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AE???ay e??? (?e ?????) — y? ??a e ????y, ???ath??y a ?? eth?e, ?y???
??i ?y????e, ??y?????? e o.i. A ???i ?? ??????? ????? ???u (????e y?e
??y??o ???a, y?e ????? e o.ae.). A i?a ??y ??? ???yo i ???a eth?e ??????
????e, ??????, ?????, i ????o ??? a ?? ?????; ???a?, ??e ????a ???????
??a: ??e ‘???’, ??? ‘????e, ??ue ???e’, ????ue ‘??????ue’, o?a ‘????’.
AE????u y?yth?y ????e, ??????? ?????ey? e ?atho ?????ey a ?????? y??.

AE??? ??ue ?????u, ?e ?iyth?y ?????? ??? e y?yth?y ???? ??????i ???e,
????y, ??? a ??uo ??ao ??? eth?e ??e e ?e ? ????e ??o ?? ????i.

AE?????y — ??ay y???y ?? a ???ey, ???y ?????a ???? ??a? «??» y?e ???y. A
????i ???????a ??? ????th?y ??? ?????e???: 1) ??????? ???n ???ey: ???e
‘e????e’, ?????a ‘????a’, ???e ‘????? ??e’; 2) ????? ????? ??u: ??aa
(??.) ‘??? ??a’, ??y ‘?e?a’, ?????e ‘???’, ???i ‘??eth?i ???’; 3)
????a?? y?????i-?????? ????? ???ey ??a ?y ???ey ??? ???: ???? ‘??uy?y?
????e’, ???? ‘???, ???e’; 4) ????? ?????a ????y?? ???ey n ??i: ??ue
‘????’, ???ue ‘??? ????ue ??y’.

A??ay y??????ue e ??????n? ?????a, ???????ue ? ????? ??u, ???y ?????ue,
??????y ??? ???y, ??atho ???y ?y ????ey n?????? ?? a y?? ?y ??????ey a
y??????? e y??? ????y.

AE???? ???u ??o ?? ?y?? n ????? ??? e y??e a ?a?th?o ????.

1. Y?????? ??a (? A.E. O????o, ????u). Nth? ??ny?y ??? ??i o?? ???u, ?e
?? e ?u-??, ?????? a ???a o??i a ???? y?????? ?????e. Y??? ?? ??a,
??iye, ??, ?? e ?. ???? ? ?? ??????? ?? (?? ???????o e ??? ???y — ??i).
A??e ???????e a ???? y???a??o ?????, ?e ?????e ??ytho ?? ?????? ????,
???a ???y?ny ??? ???????i a y?e ???? y?????? ?????i ???ey.

I?????th ?? ????????o ?? y?y?ny ?, ?i ?e ???tho y?????? ????? a ??i ??i,
? ?????? ?? e ??? ??????. A ???i?? ? ???? ??? y??? ??o ???? ??????a —
??? ? ???????o — y??e: ??????a, ?????y, ????ey, ????y, ???e e o.ae.

A ????o ??ayo y?????? ??a ??o ????? ????a ???y?? e ??o ?e??????e ??a
????i: ? ?y? y???a ??i ???ue, ?i ?e yaeyth?y ????ey? ????????o e
????????o y??e.

2) N?? e ????y n y?????? ????i. Yoe y?????? ???u ?????oth?y ?i, ?i,
?????oy a ??, ?e ? ??ei ???tho y?????? ??iy?a ???y??, ? e ???tho
?????oth ? y??th. Nth? ??? ??i ??ny?y ???u ?? ???ue, ????ue ‘????? ?ey??
?a??, ????? ??????a y??e’, ???ny, ???ue ‘????oue ?????a, ??????’, ????
‘????ny, ?? ?????’. I????i ????, ?i, ?e e a i????i ???, ?????? y??e
???th?y ? ????i, a a ???? ??i ??, ?e ??iy?y ???????? ???? ?e, ????,
??????.

3) N?? n y?????? ?????i ???ey. A i? ”?y???? ?????? ????y ??????? ????
?thn y?????? ????a e ??” [E.A. N???. 1979. N. 95]. A??y ??e n???, ???
y??? ?atho ?????? ?i????a ???? e y?????? ????o, ???th?e y?????? ????a
???y?? e ????.

N?? ??? y?? ??y? ?????o ???a, ???th ? ???u ???????ue ?e ???y?oth. I? y?i
?ae ???y???th ???????y y?????? ?o??, c??ath?e ??oth ????o a ?y? y??e:
???y??? – ??????a – ????a – ???? (???a ????ath?y a y?i ?y? ? ???e
????ey, ???ey ??????? ????ey y??e). N?? ???i ?????? ?iy ? ?atho ????o n?
a ??i ????, ? ?????? y?o y???a a ?? ??????o ???y??? ???y?? ? ????th e
???? ??, ???th?thny a ????? ???ue ?i (???? ??) ????oth ?????. I????, ??e
‘??????ue ???? ????y’, ???, ???ue ‘?????y n ??????? ???????? ??’, ??e,
???a ‘???’. *?? ???y?? e??? ????y e ?????eyi ????o, i?????o ???? e
????a: ??? ‘??’, ???? ‘???’, ???? ‘????? ??th-?? ??’, ??? – ‘?? ????
???e’; ??? ??: ??? ‘???’, ??? ‘?n’, ????e ‘?o’ e o.ae.

A? ?? ?????oth ??? ?? n y?????? ?????i ???ey ???ey? ??????y e ????????y
???a. A ???a ? ??euey?? ?a ???? ????i ?????i ???ey. ??????ue ??????e e
????????e ???e a y???o ????? ??? e ? ??? ????. I??ay ????? ????i ????ey,
? ???? ? ????y, ?i o ????????o ?? yi?????e ????o ?????i y?a ?????, ????,
???a ‘??ue ??e e ???e ???e’, ??? ‘???e, ???e ???e’, ?iye ‘?y??’, ???e
‘???, ????e ????e’, ???? ‘???y e ??y ???a’. O ???o??? ? ?? ?????o ????e
e???? ??, ???a ‘???a’, ???, ??i ‘??e, ???’, ??, ??e ‘??y, ?????y ????’,
?i ‘?????ny, ???????e /???’ . I????i ????, ?i e ??????y, e ????????y
???a (?i??i ??ay) ???oth ?????ny a ?/??a ???e. I? y?i o ??? y???a ???
??????y y?????i-????e ????o, a ?????? ???? ???o ? ??? ??.

I?????a a ???a e ???a n ??????e y?????? ????: ?? ‘?????y ???a’, ?? ‘???e
???e, ???’, ????u ‘???’ e o. ae. E????i ???? ???e ?????? ????.

E??ny e ????? ????y ???a, e ???e ??ny?y ????a ???u, ?? ??? ‘?i-?? ???,
??????? ? ?ae’, ?ye ‘?i-?? ??? ? ????, ?y?’, ??? ‘?i-? ?????a ???ey,
???’ . I???? ??????? ????e ‘????, ???? ??n?a’, ???? ‘???e, ????’, ???
‘???e, ????’, ??? ‘???, ???????’, ???e ‘??eyth??y a ??????th ???o’.
Y?????ay ?????? ??? ?? ??y?th ???o ? ??????e ?e ??????e ???, ????? a
?????? ????. I???? ? y??? ?? ???e, ???, ???e ‘i??????, ??????, ? ?y? ?i
a??y?e’ e ?. ???tho ??????th ?e ??????th ????th ”??y?o” e ???????
y?????oth ?????? ?? a ????? ???? ????????y.

O??u ???? ??y? ????e ???e, ?y??? n ?????i ??? e y??e. E???, ?? ?e
??????i ??y? ? ????e ???? ????ny y?i, ?i a ?ath??y y???o ???i ??? ? ??
??? y?????? ?????e e ??iy?e ????. O?, ?????e ?????o ???ay, ????y ???a.
Ii ? ???o ???? i ?i, ?i ????? ??? ????? ??? ???y? ?? ??e??? ???, ???yy?
??? ????e, e ?a ?y?? ????? ?????ey a ??? ???e ??o ???? e ?????i e ?????
?????i.

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