aeaaiaea?y /aio iia nei?i i?eia?aea cia/aiea oeaio?a
Aecaioecia ia ?one.

Aaniie 1381 aiaea iiianou?ue aiiaue iinaoee i?aiiaeiaiue Na?aee. Ii
nii?iaiaeaeae nayoeoaey Eei?eaia, i?eauaoaai ia Aunieia aeey inayuaiey
Ca/aoueaaneiai niai?a e eaiaiiie oea?eae-o?aiaciie a /anoue Iie?iaa
I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu. Ano?a/a eaoiaia Aoaianey e ieo?iiieeoa Eei?eaia
ia aeieaea aiaeu naycaea nayouo ioaeae ocaie aeooiaiie ae?oaeau. A 1387
aiaeo i?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee ii aeaaineiaaieth i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey
aianoa ni nayoeoaeai Eei?eaiii ioaue a Oea?uea?aae n oeaeueth nienuaaiey
aiaineoaeaaiuo eiea aeey ?onneie Oea?eae. Aianoa n o/aieeaie ii nicaeae
eieaiienioth ianoa?neoth, aaea ?aaioae iaae ia?aaiaeaie nayoiioa/aneeo
oai?aiee. Aaioeii o?oaeia i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey Aunioeeiai noa?oaai
noae aiaineoaeaaiue Onoaa «Iei oea?eiaiia», a iniiao eioi?iai eaa
Ea?onaeeineee aiaineoaeaaiue Onoaa, ia?aaaaeaiiue n a?a/aneiai,
ia?aaioaiiue e aeiiieiaiiue ei a 1401 aiaeo. ?aaee yoiai o?oaea ii
ioeacaeny io aica?auaiey ia ?iaeeio, caaa?oea naie caiiie iooue a
Oea?uea?aaea. «Iei oea?eiaiia» yaeeny iniiaie aiaineoaeaaiiai Onoaaa,
eioi?ui e ii nae aeaiue ?oeiaiaenoaoaony ?onneay I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue.

Aoi?ui nayoui eaoiaiii Aunioeeiai iiianou?y noae i?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee
ieaaeoee. A 1375 aiaeo aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiei io?ieii i?eoae ii ia Aunieia,
eiay ai?y/aa aeaeaiea eii/aneie aeecie. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ethaeiiai
o/eoaey i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey noa?oaai ii i?ioae iiiaieaoithth oeieo
iiiaoaneiai iineooaiey e a 1387 aiaeo i?eiye io iaai ianoiyoaeuenoai.
I?e i?aiiaeiaiii Aoaianee ieaaeoai iiianou?ue i?iaeieaeae i?ioeaaoaoue,
nio?aiyy i?aaeiea o?aaeeoeee, oeeaae aeecie e naycue n aecaioeeneie
eoeueoo?ie. Aeey a?aoee aoi?ie eaoiai yaeyeny i?eia?ii
aeia?iaeaoaeueiiai eii/aneiai aeeoey: «eiae aicaea?aeaiea niaa?oaiiia, a
iinoa aue e?aiie, a iieeoaao ia eaiinoai, a ieuaoa oa?iaeea». Ianiio?y
ia iiiaeanoaaiiua iiia/aiey e oicyenoaaiiua caaiou eaoiai Aoaianee
iinoiyiii i?aauaae a aneaoe/aneii iiaeaeaa, e aua i?e aeecie
«aeaaiaeaoue aaeeeeo /oaean io Ainiiaea» i?eya, ii/eoaeny a?aoeae eae
/oaeioai?aoe. I?anoaaeeny oaiaeiee Aiaeee a aic?anoa 33 eao io
«noa?/aneiai eciaiiaeaiey» aneaaenoaea oyaeaeuo eii/aneeo iiaeaeaia. N
naiiai iiiaioa iia?aaaiey i?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee i?ineaaeeny /oaeanaie. E
ii nae aeaiue aai nayoua iiue ianoo aeaaiaeaoiua enoeaeaiey ethaeyi. A
1571 aiaeo ai a?aiy iaoanoaey aaa?yi a ia?aca a?iciiai anaaeieea n
aieueoei aeaceii ia aaeii eiia ii yaee naia canooiie/anoai ai?iaeo e
?iaeiie iaeoaee. N oao ii? i?aiiaeiaiue Aoaianee ieaaeoee ii/eoaaony eae
iaaaniue iie?iaeoaeue Na?iooiaa.

A 1395 aiaeo ianoiyoaeuenoai iaeoaee ia?aoei e o?aoueaio nayoiio eaoiaio
i?aiiaeiaiiio Ieeeoa, n?iaeieeo e o/aieeo i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey.
I?aiiaeiaiue Ieeeoa oniaoii oi?aaeye iiianou?ai a oa/aiea
aeaayoiaaeoeaoe eao e eiae nai a?oeiaiae?eoa, eioi?ue a oa a?aiaia
onaaeaaee ianoiyoaee oieueei iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo iiianou?ae. Ii
i?iaiaeee aeeciue a no?iaii iaineaaaaaaiii iiaeaeaa e iai?anoaiiuo
caaioao i aeaaiono?iaiee iaeoaee. Iinea ?aci?eoaeueiiai iaaaaa Aaeuaay a
1408 aiaeo ianoiyoaeueneea iiia/aiey i?aiiaeiaiiai Ieeeou oiiiaeeeenue,
e iiaeaeaeie/aneay aeeciue noaea aua aieaa iai?yaeaiiie. Io iaiiia?iuo
o?oaeia ii ia/ae oa?youe c?aiea e a 1414 aiaeo, oeaey ia iieie, ia?aoae
a Ai?ianeee Auniei-Iie?ianeee iiianou?ue. A?aiy oi?aaeaiey iiianou?ai
ia?auie o?aiy nayouie ianoiyoaeyie i?aiiaeiaiuie Aoaianeai noa?oei,
Aoaianeai ieaaeoei e Ieeeoith ninoaaeei aai nayoia ni?ieaeaoea e aioei a
enoi?eth ae?aaiae Aunioeeie iaeoaee eae naiay ae?aaioeaiiay no?aieoea.

Enoi?ey Aunioeeiai iiianou?y a XX aaea.

N ianooieaieai a ?innee yiioe iiaie aiaiai?/aneie aeanoe a enoi?ee
iiianou?y ioe?ueanue iaeia ec naiuo o?aae/aneeo no?aieoe. A iiya?a 1918
aiaea iaeoaeue caiyea 4 ?ioa 5-ai Caiaaeueneiai Eaouoneiai no?aeeiaiai
iieea. Ieiei aiaea iiae ae?aaieie noaiaie ea?aoaee aaee ?anno?aeu
caiiaeic?aiiuo a aeaca?oe?noaa. Iinea eo ooiaea /anoue iiianou?y ioioea
iiae aoaa?ineee eiioeaio?aoeeiiiue eaaa?ue.

A yoe aiaeu Aunioeeay iaeoaeue noaiiaeony eae au c?eiie eeieae o?iioa
aaniiuaaeiie aieiu oaiiuo naoaieineeo nee i?ioea ?onneiai i?aaineaaiiai
ie?iono?ienoaa. Ii oi?aaeyaiay Aiaeanoaaiiith aeaaiaeaoueth a?aoey
iiianou?y ai aeaaa n ianoiyoaeai a?oeiaiae?eoii Iaioaeaeiiiii iaionooiii
i?iaeieaeaea naie iieeoaaiiua o?oaeu, oaa?aei nio?aiyy o?aaeeoeeiiiue
iiiaoaneee oeeaae aeecie e aaeaaeiaaiue oea?eiaii-neoaeaaiue no?ie. Eae
iaa?aaea ca oa?iaiea noaei aeey a?aoee e i?eoiaeai iinauaiea iiianou?y
nayoaeoei Iao?ea?oii Oeoiiii eaoii 1924 aiaea.

A 1928 aiaeo aeanoe cae?uee Aunioeeee iiianou?ue. Oieueei Iie?ianeee
o?ai i?iaeieaeae aeaenoaiaaoue a ea/anoaa i?eoiaeneie oea?eae. A 1931
aiaeo iiianou?ue iieiinoueth i?ae?aoee naith aeayoaeueiinoue. Ia aai
ianoa a noaiao a?oeoaeoo?iiai ainaiaey oicyaaa iiaie aacaiaeiie aeecie
i?aaieciaaee oeie/iia aeey auaoeo iiianou?ae eniieueciaaiea. A oa/aiea
iieoaaea a ?aciua ia?eiaeu caeanue ?aciauaeenue i?aaiecaoeee e
o/?aaeaeaiey, eaca?iu, neeaaeu, aa?aaee, eiiioiaeueiua eaa?oe?u e caaiiu
aeey aeiiaoiaai neioa. A yoi aea a?aiy auei ?ac?ooaii o?e aaoie e
aieueoay /anoue noai. Iiianou?neee eiiieaen no?aieoaeueii aaooae, e a
iai auee ia/aou ?anoaa?aoeeiiiua ?aaiou, a oiaea eioi?uo a 1967 aiaeo
aue nianai «eae ia eiathuee enoi?e/aneie e eoeueoo?iie oeaiiinoe»
i?ae?aniue o?ai a /anoue i?aiiaeiaiuo Aoaianey Aoiineiai e Na?aey
?aaeiiaaeneiai.

25 ia?oa 1991 aiaea Nayuaiiue Neiiae ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae i?eiye
?aoaiea ia ioe?uoee e aic?iaeaeaiee Na?iooianeiai Aunioeeiai ioaeneiai
iiianou?y. Ianoiyoaeai aue iinoaaeai a?oeiaiae?eo Eineo (Aaeaaaiia).
Oi?aeanoaaiiia ioe?uoea iiianou?y niaa?oeeinue a n?aaeo Naaoeie
Naaeieoeu 1991 aiaea, ia Aeaiue iaiyoe i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey ieaaeoaai.
Ia?aua neoaeau i?ioiaeeee a iaeaiueeie iaaea?aoiie oea?eae ai eiy O?ao
nayoeoaeae Aaneeey Aaeeeiai, A?eai?ey Aiaineiaa e Eiaiia Ceaoionoa. N
yoiai a?aiaie aiciaiiaeeanue iieeoaaiiay e o?oaeiaay aeeciue Aunioeeiai
iiianou?y, aai aiaoiaa e aioo?aiiaa aeooiaiia niceaeaiea.

A 1994 aiaeo 24 naioya?y ninoiyeinue ia?aoaiea nayouo iiuae
i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey Aunioeeiai ieaaeoaai, a 25 naioya?y 1995 aiaea, a
aeaiue 600-eaoey ni aeiy i?anoaaeaiey i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey Aunioeeiai
ieaaeoaai, iiianou?ue iinaoee Nayoaeoee Iao?ea?o Aeaenee II.

N 2001 aiaea ia/aeenue ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou a o?aia ai eiy «Anao
nayouo». A iinea?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy iiaeeu a aai onuiaeueieoea auee
ane?uou, ?aca?aaeaiu e ineaa?iaiu, iaeiaaea e?aneaaeoee o?ai i?aa?aoeeny
a ?acaaeeiu. E aua a aeaoo o?aiao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeoony
?anoaa?aoeeiiiua ?aaiou. Iaa iie ?aniieiaeaiu a naaa?iie /anoe
Ca/aoueaaneiai niai?a: a eiioea aa?oiae aaea?ae — i?eaeaeueiay oea?eiaue
?iaeaeanoaa Aiai?iaeeoeu e aieco, iiae iae, iaeaiueeee o?ai ai eiy
i?aiiaeiaiiai Aoaianey Aoiineiai.

28 ethey 2005 aiaea a nayce n i?acaeiiaaieai 625-eaoey Eoeeeianeie aeoau
a aeaiue iaiyoe Na?iooianeiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a O?aa?iai,
iaeiiai ec aa?iaa Eoeeeianeie aeoau, eiiaiaeiaaaoaai Canaaeiui iieeii,
eioi?ue ?aoee iiaaaeiiiniue enoiae yoiai aaeeeiai n?aaeaiey, Aunioeeee
iiianou?ue iinaoee Nayoaeoee Iao?ea?o Aeaenee II. O Ca/aoueaaneiai
niai?a ia iiianou?neie ieiuaaee ii aieiai, iaaoei ia Eoeeeiaii iiea,
auea ioneoaeaia iaieoeaea, a a iiaeeeaoa niai?a Nayoaeoee Iao?ea?o
Aeaenee II aicaeaa iaoaaneioth eaiiaaeo. Oaeaea Nayoaeoei Iao?ea?oii
auei inayuaii ciaiy iniiaaiiiai i?e Aunioeeii iiianou?a
aiaiii-iao?eioe/aneiai eeoaa, eioi?ue iineo eiy Na?iooianeiai eiycy
Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a.

Canooiie/anoaii I?a/enoie Aiai?iaeeoeu e ii iieeoaai i?aiiaeiaiiai
Aoaianey ia?a/aiiay aiaiai?oeaie XX noieaoey ia iieiia ?aci?aiea
iaeoaeue ia Aunieii aica?auaaony e i?aaeiaio aeaaieaieth. AEeciue
iiianou?y iiiaia?aiia, ii aeaaiay aa oeaeue — nianaiea aeooe e aeooiaiay
iiiiuue ioaeaeathueiny. A iiianou?a aaeaaeiaaii niaa?oaaony iieiue e?oa
aiaineoaeaiey n iaycaoaeueiui ii ieii/aiee eeoo?aee aiaeinayoiui
iieaaiii ia?aae /oaeioai?iui ia?acii Aiaeeae Iaoa?e «Iaoieaaaiay *aoa».
Iaiiiai/eneaiiay a?aoey iiianou?y, oi?aaeyaiay n 1998 aiaea ianoiyoaeai
eaoiaiii Ee?eeeii (Einoeeiaui), ianao iaeaaeee iieeoaaiiue o?oae,
o/anoaoao a ?anoaa?aoeeiiiuo ?aaioao, caaioeony i /enoioa e aeaaieaiee
iiianou?y e aai o?aiia, aaaeao oicyenoai iaeoaee, i?eieiaao iaeiiieeia.
Iiiaea e iiiaea i?eacaeathuea a iiianou?ue ioia/atho iniaaiioth
iieeoaaiioth iano?iaiiinoue a noaiao iaeoaee, no?aieaiea e iieayieth e
i/euaieth, aeooaaiia oniieiaiea a aeiia I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu.

Iieeoaaiiay eaiiaaea, aicianaiiay «ia Aunieii» a XIV aaea nayouie ?oeaie
I?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey, i?iaeieaeaao iaiieiyoue ie? naaoii i?aaineaaiie
aa?u.

2. Aaaaeaineee Aeaaeu/iue aeaineee iiianou?ue

Iniiaaiea iiianou?y.

Aaaaeaineee Aeaaeu/iue iiianou?ue, ae?aaiaeoee ia na?iooianeie caiea,
aue iniiaai a 1360 aiaeo Ieo?iiieeoii Aeaeneai, nayoeoaeai Iineianeei e
anay ?innee /oaeioai?oeai. Iiianou?ue aiciee ii iniaiio ecaieaieth
Aiaeeae Iaoa?e – nayoeoaeue Aeaenee oneuoae aean, enoiaeyuee io Aa
eeiiu: «Aeaenea, iiaeiaaao oaaa iiianou?ue iinoaaeoue eiaie Iiaio, eoiii
aea e naaa a iaiyoue». *oaeaniui ia?acii auei oeacaii e ianoi aeey
nii?oaeaiey iiianou?y «a i?aaeaea a?aaea Na?iooiaa», n?aaee ae?aio/aai
niniiaiai ai?a ia i?aaii aa?aao ?aee Ia?u, e oi niauoea caiiie aeecie
I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu – i?aneaaiia Aa Aaaaeaiea ai o?ai, – a /anoue
eioi?iai aicaeaeaioo iiianou?ue. Nayoeoaeue, iiaeioynue aiea Aiaeeae e
Aeaaeu/eoeu Aiai?iaeeoeu, i?eaioiaeyao iio?aaiia aeey iiianou?y e
iinueaao i?ai. Aa?eaaia iniio?aoue ianoi ei ono?iaieth iiianou?y.
Nayoeoaeue iiaaeae ecaanoeoue e aai, /oiau oaeaeaoue naiiio, naieie
aeacaie. Aa?eaai, iiaeuneaa ianoi, caii/aaae oai, a ii/ueth, oneuoaa
caii aaeeeee e a?aiaiea ninoaeia aeaeaciuo e iaaeiuo, iiaeoiae, /oi
Ainiiaeo caeanue oaiaeii iinoaaeoue iiianou?ue. Ii aue ?aae e
aica?aoeeny ecaanoeoue ia yoii Aeaeney. Nionoy iaeia a?aiy e nai Aeaenee
i?eoae a Na?iooia e iiiai iano iaioae, ianoi aea oi ia i/aiue aio
iiethaeeinue, eai iieacaeinue iaoaiaeiui. E aiacaiii ii/ueth ia oii aea
ianoa oneuoae oi aea naiia, /oi e noa?aoe Aa?eaai, aeoia aea e aean aue,
/oi caeanue iiianou?ue iinoaaeoue. E ii oio/an iiaeioaony yoiio e
iiaaeae oea?eiaue caeiaeeoue aea?aayiioth, Aa?eaaia aea iacia/ee
no?ieoaeai. Nionoy a?aiy e eaiaiioth oea?eiaue iinoaaee, a oaeaea
o?aiacioth a 1362 aiaeo.

5 iay 1377 aiaea no?ieoaeue iaeoaee Aa?eaai n ie?ii i?anoaaeeny ei
Ainiiaeo e ii caaauaieth aai aue iia?aaai iiae oea?eiaiie iaia?oueth,
eai ii neacae: «Iia?aaeoa iaiy oae, /oiau y anaaaea c?ae oea?eiaue
I?anayouy Aiai?iaeeoeu». A oii aea 1377 aiaeo ii ?anii?yaeaieth
nayoeoaey Aeaeney aeey Na?iooianeiai Aeaaeu/iiai iiianou?y auea iaienaia
eeiia «Aaaaeaiea I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu ai Nayoay Nayouo» ii ia?aco
aeaeaiey i?ai. Aa?eaaia Na?iooianeiai. Yoa eeiia, iiiauaiiay a niai?iii
o?aia, iino?iaiiii eiieii Aa?eaaiii, a i?iaeieaeaiea iiiaeo aaeia auea
aeaaiie nayouiae iiianou?y e ii/eoaeanue anaoea?eiaii eae /oaeioai?iay.

O?aiu e nayouie iiianou?y.

A eiioea XV – ia/aea XVI aaea e ae?aaiaio Aaaaeaineiio niai?o n naaa?iie
noi?iiu aue i?eno?iai i?eaeae nayoeoaey Iineianeiai Aeaeney. Iiae iei
auea ono?iaia onuiaeueieoea aeey oao, eoi aue iaiyoai iieeoaaiiuie
iiaeaeaaie eee aiaaouie aeeaaeaie. A eiioea XVI aaea ia n?aaenoaa oea?y
Ai?ena Aiaeoiiaa a iiianou?a aue iino?iai eaiaiiue aeaoouy?oniue o?ai a
/anoue nayoiai aaeeeiio/aieea Aai?aey.

Iaae Nayouie a?aoaie a 1599 aiaeo eaoiaiii Aanneaiii auea iino?iaia
oea?eiaue nayoiai io/aieea Oaiaeioa Aiee?neiai. A 1834 aiaeo iia auea
ia?ano?iaia e inayuaia nayoeoaeai Iineianeei Oeea?aoii a /anoue
Ia?oeioai?iiai ia?aca Nianeoaey.

I o?aiiaie /oaeioai?iie eeiia nayoiai aaeeeiio/aieea Aai?aey i?aaeaiea
aiai?eo, /oi ia?aae iath naia niaie aicai?aeanue naa/a, i?aaeoi?aaeaeay
iiiaoia i a?aaeaneii iaoanoaee. A iiianou?a iaoiaeeeanue oaeaea
/oaeioai?iay eeiia nayoiai io/aieea Eiaiia Aieia. A 1607 aiaeo ii
iiaaeaieth oea?y Aaneeey Eiaiiiae/a Ooeneiai a iaeoaeue aue i?eianai
/oaeioai?iue ia?ac nayoiai oea?aae/a Aeeieo?ey Oaee/neiai. *aeaiiay
iaaeienue ia eeiia aeaneo, /oi io iaa auea aea?iaaia iiaaaea aeec
Na?iooiaa iaae aieneaie aoi?iai naiicaaioea. A iiianou?a oaeaea
ii/eoaeenue e ae?oaea /oaeioai?iua eeiiu.

Enoi?ey iiianou?y a XVII aaea ii XX aae.

N eiioea XVII aaea iaeoaeue ia/aea eniuouaaoue aieueoea iaoa?eaeueiua
cao?oaeiaiey. Iia iioa?yea naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e auea i?eienuaaaia
oi e ninaaeiaio Aunioeeiio iiianou?th, oi e Iineianeiio
Caeeiiinianneiio. A 1727 aiaeo Aeaaeu/iue iiianou?ue iiyoue noae
naiinoiyoaeueiui, ii iaoiaeeeny oaea a niaa?oaiiii oiaaeea:
aiaineoaeaiey ii/oe nianai inoaiiaeeenue, a?aoey ?acioeanue, eaeeee e
o?aiu i?eoee a caionoaiea.

A 1806 aiaeo ieo?iiieeo Iineianeee Ieaoii (Eaaoei) ia?aoee naia
a?oeianou?neia aieiaiea ia Aeaaeu/ioth iaeoaeue e eni?inee o Eiia?aoi?a
Aeaenaiae?a I ?ac?aoaiea i?aia?aciaaoue aa a aeaineoth. N yoiai a?aiaie
ia/aeny iaaeaeaiiue ?anoeaao iaeoaee. A oa/aiea XIX aaea auee iaiiaeaiu
e aeaaioe?aoaiu nayoua o?aiu, aicaaaeaiu iiaua eaiaiiua ei?iona,
ainoeieoeu aeey iiiai/eneaiiuo iaeiiieeia, ono?iaia aieueieoea n
eaai?aoi?eae e aeiiaoiae aioaeie. I?e iiianou?a auei iaoe?iia oicyenoai:
iai?iaeu, naaeu, eoaiaua e iaoioiua caiee, 180 aeanyoei eana, neioiue
aeai?, i/aeueiee.

E na?aaeeia noieaoey /enei ianaeueieoe aic?inei aei 300. N?aaee ieo auee
enoeiiua iiaeaeaeieoeu aeaai/anoey, iaiyoue i nayoie eo aeecie
nio?aieeanue aei iaoeo aeiae.

N eiaiai i?ai. Aa?eaaia naycaii yaeaiea a 1878 aiaeo /oaeioai?iie eeiiu
Aiaeeae Iaoa?e «Iaoieaaaiay *aoa», eiathuae iniaoth aeaaiaeaoue
enoeaeaiey io iaaeoaa iueyinoaa.

Aieioue aei cae?uoey a 1919 aiaeo iaeoaeue iaoiaeeeanue a ?anoeaaoa. A
iae iiaeaecaeinue aei 400 ianaeueieoe, caeaiea e oa??eoi?ey
aeaaiono?aeaaeenue e oe?aoaeenue. Auea oe?iei ?acaeoa aeaaioai?eoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue: nouanoaiaaea aiaaaeaeueiy, iaeiouei aanieaoii
ieacuaaeanue iaaeeoeeineay iiiiuue, auaeaaaeenue iaaeeeaiaiou.

Eiaaea iiianou?ue aue cae?uo e nano?u aunaeaiu, oi ia oa??eoi?ee
?acianoeeanue oeiea «e?aniuo aiaieaoia», caoai ia aa aaca auei nicaeaii
n?aaeiaa aiaiiia o/eeeua. Iiianou?ue noae iacuaaoueny Aaeaai?iaeie.

A 1978 aiaeo o/eeeua inaiaiaeeei oa??eoi?eth, e n oao ii? iia
inoaaaeanue aac oicyeia. Iiianou?ue aue ?ac?ooai ca iineaaeiaaaoea 17
eao. Aai ?anoaneeaaee ii ee?ie/eeai ia aa?aaee e aea/e. ?oaaae 90-o
aiaeia iiianou?ue ia?anooiee aac aaeeiie e?uoe, n ceythueie i?iaaeaie
aianoi ieii, a iieo?ac?ooaiiii ninoiyiee.

5 iay 1995 aiaea ii ieeinoe Aiaeeae Nayuaiiue Neiiae aeaaineiaee
aiciaiiaeaiea iiiaoaneie aeecie ai Aaaaeaineii Aeaaeu/iii aeaineii
iiianou?a e iacia/ee ianoiyoaeueieoeae iiiaoeith Aeaeneth (Iao?iao). Yoi
niauoea noaei ia?aie no?aieoeae a iiaie aeaaa eaoiiene iaeoaee.

28 ethey 1995 aiaea a o?aia nayoeoaey Aeaeney Aunieii?ainayuaiiae-oei
THaaiaeeai, ieo?iiieeoii E?ooeoeeei e Eieiiaineei, auea niaa?oaia ia?aay
Aiaeanoaaiiay eeoo?aey, a 4 yiaa?y 1996 aiaea a iaeoaee ninoiyeny ia?aue
eii/aneee iino?ea. Ii aeaaineiaaieth ieo?iiieeoa THaaiaeey 6 iay 1996
aiaea ia ianoa iia?aaaiey i?ai. no?ieoaey Aa?eaaia aue aiae?oaeai e?ano,
a inaiueth oiai aea aiaea aicaeaia iaoaaneiay eaiiaaea. 25 naioya?y 1998
aiaea iaeoaee auea iiaea?aia eeiia i?ai. Aa?eaaia Na?iooianeiai.

6 iay 1996 aiaea aue inayuai nienie /oaeioai?iie eeiiu «Iaoieaaaiay
*aoa». Io yoiai ia?aca ia/aee i?ienoaeaoue aeaaiaeaoiua enoeaeaiey. Ai
Aeaaeu/iii iiianou?a eaaeaeue aeaiue /eoaaony aeaoeno ia?aae yoie
eeiiie, i?e yoii niaa?oaaony iiieiiaaiea ethaeae, no?aaeathueo io
iueyinoaa, a oae aea anao ioaeaeathueony a iieeoaaiiie iiiiue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeia /enei ianaeueieoe iiaeaecaaony a iaeoaee. Iie
caieiathony auiieiaieai oicyenoaaiiuo iineooaiee e iieeoaie.

Iuia, eae e a aueua a?aiaia, anyeee, eoi n aeaaiaiaaeiui o?aiaoii e
no?aoii anooiaao a i?aaeaeu iniiaaiiiai ii /oaeiiio aeano Oea?eoeu
Iaaaniie iiianou?y, i?aeeiiyao eieaia ia?aae iiaeeie nie?aiiiai eiiea
Aa?eaaia e n ai?y/ae iieeoaie i?ineo canooiie/anoaa e oiaeaoaenoaa i?aae
Aiaii i naaa e aeeaeieo naieo, iieo/aao aeaaiaeaoioth iiiiuue e aeeaiua
enoeaeaiey.

3. Ieeieueneee Niai? a. Na?iooiaa

N?aaee iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u iicaeiaai eeanneoeecia a ai?iaea Na?iooiaa
o?ai Ieeieu Aaeiai, caieiaao, aannii?ii, ia?aia ianoi, eae ii
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui aeinoieinoaai, oae e ii naiaio a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiio
cia/aieth (ii neoaeeo aeaaiie aunioiie aeiieiaioie aeey oeaeiai ?aeiia
noa?ie, enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny cano?ieee).

Ieeieueneee o?ai ia?aiia/aeueii aue aea?aayiiui. Oaeiaui ii oeao?e?oao a
aeieoiaioao XVI — ia/aea XVII aa. (a /anoiinoe, a iienyo a. Na?iooiaa
1552 a. e 1620 a.). A 1713 aiaeo ecaeaaony oeac i iino?ieea eaiaiiie
oea?eae a /anoue nao. Ieeieay. Eieoeeaoi?ii iino?ieee yaeyeny iiaeuey/ee
Caineie ecau a. Na?iooiaa Ieoaee Iiiia. Oaea a ia?oa 1721 aiaea Ieoaee
Iiiia ieoao: “…e iuia y ii naiaio iaauaieth aianoi oie aaooie oea?eae
eaiaiioth iino?iee e aa?o ia oie oea?eae naeaeae ii /eio”. A oii aea
aiaeo o?ai inayoeee. O?ai i?aaenoaaeye niaie oiaaea oaai/aiiue iaeiie
aeaaie /aoaa?ee n aeoa?iie i?eno?ieeie, eiaaoae neiiao?e/ii
?aniieiaeaiiua oao?iaua caaa?oaiey iaae aea?oaaiieeii e aeeaeiiieeii.
Caeaiea auei neiaeaii ec oanaiuo aeieia ianoiiai ecaanoiyea. Ionthaea e
i?ienoiaeeo noaaoaa iauai?eiyoui ianoiia iacaaiea o?aia — Ieeiea Aaeue.
A oaeii aeaea iaiyoiee i?inouanoaiaae aei 30-o aa. XIX aa.

A 1835 a. ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai iuia nouanoaothuaai o?aia Nayoeoaey
Ieeieay n i?eaeaeaie nayoeoaey Aeaeney Ieo?iiieeoa Iineianeiai e
i?aiiaeiaiiai Ee?eeea Aaeiaca?neiai. Aicaaaeaiiue a 1835-1857 aa. o?ai
Ieeieu Aaeiai yaeyaony i?ae?aniui ia?acoeii iineianeiai aiie?a. Ii
auno?iai ec ee?ie/a e iooooeaoo?ai, eiaao ai aiaoiai aeaei?a
aaeieaiaiiua aeaoaee. Iiuiue /aoaa?ee n iaeiie aineaeie e aeaoiy
aieiauie iaia?oyie-ii?oeeaie ianao aieueooth eoiieueioth ?ioiiaeo.
I?eiueathuea e iniiaiiio iauaio n caiaaea /aou?aonoieiiay o?aiaciay e
iiiaiy?oniay eieieieueiy i?aoa?iaee a oiaea eo nii?oaeaiey iaeioi?ua
eciaiaiey ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaeoii.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee 1917 a. aiaineoaeaaiay aeeciue a o?aia Ieeieu Aaeiai
i?a?aaeanue ia n?aco. I?eia/aoaeai oaeo iinauaiey o?aia Nayoeoaeai
Oeoiiii 2 ethiy 1924 aiaea. Eiaiii ei, Iao?ea?oii Ana?inneeneei, aue
i?enaiai o?aio noaoon Eaoaae?aeueiiai Niai?a, iinea /aai cia/aiea Ieeieu
Aaeiai a ai?iaea aic?inei. A 1928 a. eaoaae?a ai?iaoaainy n oea?eiaiui
?aneieii aieneiia Na?iooianeiai Iaioeea (Eaiaoaaneiai) iaoiaeeeanue a
Ieeieueneii niai?a. Ecaanoii oaeaea, /oi iinea cae?uoey Aeaaeu/iiai
aeaineiai iiianou?y ii/eoaaiue a ai?iaea ia?ac Aiaeeae Iaoa?e
“Iaoieaaaiay *aoa” iaoiaeeeny eiaiii a o?aia Ieeieu Aaeiai. Iaeiaei e
aai iinoeaea o/anoue iiiaeo o?aiia Na?iooiaa, a 1929 a. aai cae?uee. Ii
?anneacai noa?iaeeeia eeiiu niai?a auee nianaiu ia ?. Ia?a e niaeaeaiu
ia aa eueaeo. Iai?eyciue e oea?eae, eiuoinoaaiii ac?aueaaaiay a ethaeyo
iiaie aeanoueth, aeaea naay ciaoue e caeanue: eieieieueiy, aaee/anoaaiii
aiciineaoayny iaae ai?iaeii n na?aaeeiu XIX aaea, auea /anoe/ii
?ac?ooaia, ia?ac nayoeoaey Ieeieay ia aiaoiae noaia o?aia iinoiyiiiai
iiaeaa?aaeny iaae?oaaoaeuenoaai. Ii eae ?anneacuaatho aeeoaee
i?eeaaathueo e o?aio aeiiia, iaaethaeaaoea yoi ineaa?iaiea, anyeee ?ac
ia neaaeothuaa oo?i ia?ac nayoiai /oaeioai?oea iaiiaeyeny, yaeyy Aiaeeth
neeo e aoaeoi i?aae?aeay iiaoth aeeciue ii?oaaiiiio niai?o. Iaeioi?ia
a?aiy a niai?a iaoiaeeeanue ai?iaeneay iaea?iiiay oaa?eea. Ai a?aiy
aieiu caeanue auee ono?iaiu i?a/a/iua. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia?aae
ioe?uoeai iiiauaiea o?aia eniieueciaae ooaa a?aaeaeaineie iai?iiu iiae
oei. neeaae, eioi?ue aue ?aciauai a niai?a ii ianoiyieth i?aaenaaeaoaey
Eniieeiia ai?iaea N. I. Eoae?yeiaa n aeaaiie oeaeueth – ecaaaeaoue niina
o?aia.

A eaioi 1000-eaoey e?auaiey ?one i Niai?a Ieeieu Aaeiai, eae y?/aeoai
a?oeoaeoo?iii iaiyoieea, caaiai?eee aiiaue. N?aaee ieaiia eniieueciaaiey
o?aia ?anniao?eaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?aa?auaiey aai a eiioea?oiue cae.
Ii ieeinoueth Aiaeeae a 1995 a. ii aue aica?auai aa?othuei eae
iiaeai?uea Aunioeeiai iiianou?y, n 1998 a. — i?eoiaeneie o?ai. A 1995 a.
ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey Nayoaeoaai Iao?ea?oa Iineianeiai e Anay ?one Aeaeney
II a Na?iooiaa Aaeieieno?aoeey ai?iaea a?o/eea I?aaenoiyoaeth ?onneie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae eeth/e io o?aia. A 1999 a. ia n?aaenoaa
aeaaioai?eoaeae, ai?iaeneie aaeieieno?aoeee e ai?iaeai auee i?eia?aoaiu
eieieiea. Eieieie aanii 1380 ea eiaao /aou?a eeiiu-eeaeia: Nianeoaey,
Aiaeeae Iaoa?e, Nayoeoaey Ieeieay *oaeioai?oea e ia?ac iaaaniiai
iie?iaeoaey Oi?aaeythuaai Iineianeie Aia?oeae Aunieii?ainayuaiiaeoaai
THaaiaeey Ieo?iiieeoa E?ooeoeeiai e Eieiiaineiai — nayoiai THaaiaeey
Iao?ea?oa Ea?onaeeineiai. Ia ainnoaiiaeaiiie eieieieueia cao/eo 300 —
ioaeiaue aeaaiaanoiee.

N 2002 aiaea ainnoaiaaeeaaoue Niai? noaea aoiaeyuay a A?oiio eiiiaiee
NO-155 oe?ia “No?iiaeueyin”. A 2003 aiaeo o?iaeaioeai ai?iaea Na?iooiaa,
— aeaaioai?eoaeai Ieoaeeii Aaeaeeiui o?aio iiaea?ai eieieie aanii 5
oiii, ioeeoue niaoeeaeueii aeey na?iooianeiai niai?a y?ineaaneeie
ianoa?aie. Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu a niai?a Ieeieu Aaeiai ainnoaiiaeaiu e
iaono?iaiu e?iia aeaaiiai aeoa?y aua /aou?a i?eaeaeueiuo: ai eiy
nayoeoaey Aeaeney Iineianeiai, i?aiiaeiaiiai Ee?eeea Aaeiaca?neiai,
iiaiio/aieeia e eniiaaaeieeia na?iooianeeo e eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e
“Iiiiaeaiea ?iaeai”. Iiiaia naeaeaii ii aeaaiono?ienoao oa??eoi?ee
o?aia. A ii/iia a?aiy niai? Ieeieu Aaeiai neiaii iaeeo naaoii,
no?oyueiny ii noaiai e ieiai, e eae caaeaeaiiay naa/a naaoeo anaio
ai?iaeo.

Iniaiai aieiaiey aeinoieia aioo?aiiyy ?inienue niai?a. Ia naiaea eoiiea
ecia?aaeaia any caiiay enoi?ey, ia/eiay io i?aaeaa/iiai niaaoa Nayoie
O?ieoeu i nioai?aiee ie?a, aaooicaaaoiuo iao?ea?oia e i?i?ieia, o/eoaeae
Oea?eae, aei ?inneeneeo nayoeoaeae e io/aieeia. Nieia/iue naao ica?yao
o?ai, i?ioiaey iaaeaeo ecia?aaeaiee nayouo aiinoieia, iaiiieiay ia
enoeiiii Nieioea — Eenona O?enoa. N?aaee eeii Nianeoaey e Aai I?a/enoie
Iaoa?e, niii ?onneeo nayouo: nayoeoaeae e aeaaiaa?iuo eiycae, aieiia e
iiiaoia e, eiia/ii aea, nayoie Ieeieae *oaeioai?aoe a aeeoeeiii
ecia?aaeaiee aai /oaeioai?aiee. O?aiiaay aeeaiienue — yoi aeaeey a
e?aneao. Aa/iay eieaa, i?eaiaeyuay e nianaieth, ?ane?uoa aeey aa?othueo
a Na?iooianeii eaoaae?aeueiii niai?a. Aaee/anoaaiiua oea?neea a?aoa
aeaaiiai aeoa?y oaai/eaathony a?i/iie naiueth, ia eioi?ie ?aniieiaeaiu
eeiiu no?anoiie naaeieoeu: Aa?aiia aine?anaiea, i?aaeaoaeuenoai Eoaeu,
iai?aaaaeiue noae ie?neiai aeanoeoaey, ?aniyoea, iia?aaaiea e Naaoeia
Aine?anaiea. A niai?a iaoiaeeony /oaeioai?iue ia?ac Aiaeeae Iaoa?e
“Iiiiaeaiea ?iaeai”, i?aae eioi?ui niaa?oathony iieaaiu n aeaoenoii,
ninoaaeaiiui ianoiyoaeai niai?a i?ioiea?aai Aeaaeeie?ii Aiae?aaaui, a
oaeaea ianoii/oeiua ia?aca nayoiai Ieeieay *oaeioai?oea, aaeeeiio/aieea
Iaioaeaeiiia, io/aieea Aiieoaoey, iiaiio/aieeia e eniiaaaeieeia
Na?iooianeeo.

A niai?a Ieeieu Aaeiai ainnoaiiaeaia iieiioeaiiay i?eoiaeneay aeeciue.
I?e niai?a naaiaeiy eiaaony iauaaeinooiiay aeaeeioaea, aeaenoaotho aeaa
aine?aniua oeieu: aeaoneay e ac?ineay. Aeooiaainoai niai?a iiaeaao
Na?iooianeee Aiaiiue einoeooo, neaaenoaaiiue ecieyoi? e aeaoneea i?etho
e eioa?iao, iaaeaaiae/aneee e aoiaieoa?iue eieeaaeaee.

4. Nianneee o?ai ai?iaea Na?iooiaa

Caia?neia eeaaeaeua aicieeei ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea aaeaee io
aeeeuo iino?iae ia ai?iaeneeo auaiiiuo caieyo. Nianneay oea?eiaue auea
iino?iaia oai aeey ooaoaiey ie?yi a iioa?a aeeaeieo. O?ai aicaaee ii/oe
ca 3 aiaea n 1893 ii 1896 ia n?aaenoaa na?iooianeiai eoioea Aaneeey
Oaaei?iae/a Inoaiiaa. Nianneee o?ai iino?iai ii i?iaeoo ecaanoiiai
iineianeiai a?oeoaeoi?a ?iiaia Eaaiiae/a Eeaeia. Aicea o?aia aicaaee
ioaeaeueii noiyuoth eieieieueith n ia?aaeiuie ai?ioaie, eioi?ua
ia?aciaaee aoiae ia eeaaeaeua. ?yaeii iino?ieee aeiia oea?eiaiiai
i?e/oa.

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia XX aaea oea?eiaue auea cae?uoa. O?ai eeoeeny oao?a
e aeaaie, aue ?ac?ooai aa?oiee y?on eieieieueie. Caeaiea o?aia
eniieueciaaee iiae ?uaiue neeaae. Oea?eiaue auea ?aca?aaeaia, ?iniene ia
noaiao iie?ueenue neiai eiiioe. Ca niaaoneee ia?eiae n o?ao noi?ii
aie?oa o?aia iino?ieee ieiei 50 aa?aaeae ia ?annoiyiee 5-6 iao?ia io
nayouie. Aeiieee i?e oea?eae auee i?eaaoece?iaaiu a 90-a aiaeu XX aaea.

A 1999 aiaeo o?ai Niana ia/ae aic?iaeaeaoueny iinea aeieaeo eao
caaaaiey. O?ai ?anoaa?e?iaaee niaeanii noa?ui /a?oaaeai e oioia?aoeyi.
I?iaaee aaciaia ioiieaiea, aiaeii?iaiae e yeaeo?e/anoai. *anoe/ii
ainnoaiiaeee ?ac?ooaiioth ee?ie/ioth eeaaeeo. Nii?oaeeee e?uoo, oaoa? e
aeaaee n e?anoaie. Iaae aoiaeii a oea?eiaue onoaiiaeee ea?aie/aneoth
eeiio Niana Ia?oeioai?iiai.

5. Oea?eiaue ?aniyoey Ainiiaeiy

Ii aeaeiaaiiie a?aiioa Iao?ea?oa Aae?eaia a 1665 aiaeo caeanue iniiaai
Iiai?iaeaeanoaaineee aeaae/ee iiianou?ue. Aiineaaenoaee ia?aeiaiiaai a
?aniyoneee. I?iia?acii ?aniyoneiai niai?a n/eoatho Iao?iiaaeianeee niai?
a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.

A XVIII aaea iaeoaeue oiiieiaaony oaea oieueei eae i?eoiaeneee o?ai. Ii
i?aaeaieth Oea?eiaue ?aniyoey Ainiiaeiy iino?iaia a 1719 aiaeo ia
n?aaenoaa eiyaeie Iaca?aou Iaoaaaaiu Aaaa?eiie. Iuia – iauaaeeoea
iaaeeoeeineiai o/eeeua.

6. O?ieoeeee niai?

Eaiaiiue O?ieoeeee niai? aue iino?iai a 1696 aiaeo ia n?aaenoaa
a?oeiaiae?eoa Iineianeiai Niani-Aiae?iieeiaa iiianou?y Oaiaeiney, a
i?ioeii nayuaiieea O?ieoeeiai niai?a. Aei iiyaeaiey eaiaiiiai o?aia ia
yoii ianoa a e?aiinoe noiye aea?aayiiue niai? aua ai a?aiaia eiycy
Aeaaeeie?a Aiae?aaae/a.

A XVII aaea a niai?a aue i?eaeae nayoiai io/aieea Aeeieo?ey Nieoineiai,
?acia?aiiue e aiiaue ainnoaiiaeaiiue i?e ia?ano?ieea a 1837-1841 aiaeao,
eiaaea auee oaeaea eciaiaiu caaa?oaiea eieieieueie e ainueia?ee o?aia,
i?eno?iai i?eaeae nayoeoaey Ieeieay Ie?eeeeeneiai. Oanaaeu o?aia
iieo/eee a?oeoaeoo?ioth ia?aaioeo a noeea aiie?. Eiaaea-oi a i?iaia
e?aieaaneeo noai auee aeaeiu oieueei caiaaeiue oanaae e eieieieueiy,
eioi?ie a niaaoneia a?aiy aa?ioee iaeee eiioea XVII aaea.

A 30-o aiaeao i?ioeiai noieaoey o?ai aue cae?uo. A 1937 aiaeo ?anno?aeyi
ianoiyoaeue O?ieoeeiai niai?a i?ioie?ae Aaneeee Nooaeieoeui.
Nayuaiiiio/aiee Aaneeee i?ineaaeai a eeea iiaiio/aieeia e eniiaaaeieeia
?inneeneeo.

21 naioya?y 2003 aiaea niai?ii aeooiaainoaa Na?iooianeiai aeaai/eiey aue
ioneoaeai ia?aue ni aeiy cae?uoey o?aia iieaaai n aiaeinayoeai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a O?ieoeeii niai?a ?aniieiaeaia yeniiceoeey iocay. A
iae i?aaenoaaeaiu oieueei iiaeeeiiua i?aaeiaou, ?anneacuaathuea ia
enoi?ee Na?iooiaa, i no?ieoaeuenoaa iiianou?ae, ia ainaiaeyo aeai?yineeo
onaaeaa e iinaaeneeo oea?eaae, i aicieeiiaaiee e ?acaeoee i?iiuoeaiiinoe
a Na?iooiaa a XVIII-XIX aaeao.

O?ieoeeee niai? yaeyaony naiaia?aciui oeaio?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeecie
ai?iaea. A aunoaai/iii caea O?ieoeeiai niai?a ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyony
ia?niiaeueiua aunoaaee ooaeiaeieeia, a oaeaea aunoaaee ec oiiaeia
Na?iooianeiai enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iocay.

7. Oea?eiaue Anao Nayouo (eeaaeaeuaineay).

Yoio o?ai aicaeaeaioo a 1870-o aiaeao n?aaenoaaie e noa?aieyie
Na?iooianeiai ai?iaeneiai iauanoaa. I?iaeo Anaonayoneie oea?eae auiieiee
a?oeoaeoi? Eaceie? Aeeaioueaae/ A?eiaaneee.

E?iia aeaaiiai Anaonayoneiai i?anoiea eiaeenue i?aaeaeu ai eiy eeiiu
Aiaeeae Iaoa?e «Acuneaiea iiaeaoeo» e nayoiai aaeeeiio/aieea Ieeeou.
Iaeioi?ua a?oeoaeoo?iua aeaoaee oea?eae ioaeaeaiii eiatho noiaenoai n
iineianeei o?aiii O?enoa Nianeoaey. Aunieay eieieieueiy i/aiue iioiaea
ia ianio?aieaoothny eieieieueith iineianeiai o?aia nayouo Einiu e
Aeaieaia a Noieaoieeao. O?ai aue cae?uo a 1920-o aiaeao. Eae e
aieueoeinoai na?iooianeeo oea?eaae, o?ai iinea cae?uoey eniieueciaaeny
eae neeaaeneia iiiauaiea. Ca yoi a?aiy nianaia aa?oiyy /anoue
eieieieueie, ia eioi?oth aiae?oceee a?iiicaeeoth aioaiio, iyoeaeaaea
auei ?ac?ooaii, o?ai e eeaaeaeua i?eoiaeeee a caionoaiea, ?ac?ooaeenue.
A 1995 aiaeo oea?eiaue auea ioe?uoa aiiaue. A iiaeeeaoa ono?iai o?ai a
/anoue nayoiai i?aaaaeiiai Eiaiia E?iiooaaeneiai. I?e o?aia aeaenoaoao
oea?eiaii-i?eoiaeneay oeiea, aeaeeioaea e aeaeaioaea.

8. Oea?eiaue nayoie O?ieoeu.

Iino?iaia a eiioea XVII aaea. Iaeioi?ua enoi?eee n/eoatho, /oi iaeee
eiaiii yoie oea?eae a XVIII aaea noaiao iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey
na?iooianeie a?oeoaeoo?iie oeieu. A XIX aaea iaaaooaaooth oea?eiaue
ianeieueei ?ac ia?ano?aeaaee, ii e naiiauoiinoe o?aia ioiineeenue
aa?aaeii. Oea?eiaue cae?uoa a 60-o aiaeao XX aaea.

9. *aniaiy Oeoaeineie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e.

Iino?iaia a 1911 aiaeo ii i?iaeoo ai?iaeneiai a?oeoaeoi?a N.A.
Aiiaeue?ioa. Ainnoaiiaeaia eae /aniaiy Oeoaeineie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e a
2003 aiaeo ia iiaea?oaiaaiey na?iooiae/ae.

10. *aniaiy Eaa?neie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e.

I?eiaaeeaaeeo Aunioeeiio iiianou?th. Iino?iaia a 1853 aiaeo, i?e iae
auee aeaa eaeuee. A niaaoneia a?aiy ?ac?ooaia, eeoue iaaeaaii /aniaith
ia/aee ainnoaiaaeeaaoue.

11. Oea?eae nayouo AEai-Ie?iiineoe.

Aeaa oea?eae noiyo ?yaeii. Iaa iinyo iaeii iacaaiea. Iaeue o?ai(iino?iai
a 1685 aiaeo) noae aeaenoaeoaeueii iae aeey i?eoiaeai, e ia n?aaenoaa
A.A.Nieiaeiaieeiaa no?ieony iiaue. Ii e i?aaeiee inoaaony, aaaeue ii –
iaeei ec noa?aeoeo eaiaiiuo o?aiia ai?iaea.

Iaa o?aia ?ac?ooaiu. Iaeue – aua a 1930 aiaeo. A aieueoie i?ioae anth
aieio, iino?aaeae io oaoenoneie aiiau, ii aunoiye. ?ac?ooeee aai iinea
aieiu, oioy iiaeii auei ainnoaiiaeoue.

12. Oea?eiaue Oniaiey I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu.

Aia?aua aea?aayiiue o?ai ia yoi ianoa oiiieiaaony a 1620 aiaeo. A 1744
aiaeo iino?iai eaiaiiue o?ai Oniaiey. Iia?aaeaeaiiue iiaea?ii 1817
aiaea, ii ia?ano?iai ia n?aaenoaa iioiinoaaiiiai ii/aoiiai a?aaeaeaieia
I.I.Eiioeia e inayuai a 1854 aiaeo. A o?aia 3 i?eaeaea: ai eiy nayoiai
aiinoiea Eiaiia Aiaineiaa, eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e «Anao Nei?ayueo
?aaeinoue» e ai eiy i?ai. Ieeieu Nayoioe. A niaaoneia a?aiy Oniaineee
o?ai aue cae?uo. Ianoiyoaeue, i?ioiea?ae Aeaenee Neiaeneee, ?anno?aeyi
ia iieeaiia IEAAe Aooiai a 1938 aiaeo.

A Na?iooiaa ca iiiaiaaeiaoth aai enoi?eth auei iino?iaii aua iiiai
o?aiia. I anao ?anneacaoue iaaiciiaeii, iiyoiio iu oioy au ia?a/eneei
eo: N?aoaiey Ainiiaeiy, Aiaiyaeaiey Ainiiaeiy, Iie?iaa I?anayoie
Aiai?iaeeoeu, Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai, Aicianaiey Ainiiaeiy, Nayoeoaey
Ieeieay *oaeioai?oea (Ieeieu Aoaeee), E?anoiaicaeaeaeaineay, Ia/a?neie
eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e, I?aia?aaeaiey Ainiiaeiy, Eacaineie eeiiu Aiaeeae
Iaoa?e, ?iaeaeanoaa I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu, Aine?anaiey O?enoiaa, nao.
Ieeieay(n. Aooo?eeii). Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo oea?eaae ainnoaiiaeaiu e a ieo
ii-i?aaeiaio eaeoo neoaeau, ae?oaea aea ooa?yiu, ii aoaeai iaaeayoueny,
/oi ia iaanaaaea.

Caeeth/aiea

A?aiy aiiaiee ia Oea?eiaue a niaaoneee ia?eiae i?eiyoi nae/an
n?aaieaaoue n ?aiiao?enoeaineeie niauoeyie oea?eiaiie enoi?ee. Ii
ianooaau aiaiai?/aneiai ianooieaiey ia O?enoiao aa?o i?e aieueoaaeeao
auee eiua, iaecia?eii aieueoea.

Iiaia a?aiy ii?iaeeei iiaua oi?iu aeecie… E a yoeo iiauo oi?iao
Oea?eiaue O?enoiaa inoaeanue oie aea enoeiiie e iaiieieaaeiie, oai aea
ianie?ooeiui Oaeii O?enoiaui, eioi?ia ia iaeieaee e naie a?aoa aaea (Io.
16:18). Ii yoi aea a?aiy ii?iaeeei e iiaia iieieaiea eniiaaaeieeia e
io/aieeia O?enoiauo. E yaeeenue iiyoue neeoaeueoeu e ocieee, «eo aea ia
aa aeinoiei aanue ie?» (Aa?. 11:38). E iiiaea ec neo neii/aeenue a
iaeeii/anoaa e aacaanoiinoe, eniieiyy iaiinoeaeeioth aieth Aiaeeth,
i?iaiaeyuoth eo ec n?aaeu no?aaeaiee a Oea?noai Aa/iie I?aaaeu.

Na?iooia ia ieiiaaea *aoa eniuoaiee a aiaeu aiiaiee, ii ii anaaaea
auoiaeee ec yoie aeanoieie ai?ueau iiaaaeeoaeai. E oioy iao ai?iae
iaaaeee, ii ana aea ii yaeyeny e yaeyaony iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo aeooiaiuo
oeaio?ia ?innee e aeae ie?o niii iiaiio/aieeia e eniiaaaeieeia
i?aaineaaiie aa?u. Iie anaaaea aoaeoo i?aaenoiyoue ia?aae Ainiiaeii ca
ian e eo nayouie iieeoaaie aic?iaeeony aueay aeooiaiay iiuue ?onneiai
ia?iaea!

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A?ioth?a Aaaaeaineee Aeaaeu/iue aeaineee iiianou?ue a ai?iaea
Na?iooiaa

2. A?ioth?a Nianneee o?ai a. Na?iooia

3. Aoeeao “?inney – Aiaeee o?ai”

4. “Ainiiieiaiey: ia?aua ni?ie eao iiae aeecie”, i?ioiea?ae Ieoaee
O?ooaiia

5. Auienea ec aacaou “Iea-eioi” ?38 2007a

6. Auienea ec aacaou “Na?iooianeea aanoe” 2003a

7. Auienea ec aacaou “Nooue aea aeaei” 1999a

8. “Noa?/anoai a aiaeu aiiaiee”, iiiaoeiy Eaiaoey

naeo www.pserpuhov.ru

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