1.HISTORY OF CHILD JOURNALISM 5
2. Beginning of a new era in the Children’s journalism. JOURNALS
«Hedgehog» and «Chizh». 6
Russian press for the young reader as opposed to the «adult» started
with a magazine.
Children’s journalism in this country has a rich history. Before the
revolution, mainly in St. Petersburg and Moscow, issued nearly three
hundred children’s and youth magazines. Some of them went out for
decades, while others ceased to exist in the first book. First of all,
this was due to the fact that publishers do not have sufficient funds,
and at times appeared the magazine does not find its subscribers on a
variety of reasons, but mostly because the alternative is the
deterioration of already published and favorite readers.
«Friend of children», «Children’s Museum», «Sobesednik», «Relax»,
«Baby». «Nursery», «Igrushechka», «A gift for children», «Malutka»,
«Case and fun», «path», «Golden Childhood», «Snowdrop», «sun». Each of
these and many other magazines had their focus, their themes and
structure. Unfortunately, in the study of children’s pre-revolutionary
journalism we have done very little, did not disclose the contents of
journals in any bibliographical work, and in connection with the many
interesting texts have remained only on the pages of periodicals.
However, recently there appeared the publication of children’s magazines
last century, but until this random phenomenon.
The purpose of the proposed works – to trace the history of journalism
from the children’s conception and its tendency to influence the
development of the child, depending on the era, the political system,
ideology of society. Therefore, the task of lighting topics will include
the following points: In addition to descriptions of periodicals for
children, we will trace the ideology of the publications, their content,
purpose, will be traced the fate of the people associated with
journalism for children.
When writing of the extensive material used child periodicals, ranging
from 18 century to the present day, Glavlita papers, monographs, and
memoirs of contemporaries.
The work is of interest to a broad audience: students of philological
departments, cultural workers, the press, journalists, psychologists, as
well as for parents, for whom the important role of journalism in the
upbringing of their children.
1. History of child Journalism
Until the middle of XVII century children’s literature does not exist.
In fact, the first book written specifically for children, was a book
«The World in Pictures» Jan Amos Comenius. The greatest teacher and
school reformer, was the ancestor of the literature relevant to
The first children’s magazine in the world has become a «Leptsigsky
weekly flyer» (1772-1774), issued in Germany. After three years, a
special children’s periodical – «Children’s reading for the hearts and
minds» – was to go to Russia in Moscow.
Journal of Russian educator N. Novikova «Children’s reading for the
hearts and minds» initiated domestic publications for young readers. He
went out in the form of weekly applications of «Moscow statements» from
1785 to 1789. The publication journal N. Novikov seen, above all, an
opportunity to implement its education and outreach ideas. Children’s
Magazine, in the opinion of the editor, was a «for the hearts and
minds», to raise good citizens, from an early age to explain to young
readers with the laws of virtue. It should be the idea of humanity, of
true nobility, honesty, generosity. The publication was encyclopedic in
nature: in its pages were printed papers, talks about the phenomena of
nature stories, fables, comedy, jokes. According to founder, the
magazine was to «provide for the heart and mind to cultivate good
citizens». I. Novikov also believed that in the State of all «make a
handy, if possible degree of education to reach its perfection». To this
end, it took its publication. Educational functions periodicals
determine its nature.
Good taste and literary talent of the staff (one of the editors was N.
Karamzin, published in «Children’s reading for the hearts and minds»
first novel «Eugene and Julia») affected by the selection of translated
literature. Readers acquainted with the works of Voltaire, Lesinga,
Thomson and many others. Journal Novikov stood the test of time. «Net,
the moral rules laid down for the fun of the time language, quietly
entered the soul of the readers, especially readers, and little by
little gave an entirely different flavor to a society», – noted in one
of the entries in 1849. S. Aksakov in his memoirs, too, is drawn to the
magazine Novikov: «As a child my mind (after getting acquainted with
this magazine) has done a coup, and I opened a new world … Many
phenomena in nature, which I looked pointless, though curiously, were
for me the meaning, importance and become more interesting … »60 years
after the appearance of« Children’s reading »V. Belinsky exclaimed:«
Poor children! We were happy for you: we had the «Children’s reading»
The demand for the magazine was so great that when it closed rooms
Children’s Reading »reprinted in the form of books and successfully
For «Children’s reading for the heart and mind» (1785-1789) was followed
by other such publications, and for nearly a century, their typology,
has not undergone substantive changes. The magazine has historically
corresponded to those tasks to be performed at all in «child reading».
First of all, it was designed to educate the young generation.
Magazine N. Novikova elicited imitation, and the beginning of the XIX
century periodicals for the audience were called out one after the
other. «Friend of youth and of all years» Nevzorova M. (1807-1815), and
similar in content «other children» Nikolai Ilyin (1809), «A new
children’s reading» S. Glinka (1821-1824).
2. Beginning of a new era in the Children’s journalism. JOURNALS
«Hedgehog» and «Chizh»
In 20-30-years in our country has a developed network of children’s
newspapers and magazines, to whom the challenge is not having analogues
in world practice dormitory – to shape a new world outlook of
Soviet-type person, effectively influence the future development of the
individual builders society of social justice.
In 1922 the Pioneer Organization is created. From this time begins the
era of the pioneering children’s magazines, some are not included.
Creators magazine looked at the child, especially as the future builders
of communism, sought to inculcate loyalty to the ideas of children’s
ruling party and the Communist leadership.
In 1922 Moscow and 1923. in St. Petersburg went out two single-magazine
«Young Friends» and «Drum», devoted to organizational matters pioneer
movement. It was the first Soviet socio-political magazine for children.
They have existed for about a year, the main theme – Institutional
Numerous periodicals of that time – «Young Spartacus», «Leninskiye
sparks», «Pioneer», «Drum», «New Robinzon», «The friendly guys» and many
others – to fulfill grand job with the glow, which is akin to only the
era of great revolutionary transformations.
Nevertheless, be competitive at the Leningrad magazines «Hedgehog” (1928
– 1935) and «Chizh» (1930-1941) was not in a position none of the
children’s periodical years. Moreover, the writer Nikolai Чуковский even
argued that «never in Russia, either before or after, there was no such
genuinely funny, genuinely literary, childlike mischievous children’s
Authors of the future «Chizhey» and «hedgehogs» was formed around a
children’s department of state publishing houses (GIZ) in Leningrad. It
was established in 1924 at the initiative of KI Chukovsky. The official
had been his head SN Gusin – people «clean devoid of humor and literary
talents» 5, and the unofficial «Lord» (principal consultant) was S. J.
Marshak, which by the end of the 20’s here was focused on the unique
composition constellation of writers and artists. In its early years,
the department was less like a government agency, but rather resembled a
literary studio, which produced, approved and implemented the principles
of the new literature for children; chronicler era always remember the
joyful atmosphere of creativity, in tsarivshuyu «Academy Marshak». Any
visitor to the fifth floor of the House of Books on Nevsky Prospect,
where it is housed, could become a witness, and often a party
unexpectedly comical scenes, funny jokes, and sometimes even a
presentation. In the «Academia» neumolkaemo sounded improvised jokes,
parodies, epigrams, born brilliant and audacious vision. «The entire
fifth floor every day and during all office hours shake one’s sides.
Some visitors to the Division of Child weakened with laughter, that,
ending his affairs, went on staircases, holding his hands over the wall
like a drunken man », 6 – recalled officer drafted N. Чуковский.
Ironically, such an atmosphere, not only does not impede the cause, who
served as allies Marshak, and conversely, increased employment rates of
all the staff cheerful shop. Day by day by exercising their imagination,
imagination and wit, writers and artists maintained a high creative
energy, obtaining a unique professional qualities necessary for creators
of fun children’s book.
By this time also and the idea of creating a new «monthly» (abbreviated
– «Hedgehog»). The magazine was aimed at an audience of secondary school
age – the pioneers. To cooperate in the «Ezhe» Marshak drew writers
represent the author’s group, the journal «Vorobey» (in the last year of
publication – «New Robinzon»), go forth with the 1923-1925 biennium. in
Petrograd. The pages «Sparrow» and «New Robinson» first saw the light
many works Zhitkova B., V. Bianchi, M. Ilyina, E. Schwartz, N.
Oleinikova, E. Vereisky. The most daring and successful of the numerous
«selective» Marshak experiments, the results of which will almost always
be the opening of the new gifted authors, was the invitation to the
child’s experience of office (and then – in the magazines) of young
leaders, but now disgraced literary group «OBERIU» – D. Harms , A.
Vvedensky, N. Zabolotskaya. Patriarch of children’s literature
accurately captured in «recondite» Poetry «oberiutov», continued his
work in the tradition of V. Khlebnikov, A. Tufanova quality that can
enrich the literature for children: the sincerity of feelings, fresh
rhythms, the tendency to bizarre word, innovative thinking. Soon
«oberiuty» truly become a leading force in children’s literature.
Participation in oberiutov-poets «Chizhe» and «Ezhe», of course, casts a
shadow on the magazines themselves, causing a suspicious attitude
towards them, part ideology. They just looked at the clearance. The
campaign against them nachalasv «year of the great breakthrough» – a
match is unlikely to need in the comments – when there razgromnye
article condemning the game poetry and fairy tales (sadly famous
«Combating chukovschinoy»). Publishers have tried to «produce absurd,
horrific things like« First »D. Harms, who neither formal nor, even more
so in its content, not in any way acceptable».
And finally to all the above, I would like to add that due to the rapid
development of technological progress, with the advent and widespread
implementation in all aspects of computer network and Internet, there
are many children’s Web journals, colorfully decorated with a virtual
Game start: «Karapuz», «Ladushki», «Barbie», «Vigny-Pooh», «Nahalenok»,
«A visit from Cinderella», «Mysterious world» and so on.
Unfortunately, children with access to the Internet, yet very little. A
pity, the combination of the printed word and kompternyh achievement is
a phenomenon unique in the field of educational and cognitive child.
Along with the development of computer skills, the child simultaneously
learns a global scale: while reading a literary work and engage in
educational quiz, to correspond with friends, browse a wide range of
graphic images (pictures of beautiful places of the planet, animals,
plants), to raise as their own language, and an additional – English,
mainly in the Internet-e, to play the game, develop logical thinking –
and all this at once!
Today, more and more often hear voices disturbing that the press before
the onslaught of retreats of all kinds of video, the TV, computer. But
we tend to look to the future with optimism. A truly talented word
artist, publicist, calls the reader to meditation and creativity, will
find resonance in the hearts of readers-contemporaries. Do not remain
indifferent to it, and readers for generations to come. Authors of
children’s creative destiny magazines «Chizh» and «Hedgehog» – to the
1. Alexandrov A. Among cheerful «Chizhey» lustige «hedgehogs» / Sat.:
About literature for children .- Vol. 18.-L., 2006.-S. 153-154.
2. Alekseev S. Mir children’s book (on the editorial board «Children’s
Literature») / Literary Gazette, 2005, August 11,
3. Alekseeva MI Soviet children’s Journalism 20-ies., M. University,
4. Bogatyreva JN From the history of the printed newspaper pioneer
(1922-1928 gg.). L., 2005 . God’s peace, g / l, 2005
5. BRONEKOLLEKTSIYA Annex to the magazine “Model Construction”: History
in the tank drawings, photographs and background material.
A. Burnakin Kids Magazines / «New Era», June 22, 2004
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