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E???o A?????i e O??????i I?????

????

Ia ??:a. Ae???

E?i?y ??? Ae???

Ia ???y?? ?? Ae??? y?y?ny ????i?i, ???????? e ????? ???i ??i ????i
Ae????i? ???, e ????? ?????y ???? ???e. Ii ?? ???a, ??a ??ae ????e ???a
??y, ?i ?????? ???e, e ? ? ?c a? ??? ?????? ??u ???o ?y?e. Ae??a ??y
Ae??? ??ae?ny ?ae ?? ???????th?o ??? – O??th e I???, Ae??? ???? ? ???a
I?u e ????, ?i ?????e ????? a N??? ??y e ?????a ??? a 1812 ??, a A??oth
??????th ?ae Ae???? ?e ?????? ???ey n ?????e ??????. O? ? ??a, ??ae ??o
e ???? ?u eth?e ??i ????? ????i.

Ae??? ???y

Ae??? – ?? ? i??o ????? ???a, ???? ??? I?????. ??????? ? ??? I????e
???e, Ae??? ?????o n ???? ? ??????????e N???? I??? e E??i. E ??? ?
Ae???a ????y ????? ????? «??ae ???» – Ae??. O?? ??? ?e I?? E????, N??o?,
Eie??, C????ae ??a ?????u a I?????. N??iy a ?o ??i ???ue ????? ?iy??e
???? ????a, y?? ???u ???? ?????u, ??i? ????, ????? ??? e ????e. I??a ?
?o ?eth?? a ???o ??e?i ????ai y??????i ?? ? ???e «C??? E???. I???
I????uey – y? ?????? ???a ???e, n ????, ???? ?ey?, ??? ???e e ????e
???e. E??i ? ????e a ??o ??? ???o ????? ???? A??? A???a, ??oe, ???? ???
Ae???a. I??i ???a ????a ???? ??? ???u e ???ay ???ea I????uey ???y ?????u
e ???u ?????e ? 100%. Ii ????e ?/, ?????, ???, ????? ??? e ????? ????
I????? ??i?o ?? ? ???th?o ?? a ???e. O??? I????uey ????? ? ?? I????e
?e??. I? ???th?y o ???? ????? ????i. I??a ? ???, ??aey ?????th, ???atho
???y ? ?? ??i ?e????. Y?, a ??oth ???ue, ??a??a ??y??a ??ey A??????,
I????, A????. A ???i?oyo Ae???a ?????i ????i ???, a ??a ???o ??? ????a
??? ae??y??? ?? A????o a ?? I??? e ???a I????a-I??y???. Ai ???a N????i
Nith? ??? ? ??? I????uey ?? ????? a ????e. I??i ??e ?yae ????? ? ?o ??
???ny a ????o ??y??o ??iy?o. I???a ????e ??ath?y ??ey?? ????i ??? a
I?????. I?? a I????uea, e ??o – y? ? o??i ???u. A ?????yo I??u, a ?i ??a
e ????? ? Ae???a, ? ?e ??i ?? ???i ????i ????????o ???????o e ?a ???a,
??a ???, ??? e ????? ???. N? Ae??ia ???? ?e ?? ? ???a ???i ?aeu?. A
Ae????? ??? ????? ?????e ?? ss??a, ?????e ??? N???u e ??ay ?? a A??a.

A?a??y Ae???a

O??????i Ae????? ?? ????y ? ??? I????e ???e, a ??? ???? ???u, a ????
???e ???e ?? A??. A? ???a ???ay e th?ay ??e ??aey?y a ???? 55 e 56 ????
???? ???, ?i??y e ????y ??e ?????u ??o 37 e 38 ????e ????e ??i?.

N ??? Ae????? ??i ???? n O???e i???th e O????i ???i I????e ???e. Ia ???a
– n N???i-I???? e I????i ???? I????uey, ? th? – n I????? ???i, a ? ??? n
N??????? e E???i ????.

Ia ???y ? ?, ?i ?????e ?? ??o ??o? ???? ? ??e, ????y A?? e ??? ??e I??u
??o ??ae ei ?? ??yi A???? A??u.

I??? Ae?????i ??? ???ey? ??i 2 o?y/ ????? ?????.

O?aiu Aeieo?iaa

O?aiu Aeieo?iaa e o?aiiaua nii?oaeaiey – aeaaiay i?e/eia, ii eioi?ie
Aeieo?ia aue aeeth/ai a ia?o?oo ciaiaieoiai oo?a «Cieioia Eieueoei
?innee». Oieeaeueiua nii?oaeaiea i?aaineaaiie eoeueoo?u a Aeieo?iaa
ninoaaeytho aaniioth /anoue a iauai cieioii oiiaea ?inneeneiai
a?oeoaeoo?iiai ianeaaeey 15-19 aaeia.

Ia?aia, eoaea aaaeoo oo?enoia aeey ciaeiinoaa n o?aiaie Aeieo?iaa – yoi
Aeieo?ianeee e?aieue. Ia oa??eoi?ee Aeieo?ianeiai e?aiey ?aniieiaeaiu
n?aco aeaa oieeaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo nii?oaeaiey. Ia?aia – yoi Oniaineee
Niai? 16 aaea. Oniaineee niai? ecaanoai naiei eeiiinoanii, aaea ia iyoe
y?onao iiaeii oaeaeaoue eeiiu 15-19 aaeia. Oniaineee niai? Aeieo?iaa
ecaanoai oaeaea , a oaeaea oieeaeueiuie aa?aeueaoaie 16 aaea n
ecia?aaeaieyie ?aniyoey. Ae?oaay oea?eiaue E?aiey – Aeecaaaoeineay,
iino?iaiiay a eiioea 19 aaea ia aeaiueae Aeecaaaou Eyieiie, aaeiau
ninoiyoaeueiiai i?iiuoeaiieea. Aeecaaaoeineay oea?eiaue iineea noaoon
oth?aiiie, oae eae aa iniiaiie ianoaie noaee caeeth/aiiua oacaeiie
Aeieo?ianeie oth?ueiu.

Ai?eniaeaaneee niai?, ?aniieiaeaiiue ia oa??eoi?ee iaeiieiaiiiai
iiianou?y, yaeyaony aoi?ui ii cia/eiinoe i?aaineaaiui o?aiii Aeieo?iaa.
E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie Ai?eniaeaaneee iiianou?ue e niai? iieiinoueth
ainnoaiiaeaiu e i?eieiatho iaeiiieeia e oo?enoia.

?onneia o?aiiaia ciae/anoai i?aaenoaaeaii a Aeieo?iaa oeaeui ?yaeii
oea?eaae, eioi?ua aicaiaeeeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai 19 aaea,
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia aeaiueae eoioeia ai?iaea Aeieo?ia. Yoi e
O?ieoea-Oeoaeineay oea?eiaue, e N?aoaineay oea?eiaue, e oaea oiiiyiooay
Aeecaaaoeineay. 18 aae iiaea?ee Aeieo?iao Eacaineoth e Aaaaeaineoth
oea?eae.

Ai?eniaeaaneee iiianou?ue Aeieo?iaa

Ai?eniaeaaneee iiianou?ue ia?yaeo n Aeieo?ianeei E?aieai yaeyaony
aeaaiui oe?aoaieai Aeieo?iaa. Oi/iie aeaou iniiaaiey iiianou?y
onoaiiaeoue ia oaeaeinue. Iiyoiio ca oi/eo ion/aoa i?eiyoi a?aoue 1472
aiae. Yoa aeaoa auaeoa ia e?anoa, iaeaeaiiii a 19 aaea ia oa??eoi?ee
iiianou?y. Ii ae?oaei aeaiiui, iiianou?ue aue iniiaai aua i?e TH?ee
Aeieai?oeii. Iaeiaei aeieoiaioaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee yoie aa?nee iao.

O?aae/aneay no?aieoea enoi?ee iiianou?y ia/aeanue iinea Ieoya?ueneie
?aaiethoeee 1917 aiaea. Iiiaoe auee aunaeaiu ec iiianou?y, e a aai
noaiao ?acianoeeny e?aaaaae/aneee iocae. Aiciiaeii, anee au ca iocaai
nio?aieeinue au ?oeiaiaenoai iiianou?ai, iiiaea caeaoiea ?aeeeaee
oaeaeinue au nio?aieoue. Iaeiaei a 1932 aiaeo, ai a?aiy a?aiaeeiciie
noaeeineie no?ieee eaiaea eiaie Iineau iocae aue ia?aaaaeai a ae?oaia
caeaiea, a a noaiao iiianou?y ?acianoeeinue oi?aaeaiea ia/aeueii
ecaanoiiai «Aeieoeaaa», ouny/e caeeth/aiiuo eioi?iai aiineaaenoaee
iiaeaee ai a?aiy no?ieee. N oiai iiiaioa e aieioue aei 1993 aiaea
Ai?eniaeaaneee iiianou?ue iaoiaeeeny a aaaeaiee ?acee/iuo ainneoaea,
caeanue ?aciauaeenue aiaiiua /anoe e iaiuiua neeaaeu. A 1993 aiaeo
iiianou?ue aue aica?auai I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae. N yoiai iiiaioa ia/aeanue
aai iieiiianooaaiay ?aeiino?oeoeey.

Naaiaeiy Ai?eniaeaaneee iiianou?ue – aeaenoaothuee ioaeneie iiianou?ue.
Aai aeaaiie oea?eiaueth n/eoaaony niai? Ai?ena e Aeaaa, iniiaaiiue a 16
aaea. E ae?oaei o?aiai iiianou?y ioiinyony oaeaea Iaaea?aoiue o?ai eee
Ieeieueneay oea?eiaue e /aniaiy Nayoiai Aeooa, iino?iaiiay ianeieueei
eao iacaae. N?aaee iiianou?neeo nayouiue – eia/aa, a eioi?ii o?aiyony
iiue Aiinoiea Aiae?ay, aaaiaaeenoia Eoee e Iaooay, a oaeaea ?onneeo
nayouo. Iieeiieoueny nayoui iiuai aaeaaiaeii i?eoiaeyo nioie iaeiiieeia.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae iiianou?ai iaoiaeeony iaeei ec iiaaeoeo
iiioiaioia Aeieo?iaa – iaiyoiee Ai?eno e Aeaao, nayoui iie?iaeoaeyi
iiianou?y. Nicaeaiea iaiyoieea auei i?ioeiaine?iaaii oiiaeii ia?aiai
i?aceaeaioa ?innee Ai?ena Aeueoeeia.

Ieeiei-Iaoiioneee iiianou?ue

Ieeiei-Iaoiioneee iiianou?ue ciaaae ia naiai aaeo a?aiy ?anoeaaoa, a?aiy
oiaaeea, caoai iiianou?neay aeeciue niiaa aic?iaeaeaeanue e oaeea naiei
/a?aaeii. Ia?aaeee, eae e iiiaea o?aiu e iiianou?e a iaoae no?aia, aiaeu
?ac?ooe e caaaaiey.

Naiei iniiaaieai Ieeiei-Iaoiioneee iiianou?ue iaycai o/aieeo iaeiiai ec
naiuo ecaanoiuo nayouo Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai Iaoiaeeth.

Naaaeaiee ia iniiaaoaea iiianou?y e?aeia iaei. Eoi auee ?iaeeoaee
Iaoiaeey, aaea e eiaaea ii ?iaeeeny, iaecaanoii, eae iaecaanoii e oi,
aaea e eiaaea ii aue iiaeno?eaeai a iiiaoanoai. Ecaanoii, /oi ii
iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeee a neeoo o Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai, aue aio ae?oaii,
niiinoieeii e niaanaaeieeii.

Iaeiaei, a 1361 aiaeo, aeaeay neoaeeoue Ainiiaeo a oaaeeiaiee, e iieo/ea
ia yoi aeaaineiaaiea naiaai o/eoaey, eioi?ue ciae oaa?aeinoue aeooa
naiaai o/aieea e i?iaeaeae a iai aoaeouaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey eiieia, ooae a
ae?oaea ianoa eneaoue aunoeo aeooiaiuo iiaeaeaia. O ?aee sso?iiu, n?aaee
iai?ioiaeeiuo eania e aieio ia iaaieueoie aicauoaiiinoe Iaoiaeee n?oaee
naaa eaeueth.

Na?aee ?aaeiiaaeneee iaaanoee naiaai o/aieea a aai oaaeeiaiee, e
iiniaaoiaae aio ia?anaeeoueny ia ae?oaie, aieaa nooie e i?inoi?iue aa?aa
?aee, /oi e auei naeaeaii. Iaoiaeee nai «iao iioaoa» aea?aauey /a?ac
?aeo, eioi?ay aiaaeaao a sso?iio. Io oiai-oi, eae aeaneo i?aaeaiea, ca
iaeoaeueth e inoaeinue iaanaaaea eiy «Iaoiioa», a ?a/eo, ia eioi?ie iia
noieo noaee iacuaaoue Iaoiioea

I no?iai iiaeaeaeia/aneie aeecie Iaoiaeey a iaeoaee Na?aey, oaeaeaiee ia
ionouiiiaeeoaeuenoai e iinauaiee Na?aeai naiaai o/aieea nei?i noaei
ecaanoii aeaeaei aie?oa, e e Iaoiaeeth noaee noaeaoueny ?aaieoaee
aiaioaiaeiie aeecie. Aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue iino?ieee o?aia. Ii
aeaaineiaaieth Ieo?iiieeoa ia ioaaaeaiiuo Aeieo?ianeei eiycai caieyo
anoae aea?aayiiue o?ai nayoeoaey Ieeieay. Iaoiaeee noae ia?aui eaoiaiii
iaeoaee, e inoa-aaeny ei aieaa 30 eao, aei naiae nia?oe a 1393 aiaeo.
Neieueei aio oiaaea auei eao, iaecaanoii ii, aeaeeii, ii aue oaea
aeoaieei noa?oeai. Aei iaoeo aeiae ia aeioee naaaeaiey, neieueei iiiaoia
aeeei oiaaea a iaeoaee, ii aeaeeii, /enei eo auei aeinoaoi/iui aeey
oiai, /oiau iacia/eoue eaoiaia. Iaoiaeee aue caoi?iiai aeec oea?eae
nayoeoaey Ieeieay. O/aieeaie aai iaae a?iaii auea iino?iaia aeoaiaay
a?on/aoay /aniaiy, eioi?ay nouanoaiaaea aieaa 300 eao. A 1732 aiaeo ia
aa ianoa auea iino?iaia iaaieueoay oea?eiaue ai eiy i?aiiaeiaiiai
Na?aey, a /aniaiy auea ia?aianaia a aeoaiaoth ?iuo, ooaea, aaea Iaoiaeee
n?oaee naith ia?aoth eaeueth.

A 1549 aiaeo Iineianeei niai?ii Iaoiaeee aue eaiiiece?iaai. Aeaiue aai
iiieiiaaiey 14 (28) ethiy.

Ethaee Aeieo?iaa

Eaaeaeue ai?iae a oie eee eiie ia?a ciaiaieo ia oieueei naieie
iaiyoieeaie enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u, ii e ethaeueie, ianaeythueie aai.
Oaaaeaaiua iinaoeoaee, i?aaenoaaeyai Aai ?acaeae, aaea iu aoaeai
iiiauaoue eioi?iaoeeth iai anao ciaiaieouo e eioa?aniuo ethaeyo
Aeieo?iaa. Yoi iiaoo auoue ooaeiaeieee, ienaoaee, eiiiiceoi?u, aaoi?u,
ii yoei nienie, anoanoaaiii, ia ia?aie/eaaaony. Anee Au ciaaoa
eaeiai-ieaoaeue eioa?aniiai /aeiaaea, eioi?iaoeee i eioi?ii ana aua iao
ia iaoai naeoa, iacaiaaeeeoaeueii niiauaeoa iai.

Au n/eoaaoa eioa?aniui /aeiaaeii naiiai naay? I?ae?anii! Nayaeeoanue n
iaie, e aiciiaeii a nei?ii a?aiaie aaoa oioia?aoey aeoia n aeia?aoeae
aoaeao ?aciauaia a ?acaeaea Ethaee Aeieo?iaa. Ia?iae aeieaeai ciaoue
naieo aa?iaa. E?iia oiai, anee Au i/aiue oioeoa naycaoueny n iaeiei ec
ieo, iu i?aaeinoaaeyai Aai oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue ociaoue naeo,
E-mail e aeaaea oaeaoii ciaiaieoinoe!

Neaaeeoa ca eciaiaieyie a ?acaeaea, i?enueaeoa Aaoe cayaee e iiaeaeaiey,
e nei?i a Aeieo?iaa ia inoaiaony aaeuo iyoai eanaoaeueii aaieaeueiuo e
oaeaioeeauo ethaeae.

Nii?o a Aeieo?iaa

Aeieo?ia ii i?aao iiaeii n/eoaoue oeaio?ii nii?oeaiie aeecie anaai
Iiaeiineiauey. Yoiio niinianoaoao ia?iiiia eiee/anoai nii?oeaiuo
nii?oaeaiee, eioi?ua iino?iaiu e no?iyony a Aeieo?iaa. Oaeaea a
Aeieo?iaa i?iaiaeeony iiiaeanoai nii?oeaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, ?yae ec eioi?uo
eiatho ana?inneeneee noaoon. E naiui ecaanoiui ni?aaiiaaieyi Aeieo?iaa
ioiineony «Euaeiy ?innee» e iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oanoeaaeue
aicaeooiieaaaiey. , Ni?aaiiaaiey «Euaeiy ?innee» i?ioiaeyo ia ceiiai
noaaeeiia a sso?iia. Aaeaaiaeii iie niae?atho aeanyoee ouny/ ethaeoaeae
euaeiiai nii?oa ia oieueei ec Iiaeiineiauey, ii e ec Oe?aeiu, Aa?iaiee,
ae?oaeo no?ai NIA e aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey.

Aeieo?ia ?aniieaaaao oeaeui ?yaeii nii?oeaiuo oeie e caeaiee. Naiia
ecaanoiia nii?oeaiia nii?oaeaiea iiaaeoaai a?aiaie – eaaeiaue aeai?aoe
Aeieo?iaa. Ii aue iino?iai niaoeeaeueii e ioe?uoeth /aiieiiaoa ie?a ii
oieeath, eioi?ue i?ioiaeee a Iineaa a 2007 aiaeo. Eaaeiaue aeai?aoe
«Aeieo?ia» yaeyaony aeiiaoiae ieiuaaeeie aeey oieeaeiiai eeoaa
«Aeieo?ia». A 2007 aiaeo oieeaeiue eeoa «Aeieo?ia» niaa?oee ?uaie,
aeinoieiue oaaaeaiey, caaiaaaa a?iiciaua iaaeaee /aiieiiaoa ?innee ii
oieeath.

*oi eanaaony oooaiea, oi caeanue oniaoe Aeieo?iaa ia oaeea a?iieea.
Oooaieueiue eeoa «Aeieo?ia» aunooiaao ai aoi?ie eeaa ?inneeneiai
/aiieiiaoa. Aeiiaoiea iao/e oooaieueiiai eeoaa Aeieo?ia i?ioiaeyo ia
noaaeeiia «Eieiiioea».Noaaeeii «eieiiioea» yaeyaony ia aaeeinoaaiiui
iieai Aeieo?iaa, a ai?iaea anoue aua aeaa noaaeeiia: «Aaaiaa?ae» e
«Oi?iaaei». Ia yoeo aeaoo noaaeeiiao aeaaiui ia?acii i?ioiaeyo eiioea?ou
e ?acaeaeaoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey.

A Aeieo?iaa oaeaea ioe?uoa aaeeinoaaiiay a ?innee nii?oeaiay oeiea ii
naiai e aecthaei. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a iae iao/aaony 800 aeaoae e
iiae?inoeia.

Aeaaiui aea nii?oeaiui nii?oaeaieai Aeieo?iaa ia oae aeaaii noae
eiiieaen caeaiee, eioi?ue iauaaeeiyao Oeaio? ii oeao?iiio eaoaieth e
ea?eeiao, aannaei «Aeaeueoei» e ia?e «Yeno?ei». Ia?e «Yeno?ei» oaea
i?i/ii caaiaaae iiioey?iinoue o ioaeuoathueo ec Iineau e naieo
aeieo?ia/ai. Caeanue anoue aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?eoue naay a
yeno?aiaeueiuo aiieao ia eaaae?ioeeeeao, aacaeaoiaeao e, a ceiiaa a?aiy,
ia niaaioiaeao. Ia?e «Yeno?ei» iaeei ec iaiiiaeo a ?innee eiaao a naiai
?anii?yaeaiee o?anno aeey iioie?inna, eioi?ay aooanoiaaia aeey
i?iaaaeaiey ni?aaiiaaiee auni/aeoaai o?iaiy iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oaaea?aoeeae Iioioeeeeaoiiai nii?oa.

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