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?aaeeiaauaiea

?aaeeiaauaiea, ia?aaea/a ii ?aaeei iaia?aie/aiiiio /eneo neooaoaeae
?a/e, iocuee e ae?. caoeiauo yooaeoia; iaeii ec iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee, ianniaie aaeoaoeee e i?iiaaaiaeu, i?inaauaiey
ianaeaiey. A no?aiao ?acaeoiai ?. ?aaeeiia?aaea/e neooaao 90% ianaeaiey
(1,5—2 / a noo). Eae oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa ?. onooiaao oieueei
oaeaaeaeaieth.

?acee/atho iniiaiua aeai?u ?.: eioi?iaoeeiiiua iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea
(?aaeeieioi?iaoeey, -?aii?oaae, -eiiiaioa?ee, -eioa?aueth, -aanaaea);
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-ioaeeoeenoe/aneea (?aaeeii/a?e, -oeeuei, -eiiiiceoeey);
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua (?aaeeieinoeaie?iaea, -iueana e ae?.). ?., e?iia oiai,
eniieuecoao a ia?aaea/ao o?aineyoeeth eniieiaiey eeoa?aoo?iuo e
iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee anao aeai?ia; niaoeeaeueii aaeaioe?iaaiiua
aeey ?aaeeioaao?a ae?aiaoe/aneea e iia?iua niaeoaeee. Iaeaieaa
iiioey?iua oi?iu nia?aiaiiiai ?. — eioi?iaoeeiiiue ?aaeeiauione,
?aaeeiaacaoa, ?aaeeiaeo?iae e ae?.

?. inouanoaeyaony /a?ac ia?aaeathuea ?aaeeioeaio?u e i?eieiaaony ia
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiua i?e?iieee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eee eieeaeoeaiiai
iieueciaaiey. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a NNN? e ?yaea ae?. no?ai iieo/eei
i?iaiaeiia aauaiea.

I?ei?eoao a iaeanoe ecia?aoaiey ?aaeei e eniieueciaaiey aai eae
n?aaenoaa nayce i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?innee (A. N. Iiiia).A eiioea 19 — ia/aea
20 aa. aeey ia?aaea/e neoaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee iino?iaiu ia?aua ?onneea
?aaeeinoaioeee.

?aaeeiaauaiea a NNN?. N ia?auo eao Niaaoneie aeanoe ?aaeei
eniieueciaaeinue ia oieueei eae n?aaenoai nayce, ii e eae enoi/iee
eioi?iaoeee. N iiya?y 1917 ii ?aaeeioaeaa?aoo ia?aaeaaaeenue aeae?aou
Niaaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, niiauaiey i aaaeiaeoeo niauoeyo a aeecie
no?aiu, i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iieiaeaiee, aunooieaiey A. E. Eaieia. Iaeiie
ec aeooaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaea/ auei nicaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu ?. A 1918 Niaia?eii nicaeae eiienneth aeey
?ac?aaioee ieaiia ?acaeoey ?aaeeioaeaa?aoiiai aeaea; ?yae iiuiuo
?aaeeinoaioeee aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa ia?aaeai Ia?eiiaoo ii/o e oaeaa?aoa;
Niaia?eii i?eiye aeae?ao i oeaio?aeecaoeee ?aaeeioaoie/aneiai aeaea a
no?aia. Ia?aua ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiua ia?aaea/e aaeenue a 1919 ec
Ieaeaai?iaeneie ?aaeeieaai?aoi?ee, n 1920 — ec iiuoiuo
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiuo noaioeee (Iineaa, Eacaiue e ae?.).

Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey e Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eaeaaaee
eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea ?aaeeioeeaoeee eae iniiaiiio n?aaenoao
?acaeoey ?. A 1920 Eaiei ienae I. A. Aii/-A?oaae/o, ?oeiaiaeeaoaio
Ieaeaai?iaeneie ?aaeeieaai?aoi?eae: «Iieuecothnue neo/aai, /oiau
au?aceoue Aai aeoaieoth aeaaiaea?iinoue e ni/oanoaea ii iiaiaeo aieueoie
?aaiou ?aaeeiecia?aoaiee, eioi?oth Au aeaeaaoa. Aacaoa aac aoiaae e “aac
?annoiyiee”, eioi?oth Au nicaeaaoa, aoaeao aaeeeei aeaeii» (Iieiia
nia?aiea ni/., 5 ecae., o. 51, n. 130).

A 1922 a ienueiao E. A. Noaeeio aeey /eaiia Iieeoath?i OeE ?EI (a) Eaiei
noi?ioee?iaae iieiaeaiey i?ia?aiiu nieioiie ?aaeeioeeaoeee no?aiu (ni.
oai aea, o. 45, n. 194—96), a oii aea aiaeo ia/aeenue ia?aua (au?
ia?aaoey?iua) oaenoiaua ?aaeeiia?aaea/e /a?ac a?iieiaiai?eoaee;
Ieaeaai?iaeneay ?aaeeieaai?aoi?ey ia?aaeaea a yoe? ia?aua
?aaeeieiioea?ou. Noaiiaeaieth e iiioey?ecaoeee ?. a 20-a aa.
niinianoaiaaee ianniaia ?aaeeiethaeoaeueneia aeaeaeaiea (eioi?ia noaei
?acaeaaoueny iinea ioe?uoey a 1922 a Iineaa ?aaeeinoaioeee
ei. Eiieioa?ia), aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaieciaaiiuo a 1924 iauanoaa ae?ocae
?aaeei, aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa «?aaeeiia?aaea/a» (ia?aiia/aeueii —
«?aaeei aeey anao», aai /eaiaie auee Ia?eiiii/oaeue, ANIO, ?INOA,
Ana?inneeneee yeaeo?e/aneee o?ano caaiaeia neaaiai oiea). ?aaoey?iia ?.
ia/aeinue 23 iiya?y 1924, eiaaea a yoe? aue ia?aaeai ia?aue iiia?
?aaeeiaacaou. A 1925 i?aaieciaaia ?aaeeieiienney OeE ?EI (a) aeey iauaai
?oeiaiaenoaa ?. e ?aaeeiniaao i?e Aeaaiieeoi?inaaoa Ia?eiii?ina ?NON?
aeey ?ac?aaioee iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aauaiey.

A 20-a aa. neeaaeuaathony aeai?u ?. (?aaeei?aii?oaae, ?aaeeiaanaaea,
eiiiaioa?ee), oi?iu ia?aaea/ (?aaeeiaacaoa, ?aaeeiaeo?iae). A 1925 a
yoe?a — ia?aue ?aaeei?aii?oaae n E?aniie ieiuaaee a Iineaa, iinayuaiiue
Ieoya?ueneei oi?aeanoaai; aeaoneea ia?aaea/e — «?aaeeiieoya??iie»,
«?aaeeiieiia?» (aiineaaenoaee «Ieiia?neay ci?ueea»); «Eoeueoo?iia
ianeaaeea — aeaoyi»; iieiae?aeiay — «Iieiaeie eaieiaoe»; n 1926 —
«E?anoueyineay ?aaeeiaacaoa», «?aai/ay ?aaeeiaacaoa», yoiia?aoe/aneea
eiioea?ou. I?aaiecoaony ?aaoey?iia ?. a nithciuo ?anioaeeeao — a 1925—27
ia/aee ?aaioaoue ?aaeeinoaioeee a Ieinea, Aaeo, Oa?ueeiaa, Oaoeaioa,
Eaieia?aaea, Eeaaa, Oaeeene.

N 20-o aa. o?aaeeoeeae niaaoneiai ?. noaee aunooieaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeayoaeae. Ninoiyaoayny a na?aaeeia 20-o aa. aeeneonney ia iauanoaaiiii
iacia/aiee ?., aai ianoa n?aaee aeaeia eneonnoaa e n?aaenoa
ynoaoe/aneiai i?inaauaiey niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth oi?i e aeai?ia ?.,
iniaaiii eeoa?aoo?ii-ae?aiaoe/aneiai (ni. ?aaeeieneonnoai).

A 1927 Niaia?eii i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea, iai?aaeaiiia ia oeo/oaiea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?ia?aii. A iiaeaioiaea eeoa?aoo?iuo ia?aaea/
o/anoaiaaee A. A. Iayeianeee, A. I. Aoeiiaaiia, Ae. Aaaeiue, Y. A.
Aaa?eoeeee, O. A. Aeaaeeia, A. A. Eaaiia, E. I. Eaiiia e ae?. ?aaoey?iua
iaci?u iiae ?oa?eeie «Eeoa?aoo?a — iannai» ciaeiieee neooaoaeae n
oai?/anoaii niaaoneeo ienaoaeae e eeanne/aneei eeoa?aoo?iui ianeaaeeai.
?. iiioey?ece?iaaei iocueo ia?iaeia NNN?, eaeoeee-eiioea?ou ?ane?uaaee
iniiaiua yoaiu enoi?ee ie?iaie iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u. A 20-a aa.
i?icao/aee ia?aua eiioea?ou ii cayaeai, o?aineyoeee iia?iuo niaeoaeeae
ec Aieueoiai oaao?a NNN?. N 1925 a i?ia?aiia ?. iiyaeeenue aanaaeu e
eaeoeee ia nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea e iao/ii-oaoie/aneea oaiu. A eiioea
20 — ia/aea 30-o aa. aeey oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai ia?aciaaiey ianaeaiey auee
nicaeaiu ?aai/ee, e?anoueyineee, eiiioienoe/aneee, eiiniiieueneee
?aaeeioieaa?neoaou (aei 80 oun. ?aaeeicai/ieeia).

N 1928 ii 1933 iiuiinoue niaaoneeo ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiuo noaioeee
oaaee/eeanue a 8 ?ac. A 1931 i?e Ia?eiiii/oaea ia?aciaai Ananithciue
eiieoao ii ?., a 1932 — 12 ianoiuo ?aaeeieiieoaoia a ?anioaeeeao e
iaeanoyo. Iiyaeeenue iiaua, aeaenoaaiiua oi?iu e aeai?u ?aaeeiia?aaea/:
?aaeeiia?aeee/ea, ananithciia ?aaeeinia?aiea (1929), i?yiua
?aaeei?aii?oaaee ni no?iae (1930). Iinoaiiaeaiea OeE AEI (a) «I
ia?ano?ieea ?aanaeueei?ianeiai aeaeaeaiey» (1931) ?aeiiaiaeiaaei
?aaeeieiieoaoai oe?a i?eiaiyoue oi?iu ianniaie ?aaiou (?aeaeu, auacaeiua
a?eaaaeu), ?anoe?youe nio?oaeie/anoai n ?aanaeueei?aie, ?acaeaaoue e
nicaeaaaoue iiaua oi?iu ia?aaea/ ii ienueiai o?oaeyueony.

A niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai «I ia?ano?ieea
eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee» (1932) ?anoe?eeenue oaiaoeea,
oi?iu, aeai?u ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?aaea/. A ?aaioa ia ?aaeei o/anoaiaaee
ienaoaee A. Na?aoeiiae/, I. A. Naaoeia, I. A. Ino?ianeee, E. I. Ooeei,
E. A. Iaonoianeee, aeo??u Ae. I. I?eia, A. E. Ea/aeia, E. I. Iineaei, I.
E. Aaaaiiaa e ae?. Iiaua i?iecaaaeaiey Ae. Ae. Oinoaeiae/a, TH. A.
Oaii?eia, N. N. I?ieioueaaa, Ae. A. Eaaaeaaneiai e ae?. aia?aua
eniieiyeenue ii ?aaeei. Iocueaeueiia aauaiea ciaeiieei neooaoaeae n
i?ioanneiiaeueiuie eniieieoaeyie e n eo/oeie eieeaeoeaaie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie naiiaeayoaeueiinoe. A 1932 ia/aeenue ?aaoey?iua auionee
«Iineaaeieo ecaanoee». A 1933 Niaia?eii ooaa?aeee «Iieiaeaiea i
Ananithciii eiieoaoa ii ?aaeeioeeaoeee e ?aaeeiaauaieth i?e NIE NNN?»; a
ninoaaa eiieoaoa o/?aaeaeaeenue oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeioeeaoeee,
oeaio?aeueiiai aauaiey, ianoiiai aauaiey. A 1936 ?aaeeieiieoao aa?e a
aeaenoaea 5 i?ia?aii aauaiey, ninoaaeaiiuo n o/?oii a?aiaiiiai iiyna,
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueiauo iniaaiiinoae ianaeaiey ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia no?aiu.
Ia?aue ananithciue ?aaeeioanoeaaeue (1936) iieiaeee ia/aei
iaae?anioaeeeaineiio iaiaio ?aaeeii?ia?aiiaie. A 30-a aa. a nenoaia
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aauaiey auaeaeeeenue naiinoiyoaeueiua
?aaeaeoeee naeueneeo ia?aaea/, e?aniia?iaeneiai, iieiae?aeiiai,
nii?oeaiiai aauaiey. Aeaeiia ianoi a i?ia?aiiao ?. caiyea
iai?iiii-nii?oeaiay oaiaoeea, noi?ie?iaaeny eae aeai? nii?oeaiue
?aaeei?aii?oaae (iniiaiiieiaeiee A. N. Neiyaneee). Aaaeioth ?ieue a
oeo/oaiee ?. nua?aea niaoeeaeueiay ia/aoue ii aii?inai ?aaeei: aeo?iaeu
«?aaeeio?iio» (iniiaai a 1925, aei ? 19 — «?aaeei anai»), «Aiai?eo NNN?»
(1931), aaeaiaaeaeueiay aacaoa «Iiainoe ?aaeei» (1925) e ae?.

A aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1941—45 ia?aaeaii 2 oun.
?aaeeinaiaeie Niaeioi?iath?i, 2,3 oun. auioneia «Iineaaeieo ecaanoee»,
nauoa 8 oun. «Ienai n o?iioa» e «Ienai ia o?iio». Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a
i?ia?aiiao caieiaee iaci?u aacao, eioi?iaoeee OANN, ei??aniiiaeaioeee n
o?iioa (a auioneao «Iineaaeieo ecaanoee» ieiei 7 oun. ei??aniiiaeaioeee
ec aeaenoaothuae a?iee). A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo no?ai, a NNN? a aiaeu
aieiu ?. inoaaaeinue iai?a?uaiui e iiiaii?ia?aiiiui. ?aaoey?ii aaeenue
ia?aaea/e aeey ia?oecai e ianaeaiey a?aiaiii ieeoie?iaaiiuo ?aeiiia. Ii
Ananithciiio ?aaeei /anoi aunooiaee ?oeiaiaeeoaee Niaaoneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. A 1944 Niaia?eii i?eiye iinoaiiaeaiea i ia?ii?eyoeyo ii
oe?aieaieth iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aaeeiaauaiey,
a 1945 — i i?acaeiiaaiee Aeiy ?aaeei 7 iay (7 iay 1895 A. N. Iiiia
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae a aeaenoaee nicaeaiiue ei i?e?iiee aeey aani?iaiaeiie
neaiaeecaoeee).

A 1948 Ananithciia ?aaeei ia?aoei ia o??oi?ia?aiiiia aauaiea (iauee
iau?i ia?aaea/ 45 / a noo). Ia/aeanue nieioiay ?aaeeioeeaoeey eieoicia.
A 1956 nicaeaia Aeaaiay ?aaeaeoeey aauaiey aeey iieiae?aee (iniiaiay
?oa?eea — ?aaeeiaacaoa «Aiai?eo eiiniiieey»). N 1 ieoya?y 1960
Ananithciia ?. noaei e?oaeinooi/iui. A 1961 iau?i aauaiey aic?in aei 78
/ a noo. A 1962 aaaaeaii iiaia Iieiaeaiea i ia?aaea/ao Ananithciiai
?aaeei, a eioi?ii i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue eiie?aoiia e oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea
niaea?aeaiey e aeai?a ieaie?oaiuo ia?aaea/, i?aaiecaoeey naciiiuo
(inaiia-ceiiae e aanaiia-eaoiae) naoie aauaiey. A 1962 i?icao/aea ia?aay
i?ia?aiia ?aaeeinoaioeee «THiinoue». Iiyaeeenue ia?aua iieiaeaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu a ?anioaeeeaineeo e e?aaauo ?aaeeieiieoaoao — «Iieiaeua
?iiaioeee I?eii?uey», «Aaei?onneay iieiae?aeiay», oe?aeineay «Iieiaeay
aaa?aeey», «Eeoa iieiaeuo ?aii?o??ia Ynoiiee» e ae?. A 1963 ia/aea
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue 5-y i?ia?aiia — aeey niaaoneeo a?aaeaeai, iaoiaeyueony
ca ?oaaaeii, e ca?oaaaeiuo neooaoaeae. A 1964 2-y i?ia?aiia
?ai?aaieciaaia a eioi?iaoeeiiii-iocueaeueioth i?ia?aiio «Iaye». A
50—60-a aa. iiyaeeenue oaeea iiioey?iua ?oa?eee, eae «Eaieineee
oieaa?neoao ieeeeiiia», ?aaeeiaeo?iae «Caiey e ethaee» (aeey naeueneeo
neooaoaeae), «O oaeaoaeiiie eaiou», «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iaic?aaaoaee ca
e?oaeui noieii».

Aeaoneia aauaiea ia?yaeo n iiioey?iuie ia?aaea/aie «?aaeeioaao?a aeey
aeaoae», «Ieiia?neie ci?ueee», «Eeoaa ciaiaieouo eaieoaiia»,
«Oaaaeae-ee» e ae?. i?aaiecoao iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee ?aaeeiaeo?iae
«?iaanieee» (n 1963), na?ee ia?aaea/ iao/ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo,
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo, o/aaiuo (a o. /. «?aaeei aeey o?iea»).

50-eaoeth Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee auee
iinayuaiu na?ee e oeeeeu ia?aaea/: «O?iieea Aaeeeiai Ieoya?y. Aiae
1917-e», «50 ieaiaiiuo eao», aaeaiany/iue «Eaieineee aeueiaiao»;
100-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey A. E. Eaieia — «Aiaeu aaeeeie aeecie.
No?aieoeu aeia?aoee A. E. Eaieia», «Ainiiieiaiey i Eaieia», «Iiaeaea
ia?oee e ia?iaea», «Eaieineea o?iee iieiae?aee», «Eeoa?aoo?iay
Eaieieaia» e ae?.

A niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai OeE EINN «I ia?ao ii aeaeueiaeoaio
oeo/oaieth ?aaiou ?aaeeiaauaiey e oaeaaeaeaiey» (1962) iianaianoii
niaa?oainoaothony oaoie/aneea oneiaey i?e?ia i?ia?aii, ?anoe?yaony iaiai
i?ia?aiiaie iaaeaeo Iineaie, ?anioaeeeaie e iaeanoyie, i?aaieciaaia
iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia ii ?aaeeiaauaieth e oaeaaeaeaieth (a 1974 a 19 aocao
e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooao), e o/anoeth a nicaeaiee
aauaoaeueiuo i?ia?aii noaea oe?iei i?eaeaeaoueny iauanoaaiiinoue.

Eeoa?aoo?ii-ae?aiaoe/aneia aauaiea i?iiaaaiaee?oao eo/oea i?iecaaaeaiey
?onneie, niaaoneie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u. Einoeaie?othony ecaanoiua
?iiaiu e iiaanoe, a ?aaeeioaao?a aunooiatho aaaeouea niaaoneea aeo??u.
Iiyaeeenue iiaua aeaeu aauaiey: iaeiiaeoiue niaeoaeeue, einoeaie?iaaiiue
niaeoaeeue. Nenoaiaoe/anee aioiayony iocueaeueii-ia?aciaaoaeueiua
ia?aaea/e, eiioea?ou-eaeoeee, eiioea?ou ii cayaeai neooaoaeae,
iocueaeueiua iaic?aiey, eiioea?ou ooaeiaeanoaaiiie naiiaeayoaeueiinoe,
iocueaeueiua ?aaeeiniaeoaeee, ?aaeeiiiaaeeu, i?iaiaeyony iaaeaee,
aeaeaaeu, iany/ieee iocuee ia?iaeia ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. A nicaeaiee
ia?aaea/ o/anoaotho iocueaeueiua eieeaeoeau Ananithciiai ?aaeei:
i?eano?u — Aieueoie neioiie/aneee, yno?aaeii-neioiie/aneee, ?onneeo
ia?iaeiuo eino?oiaioia, Aieueoie oi?, oi? ?onneie ia?iaeiie ianie,
ainaiaeue niaaoneie ianie e ae?.

Iiioey?iu ia?aaea/e ii ienueiai neooaoaeae — «Iieaaay ii/oa “THiinoe”»,
«Ii aaoei i?inueaai», «A ?aai/ee iieaeaiue», «Iiyoe/aneay oao?aaeue», «A
ie?a neia» e ae?., yeiiiie/aneea eiinoeueoaoeee, ni?aaee ii
?aciiia?aciui aii?inai e ae?. Ii/oa Ananithciiai ?aaeei (1974) — 511
oun. ienai.

?acaeaay o?aaeeoeee ?aaeeioieaa?neoaoia 20-o aa., ?. i?aaiecoao oeeee
niaoeeaeueiuo o/aaiuo ia?aaea/ a iiiiuue oeiea, iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo — a
iiiiuue iieeoe/aneiio naiiia?aciaaieth, ii eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoao, a oii
/enea «?aaeeioieaa?neoao eoeueoo?u» (ni. oaeaea Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa
iao/aiey).

Ia?aaea/e aioo?enithciiai ?. aioiayo aeaaiua ?aaeaeoeee
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? ii oaeaaeaeaieth e
?aaeeiaauaieth — i?iiaaaiaeu, eioi?iaoeee (i?ia?aiia «Iaye»), aauaiey
aeey aeaoae, aeey iieiae?aee (?aaeeinoaioeey «THiinoue»),
eeoa?aoo?ii-ae?aiaoe/aneiai, iocueaeueiiai aauaiey, aauaiey aeey Iineau,
aeey Iineianeie iaeanoe. I?iaeaiaie i?aaiecaoeee ?. e auionea ia?aaea/
caieiathony oaeaea aoiaeyuea a ninoaa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa:
aeaaiua aee?aeoeee i?ia?aii Oeaio?aeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeeiaauaiey
(iniiaaiu a 1970); Oeaio? iao/iiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey (iniiaai a 1970),
Aeii ?aaeeiaauaiey e caoeicaiene, Ananithciue iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee
einoeooo oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeeiaauaiey (1957), einoeooo iiauoaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeeiaauaiey (1970).

?. ioaa/aia any oa??eoi?ey NNN?: ia?aaea/e aaaeoony ia aieaa /ai 60
ycueao ia?iaeia NNN? e 70 ycueao ia?iaeia ae?. no?ai; n?aaeianooi/iue
iau?i aauaiey aeey ianaeaiey NNN? ninoaaee a 1975 nauoa 1 oun. /. Ii
noiia?iie iiuiinoe ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiua noaioeee NNN? caieiatho 1-a ianoi
a Aa?iia, ?aniieaaay iaeaieaa iiuiuie ?aaeeinoaioeeyie a ie?a.
I?iaiaeiia aauaiea aaae?ony /a?ac 35 oun. ?ao?aineyoeeiiiuo oceia (a
aieaa /ai 400 ai?iaeao ii o??i i?ia?aiiai). Ian/eouaaaony nauoa 60 iei.
?aaeeii?e?iieeia e nauoa 50 iei. ?ai?iaeoeoi?ia. ?acaeaaaony
noa?aioiie/aneia aauaiea.

A 1975 Ananithciia ?aaeei eiaei 5 iniiaiuo i?ia?aii aauaiey
(n?aaeianooi/iue iau?i 150 /).

1-y i?ia?aiia (iniiaiay) — iauanithciay eioi?iaoeeiiiay,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay e ooaeiaeanoaaiiay. Aeeth/aao eioi?iaoeeiiiua
auionee «Iineaaeieo ecaanoee», aaeaaeiaaiua iaci?u oeaio?aeueiuo aacao.
Iaeia ec noa?aeoeo ia?aaea/ i?ia?aiiu — «?aai/ay ?aaeeiaacaoa». AEeoaeyi
naea aae?aniaai ?aaeeiaeo?iae «Caiey e ethaee». Iiioey?iu ia?aaea/e
«*aeiaae e caeii», «Neoaeo Niaaoneiio Nithco», «Caei?iauea», i?ia?aiia
?aaeeinoaioeee «THiinoue», «Oaao? o iee?ioiia», iaic?aiea «Oaao? e
aeeciue», «Eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoai ca ?oaaaeii», «Iocueaeueiua aa/a?a» e
ae?. Ii 1-e i?ia?aiia cao/ao ia?aaea/e aeey aeaoae e ae?.
N?aaeianooi/iue iau?i aauaiey 20 /. Ia?aaeatho i?ia?aiio ?aaeeinoaioeee
o??o neio?iiiuo naoae.

Aioiayony n o/?oii iiyniiai a?aiaie o?e aeoaey 1-e i?ia?aiiu: aeey
Caiaaeiie Neae?e, ?anioaeee N?aaeiae Acee (e?iia Oo?eiaineie NN?) e
Eacaonoaia; Ainoi/iie Neae?e; Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. 2-y i?ia?aiia («Iaye»)
— e?oaeinooi/iay eioi?iaoeeiiiay e iocueaeueiay eioi?ie?oao
?aaeeineooaoaeae i niauoeyo aioo?aiiae e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeecie,
i?iiaaaiaee?oao eo/oea i?iecaaaeaiey niaaoneie e ca?oaaaeiie iocuee
(eiioea?ou cao/ao iaaeaeo 5—7-ieiooiuie eioi?iaoeeiiiuie auioneaie,
ia?aaeathueieny eaaeaeua iie/ana). Ia?aaea?ony iaeiia?aiaiii aeey anao
?aeiiia no?aiu, 3-y i?ia?aiia — iauaia?aciaaoaeueiay,
eeoa?aoo?ii-iocueaeueiay, aeeth/aao aeieoiaioaeueiua eiiiiceoeee e
?aaeeiniaeoaeee, oai?/aneea ii?o?aou ienaoaeae, ae?aiaoo?aia,
eiiiiceoi?ia, a?oenoia, a oaeaea ia?aaea/e aeey o/aueony, ninoaaeaiiua n
o/?oii oeieueiuo i?ia?aii. N?aaeianooi/iue iau?i 14 /. 4-y i?ia?aiia —
iocueaeueiay, ciaeiieo neooaoaeae n i?iecaaaeaieyie ie?iaiai
iocueaeueiiai eneonnoaa, n oai?/anoaii auaeathueony eniieieoaeae. Cao/eo
ia oeueo?aei?ioeeo aieiao. N oaa?aey 1974 ia aieia 4,16 i o?ainee?othony
noa?aioiie/aneea ia?aaea/e (a n?aaeiai 4 / a noo).5-y i?ia?aiia —
e?oaeinooi/iay eioi?iaoeeiiiay, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay, aae?aniaaia niaaoneei a?aaeaeaiai, iaoiaeyueiny ca
i?aaeaeaie no?aiu (ii?yeai, ?uaaeai, iiey?ieeai e ae?.).

Aaeaaeiaaii aaaeoo ia?aaea/e 160 aiia?aoii-nooaeeeiuo eiiieaenia. A 1974
aeaenoaiaaee 164 e?aaauo e iaeanoiuo eiieoaoa ii oaeaaeaeaieth e
?aaeeiaauaieth e 5 ie?oaeiuo ?aaeei?aaeaeoeee.

A nenoaia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiieoaoa Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? ii
oaeaaeaeaieth e ?aaeeiaauaieth aeaenoaoao (1975) 14 eiieoaoia nithciuo
?anioaeee, 154 iaeanoiuo, e?aaauo e ie?oaeiuo (85 — a ?NON?, 69 — a ae?.
nithciuo ?anioaeeeao), 341 ai?iaeneay ?aaeaeoeey ?. (164 — a ?NON?, 177
— a ae?. nithciuo ?anioaeeeao). ?aaioa ianoiuo ?aaeeieiieoaoia ii
oaiaoeea, aeai?iaie no?oeoo?a ia?aaea/, a?aiaie aaeaaeiaaiiai auoiaea a
yoe? eii?aeeie?oaony n i?ia?aiiie Ananithciiai ?aaeei. Ianoiua eiieoaou
?aaoey?ii aioiayo ia?aaea/e i aeecie ?anioaeee, e?aaa, iaeanoae e aeey
Ananithciiai ?aaeei.

N?aaeianooi/iue iau?i ianoiiai aauaiey i?aauoaao 1000 /ania. A 1974
iau?i n?aaeianooi/iiai aauaiey ?anioaeeeaineeo ?aaeeieiieoaoia ninoaaeye
(a /anao): a Aca?aaeaeaeaineie NN? — 32,5, A?iyineie NN? — 36,1,
Aaei?onneie NN? — 20, A?oceineie NN? — 23,2, Eacaoneie NN? — 37,5,
Ee?aecneie NN? — 22, Eaoaeeneie NN? — 28, Eeoianeie NN?— 32,5,
Iieaeaaneie NN? — 30,6, Oaaeaeeeneie NN? — 26,5, Oo?eiaineie NN? — 23,
Ocaaeneie NN? — 35, Oe?aeineie NN? — 39,6, Ynoiineie NN? — 29,6; iau?i
aauaiey ianoiuo ?aaeeieiieoaoia ?NON? — 385 /. Ianoiua ia?aaea/e
aaaeoony, eae i?aaeei, ii 3 i?ia?aiiai.

Ni. oaeaea ?acaeae Ia/aoue, ?aaeeiaauaiea, oaeaaeaeaiea a noaoueyo i
nithciuo e aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeeeao; naaaeaiey i ?. a e?ayo e iaeanoyo
NNN? — a niioaaonoaothueo noaoueyo.

?aaoey?iia aauaiea Iineianeiai ?aaeei ia ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu ia/aeinue n
1929, aia/aea ia iaiaoeeii, caoai ia o?aioeocneii, aiaeeeneii e ae?.
ycueao. Ia?aaea/e ?ane?uaatho anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea
no?ieoaeuenoaa eiiioiecia a NNN? e nioeeaeecia a no?aiao ie?iaie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu. A aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1941—45
ia/aeenue ia?aaea/e ia a?a/aneii, oo?aoeeii, ia?neaeneii, ii?aaaeneii e
ae?. ycueao, aauaiea ia Eiaeeth, no?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, Eeoae,
ssiiieth, caiaaeioth /anoue NOA. Iineianeia ?aaeei auei enoi/ieeii
iauaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeee i oiaea aieiu. Ii i?inueaa oeeeaea aia?eeaineie
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiie eiiiaiee «Iyoiiae a?iaeeanoeia eiiiaie» (iuia
naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaeeioaeaei?ii?aoeey «Aia?eeai a?iaeeanoeia eiiiaie»
auea i?aaieciaaia ia?aaea/a Iineianeiai ?aaeei aeey NOA, eioi?ay
?ao?ainee?iaaeanue 96 aia?eeaineeie noaioeeyie. A 60-a aa.
n?aaeianooi/iue iau?i aauaiey ia ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu ninoaaeye 140 / ia
46 eiino?aiiuo ycueao e 10 ycueao ia?iaeia NNN?. Oaaee/eeny iau?i
ia?aaea/ ia no?aiu Ao?eee, Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e THai-Ainoi/iie Acee. A
1964 nicaeaia ?aaeeinoaioeey «Ie? e i?ia?ann» — i?aai niaaoneeo
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth o neooaoaeae
iieuecothony o. i. ii/oiaua auionee, ioaaou ia aii?inu neooaoaeae. A
1974 iauee iau?i eiiaauaiey ninoaaeye aieaa 200 / a noo, ia?aaea/e
aaeenue ia 70 ycueao. Ii/oa a 1974 — nauoa 100 oun. ienai.

A iocueaeueiuo eieeaeoeaao Ananithciiai ?aaeei ?aaioaee: aee?eae??u — A.
A. Aeaenaiae?ia, I. N. Aieiaaiia, A. A. Aaoe, A. I. Eiooaaeoeeee, TH. O.
Ieeieueneee, A. E. I?eia, E. I. Iyoeai?neee, A. I. ?iaeaeanoaaineee;
oi?iaenoa?u — E. I. Eoaueei e A. A. Naaoieeia; nieenou — A. A. Aa?aiia,
Ae. A. Aeaiueyiia, A. A. Aoi/eeia, C. I. Aeieooaiiaa, I. A. Eacaioeaaa,
I. A. Eiaaeaaa, A. A. Ia/aaa, I. I. ?iaeaeanoaaineay, A. I. Naoa?iaa, E.
I. ssoicai e ae?. A nicaeaiee eeoa?aoo?ii-ae?aiaoe/aneiai e aeaoneiai
aauaiey aeoeaii o/anoaiaaee a?oenou e ?aaeenn??u I. I. Aaaeoeia, I. A.
Aeaenaiae?iae/, O. E. Aeiaciaa, C. A. Aiea??aa, A. N. Aaeiai, ?. I.
Eiooa, I. N. Eenaeaa, I. A. Eeoaeiia, A. A. Nia?aioiaa, O. E. *enoyeiaa,
I. N. Oeuaaiiaa. Aaaeouea caoei?aaeenn??u — A. A. Oaaeoeia, A. A.
A?aaeineee, A. A. A?iniai, Ae. E. Aaeeei, A. I. ?uia?aiei; aeeeoi?u — I.
E. Eaaaaeaa, A. A. Ioueyniaa, A. A. Nieiaueaa-Anaaieiaeia, A. I.
Aaeaoia, I. N. Aunioeeay, A. A. Aa?oeee, TH. A. Eaaeoai, I. A. Oienoiaa.

A oiiaeiaie oiiioaea Ananithciiai ?aaeei nin?aaeioi/eaathony oieeaeueiua
aeieoiaioaeueiua, eeoa?aoo?iua, iocueaeueiua e ae?. caiene (a 1975 nauoa
100 oun. caienae, aieaa 140 iei. ei iaaieoioiiiie eaiou), aaeaaiaeii iia
iiiieiyaony iiauie caienyie iau?iii ieiei 400 / cao/aiey.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? ii oaeaaeaeaieth e
?aaeeiaauaieth ecaea?o: aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Aiai?eo e iieacuaaao Iineaa»
(iniiaai a 1958, aei yiaa?y 1974 — «Aiai?eo Iineaa»), aaeaiany/iue
aeo?iae «Oaeaaeaeaiea e ?aaeeiaauaiea» (iniiaai a 1957, aei ? 11, 1970 —
«Niaaoneia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea»), aaeaiany/iue caoeiaie aeo?iae
«E?oaici?» (n 1964) e aeaoneia i?eeiaeaiea e iaio «Eieiaie» (n 1969).

Ca?oaaaeiia ?aaeeiaauaiea. Ia?aay ?aaoey?iay ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiay noaioeey
ca ?oaaaeii anooieea a no?ie 2 iiya?y 1920 a Ieonao?aa, NOA, eiiiaiey
«Aanoeiaaoc» (Westinghouse). A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ia?aua ?aaeeii?ia?aiiu
ia/aeenue a 1922 a Eiiaeiia, eiiiaiey «Ia?eiie» (Marconi) e a Ia?eaea —
«?aaeei Ia?e» (Radio-Paris). A 1923 ioe?ueenue ?aaeeinoaioeee a
Aa?iaiee, Aaeueaee, *aoineiaaeee, a 1924—26 au? a 14 no?aiao, a oii
/enea a Aaia?ee, Iieueoa, ?oiuiee, THaineaaee, ssiiiee, a 1929 — a
Aieaa?ee. N eiioea 40-o aa. ia?aaeathuay e i?eieiathuay ?aaeeinaoe
iieo/eee iianaianoiia ?acaeoea, auee nicaeaiu iiuiua ia?aaeao/eee.
Eaaeaeia aeanyoeeaoea o. i. ie?iaie ia?e ?aaeeii?e?iieeia aieaa /ai
oaeaaeaaaony. A 1960 ai anao no?aiao ie?a ian/eouaaeinue 348 iei.
i?e?iieeia, a na?aaeeia 70-o aa. — 845,6 iei. (i?e ianaeaiee a 3739 iei.
/ae.), /enei ?aaeeiaaiiaioia aic?inei (a iei.): a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia — n
82,7 aei 165,2, a nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao Aa?iiu (aeeth/ay NNN?) — n
31,8 aei 80,3, a Ao?eea — n 5,7 aei 20,9, a Aia?eea — ni 190 aei 394,4
(a o. /. a NOA — ni 156 aei 320), a Acee — n 32,2 aei 155,4, a Aano?aeee
e Ieaaiee — n 3,2 aei 10,8.

A Aieaa?ee, AAe?, Iieueoa, ?oiuiee, Eoaeee, O?aioeee, ssiiiee e iiiaeo
ae?. no?aiao ?aaeeiia?aaea/e inouanoaeythony ii o??i iaoeeiiaeueiui
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui i?ia?aiiai (eioi?iaoeey, ?acaea/aiea e i?inaauaiea).
A aieueoeinoaa no?ai nicaeaiu e?oaeinooi/iua iocueaeueiua i?ia?aiiu.

A nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee ?. e aai
caaea/e ii?aaeaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiuie caeiiaie. ?., eae i?aaeei,
caieiathony ainoaea?noaaiiua eiieoaou ii oaeaaeaeaieth e ?aaeeiaauaieth.
?. ioaa/aii i?aeoe/anee an? ianaeaiea. A 1974 a AAe? ian/eouaaeinue 5,8
iei. i?e?iieeia, a Iieueoa — 5,8 iei., a *aoineiaaeee — 3,9 iei., a
Aaia?ee — 2,6 iei., a ?oiuiee — 3,1 iei., a Aieaa?ee — 2 iei., a
THaineaaee — 3,8 iei., ia Eoaa — 2 iei. i?e?iieeia. ?acaeaaaony
i?iaiaeiia aauaiea: ei ioaa/aii a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao 25—30% ianaeaiey.
A iniiaa eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaeei- e oaeaaeceiiiuo i?ia?aii — i?eioeeiu
acaeiiaeiiieiyaiinoe e eiio?anoiinoe.

A ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ?. iineo i?aeiouanoaaiii
ainoaea?noaaiiue oa?aeoa?, aeaaea anee iii inouanoaeyaony ii eeoeaicee
iieoainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie oeia ?AE — «?aaeeiaoaeeoeeiie
Eoaeey» (Radioaudizioni Italia) — a Eoaeee, Ae-Ae-Ne — «A?eoeo
a?iaeeanoeia ei?ii?aeoai» (British Broadcasting Corporation) — a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, I?OO — «Iooen aea ?aaeeiaeeoothcueii oaeaaecueii
o?ainac» (Office de Radiodiffusion Television Francaise) — ai O?aioeee.
Oieueei a NOA ?. aaae?ony /anoiuie eiiiaieyie, aeey eioi?uo enoi/ieee
oeiaine?iaaiey — ia aaiiaiaioiay ieaoa e ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioaoeee, a
aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee e?oiiaeoei iiiiiieeyi aauaoaeueiiai a?aiaie aeey
?aeeaiu. ?yae no?ai (ssiiiey, Aano?aeey, Eaiaaea, Aaeeeia?eoaiey) eiaao
niaoaiioth nenoaio: ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiiia?/aneea aauaoaeueiua
neoaeau. A Aa?iia (Ethenaiao?a) ooieoeeiie?oao e?oiiaeoay
iocueaeueii-?acaeaeaoaeueiay eiiia?/aneay ?aaeeinoaioeey «Ethenaiao?a».

Iniaia ianoi a aauaiee eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai caieiaao ?aaeei NOA, aaea
iao iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ?aaeeii?ia?aii. *aou?a
?aaeeinaoe — «Aia?eeai a?iaeeanoeia eiiiaie» (American Broadcasting
Company), «Iyoiiae a?iaeeanoeia eiiiaie» (National Broadcasting
Company), «Eieaiaey a?iaeeanoeia nenoai» (Columbia Broadcasting System),
«Ith/thye a?iaeeanoeia eiiiaie» (Mutual Broadcasting Company)
ia?aie/eaathony oai, /oi niaaaeatho naie oeeeaeu — ianoiua noaioeee —
i?aeiouanoaaiii «iiainoyie /ana» — 5-ieiooiuie naiaeeaie, a eioi?uo 1,5
iei caieiaao ?aeeaia. Nouanoaothuea a no?aia 7,5 oun. ?aaeeinoaioeee
(aeaenoaotho a ?aaeeona 35—60 ieeue) ia?aaeatho ?aeeaio (ieiei 20—25%
aauaoaeueiiai a?aiaie), iocueo, iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua iiainoe, aeiiieiyy eo
ianoiie eioi?iaoeeae. Anoue «?ie-i-?ieeueiua», «aei?iaeiua», «ia?iaeiua»
e ae?oaea iocueaeueiua noaioeee, a oaeaea «eioi?iaoeeiiiua» e
«aeeneonneiiiua» (i?aeoeeothuea oaeaoiiiua oio n o/anoeai neooaoaeae).
Iniiaiay oeaeue eiiia?/aneiai ?aaeei — iaeneiaeueiia iaania/aiea
aoaeeoi?eae caeac/eeia ?aeeaiu. ?aeeaiiua aeioiaeu aia?eeaineiai ?aaeei
aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeytho 1,2 ie?ae. aeiee. (onooiay oieueei i?anna e
oaeaaeaeaieth). Oieaa?neoaoneea e iaeiiia?/aneea
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneea ?aaeeinoaioeee (ia?acothuea o. i.
iauanoaaiiia ?aaeei) ia a neeao eiieo?e?iaaoue n eiiia?/aneeie e eiatho
ie/oiaeii iaeoth aoaeeoi?eth.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao Acee, Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee ?. — iaeaieaa
ianniaia e iauaaeinooiiia n?aaenoai eioi?iaoeee e i?inaauaiey. A 30—40-a
aa. aei caaiaaaiey iacaaeneiinoe ?aaeeineoaeau ai iiiaeo ec yoeo no?ai
nicaeaaaeenue eieiieaeueiuie aaeieieno?aoeeyie, eiie?iaaaoeie no?oeoo?o
aa?iiaeneeo eiiiaiee e i?aneaaeiaaaoeie oeaeue oe?aieaiey nayce n
iao?iiieeyie, iiyoiio iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaai i?eoeinue ia
oieueei iaiiaeyoue e oneeeaaoue iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneoth iniiao
aauaiey, ii e ei?aiiui ia?acii ia?aniao?eaaoue aai caaea/e. Iniiaiie oei
aauaiey — ainoaea?noaaiiue. Eiiia?/aneea ?aaeeinoaioeee ?aaeee, iaeaieaa
ecaanoia n?aaee ieo noaioeey O?e-Eaiea (Oeaeeii), ?acaeaeaoaeueiua
ia?aaea/e eioi?ie i?eieiaao any THai-Ainoi/iay Acey. A i?ia?aiiao
?aaeeineoaea ieiei 50% ninoaaeytho ia?aaea/e iaoeeiiaeueiie iocuee;
inoaeueiia a?aiy i?eia?ii ii?iaio aeaeeony iaaeaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuie,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeie e o/aaii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeie ia?aaea/aie. A
?yaea no?ai ii eieoeeaoeaa THIANEI nicaeaiu o. i. ?aaeeioi?oiu aeey
eieeaeoeaiiai i?ineooeaaiey ?aaeeii?ia?aii a eeoaao (i?ia?aiiu aeey
naeueneeo ?aaeeioi?oiia iinayuaiu aii?inai ee/iie aeaeaiu, aaaeaiey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, iniiaai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa e o.i.).

A noaiiaeaiee ?. ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai ieacuaatho iiiiuue THIANEI e
ae?. iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee. Noa?aeoay ec ieo — Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
nithc yeaeo?inayce (nicaeai a 1865, ooaa-eaa?oe?a a AEaiaaa), iniiaiay
ooieoeey eioi?iai ninoieo a ?ani?aaeaeaiee ?aaeei/anoio. Nithc
iauaaeeiyao i?aeoe/anee ana no?aiu ie?a. Nioeeaeenoe/aneea no?aiu
aoiaeyo a Iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aaiecaoeeth ?aaeeiaauaiey e oaeaaeaeaiey
(1946, A?thnnaeue), caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneea — a Aa?iiaeneee
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiue nithc (1950, aaeieieno?aoeaiue oeaio? — AEaiaaa,
oaoie/aneee oeaio? — A?thnnaeue). E?oiiaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
i?aaiecaoeee ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey — Iaaeaia?eeaineay annioeeaoeey
aauaoaeae (1946), Nithc ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey Ao?eee (1960) e Aceaoneee
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiue nithc (1964).

Eeo.: Eaiei i ?aaeei. [Nino. I. N. Ao?aae/ e I. I. Ea?oeaa, I., 1973];
Eacaeia A., Eaieineea eaeae i ?aaeei, I., 1968; I/a?ee enoi?ee
niaaoneiai ?aaeeiaauaiey e oaeaaeaeaiey, /. 1, 1917—1941, I., 1972;
I?iaeaiu oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeei. [Enneaaeiaaiey. E?eoeea. Iaoa?eaeu], a.
1—2, I., 1967—71; Nia?aiaiiinoue. *aeiaae. ?aaeei, a. 1—2, I., 1968—70;
Ca?aa I., Neiai a yoe?a. I ycuea e noeea ?aaeeiia?aaea/, I., 1971;
Aaeueia?ei TH., *aeiaae n iee?ioiiii, I., 1971; Ia?/aiei O.,
?aaeeioaao?, I., 1970; ?aaeenno?a ?aaeeiiinoaiiaie. Na. noaoae, I.,
1970.

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