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Роль СМИ в современной культуре

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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………………….3

Ec enoi?ee ?acaeoey n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ……………….4

Aeaeu n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee …………………………………7

Ooieoeee NIE ………………………………………………………….12

Aeeyiea NIE ia eoeueoo?o ……………………………………………15

NIE ia iieeoeea ………………………………………………………17

Caeeth/aiea ……………………………………………………………..19

Eeoa?aoo?a……………………………………………………………… 21

Aaaaeaiea

Naaiaeiy, eiaaea ea/anoai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e eo eniieueciaaiey
ana a aieueoae noaiaie ii?aaeaeytho oa?aeoa? aeecie iauanoaa, aii?in i
acaeiiioiioaiee iauanoaa e NIE, i noaiaie naiaiaeu NIE io iauanoaa,
aeanoe e ainoaea?noaa (iniaaiii ainoaea?noaa, i?aoaiaeothuaai ia
aeaiie?aoe/aneee noaoon) i?eia?aoaao iniaia cia/aiea. N?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, acyoua eae oeaeia e yaeyynue aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth
ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee iauanoaa, ianoo a naaa ?acee/iua
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea ?iee, oa eee eiua ec eioi?uo – a caaeneiinoe io
ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea oeie/iuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo neooaoeee –
i?eia?aoatho iniaoth iauanoaaiioth cia/eiinoue. Yoi iiaoo auoue ?iee
i?aaiecaoi?a, iauaaeeieoaey, eiinieeaeaoi?a iauanoaa, aai i?inaaoeoaey.
Ii iie iiaoo ea?aoue e aeaceioaa?e?othuoth, ?acuaaeeieoaeueioth ?ieue.

Aeayoaeueiinoue NIE ieacuaaao eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoia aeeyiea ia
aeeciue iauanoaa a oeaeii, ia nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee e i?aanoaaiiue
iaeee eaaeaeiai ec /eaiia yoiai iauanoaa, iioiio /oi anyeay iiaay
eioi?iaoeey, iinooiathuay ii eaiaeai NIE, niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii
noa?aioeiece?iaaia e ianao a naaa iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?yaiua iieeoe/aneea
i?eaioaoeee e oeaiiinoiua onoaiiaee, eioi?ua cae?aieythony a niciaiee
ethaeae.

Ec enoi?ee ?acaeoey NIE

Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao yaiethoeey aeo?iaeenoeee, iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
iai?aaeaiee aa ?acaeoey auei iaeaieaa iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea a eiiioieeaoeee, o. a. iaiaoiaeeiie aio
nioeeaeueii cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee. Oaea a aeienoi?e/aneea a?aiaia /aeiaae
nai aunooiae eae n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee: ?acee/iua naaaeaiey
?ani?ino?aiyee n?aaee ni?iaee/ae oaiaiu, i?aaeneacaoaee, i?aeoeu, a
n?aaenoaii eiina?aaoeee aa yaeyeanue ianeaeueiay aeeaiienue, ia?aaiaio,
aeeiyiua aeiua/ee.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae aaeeiu ai iiaiee, /oi
iiyaeaiea i?annu neaaeoao ioianoe e V a. aei i. y., eiaaea a ?eia
auoiaeeee ia?aua aacaou, eioi?ua noaee iaiiieiaoue nia?aiaiiua i?e THeee
Oeaca?a – a 60 aiaeo aei i. y. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiui yaeyaony aaeaaeiaaiue
atheeaoaiue “Acta diurna” (“Niauoey aeiy”). Aianoa n oai eiathony
naaaeaiey, /oi e a Acee oaeaea eiaeenue aeienoi?e/aneea ecaeaiey
(iai?eia?, a Eeoa a VIII aaea iaoae y?u auoiaeeea “Aeeaai”-“I?eaeai?iay
aacaoa”, “Eeaae/aee”-“O?iieeaeueiay aacaoa”; a ssiiiee ia aeeiyiuo
aeineao auioneaeanue “Eiieo?e eaaa?aaai”-“*eoaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue”),
yaeythueany, ii nooe, i?aaacaoiuie yaeaieyie.

A n?aaeiaaaeiauea oe?ieia oiaeaeaiea eiaee oae iacuaaaiua “eaoo/ea
eenoee” (n?aaee ieo – ?aeyoeee, ?aath, eo?aiou e ae?.), iineaoea y?ei
au?aaeaiiue eioi?iaoeeiiii-i?eeeaaeiie oa?aeoa?. Ecia?aoaiea a 1440 a.
E. Aoooaiaa?aii i?ioeanna ia/aoe n iiiiuueth iiaeaeaeiuo eeoa? aeaei
oie/ie ?acaeoeth i?annu e aeo?iaeenoeee. ?iaeeiie i?annu eae
nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa iiaeii n/eoaoue oa??eoi?eth Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.
Ia?aie aacaoie a nianoaaiiii niunea yoiai neiaa i?eiyoi n/eoaoue
aaeueaeeneoth “Niewe Tydingen” (“Ana iiainoe”), eioi?ay noaea auoiaeeoue
a Aioaa?iaia i?eaeeceoaeueii n 1605 aiaea a oeiia?aoee Aa?aaia
Aa?aaaaia. N 11 ia?oa 1702 a. a Aiaeee, a Eiiaeiia, noaea ecaeaaaoueny
ia?aay aaeaaeiaaiay aacaoa “Daily Courant” (“Aaeaaeiaaiue aanoiee”).

A ae?aaiea a?aiaia oi?iu ycuea ?aaeeciauaaeanue a eaoiienyo, o?iieeao,
aiiaeao, aeeciaiienaieyo, enoi?eyo, iooaoanoaeyo, a iiiaiia?aciuo
yienoiey?iuo oi?iao – io ee/iiai ienueia aei ioeoeeaeueiuo iineaiee, io
iio/aiee e iaeacia aei aoee, ?ane?eioia, i?ieeaiaoeee. A n
aicieeiiaaieai ia/aoiie aeo?iaeenoeee noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny nenoaia
aeo?iaeenoneeo aeai?ia. N?aaee ia/aeueiuo iiaeii iacaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth-o?iieeo, ?aii?oaae, iaioeaou. Aeaeaa noaee iiyaeyoueny e
ae?oaea aacaoii-aeo?iaeueiua aeai?u.

I?eiyoi auaeaeyoue neaaeothuea oeiu aeo?iaeenoee:
?aeeaeicii-eea?eeaeueiay (XV-XVI aa.), oaiaeaeueii-iiia?oe/aneay
(XVI-XVIII aa.), ao?aeoaciay (XIX-XX aa.), nioeeaeenoe/aneay (XX aa.) e
iauaaoiaienoe/aneay (eiiaoe OO a. – ia/aei III ouny/aeaoey).

A n?aaeiaaaeiauea, a ia?eiae ?aeeaeicii-eea?eeaeueiiai oeia, aeeaiacii
oai?/anoaa aue ?acei ia?aie/ai. Yoi iauyniyeinue ia noieueei iaeui
/eneii a?aiioiuo ethaeae, neieueei aeeyieai ?aeeaee ia ana noa?u aeecie.
Ia aeiioneaeinue eiaeiiuneey, eioi?ia iaoiaeeei io?aaeaiea a
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaieyo. Oaiaeaeueii-iiia?oe/aneee oei io?aaeaao
iaaunieoth yeiiiie/aneoth ?acaeoinoue iauanoaa e ia/aei ia?aoiaea io
iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiui ioiioaieyi. ?acaeoea
oi?aiaee o?aaiaaei iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae i oiaa?ao, i?eauoee ei?aaeae,
oeaiao. A XIX a. aeo?iaeenoeea noaea aaaeiaeoae /anoueth
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie e oicyenoaiaaiey. Iia i?aa?aoeeanue a
i?oaeea iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau – 80 i?ioeaioia i?annu iineee y?ei
au?aaeaiiue iieeoe/aneee e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. I?iecioei
eeanne/aneia ?acaeaeaiea i?annu ia ea/anoaaiioth (yeeoa?ioth) e
iiioey?ioth (ianniaoth). E eiioeo OO a. e iae i?eaaaeeny oei
i?iiaaeooi/iuo NIE. Nioeeaeenoe/aneay aeo?iaeenoeea anaoeaei auea
i?eaioe?iaaia ia eaeaieiae/aneoth caaeneiinoue, aeaaiie eiinoaioie a iae
auea ia?oeeiinoue. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iu iiaeai aiai?eoue i
oi?ie?iaaiee iauaaoiaienoe/aneie aeo?iaeenoeee. Aeaaay ioeaieo
nouanoaiaaaoei oeiai, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia aacaea iie nouanoaiaaee
iaycaoaeueii a oaeii ii?yaeea e /enoie oi?ia – eo iaee/ea caaenaei io
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee a ainoaea?noaa.

A ao?aeoaciie e nioeeaeenoe/aneie aeo?iaeenoeea, eioi?ua ?acaeaaeenue
(ii aieueoiio n/aoo) ia?aeeaeueii, i?iyaeeny a iaeaieaa iieiie noaiaie
oaiiiai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee – ia?auaiea e oe?i/aeoae aoaeeoi?ee,
aiciiaeiinoue nenoaiii, iiiainooiai/aoi aeeyoue ia iaeeo?o iiaiee a
iauanoaa.

A iauaaoiaienoe/aneie aeo?iaeenoeea, eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, iniiaiui i?eioeeiii yaeyaony ioeac io aa ethaiai neeiaiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ae?oaea einoeooou. AEo?iaeenoeea – n?aaenoai
eiiioieeaoeee, a ia aeoaeiea. NIE aeieaeiu iiaoaeaeaoue au?aaeaoue
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e i?aaeinoaaeyoue eioi?iaoeeth, /aoei ioaeaeyy aa io
ae?oaeo iiaiee e eiiiaioa?eaa.

Oaeoe/anee n ia?auo oaaia aeo?iaeenoeee a iae iaicia/eeenue o?e
iiaeoiaea, eioi?ua, niaiyy ae?oa ae?oaa, ii?aaeaeyee aa oeiieiaeth ia
?aciuo yoaiao: eacoaeenoneee, ooieoeeiiaeueiue e eiiioieeaoeeiiiue.
Eacoaeenoneee iiaeoiae iniiaai ia iiieiaiee n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee eae aacioeaciiai i?oaeey ianniaiai aicaeaenoaey ii noaia
“i?e/eia – neaaenoaea”, o. a. a eiia/iii n/aoa ii i?eioeeio
“eiiioieeaoi?ii neacaii – ?aoeeieaioii naeaeaii”. Yoio iiaeoiae
i?aaeiieaaae oi?ne?iaaiiia ianaaeaeaiea aaoi?eoaoa i?annu, aa
aa?oiaainoai iaae oiaie. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae iieieeny ia
ianiaeanee n oaeie onoaiiaeie, ionoaeaay ioiioaiey ?aaiii?aaiiai
ia?oia?noaa ?aoeeieaioa n eiiioieeaoi?ii, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ?aoeeieaioo
ia iaycaoaeueii a?aoue ia aa?o e i?eieiaoue e eniieiaieth ana, /oi aio
niiauaao e /oi io iaai o?aaoao eiiioieeaoi?. Iaeiiaoe, anee ai aeaao
oaea noaaeoue ia ia?oia?noai eiiioieeaoi?a e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
?aoeeieaioa, a aanue eiiieaen acaeiiioiioaiee n?aaenoa ianniaie
eiiioieeaoeee e iauanoaa, oi aicieeaao iiaeoiae, iacuaaaiue
eiiioieeaoeeiiiui.

Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey NIE:

1) aei ia/aea iaoae y?u – i?aaacaoiua yaeaiey;

2) n ia/aea iaoae y?u aei XV a. i. y. – yiioa ?oeiieniuo ecaeaiee;

3) n XV a. aei XVII a. – ecia?aoaiea e ?acaeoea eieaiia/aoaiey,
noaiiaeaiea aacaoii-aeo?iaeueiiai aeaea;

4) n XVIII a. aei ia/aea OO a. – ?acaeoea aeo?iaeenoeee eae
iauanoaaiiiai einoeoooa, niaa?oainoaiaaiea iieea?aoe/aneie aacu,
noaiiaeaiea i?annu eae iniiau aeaiie?aoee;

5) n 1900 a. ii 1945 a. – i?eia?aoaiea ia/aoueth ooieoeee “/aoaa?oie
aeanoe”;

6) n 1945 a. ii 1955 a. – i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee e iiiiiieecaoeee NIE;

7) n 1955 a. ii 1990 a. – yiioa noaiiaeaiey yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa
eiiioieeaoeee;

8) n 1990 a. ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy – noaiiaeaiea iiaiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
ii?yaeea a ie?a.

Aeaeu n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee(NIE)

Nia?aiaiiua NIE i?aaenoaaeytho niaie o/?aaeaeaiey, nicaeaiiua aeey
ioe?uoie, ioaee/iie ia?aaea/e n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai oaoie/aneiai
eino?oiaioa?ey ?acee/iuo naaaeaiee ethaui eeoeai [1] – yoi ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueiay nenoaia, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny iiiaeanoaaiiinoueth
ninoaaeythueo yeaiaioia: niaea?aeaieai, naienoaaie, oi?iaie, iaoiaeaie e
ii?aaeaeaiiuie o?iaiyie i?aaiecaoeee (a no?aia, a ?aaeiia, ia
i?iecaiaenoaa). Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou NIE – yoi ioaee/iinoue, o.a.
iaia?aie/aiiue e?oa iieueciaaoaeae; iaee/ea niaoeeaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo
i?eai?ia, aiia?aoo?u; iaiinoiyiiue iauai aoaeeoi?ee, iaiythuaeny a
caaeneiinoe io i?iyaeaiiiai eioa?ana e oie eee eiie ia?aaea/a,
niiauaieth eee noaouea.

Iiiyoea “n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee” ia neaaeoao ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n
iiiyoeai “n?aaenoaa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee”(NIE). Yoi ia nianai aa?ii,
iineieueeo iineaaeiaa iiiyoea oa?aeoa?ecoao aieaa oe?ieee niaeo?
ianniauo n?aaenoa. E NIE ioiinyony eeii, oaao?, oee?e e o.ae., ana
c?aeeuiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?ua ioee/athony ?aaoey?iinoueth ia?auaiey
e ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee, a oaeaea oaeea oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eiiioieeaoeee, eae oaeaoii, oaeaa?ao, oaeaoaei e o.ae.

Nianoaaiii aeo?iaeenoeea i?yii naycaia n eniieueciaaieai ?acaeouo
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee — i?annu (n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth ia/aoiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey oaenoa e
ecia?aaeaiey), ?aaeei (ia?aaea/e caoeiaie eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei) e oaeaaeaeaiey (ia?aaea/e caoeiaie e
aeaeaieioi?iaoeee oaeaea n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei; aeey ?aaeei
e oaeaaeaeaiey iaycaoaeueii eniieueciaaiea niioaaonoaothuaai i?eaiieea).

Aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth yoeo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa aicieeee o?e
iiaenenoaiu NIE: ia/aoue, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea[2], eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
ninoieo ec ia?iiiiai /enea eaiaeia — ioaeaeueiuo aacao, aeo?iaeia,
aeueiaiaoia, eieaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, i?ia?aii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey,
niiniaiuo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny eae ii anaio ie?o, oae e a iaaieueoeo
?aaeiiao (iaeanoyo, ?aeiiao, ie?oaao). Eaaeaeay iiaenenoaia auiieiyao
naith aeieth ooieoeee aeo?iaeenoeee ia iniiaa naieo niaoeeoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae.

Ia/aoue (aacaou, aaeaiaaeaeueieee, aeo?iaeu, aeueiaiaoe, eieae)
i?eia?aea iniaia ianoi a nenoaia NIE. Auoaaeoay ec-iiae ia/aoiiai noaiea
i?iaeoeoeey ianao eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea iaia/aoaiiiai aoeaaiiiai oaenoa,
oioia?aoee, ?enoieia, ieaeaoia, noai, a?aoeeia e ae?oaeo
ecia?aceoaeueii-a?aoe/aneeo oi?i, eioi?ua aini?eieiathony
/eoaoaeai-c?eoaeai aac iiiiue eaeeo-eeai aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
(oiaaea eae aeey iieo/aiey ?aaeei – oaeaaeceiiiie eioi?iaoeee ioaeiu
oaeaaeci?, ?aaeeii?eaiiee, iaaieoioii e o.ae.). Ia/aoiua ecaeaiey eaaei
eiaoue «i?e naaa» e ia?auaoueny e “ecaea/aieth” eioi?iaoeee a oaeiaiia
a?aiy, ia iaoay ie?oaeathuei, e a ianoiyoaeuenoaao, ia iicaieythueo eee
iaoathueo neooaoue ?aaeei eee niio?aoue oaeaia?aaea/e (a iiacaea, iao?i,
aaoiaona, naiieaoa e o.ae.).

I?e yoii /oaiea oaenoa e aini?eyoea ecia?aceoaeueiiai ia/aoiiai
iaoa?eaea i?ioiaeeo a niioaaonoaee n aeaeaieai ecae?aoaeueii, a oii
ii?yaeea, oaiia e ?eoia, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaaao nai /eoaoaeue. Ii iiaeao
ia?auaoueny e iaeiiio e oiio aea i?iecaaaeaieth ianeieueei ?ac, o?aieoue
ioaeiia, iiae/a?eeaaoue, aeaeaoue iiiaoee ia iieyo (ia?aeiaeee) e o.ae.
e o.i. Ana yoi ii?aaeaeyao iiiaeanoai iieiaeeoaeueiuo noi?ii i?e
eiioaeoa n ia/aoiuie ecaeaieyie, /oi aeaeaao eo ia ianoiyuee ia?eiae
iacaiaieiuie e aaaeiuie iineoaeyie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeiaei e o ia/aoe anoue naienoaa, ii eioi?ui iia i?iea?uaaao ae?oaei
n?aaenoaai eiiioieeaoeee. Anee oaeaaeaeaiea e iniaaiii ?aaeei niiniaiu
ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i?aeoe/anee iai?a?uaii e a aunoae noaiaie
iia?aoeaii, oi ia/aoue naiie oaoiieiaeae ia?a/aia ia aeene?aoiinoue
auionea iiia?ia e eiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /anoioa auionea ia/aoiie
ia?eiaeeee eieaaeaony io aaeaaeiaaiiai (aacaoa) aei aaeaaiaeiiai
(aeueiaiao). Eiia/ii, iiaeii aeaeaoue auionee aacao, iniaaiii n
yeno?aiiie eioi?iaoeeae, e ianeieueei ?ac a nooee (oae /anoi neo/aeinue
a oneiaeyo ia?acaeoinoe ae?oaeo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee), ii yoi naycaii
n o?oaeiinoyie ia/aoe e aeinoaaee, e iiyoiio n ?ani?ino?aiaieai ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiey oaeay i?aeoeea ii/oe i?ae?aoeeanue.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?anna i?iea?uaaao a iia?aoeaiinoe eioi?ie?iaaiey.

Aoi?ui ii a?aiaie iiyaeaiey n?aaenoaii ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee yaeyaony
?aaeeiaauaiea. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie aai /a?oie yaeyaony oi, /oi
iineoaeai eioi?iaoeee a aeaiiii neo/aa ieacuaaaony oieueei caoe
(aeeth/ay e iaocu). ?aaeeinaycue (eniieuecothuay ?aaeeiaieiu — yoe?iia
aauaiea, inouanoaeyaiay ii i?iaiaeai — i?iaiaeiia aauaiea) iicaieyao
iaiiaaiii ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ia iaia?aie/aiiua ?annoiyiey, i?e/ai
iieo/aiea neaiaea i?ienoiaeeo a iiiaio ia?aaea/e (eee — i?e ia?aaea/a ia
i/aiue aieueoea ?annoiyiey — n iaaieueoie caaea?aeeie). Ionthaea
aiciiaeiinoue oaeie iia?aoeaiinoe ?aaeeiaauaiey, eiaaea niiauaiea
iinooiaao i?aeoe/anee a iiiaio naa?oaiey niauoey, /aai iaaiciiaeii a
i?eioeeia aeiaeoueny a i?anna. E?iia oiai, ?aaeei i/aiue iiioey?ii
n?aaee aaoiethaeoaeae, iineieueeo iao aiciiaeiinoe ia?auaoueny e
ia/aoiui ecaeaieyi e oaeaaeaeaieth.

Oa?aeoa?iui aeey ?aaeei yaeyaony aiaaecoaeueiinoue – (eao. viceo
«aeaeaiea»). Ia ia?aue acaeyae yoi iaaeinoaoie ?aaeei, ia naiii aea
aeaea, ninoaaeyy aeoaieoth iniiao niaoeeoeee ?aaeei, aiaaecoaeueiinoue
iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe caoea a oaeie ia?a, a eaeie ia
iicaieyao naeaeaoue yoi oaeaaeaeaiea. Anee ia?aiia/aeueii ?aaeei auei
niiniaii o?ainee?iaaoue oieueei ?a/aaua niiauaiey, oi ii ia?a
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ia?aaeathuae e i?eieiathuae ?aaeeioaoieee noaea
aiciiaeiie ia?aaea/a caoea anao oeiia — cao/auae ?a/e, iocuee, ooiia. Ii
“iiiiiieey” caoea, ?acoiaaony, ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe aeey aoaeeoi?ee
“oaeaeaoue”, eae e eai nicaeaaony “caoeiaay ea?oeia”.

Iaeiaei iniaaiiinoe ?aaeei ii?aaeaeytho e iaeioi?ua aai iaaaoeaiua
naienoaa. ?aaeeiaauaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea i?eioaeeoaeueii —
ia?aaea/o iiaeii neooaoue eeoue a oi a?aiy, eiaaea iia eaeao a yoe?,
i?eoii a oii aea ii?yaeea, oaiia e ?eoia, eioi?ua caaeaiu a nooaeee. Yoe
/a?ou ?aaeei canoaaeytho aieiaoaeueii eco/aoue aiciiaeiinoe oao eee eiuo
neiaa aoaeeoi?ee e ninoaaeyoue i?ia?aiiu n o/aoii ?ani?aaeaeaiey
a?aiaie, oa?aeoa?a caiyoee, ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai ninoiyiey
neooaoaeae a ?acee/iua a?aiaiiua io?acee.

Oaeaaeaeaiea aioei a aeeciue a 30-o aiaeao e noaei, eae e ?aaeei,
?aaiii?aaiui o/anoieeii «o?eoiae?aoa» n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a
60-o aiaeao XX aaea. A aeaeueiaeoai iii ?acaeaaeinue iia?aaeathueie
oaiiaie e ii ?yaeo ia?aiao?ia (niauoeeiay eioi?iaoeey, eoeueoo?a,
?acaea/aiea) auaeaeioeinue ia ia?aia ianoi.

Oaeaaeceiiiay niaoeeoeea ?iaeeeanue eae au ia ia?ana/aiee aiciiaeiinoae
?aaeei e eeii. Io ?aaeei oaeaaeaeaiea acyei aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue
neaiae n iiiiuueth ?aaeeiaiei ia aeaeaeea ?annoiyiey – yoio neaiae
iaeiia?aiaiii eiaao caoeiaoth e aeaeaieioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay ia ye?aia
oaeaaeci?a a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a ia?aaea/e ianao
eeiaiaoia?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa? eee aea oa?aeoa? oioieaae?a, noaiu, a?aoeea
e o.ae. Ia ye?aia oaeaaeci?a iiaeao auoue aini?iecaaaeai e ia/aoiue
oaeno.

Eae e ia ?aaeei, ia oaeaaeaeaiee aiciiaeia i?aaiecaoeey iia?aoeaiuo
ia?aaea/ eae ec nooaeee, oae e n ianoa niauoee (oioy i?yiia aeeth/aiea
eiaao ?yae o?oaeiinoae oaoie/aneiai ii?yaeea, i?aiaeieaaaaiuo n
?acaeoeai aeaeaioaoieee e eaiaeia nayce). I?aeiouanoaa aea oaeie
iia?aoeaiie «aeeaie» ia?aaea/e, eaeouae i?yii a yoe? n ianoa niauoey, a
cia/eoaeueii aieueoai, /ai o ?aaeei, «yooaeoa i?enoonoaey», iineieueeo a
i?aaie/aneii aaeeinoaa iaoiaeyony caoei- e aeaeai?yae e caaeaenoaiaaiu
iaa aaaeiaeoeo oeia ?aoeaioi?ia /aeiaaea, /oi iaania/eaaao nicaeaiea
aieaa i?i/iuo naycae n aoaeeoi?eae.

Ia oaeaaeaeaiee “aoaeei” e “aeaeai” iiaoo aunooiaoue e ia ?aaiuo, ii a
iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo ia?aaea/e aeaeathony n aeoeaioii eeai ia caoeiaie
?yae eeai ia aeaeai?yae (eae, iai?eia?, ia?aaea/a ec ea?oeiiie aaea?ae).
Niaoeeoeea oaeaaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao iniaaiiinoe anao oeiia i?ia?aii — e
ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo, e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo, e iao/ii-iiioey?iuo.

E yoei aeaeai NIE a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea i?eniaaeeiyaony e aeoeaii
?acaeaathueeny /aoaa?oue oei eaiaeia eioi?iaoeee — anaie?iay
eiiiuethoa?iay naoue (i?aaenoaaeaiiay a iaoa a?aiy Eioa?iaoii), a
eioi?ie cia/eoaeueiia ianoi (ia?yaeo ni niaoeeaeueiie) caieiaao ianniaay
eioi?iaoeey. Yoi yeaeo?iiiua aa?nee e aeaeaeaeanou aacao, o.a. naoaaua
aacaou e aeo?iaeu, ?aaeei- e oaea – “naoaaauaiea”, naeou (“no?aie/ee”)
ioaeaeueiuo aeo?iaeenoia, i?eoii iia?aoeaii iaiythuea niaea?aeaiea e
iieo/aaiua a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, eiiiuethoa?iua
naoe niaaeeiytho a naaa aiciiaeiinoe anao oeiia NIE, i?aaaea, ia/aoiua
oaenou iiaoo /eoaoueny eeoue n iiieoi?a (e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
?ania/aouaaoueny ia nianoaaiiii i?eioa?a). Aaaeii o/anoue oaeaea, /oi
iaeaieueoay /anoue eioi?iaoeee ia?aaeaaony ia eiino?aiiuo ycueao, /oi
cao?oaeiyao aeey iiiaeo iieiioeaiiia inaiaiea eioi?iaoeee aeaaea i?e
iaee/ee a eiiiuethoa?a i?ia?aiiu-ia?aaiae/eea.

Ooieoeee NIE

?anniio?aiea e aiaeec ooieoeee ethaie nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe – aaaeiaeoee iiiaio aa oai?ee.

Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a eaaeaeie nenoaia
nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeythony, a eiia/iii n/aoa, oai, /oi
iia inouanoaeyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth a aieaa oe?ieii oeaeii.

Aiiaua o NIE ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ooieoeee a niaa?oaiii ?aciuo noa?ao.

Iai?eia?, A.I. I?ioi?ia [3], n/eoay aeo?iaeenoeeo iieeooieoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiie, auaeaeyao neaaeothuea oanoue ooieoeee aeo?iaeenoeee:

1.eiiioieeaoeaioth – ooieoeeth iauaiey, iaeaaeeaaiey eiioaeoa, eioi?oth
aaoi? iacuaaao enoiaeiie ooieoeeae aeo?iaeenoeee;

2.iaiin?aaenoaaiii-i?aaiecaoi?neoth, a eioi?ie iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii
i?iyaeyaony ?ieue aeo?iaeenoeee eae “/aoaa?oie aeanoe” a iauanoaa;

3.eaeaieiae/aneoth (nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?othuoth), naycaiioth ni
no?aieaieai ieacaoue aeoaieia aeeyiea ia ie?iaicc?ai/aneea iniiau e
oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee aoaeeoi?ee, ia naiiniciaiea ethaeae, eo eaeaaeu
e no?aieaiey, aeeth/ay iioeaaoeeth iiaaaeai/aneeo aeoia;

4.eoeueoo?ii-ia?aciaaoaeueioth, caeeth/athuothny, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, a
oii, /oiau, aoaeo/e iaeiei ec einoeoooia eoeueoo?u iauanoaa,
o/anoaiaaoue a i?iiaaaiaea e ?ani?ino?aiaiee a aeecie iauanoaa aunieeo
eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae, ainieouaaoue ethaeae ia ia?acoeao iauaie?iaie
eoeueoo?u, oai naiui niinianoaoy ananoi?iiiaio ?acaeoeth /aeiaaea;

5.?aeeaiii-ni?aai/ioth, naycaiioth n oaeiaeaoai?aieai ooeeeoa?iuo
cai?inia a nayce n ie?ii oaea/aiee ?aciuo neiaa aoaeeoi?ee (naae,
iai?iae, oo?eci, eieeaeoeeiie?iaaiea, oaoiaou e o.ae. e o.i.)”;

6.?ae?aaoeaioth (?acaea/aiey, niyoey iai?yaeaiey, iieo/aiea
oaeiaieuenoaey).

Oae, iai?eia?, N.A. Ei?eiiinaiei [4] auaeaeyao 4 oaeea noa?u:
yeiiiie/aneoth, iieeoe/aneoth, aeooiaii-eaeaieiae/aneoth e
nioeeaeueioth.

A eaaeaeie ec yoeo noa? NIE ea?atho naie nioeeaeueiua ?iee: –
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneoth,

– ?aaoee?othuoth,

– aeooiaii-eaeaieiae/aneoth,

– eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeaioth.

Oae, a yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe iia noaiiaeony yeaiaioii nenoaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eia?aoaao ea/anoaa oiaa?a. A nioeeaeueiii ecia?aiee
aeaaiui yaeyaony nai?, iaeiieaiea, o?aiaiea, ia?a?aaioea e
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee.

A aeooiaiie noa?a i?anna auiieiyao iiciaaaoaeueioth, ia?aciaaoaeueioth,
ainieoaoaeueioth ooieoeee, naienoaaiiua anai eaeaieiae/aneei einoeoooai.

Aaoi? iieaaaao, /oi ?ieaaie iiaeoiae aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iienaoue
neiaeiue eiiieaen ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NIE. Aiciiaeii, ii aaoi? n/eoaao,
/oi auoue oiaa?ii anoue ooieoeey aeo?iaeenoeee – a yoi, ii anae
aeaeeiinoe, i?aoaaee/aiea, iineieueeo oiaa? – yoi i?iaeoeo o?oaea,
niiniaiue oaeiaeaoai?youe eaeoth-eeai /aeiaa/aneoth iio?aaiinoue e
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey iaiaia [5], ii eaeei ia?acii aeo?iaeenoeea iiaeao
neoaeeoue i?iaeoeoii iaiaia? A aeaiiii neo/aa yoi ia ooieoeey
aeo?iaeenoeee, a ooieoeey eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth ia?aaaouaaao
aeo?iaeenoeea.

Oae aea, eae e nai?, o?aiaiea e o.ae. eioi?iaoeee, oae eae yoi neeoeii
ia?aie/aiiia ii?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee a nioeeaeueiie noa?a. Aaoi? oaeaea
ii?aaeaeyao noauaeoia, eioi?ua ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
ooieoeee NIE.

Aaia?aeueiui noauaeoii ii ioiioaieth e aeo?iaeenoeea yaeyaony iauanoai.
Ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae anaai iauanoaa iai?aaeaiu ooieoeee
eioaa?aoeee iiciaiey, auiieiyaiua aeo?iaeenoeeie. Ioaeaeueiua
nioeeaeueiua no?oeoo?u, eae noauaeou, naieie iio?aaiinoyie a caaiaaaiee
e oaea?aeaiee aeanoe ii?aaeaeytho oaeea ooieoeee aeo?iaeenoeee, eae
i?iiaaaiaea, aaeoaoeey, i?aaiecaoeey. Ee/iinoue ii?aaeaeyao ooieoeee
i?eaioaoeee, ii?aeueii – ineoieiae/aneiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Aeey oaeiai niaoeeoe/aneiai aeaea nioeeaeueiuo noauaeoia, eae
aeo?iaeenou, aeo?iaeenoeea auiieiyao neoaeaaii-i?ioanneiiaeueioth e
oai?/aneoth ooieoeee.

Iaeiaei aucuaaao niiiaiea naii aeaeaiea noauaeoia, iineieueeo aeo?iaeeno
iiaeao auiieiyoue ia oieueei oai?/aneoth e i?ioanneiiaeueiua ooieoeee,
ii oaeaea eniieueciaaoue i?anno a naieo nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao.

Aaoi? iieaaaao aiciiaeiui ?acee/aoue aua e nioeeaeueiia iacia/aiea
aeo?iaeenoeee, eee aa aaia?aeueioth ooieoeeth, eioi?ay ninoieo a
?aaoee?othuai e i?aia?acothuai aicaeaenoaee ia nioeeaeueioth i?aeoeeo a
niioaaonoaee n aeooaeueiuie iauanoaaiiuie eioa?anaie. Ii i?e yoii aaoi?
ia naycuaaao yoo ooieoeeth ie n iaeiei noauaeoii.

Iaeiaei ?acee/iay aeayoaeueiinoue n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee auoiaeeo
ca ?aiee aeayoaeueiinoe aeo?iaeenoeee, eae, iai?eia?, i?yiay o?aineyoeey
ii oaeaaeaeaieth canaaeaiey eaeiai-eeai nuacaea eee nannee ia?eaiaioa,
o?aineyoeey ii oaeaaeaeaieth eee ?aaeei aaeaoa (niaeoaeey, yno?aaeiiai
eiioea?oa), ioaeeeaoeey (iaeaoaiea) caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, oeacia e
i?i/eo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae, o?aineyoeey o?iea
aiaeeeneiai (eee ethaiai ae?oaiai) ycuea, o?aineyoeey (ioaeeeaoeey)
i?ia?aiiu ia?aaea/, naiaeee iiaiaeu, ?aeeaiu i/a?aaeiiai oiaa?a. Oi
anoue iiiyoea “aeo?iaeenoeea” iiaeao iiyaeoueny oiaaea e oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea aeaaony ioeaiea oaeouaio niauoeth. Oieueei i?e yoeo oneiaeyo
eiiiaioaoi? noaiiaeony aeo?iaeenoii, a eiiiaioa?ee – yeaiaioii
aeo?iaeenoneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?acee/iua aaoi?u ii-?aciiio ?anniao?eaatho ooieoeee
n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ii nouanoaoao naiia i?inoia ?acaeaeaiea
ooieoeee NIE, eioi?ia i?aaeeaaatho nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey:

· aoiaieoa?iua ooieoeee NIE – eioi?ie?iaaiea, ia?aciaaiea, ?acaea/aiea e
o.i.;

· iieeoe/aneea (eaeaieiae/aneea) ooieoeee NIE – oi?ie?iaaiea ianniaiai
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey e/eee iai?aaeaiiia aeeyiea ia ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu
ianaeaiey.

Aeeyiea NIE ia eoeueoo?o

NIE a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?o. O yoiai
aeeyiey anoue naie iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu. Iai?eia?,
iiauoaiea o?iaiy ia?aciaaiey ana aieaa oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey oanii
naycaiii n ca?iaeaeaieai NIE, o.a. n ?inoii oe?aaeae ia/aoiiai neiaa –
eiea, a caoai aeo?iaeia e aacao. Ii, a oi aea a?aiy, ?anoe?aiea noa?u
eiioaeoa ianaeaiey n eneonnoaii e iaoeie iin?aaenoaii NIE aucaaei oeaeue
eiiieaen iineaaenoaee e aeey anao nioeeaeueiuo neiaa e aeey naiie
eoeueoo?u. Ec yoeo iineaaenoaee auaeaeei neaaeothuea aeaa:

Eneonnoai, ?acaeaeaiiia aei yoiai ia aeaa ia neeoeii naycaiiua iaaeaeo
niaie /anoe – yeeoa?iia e ianniaia, noaei ?anoyaeaaoueny a oeaeo,
eaaeaeue o/anoie eioi?ie n oaeaeaieai io yeeoa?iiai iiethna aae?aniaaeny
ana aieaa oe?ieiio e?oao “iio?aaeoaeae”. Iaeiia?aciaaiiua, ii oaea
iiiaaoea a noa?o aicaeaenoaey NIE, neie ianaeaiey iieo/atho naith iiaeo,
auoiaie aeecaei, ai?iaeneie ?iiain, aoeueaa?iua aacaou, “?iiaiu aeey
eooa?ie” e ae?oaea ninoaaeythuea auno?i ?acai?a/eaathuaeny
iann-eoeueoo?u. N oi/ee c?aiey yeeoa?iuo e?eoa?eaa, yoio iioie ninoiye
ec y?caoe e aeano?oeoeaiuo eiiiiiaioia, ?ac?ooathueo ii?aeue e
eoeueoeae?othueo “aeo?iie aeon”.

Neiaeic aieueoiai eneonnoaa e aunoeo eeannia no?ieeny aei yiioe NIE a
iniiaiii ia ioiioaieyo “i?aaeeiaeaiea-caeac” e a cia/eoaeueii iaiueoae
noaiaie ia oi?ia “oiaa?-?uiie”. N eoeueoo?iie ia?ano?ieeie, ia/aaoaeny
iiae aeeyieai ?acaeoey NIE, iiaia, iayeeoa?iia, eneonnoai noaei
oi?ie?iaaoueny iiae ciaeii /enoi ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, i?e/ai ?uiea
ianniaiai – ieceay oeaia, aieueoie oe?aae e ea/anoai “iiae eeeaioa”.

I?eioeei “iiae eeeaioa” caneoaeeaaao niaoeeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey,
iineieueeo ii anaaaea ea?ae aaaeioth ?ieue e a yeeoa?iii eneonnoaa,
oioy, eae i?aaeei, ia aue ii?aaeaeythuei, iineieueeo eoeueoo?iue
o?iaaiue caeac/eea canoaaeye aai iau/ii n/eoaoueny n i?eaioe?aie naiiai
eneonnoaa. Iaeiaei ianniaiio “eeeaioo” yoe i?eaioe?u ia auee iiiyoiu eee
aeaaea ciaeiiu.

Aai oeaea i?ei?eoaoia ii?aaeaeyeanue ?aaeoeeyie ineoeee ia “i?yiia”
aicaeaenoaea”. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue i eeanne/aneii i?eioeeia “oeaaa e
c?aeeu”, iaania/eaaaoaai nioeeaeueiue aaeain ia iniiaa “i?yiiai
aicaeaenoaey“ aua caaeieai aei ca?iaeaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo NIE e
iann-eoeueoo?u. Eiaiii oaeiau caeiiu, ia iniiaa eioi?uo ?uiie oi?ie?oao
aeaoaaoth eoeueoo?o iiae eeeaioa n iaaeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaie iaaeno?ieeie
e ieieiaeueiui o?iaiai ynoaoe/aneeo ioeaiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, NIE ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue a aicieeiiaaiee e ?acaeoee
ianniaie eoeueoo?u, ii ana neacaiiia auoa ia o/eouaaao aua iaeei aaaeiue
oaeoi? oi?ie?iaaiey aunieie e ieceie eoeueoo?: nioeeaeueiue caeac,
eioi?ue aua nianai iaaeaaii n/eoaeny iniiaiie neeie, ii?aaeaeythuae
aeiieiaiou ?acaeoey eneonnoaa e aeaaea iaoee. Oaeouee eiioaeno –
ainiiaenoaothuay eaeaieiaey, ii?aeue, caeiiu – oi?ie?iaaaoee i?eaioe?u e
oeaeo ioeaiie, ii?aaeaeyeenue, a eiia/iii n/aoa, nioeeaeueiui caeacii.

Aunieia eneonnoai ai ana yiioe aeieaeii auei i?aaeaea anaai
iiae/a?eiooue i?aai caeac/eea ia aeanoue. Iniiaiie aea aeey eneonnoaa
e?eoa?ee – “naeaeaeoa iia e?aneai” – iia ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aoi?e/iue,
iineieueeo (a) iau/ii yaeyaony eiiiiiaioii ioi?ieaiey aaee/ey aeanoe e
(a) aieaa aaaeai a oao iaeanoyo, eioi?ua ?aaea aoiaeeee a iniiaiie iaai?
ao?eaooia aeanoe (eeoa?aoo?a, oaao?, e o.i.).

Ia ieceia aea eneonnoai aei yiioe NIE aeeyoue naa?oo iiaeii auei nei?aa
eiooii, o.a. cai?aoaie ia iaaeaeaoaeueiua yeaiaiou, /ai iiiu?aieai
aeaeaoaeueiuo. Iiyaeaiea NIE ia/eiaao i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey iiaie
iann-eoeueoo?u, ana aieueoa auiieiythuae caeac naa?oo: iio/eoaeueiua e
?aeeaeiciua oaenou, i?iiaaaiaea iacuaeaiinoe onoiaa, ii?aeecothuea e
iao?eioe/aneea ieaia?aoee. N eaeiai-oi yoaia yaiethoeee iann-eoeueoo?u
oaeoi? ?uiea ia/eiaao ea?aoue ana aieueooth, a a eiioea eiioeia
iniiaioth ?ieue, ana aieueoa ioiaeaeanoaeyy aa n eeo/ai. I?e yoii iauea
i?eaioe?u eoeueoo?u a oeaeii inoathony ca aunieei eneonnoaii.

NIE e iieeoeea

NIE ea?atho a iieeoe/aneie aeecie iauanoaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue, eiay
naiia iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e auiieiyy
?ai?iaeoeoeaioth (ioia?aaeatho iieeoeeo /a?ac ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea e
i?anno) e i?iaeoeoeaioth (oai?yuoth) ooieoeee, iiyoiio iie a oie aea
noaiaie, /oi e oai?oeu iieeoeee ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?ienoiaeyuea
a iauanoaa i?ioeannu.

Iauaaeeiaiea iaoeee a neeueiua oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ainoaea?noaa /anoi
ieacuaaeinue aiciiaeiui ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth i?annu, eioi?ay
nicaeaea iiaue aeae nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe – ioaeeeo ioaeaeueii acyoie
aacaou. *eaiu yoie aa?aaaoeee ?acaeaeaiu ?annoiyieyie, ii iauaaeeiaiu
iio?aaeyaiie eioi?iaoeeae. I?anna onei?eea e iinoaaeea ia «iioie»
au?aaioeo aaeeiuo neiaieia e cia/aiee a iaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa.
Naaiaeiy NIE ia oieueei iai?a?uaii aini?iecaiaeyo yoio i?ioeann, ii e
auaiaeyo aai ia aeiaaeueiue o?iaaiue. Oioy iann-iaaeea i?ecaaiu ?aoaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua caaea/e a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia e iauanoaa, a ?aaeueiie
aeecie iie aeinoaoi/ii naiinoiyoaeueiu, eiatho, nianoaaiiua, /anoi
?anoiaeyueany n iio?aaiinoyie iauanoaa oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe e
eniieuecotho aeey eo aeinoeaeaiey ?acee/iua iaoiaeu. Iieeoe/aneia
aeeyiea NIE inouanoaeytho /a?ac aicaeaenoaea ia ?acoi e /oanoaa /aeiaaea
[7].

A aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ainoaea?noaao yaii i?aiaeaaeaao ?aoeeiiaeueiay
iiaeaeue ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee, ?ann/eoaiiay ia oaaaeaeaiea ethaeae n
iiiiuueth eioi?ie?iaaiey e a?aoiaioaoeee, iino?iaiiie a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiaie eiaeee. Yoa iiaeaeue niioaaonoaoao neiaeeaoaiony oai oeio
iaioaeeoaoa e iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u ethaeae. Iia i?aaeeaaaao
ninoycaoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo NIE a ai?ueaa ca aieiaiea e aeiaa?ea
aoaeeoi?ee. A yoeo ainoaea?noaao cai?auaii caeiiii eniieueciaaiea NIE
aeey ?acaeeaaiey ?aniaie, iaoeeiiaeueiie, eeanniaie e ?aeeaeiciie
iaiaaenoe e a?aaeaeu, iaeiaei a ieo ?acee/iua iieeoe/aneea neeu aeey
i?iiaaaiaeu naieo eaeae e oeaiiinoae oe?iei i?eiaiytho iaoiaeu
i?aeiouanoaaiii yiioeeiiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey, /oi iniaaiii y?ei
i?iyaeyaony a ia?eiaeu ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee., eioi?ia ia?aaeei iiaeao
caoieoue ?aoeeiiaeueiua aeiaiaeu e a?aoiaiou. Yoei oe?iei iieuecoaony
oioaeeoa?iua, aaoi?eoa?iua e iniaaiii yoiie?aoe/aneea ?aaeeiu, iaeeueii
ianuuay naith iieeoe/aneoth i?iiaaaiaeo yiioeeiiaeueiui niaea?aeaieai,
iiaeaaeythuei ?acoi /aeiaaea. Caeanue NIE oe?iei eniieuecotho iaoiaeu
ineoieiae/aneiai aiooaiey, iniiaaiiua ia no?aoa e aa?a, aeey ?acaeeaaiey
oaiaoecia, iaaeiaa?ey eee iaiaaenoe e iieeoe/aneei iiiiiaioai, eeoeai
ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e anai iaoaiaeiui.

Ianiio?y ia aaaeiinoue yiioeeiiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey, ana aea aeaaiia
aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo NIE inouanoaeytho /a?ac eioi?iaoeeiiiue i?ioeann.
Iniiaiuie yoaiaie yoiai i?ioeanna yaeythony iieo/aiea, ioai?,
i?aia?e?iaaiea, eiiiaioe?iaaiea naaaeaiee. Io oiai, eaeoth eioi?iaoeeth,
a eaeie oi?ia e n eaeeie eiiiaioa?eyie iieo/atho noauaeou iieeoeee,
i/aiue ai iiiaii caaenyo eo iineaaeothuea aeaenoaey. Iie ia oieueei
ioae?atho naaaeaiey, iinoaaeyaiua eioi?iaoeeiiiuie aaaionoaaie, ii e
naie aeiauaatho e ioi?ieytho eo, a oaeaea aunooiatho eo eiiiaioaoi?aie e
?ani?ino?aieoaeyie. Iioie eioi?iaoeee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a ianoieueei
?aciiia?acai e i?ioeai?a/ea, /oi naiinoiyoaeueii ?acia?aoueny a iai ia a
ninoiyiee ie ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae, ie aeaaea a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia.
Iiyoiio ioai? iaeaieaa aaaeiie eioi?iaoeee e aa i?aaenoaaeaiea a
aeinooiiie ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee oi?ia e eiiiaioe?iaaiea – aaaeiay caaea/a
anae nenoaiu NIE. Eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue a?aaeaeai, a oii /enea iieeoeeia,
i?yii caaeneo io oiai, eae, n eaeeie oeaeyie e ii eaeei e?eoa?eyi
ioae?aaony eioi?iaoeey, ianeieueei aeoaiei iia io?aaeaao ?aaeueiua oaeou
iinea aa i?aia?e?iaaiey e ?aaeoeoeee, inouanoaeaiiuo aacaoaie, ?aaeei
oaeaaeaeaieai, a oaeaea io niiniaa e oi?i iiaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

?ieue NIE a iieeoeea iaeuecy ioeaieaaoue iaeiicia/ii. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie neiaeiue iiiaia?aiiue einoeooo, ninoiyuee ec iiiaeanoaa i?aaiia e
yeaiaioia, iaania/eaathueo eioi?ie?iaaiea ianaeaiey i i?ienoiaeyuae
eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie no?aia e ai anai ie?a niauoeyo e yaeaieyo.

Caeeth/aiea

A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai iauanoaa oniaoiia ?aoaiea
iieeoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo caaea/ ana aieueoa caaeneo io
aeaenoaey oaeiai noauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a eae nioeeaeueiay aeoeaiinoue
ee/iinoe. Aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aeoeaiinoe ea?atho n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. I aic?anoathuae ?iee ia/aoe, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey
a iauanoaaiiie aeecie no?aiu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho eo ao?iue ?ino,
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e aeinooiiinoue ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ia/aoiia e
onoiia neiai, oaeaaeceiiiia ecia?aaeaiea niiniaiu a e?ao/aeoea n?iee
aeinoeaiooue naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo ?aeiiia, i?iieeiooue a ethaoth
nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo.

N?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee – iiuiay neea aicaeaenoaey ia niciaiea
ethaeae, n?aaenoai iia?aoeaiiai aeiianaiey eioi?iaoeee a ?aciua oaieee
ie?a, iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai aeeyiey ia yiioeee /aeiaaea,
niiniaiia oaaaeaeaoue ?aoeeieaioa iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Iniaaiii /aoei yoi
i?iyaeyaony a ioiioaiee yeaeo?iiiuo NIE. Ii ia?a ?anoe?aiey oaoie/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae eo ?ieue aic?anoaao. A ii yiioeeiiaeueiiio aicaeaenoaeth
ia /oanoaa e niciaiea ethaeae iie inoathony iiea iai?aacieaeaiiuie e
niae?atho naioth aieueooth aoaeeoi?eth. A n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, a iniaaiii ia oaeaaeaeaiee aii?inu iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
aunooieaiee oanii naycaiu n o?iaiai i?aaiecaoeee oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna,
oi?i e n?aaenoa nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai ainieoaiey aeo?iaeenoneiai,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi ioai?
i?iaeai, ?aoaiea eioi?uo iiaeao auoue iiaeaea?aeaii e iiaeneacaii
aoaeeoi?eae, e nicaeaiea ia?niaeoeaiuo ieaiia ?aaiou NIE, eo
aeeth/athueo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy cia/eoaeueii aic?inei aeeyiea n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ia ee/iinoue. Ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea n?aaee n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue caieiaao oaeaaeaeaiea. Anee
a eiioea 70-o ia/aea 80-o aiaeia oaeaaeci? n/eoaeny ?ineioueth, oi
naaiaeiy oaeaaeaeaiea i?i/ii aioei a auo, i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeie naiuee.
Iinoaiaiii oaeaaeaeaiea auoaniyao aacaou e aeo?iaeu, na?ue?cii
eiieo?e?oao n ?aaeei. Eiieo?aioeey n i?annie iauyniyaony iiyaeaieai ia
oaeaaeaeaiee iiauo oaoiieiaee.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ioaa/aa A.I “Iieeoieiaey. Ni?aai/iee nooaeaioa”. I. 2001

2. *a/aiianeee A.A. “Einoaioeey enoeiu: NIE e aeeciue: aiciiaeiinoue,
iiene, ioaaonoaaiiinoue”. I: Iieeoecaeao, 2007.

3. I?ioi?ia A. I. “Aaaaeaiea a oai?eth aeo?iaeenoeee”. I.,2005.

4. Ei?eiiinaiei N. A. “Iniiau oai?ee aeo?iaeenoeee”. NIa. 2002

5. Oeoeei A.O. “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”. I., Aaioieo.ecae. oeaio?
Aeaaein,1996-1997,n.176

6. A.I. Ioaa/aa, A.E. Nieiaueaa “Aaaaeaiea a iieeoieiaeth”. I. 2006 a.

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