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Iiiaiycu/iui aa?iiaeneei ainoaea?noaii yaeyaony Aaeueaey, aaea aeaa
ycuea — oeaiaiaeneee (ai Oeaiae?ee) e o?aioeocneee (a Aaeeiiee)
oiio?aaeythony eae ainoaea?noaaiiua, ioeoeeaeueiua ycuee. Ii, e?iia
oiai, a yoeo i?iaeioeeyo nouanoaotho eiiioiu ni niaoaiiui ianaeaieai
eee, iai?eia?, aeec a?aieoeu n Aa?iaieae n i?aiaeaaeaieai aaeueaeeoeaa,
aiai?yueo ii-iaiaoeee A oaeeo eiiioiao ianoiia oi?aaeaiea i?eieiaao
?aoaiea ia oiio?aaeaiee a ioeoeeaeueiii iauaiee, aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa
ycuea niioaaonoaothueo a?oii ianaeaiey Iniaue ycueiaie noaoon eiaao
A?thnnaeue, a eioi?ii 80 % aaeueaeeoeaa aiai?yo ii-o?aioeocnee, 20 % —
ii-oeaiaiaenee Caeanue no?iai niaethaeaaony ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyoia
aeaoycu/ea, e i?aaa oeaiaiaeneiai iaiueoeinoaa ouaoaeueii iaa?aaathony

Iaeiaei e a caiaaeiii ie?a aicieeatho eiioeeeoiua ycueiaua neooaoeee,
eae, iai?eia?, a eaiaaeneie i?iaeioeee Eaaaae — ino?iaea o?aioeocneiai
ycuea (6—7 iei o?aieioiiia) a ieaaia aiaeiycu/iie ?a/e, ian/eouaathuai a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea ieiei 300 iei aiai?yueo Eaiaaea — no?aia aeaoycu/ey n
eiinoeoooeeiiiui cae?aieaieai ?aaiuo i?aa aeey iaieo ycueia. Iaeiaei a
1977 a iaoeeiiaeueiay annaiaeay Eaaaaea i?eiyea oa?oeth, niaeanii
eioi?ie o?aioeocneee ycue aue iauyaeai ioeoeeaeueiui ycueii i?iaeioeee A
niioaaonoaee n yoie oa?oeae ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou ?aeeaia, auaanee e
i?aaeaea aeieaeiu ecaeaaaoueny e ecaioaaeeaaoueny ianoiie
aaeieieno?aoeeae, ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie ia o?aioeocneii ycuea sscueiaie e
iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in a Eaaaaea noieo i/aiue ino?i Cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai aeeoaeae Eaaaaea, auoiaeoeaa ec O?aioeee (85 % ianaeaiey
i?iaeioeee), oi/ao ioaeaeeoueny io Eaiaaeu a naiinoiyoaeueiia
ainoaea?noai. I?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eaaaaea nouanoaoao niaoeeaeueiue
eiieoao ii caueoa o?aioeocneiai ycuea e aeieaeiinoue «ieieno?,
ioaaonoaaiiue ca niaethaeaiea oa?oee i i?eiaiaiee o?aioeocneiai ycuea»,
nie?auaiii — «ieieno? ycuea» AEeoaee Eaaaaea ionoaeaatho i?aai ia
nouanoaiaaiea e ?acaeoea o?aioeocneiai ycuea, ycuea ia?auo canaeaioeaa
Eaiaaeu a oneiaeyo aiaeiycu/iiai ie?oaeaiey e neeueiaeoaai aeaaeaiey
yoiai ie?oaeaiey. I?e yoii aia?eeaineee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea — yoi
noeeenoe/anee caiaoii nieaeaiiue ycue, aai aeaaiui eeiaaenoe/aneei
aeinoeaeaieai yaeyaony neyia, i?inoi?a/ea. A yoeo oneiaeyo aeeoaee
Eaaaaea noa?athony naa?a/ue o?aioeocneee ycue, ioee/athueeny
eeoa?aoo?iie ?ac?aaioaiiinoueth, aunieie noeeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?ie

§ 91. E AII?INO I AOAeOUAI ssCUEIA

Nouanoaiaaiea ?aciuo ycueia ae?aaiea iauyniyee i?ieeyoeai aiaia,
ianeaaoeo ia ethaeae iiiaiycu/ea, e aeiioacu i neeyiee a aoaeouai
ia?iaeia e ycueia aoaei?aaeeee oiu ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia Aa?o a
neeyiea a aoaeouai ycueia e ia?iaeia ?acaeaeytho e nae/an ioaeaeueiua
o/aiua. A iaoae no?aia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy iia iieo/aea
iiaeaea?aeeo a ia?enenoneie oeeinioee e nioeeieiaee. N/eoaeinue, /oi
caeiiu iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey i?eaaaeoo a eiia/iii eoiaa e ia?aciaaieth
a aoaeouai aaeeiiai ie?iaiai eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa Caeiiiia?iui
neaaenoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai, nioeeaeueiiai, iieeoe/aneiai aaeeinoaa yoiai
iauanoaa yaeony neeyiea anao ia?iaeia e ia?aciaaiea anaiauaai ycuea,
iiaeiaii oiio, eae oi?ie?iaaiea e’ ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ieaaee?iaeie aeeaeaeoiuo ?acee/ee e ia?aciaaieai
aaeeiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea. A 20—30-a aiaeu i?iaiicu i aaeeiii
anaiauai ycuea, i aoaeouai neeyiee iaoeee e ycueia auee aanueia
iiioey?iie oaiie ?annoaeaeaiee o/aiuo e ienaoaeae. Ia yoii ienaee E.
Eaooneee, A.A. Eoia/a?neee, A.A. Aiaaeaiia, E.A. Noaeei, I. Ai?ueeee, A.
Oyeen, A. Aa?athn, I.ss. Ie?? e ae?. (37) Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey ia
iiaee?aieyeenue oaeoe/aneeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, a oaeaea eiaeeie
iiiaiouny/aeaoiae enoi?ee nouanoaiaaiey ycueia I?aeoe/anee aei
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie eaeao i?ioeann aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, ?acae?iaeaiey
ycueia Caiaaeeaiea e noaaeeecaoeey yoiai i?ioeanna nii?yaeaiu n
ia?aciaaieai iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueia. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei nouanoaaiii
?anoe?ythony noa?u eniieueciaaiey ycuea, oiiiaeathony auiieiyaiua ei
nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee a nayce n oneiaeiaieai no?oeoo?u e aeayoaeueiinoe
naiiai iauanoaa. A yoo yiioo caiaoii caiaaeeythony oaiiu ycueiauo
eciaiaiee, /aio, e?iia oiai, niinianoaoao eiina?aaoeaiay ii naiae
i?e?iaea ii?ia eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea Iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue, oaeei ia?acii,
?anoe?yao naie a?aieoeu ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. Ana yoi ia iiaeao ia
oe?aieyoue naiinoiyoaeueiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueia. N ia?aciaaieai
aunoae oi?iu iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueia — eeoa?aoo?iuo ycueia — iiae aeeyieai
eeoa?aoo?u, enoi?ee, eoeueoo?u aianoa n iniciaieai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aaeeinoaa ?anoao e /oanoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey. Iiyoiio aanueia
niiieoaeueii, /oiau a aoaeouai aanue yoio i?ioeann, aaaeoee, e
oe?aieaieth ycuea, caeii/eeny eeeaeaeaoeeae iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueia ?aaee
iauaai aeiioaoe/aneiai ycuea

Aeaaiui, iiaeaeoe, a?aoiaioii noi?iiieeia «neeyiey ycueia» a aoaeouai
yaeyaony ooeeeoa?iue, aeey acaeiiiiieiaiey, a aaeeiii iauanoaa
aoaeouaai, o?aaoaony iauee ycue. Ii aiai?eoue oae, cia/eo oioneaoue ec
aeaeo oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iauanoaa aeaaea a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai e a
oi aea a?aiy ia eiaoue yniiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oaiiao yaiethoeee ycuea,
eioi?ay en/eneyaony iiiaeie noieaoeyie e ouny/aeaoeyie

Aoaeouaa, iaaei iieaaaoue, i?eaa?aaei naia ?aoaiea yoie ooeeeoa?iie
i?iaeaiu, ia iioiaeaa ia oeacaiiua auoa i?iaiicu I?aeoe/aneea
iio?aaiinoe iauaiey ethaeae ?aciuo iaoeee, e?iia ?aaeueiiai aeaoycu/ey,
o?aycu/ey e o.ae., aoaeoo, iaaei iaaeayoueny.

Ca aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe auea i?iaeaeaia ia?iiiay ii naiei ianooaaai
?aaioa ii ycueiaiio no?ieoaeuenoao. A ?innee auei aieaa noa ycueia, ia
eiaaoeo ienueiaiiinoe, a ?ac?aaioea aeey ieo aeoaaeoia, o/aaiuo iiniaee
ia?iiioth ?aaioo auiieieee ycueiaaaeu ?innee. Auei nicaeaii ieiei
iyoeaeanyoe eeoa?aoo?iuo ycueia, ioe?uou oaao?u ia ?iaeiuo ycueao iiiaeo
ieaaeiienueiaiiuo ia?iaeia, i?aaieciaaii ia/aoiia aeaei, ia/aee
ecaeaaaoueny ?aciiia?aciay eeoa?aoo?a, aacaou, aeo?iaeu, aanoenue
ia?aaea/ ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee Iiaeii n iieiui i?aaii aiai?eoue i
eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee a aeecie yoeo ia?iaeia

A iinoniaaoneeo ainoaea?noaao, n/eoathueo naay aeaiie?aoe/aneeie, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey ?onneeo e ?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey ia nicaeaiu
oneiaey, oioy au aeeceea e oai, a eaeeo i?aauaaee ycuee yoeo ?anioaeee
i?e niaaoneie aeanoe e eaeea, oai ia iaiaa, iuiaoiea «aeaiie?aoe/aneea»
aeayoaee caaeiei /eneii n/eoatho aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuie. Iaeiaei iaaei
iaaeayoueny, naia aeeciue canoaaeo iauaeoeaii ioeaieoue i?ioeoth e
ianoiyuoth ycueiaoth iieeoeeo e neooaoeeth a ?anioaeeeao auaoaai
Niaaoneiai Nithca, noaaoeo naiinoiyoaeueiuie ainoaea?noaaie. Oaea nae/an
«aeaiie?aoe/aneea» aeayoaee yoeo ainoaea?noa ioia/atho o?aaiaeauee eo
oaeo’ nieaeaiea ni?ina ia eeoa?aoo?o, ecaeaiioth ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo
ycueao, ii n?aaiaieth n niaaoneei ia?eiaeii, niioaaonoaaiii nieaeathony
e oe?aaee ecaeaiee.

Iaaei, iaeiaei, caiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeaia niciaoaeueiiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oiio?aaeaiey ycueia a nia?aiaiiii iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiii
iauanoaa ia enneaaeiaaia oai?aoe/aneei ycueiciaieai a aeinoaoi/iie
noaiaie. Ia iaiauai ?inneeneee e ie?iaie iiuo iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo
ycueiauo acaeiiioiioaiee a aaeeiii ainoaea?noaa. ?acoiaaony,
i?eioeeieaeueiay iiceoeey oai?aoe/aneiai ycueiciaiey caeanue ynia:
ethaie ycue — aaee/aeoaa aeinoeaeaiea /aeiaa/aneie yaiethoeee, e a aai
nio?aiaiee caeioa?aniaaii /aeiaa/anoai. Ii i?aeoe/aneia i?aoai?aiea a
aeeciue yoiai i?eioeeia a eaaeaeii neo/aa noaeeeaaaony n ?yaeii
eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, o?aaothueo iniaiai iiaeoiaea e iaiaeuo
n?aaenoa.

A yoii ioiioaiee aanueia iieacai iiuo ycueiaie iieeoeee a ?yaea
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ?acaeouo no?ai, e i?aaeaea anaai oao, aaea i?iaeaia
ycueiauo acaeiiioiioaiee ?ac?aoaaony ia aeaiie?aoe/aneie iniiaa, ia
oaaaeaiee i?aa a?aaeaeai yoeo ainoaea?noa (36).

A Oeieyiaeee aeaenoaotho aeaa ioeoeeaeueiuo, ainoaea?noaaiiuo ycuea —
oeineee e oaaaeneee, oioy oaaaeia a no?aia ia aieaa 6 %. Iaa ycuea
th?eaee/anee i?aaiii/iu ai anao noa?ao aeecie. Oaeia iieiaeaiea yoeo
ycueia auei onoaiiaeaii eiinoeoooeeae n 1919 a Eco/aiea oeineiai e
oaaaeneiai ycueia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui a oeioao, a a nenoaia aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey iao/aiea aaaeaony ia ethaii ec ieo ii auai?o, oae aea, eae e
caueoa aeeieiiia e aeenna?oaoeee. Ia?aaea/e ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee
aaaeoony ia iaieo ycueao. Ia oaaaeneii ycuea ecaeaaony a no?aia iiiai
aacao. Aeaaea aeaaa ainoaea?noaa i?e anooieaiee a aeieaeiinoue
i?ieciineo i?enyao ia aeaoo ycueao

Oaeei ia?acii, ii caeiiai yoiai ainoaea?noaa, Oeieyiaeey — a?aae
aeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey aeaoo ycueia a ioeoeeaeueiii e auoiaii iauaiee
Eniieueciaaiea aeaoo ycueia ieacuaaao iieiaeeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia
ianoaiiaeo a iauanoaa, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Oeieyiaeey a?aie/eo ni
Oaaoeeae e, eacaeinue au, oaeay ycueiaay iieeoeea oaaee/eaaao aeeyiea
aieaa neeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, e oiio aea aeaaeaaoaai a i?ioeii
Oeieyiaeeae e ianaaeaeaaoaai a iae naie ycue a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e eeoa?aoo?iiai. Eae aeaeei, aeaaea a neo/aa
ia?aaiii?aaiuo a i?ioeii acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie
inaiaiaeeaoeeny io eiicaiiiai iiae/eiaiey ia?iae ia niaoeo ii?aaoue eee
ia?aie/eoue ycueiaua nayce n ainiiaenoaiaaaoei ia?iaeii, iiieiay, /oi
yoi iiaeao iaianoe aeooiaiue o?ii anae no?aia, ia aiai?y oaea i oie
/anoe ianaeaiey, eioi?ay aiai?eo ia oaaaeneii ycuea.

Iiaeiaiia ioiioaiea e eiino?aiiiio ycueo iu iaaethaeaai a nia?aiaiiie
Eiaeee. Inaiaiaeeaoenue io aiaeeeneiai eieiieaeueiiai aeaaeu/anoaa,
eiaeeeneia ?oeiaiaenoai ?aoeei ia ioiaiyoue i?eiaiaiea aiaeeeneiai ycuea
a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec eeoa?aoo?iuo ycueia no?aiu (ia?yaeo n oeiaee e
o?aeo), iiieiay, /oi oaeay ioiaia iaianea au oua?a iaoeeiiaeueiui
(eoeueoo?iui, yeiiiie/aneei, iao/iui, nioeeaeueiui e ae?.) eioa?anai
ainoaea?noaa. Aoi?ie ycue a yoeo no?aiao noae n?aaenoaii iauaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aeooiaiuo aeinoeaeaiee oiai ia?iaea, eioi?ue aieath
noaeueau ieacaeny enoi?e/anee naycaiiui n aeaiiuie ia?iaeaie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ycueiaay iieeoeea iaaieueoie Oeieyiaeee e aaeeeie
Eiaeee ii ioiioaieth e ycueo naieo auaoeo i?aaeoaeae e eieiiecaoi?ia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aceee eiio?ano ii n?aaiaieth n ycueiaie iieeoeeie
iiiaeo auaoeo niaaoneeo ?anioaeee. E oaeay iieeoeea inouanoaeyaony i?e
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, eiaaea ?anioaeeee ia auee eieiieyie ?innee. Iai?ioea,
i?e niaaoneie aeanoe ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee aieueoeinoai yoeo
?anioaeee iieo/aei eiaanoeoeee a naith yeiiiieeo ec ?innee, aeinoeaaaoea
60 %.

Iau/ii i?eia?ii aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?aoaiey ycueiauo aii?inia a
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiii ainoaea?noaa n/eoaaony Oaaeoea?ey. A iae naiaiaeii
oiio?aaeythony /aou?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ycuea iaiaoeeee, o?aioeocneee,
eoaeueyineee e ?aoi?iiaineee. Iaeiaei e caeanue ycueiaay iieeoeea
eniuouaaao cao?oaeiaiey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ycueiaie neooaoeee aeaiiie
no?aiu. A iae oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea aeeaeaeoiay ?a/ue,
noaayuay iiae oa?ico ooaa?aeeaoaany iiiaiycu/ea; iniaaiii yoi eanaaony
?aoi?iiaineiai e eoaeueyineiai ycueia. Iiyoiio Oaaea?aoeey niinianoaoao
?ani?ino?aiaieth e oe?aieaieth anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo ycueia, ?acaeoeth
acaeiiiiieiaiea iaaeaeo aiai?yueie ia ?aciuo ycueao; a oeaeyo nio?aiaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ycueia iiaeaea?aeeaaao oa eaioiiu, a eioi?uo
ainoaea?noaaiiua ycuee iaoiaeyony iiae oa?icie auoaniaiey eioi?iaoeee e
o. ino?i anoae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n ?aniaaeii NNN? e ia?aciaaieai
ioaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noa ia ianoa nithciuo ?anioaeee. sscueiaay neooaoeey
ii/oe ai anao ioaeaeeaoeony ?anioaeeeao ieacaeanue eiioeeeoiie, e aa
iieiaeeoaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iaynii. Ieeoi ia iia
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?onneee ycue ieaaeaony a oaeii o?oaeiii,
ia?aaiii?aaiii iieiaeaiee ia cia/eoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee auaoaai Niaaoneiai
Nithca, a ?aiaa ?inneeneie Eiia?ee. Ii ?onneee ycue ieacaeny a iaeaaeii
iieiaeaiee e ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae ?innee.

Eae au a ioianoeo ca oi, /oi a niaaoneia a?aiy i?aiiaeaaaiea ?onneiai
ycuea a ?anioaeeeao auei iaycaoaeueiui a ea/anoaa ycuea
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaiey a aaeeiii ainoaea?noaa (yoi inouanoaeyeinue
ia?yaeo n iaycaoaeueiui iao/aieai ?iaeiiio ycueo), nae/an a aeeaeiai
ca?oaaaeuea, ca eneeth/aieai Aaei?onnee, i?aiiaeaaaiea ?onneiai ycuea
ioiaiaii. ?onneee ycue i?e?aaiai e eiino?aiiiio ai iiiaeo ?anioaeeeao, a
eioi?uo iiae/an ?onneeo e ?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey aieueoa, /ai oae
iacuaaaiiai ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey. I?e yoii i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei ycueai (iai?eia?, a I?eaaeoeea). Iauei yaeaieai aeey
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?anioaeee noaei cae?uoea iiiaeo ?onneeo oeie.
Ioeoeeaeueiui ycueii a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa ?anioaeee iauyaeai
ianoiue iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue. ?oeiaiaeeoaee iinoniaaoneeo ainoaea?noa
ii?aaaeuaatho oaeea ?aoaiey aeaeaieai auoue iacaaeneiuie, iianiinoueth
?oneoeeaoeee, iioa?e iaoeeiiaeueiie naiiauoiinoe e o. i.

Iu ia aoaeai eanaoueny iieeoe/aneie noi?iiu aii?ina, oioy a aeaiiii
neo/aa, i/aaeaeii, /oi iiaeiaiua ?aoaiey eiatho iieeoe/aneoth
iiaeiieaeo. Noaaeoue ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aiiiu naiei a?aaeaeaiai a
iaeaaeaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiui aoi?ui ycueii, ioe?uaathuei aeey /aeiaaea
aeooiaiue ie? ia oieueei naiaai ia?iaea, ii e ae?oaeo ia?iaeia ie?a (ia
ie?iaua ycuee, a oii /enea ?onneee, ia?aaaaeaia ia?iiiay eeoa?aoo?a
iiiaeo ia?iaeia ie?a),— yoi iaaaeiyoue aeooiaioth aeeciue,
eioaeeaeooaeueiia ?acaeoea naieo a?aaeaeai, ?ac?ooaoue enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoeany aeooiaiua nayce iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie a oaiaeo iieeoe/aneei
aiaeoeeyi e neiiaoeyi ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae.

Ai acaeiiioiioaieyo ycueia a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
aeaa iiiaioa: 1) aeeyiea ae?oaiai ycuea (eee ycueia) ia aeaiiue ycue a
aeaea caeinoaiaaiey neia eee iai?ioia; 2) iaeaaeaiea aoi?ui ycueii eae
n?aaenoaii aeoeaiiai iauaiey a ?aciuo noa?ao aeecie

Eceeoiea, ia?aaoee?oaiua caeinoaiaaiey iiaoo cani?youe eeoa?aoo?ioth
?iaeioth ?a/ue, ia?ooaoue i?eiyoua ii?iu, oanieoue iaoeeiiaeueiua oi?iu
au?aaeaiey iunee e ae?. A yoeo neo/ayo io?aieoaeueiay iieeoeea ii
ioiioaieth e iaoeeiiaeueiiio ycueo anoanoaaiia e aiieia ii?aaaeaiia Ii e
a yoii neo/aa aa neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue, iie?aynue ia iao/iua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, o/eouaay enoi?e/aneee iiuo acaeiiioiioaiee ia?iaeia e eo
ycueia. A nia?aiaiiii ie?a, eae e a i?ioeua a?aiaia, iaaiciiaeii
eciee?iaaoue ia?iaeu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ia?iaeia. Caeinoaiaaiey ec ae?oaeo ycueia ia no?aoiu
aeey ?iaeiiai ycuea, anee ii ooieoeeiie?oao a aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey iaai
oneiaeyo, iaania/eaathueo naiaiaeiia aai ?acaeoea. sscueiaay iieeoeea
aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia ia nio?aiaiea aai naiiauoiinoe, eeoa?aoo?iuo
ii?i, ii?aaaeaaoeo naay e cae?aieaiiuo a oiio?aaeaiee, ia ?acaa?ouaaiea
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ycuea e o. ae. I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo
ii?aaaeaiiua, o a. iaiaoiaeeiua, caeinoaiaaiey aeoeaece?oao aai
nianoaaiiua neeu, canoaaeytho eo ia?ano?aeaaoueny, ooieoeeiiaeueii
iaiiaeyoueny. Ii e a yoeo neo/ayo ycueiaay iieeoeea e neoaeaa aeieaeiu
o/eouaaoue ia?o oaeeo caeinoaiaaiee, ii?aaeaeyoue ia iniiaa iao/iiai
aiaeeca eo iaiaoiaeeiinoue e ii?aaaeaiiinoue. Caeanue aiieia aeiionoeia
io?aieoaeueiay i?iiaaaiaea ca /enoioo iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea,
niaethaeaiea aai iaoeeiiaeueiie naiiauoiinoe, enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny
noeeenoe/aneie e naiaioe/aneie nenoaiu. Iaeiiaoe, aiieia i?eaieaiu e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u i?ioea cani?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea eceeoieie
eiiycu/iuie caeinoaiaaieyie (n?.: caeiiu e iinoaiiaeaiey, i?eiyoua ai
O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee i?ioea iaii?aaaeaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey i?aeiouanoaaiii
aia?eeaieciia e aiaeeoeeciia).

Aeoeaiia aea aeaaeaiea aoi?ui ycueii, iniaaiii anee yoio ycue ii
auiieiyaiui ooieoeeyi ie?iaie, ioe?uaaao ia?aae /aeiaaeii oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ciaeiinoaa n ie?iauie aeinoeaeaieyie a ?acee/iuo
io?aneyo ciaiey, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa e aeey eo eniieueciaaiey. Eae
ecaanoii, oaeiaui yaeyaony ?onneee ycue.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ycueiaay iieeoeea iinoniaaoneeo ainoaea?noa
eiio?anoe?oao n ycueiaie iieeoeeie niaaoneie aeanoe. Iieeoeea iineaaeiae
iniiauaaeanue ia ?aaiii?aaee ycueia i?e ionoonoaee caeiiiaeaoaeueii
ooaa?aeaeaiiiai aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ycuea, n naiiai ia/aea iia
i?aaeoniao?eaaea nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey ?acaeoey ycueia,
iniaaiii oao ia?iaeia, eioi?ua ia eiaee ienueiaiiinoe, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iao/aiey a oeiea ia ?iaeiii ycuea. Iaycaoaeueiinoue
iao/aiey ?onneiio ycueo iaeiia?aiaiii n ?iaeiui aeeeoiaaeanue iaueie —
yeiiiie/aneeie, ainoaea?noaaiiuie, iieeoe/aneeie, aiaiiuie, eoeueoo?iuie
e ae?.— oneiaeyie aeecie a aaeeiii ainoaea?noaa. I?e/ai a i?aaeaeao
?anioaeee iaa ycuea a ioeoeeaeueiii e iaioeoeeaeueiii iauaiee eiaee
?aaiua i?aaa. Ciaiea iauaai ycuea (eee ycueia) a?aaeaeaiaie aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaa eae ainoaea?noaaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eciaaony ai iiiaeo
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noaao e cae?aieyaony caeiiiaeaoaeueii (n?.,
iai?eia?, a NOA, Eaiaaea, Oeieyiaeee e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao). Iaaeaeo
oai a Niaaoneii Nithca yoi ciaiea ?onneiai ycuea eae aaeeiiai ycuea
ainoaea?noaa auei aeia?iaieueiui a neeo ionoonoaey caeiia i
ainoaea?noaaiiii ycuea. A ieo ia?acia, oae e au?anoathueo ec ieo
cia/aiee. Iineaaeiea neooaoeaiu, i?eaycaiu e ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoaiiaea,
io?aaeay oa?aeoa?iua oneiaey auoa ia?iaea, aai ?aciiia?aciie
aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiuo n iae iieiaeaiee aauae e i?.

I eaene/aneii e o?acaieiae/aneii aiaaonoaa ?onneiai ycuea iaienaii
iiiai; iii aeaenoaeoaeueii ia?iiii; ycue io?acee a naaa aeooiaioth e
iaoa?eaeueioth enoi?eth ?onneiai ia?iaea. Iaoeeiiaeueiue ?onneee
eeoa?aoo?iue ycue ieoaee iiuiua enoi/ieee: onoiay ?a/ue ia?iaea ai anai
aa iiiaiia?acee, io?aaeathuai ?aciua iaeanoe aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
ia?iaea; eieaeiay ?a/ue, oaeaea ianeoaeeaaaoay ?aciua noa?u ienueiaiiiai
iauaiey; oea?eiaiineaayineee ycue, aeeaeaeoiay ?a/ue. Ana yoe noeoee
ia?aciaaee eaene/aneia aiaaonoai ?onneiai ycuea, aai ?acaaoaeaiioth
noeeenoe/aneoth, aeai?iaoth nenoaio. Aiaaonoai ycuea ninoaaeyao ia
oieueei eiee/anoai neia e ?acee/iuo aeaeia onoie/eauo ni/aoaiee, ii e
niaieoiiinoue anao cia/aiee, au?aaeaiiuo neiaaie (aieueoeinoai neia
iiiaicia/ii). Eiee/anoai iiiyoee a ycuea ia ?aaiyaony eiee/anoao neia,
iii cia/eoaeueii aieueoa. E?iia oiai, a neiaa?iue ninoaa ycuea oaeaea
aoiaeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai i?ioanneiiaeueiie, aeeaeaeoiie, ?aianeaiiie,
iaeeoa?aoo?iie eaeneee, eioi?ay ii aieueoae /anoe ia aeeth/aaony a
iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiua oieeiaua neiaa?e, eae e ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iao/iuo
oa?ieiia e oaoie/aneie iiiaieeaoo?u. Ana yoi oaeoe/aneia
aeieacaoaeuenoai naiaioe/aneiai e noeeenoe/aneiai aiaaonoaa ?onneiai
ycuea.

I?iecaaaeaiey onoiiai ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa — aueeiu, iiaanoe, neacee,
ianie…— ioee/athony y?eeie iaoeeiiaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie, eae ii naiae
oi?ia, oae e au?aaeaaiiio niaea?aeaieth. Iie io?aaeatho a ia?acao
?acee/iua noi?iiu aeecie ia?iaea a aai enoi?e/aneii aeaeaeaiee.
Ia?iaeiay neiaaniinoue, eae e aaoi?neay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a,
niaaeeiyao a aeeaoth oeaiue iieieaiey ethaeae a oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia.

Eco/aiea ia?iaeiinoe, ia/aaoaany a ?onneie iaoea a XIX a., a naiai
i?eeiaeaiee e ycueo, eae e aanueia iieacaoaeueiiio au?aaeaieth
ia?iaeiinoe, eaeaeii iaoiaeeony a aeeceie nayce n eeiaaenoe/aneeie
iai?aaeaieyie, aicieeoeie a ia?aie iieiaeia e na?aaeeia XX a., a eiaiii
n iaiaoiaieueaeoeainoaii e yoiieeiaaenoeeie («aeiioacie Naie?a-Oi?oa»).
Ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa eiioeaioeee ia?iaeiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia
eiaao iaiauaiiue oa?aeoa? e i?aaeiieaaaao eco/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae ii anaio niaeo?o aeooiaiie e iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie iaoeee.
«sscue e ia?iaeiinoue» — yoi oieueei iaeia noi?iia aiciiaeiiai iauaai
o/aiey i oie eee ae?oaie ia?iaeiinoe.

A neeo iauaai i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia, aeeceiai ?iaenoaa
yoeo ycueia a ioaeaeueiuo eo aaoayo (n?.: ainoi/iineaayineea ycuee), a
oaeaea oaniiai acaeiiaeaenoaey e acaeiiaeeyiey ia i?ioyaeaiee anae eo
enoi?ee, eo ioee/ey iaaeaeo niaie ia noieue eiio?anoiu, eae, iai?eia?,
?acee/ey ycueia yecioe/aneeo, aicieeoeo e nouanoaiaaaoeo eciee?iaaiii a
iniauo oneiaeyo, ii n?aaiaieth n aa?iiaeneeie ycueaie (n?.- ycuee
naaa?iaia?eeaineeo eiaeaeoeaa). Eco/aiea no?iy iineaaeieo, oeiieiae/anee
niaa?oaiii ia noiaeiuo n aa?iiaeneeie ycueaie, e iineoaeeei iniiaaieai
aeey oi?ie?iaaiey yoiieeiaaenoeee.

O/aiea i ia?iaeiinoe, a /anoiinoe, i?iaeaia ycuea e ia?iaeiinoe, ii
iaoaio iiaieth, aeieaeiu caiyoue niioaaonoaothuaa ianoi n?aaee
aeenoeeieei, eco/athueo iaoeeth a ?acee/iuo aa aniaeoao.

§ 90. IAUANOAI E AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss ssCUEIAAss IIEEOEEA

A nia?aiaiiii ie?a a nayce n i?ioeannaie naiiii?aaeaeaiey iaoeee,
ia?aciaaieai iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noa, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuie e
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuie ioiioaieyie, aeoeaiie iea?aoeeae ianaeaiey aanueia
aaaeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie caaea/ae noaei i?aaiaia ?aoaiea aii?inia ycuea
a iauanoaa. Yoe aii?inu eanathony caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai iaania/aiey
i?eiaiaiey ycueia a ioeoeeaeueiii e iaioeoeeaeueiii iauaiee, a iao/aiee
ycueai a oeiea e aoca, ai acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie. Ana yoe
aii?inu naycaiu n oaiie «sscue e iauanoai». TH?eaee/aneay, i?aaiaay e
nianoaaiii /aeiaa/aneay noi?iia yoeo aii?inia ieacaeanue aeey
oai?aoe/aneiai ycueiciaiey iiaie; e niaeaeaieth, aei neo ii? yoe aniaeou
ycueiaie iieeoeee ia noaee i?aaeiaoii ?aciinoi?iiiaai iao/iiai eco/aiey.
Nia?aiaiiue iiuo i?eiaiaiey caeiiia i ycuea iieacuaaao, /oi iie
ioaeaeathony a iniiaaoaeueiie eeiaaenoe/aneie yenia?oeca e
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee aeieaeiu eiaoue ecaanoiia
iao/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?iee e oeaiiinoe ycuea aeey /aeiaaea, iaoeee e
ainoaea?noaa. Iaoea i ycuea eae iauanoaaiiii yaeaiee aeieaeia n yoie
oi/ee c?aiey iaiaueoue iieiaeeoaeueiue iiuo ainoaea?noaaiiiai,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a iauanoaa ycueiauo i?iaeai. Iaaeaeo
oai caeiiiaeaoaeueiua, i?aaiaua ?aoaiey ycueiauo aii?inia a oii eee
ae?oaii ainoaea?noaa ia?aaeei iiaeaa?aeaiu iieeoe/aneie eiiuthieoo?a,
i?aneaaeotho eioa?anu iaeieo a?oii ianaeaiey a oua?a ae?oaei, ia
ioaa/atho i?aaeeueiiio iiieiaieth ianoa ycuea a aeecie /aeiaaea,
ia?iaea, ainoaea?noaa.

I?aaiaay ioeaiea ?iee ycuea a iauanoaa e aeecie /aeiaaea, io?aia ycuea,
caaioa i naiaiaeiii aai ?acaeoee, ai?ueaa i?ioea aai aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee
e ae?.— ana yoe aii?inu ycueiaie iieeoeee ieacaeenue aanueia
ceiaiaeiaaiuie ia oieueei aeey iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noa, ii e
aeey ainoaea?noa iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo. Aeaaiaea?y nia?aiaiiui n?aaenoaai
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, aeoeaiui acaeiinaycyi iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie aeeyiea
ycueia — aeaeaoaeueiia e iaaeaeaoaeueiia — ia?ae?uaaao a?aieoeu
ainoaea?noa.

Aii?in i ianoa oiai eee eiiai ycuea a ainoaea?noaa, a ioeoeeaeueiii e
iaioeoeeaeueiii iauaiee, a oeiea e aoca, a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, ii i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiay nenoaiaoecaoeey e nicaeaiea
naiiai i?oaeey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe — ycuea. I?e yoii ianiio?y ia,
eacaeinue au, iauea iio?aaiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aciaaiey ycuea,
eaaeaeue ycue inoaaony ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o naiiauoiui e naiaia?aciui
yaeaieai sscuee ii?aaeatho naiei ?aciiia?aceai oiiaoe/aneeo,
a?aiiaoe/aneeo, eaene/aneeo nenoai. Ii/aio, a ?acoeueoaoa iauanoaaiiie
ii naiae i?e?iaea ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?acoaony a eaaeaeii ycuea
eiaiii oaeie ninoaa oiiai, oaeie a?aiiaoe/aneee no?ie e i?.— ioaaoeoue
ia yoio aii?in nia?aiaiiia ycueiciaiea ia iiaeao. E i?aaeaea anaai
iioiio, /oi enoiee ycuea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia/aei oi?ie?iaaiey aai
o?iaiae ne?uou oieuae a?aiaie a ianeieueei aeanyoeia eee nioai
ouny/aeaoee. A aeinooiioth aea iaaethaeaieth enoi?e/aneoth yiioo iaoea
ioia/aao ia iiaa?oiinoe ycuea eeoue ioaeaeueiua iiaeaeaeee oaea aioiaie,
aeaenoaothuae aai nenoaiu e no?oeoo?u; iaeiaei i?ineaaeeoue e iiiyoue
oi?aaeaiea iaoaieciii yoie nenoaiu a oeaeii nia?aiaiiie iaoea iiea
oaeaea ia oaeaaony.

§ 83. AIOO?AIIssss E AIAOIssss NO?OEOO?A ssCUEA

A ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiu acaeyaeu, niaeanii
eioi?ui ?acaeoea ycuea oeaeeeii iiae/eiaii enoi?e/aneiio aeaeaeaieth
iauanoaaiiuo oi?iaoeee.

Ia yoii iniiaaiee auaeaeythony niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa ycue ?iaea,
ieaiaie, nithca ieaiai, ia?iaeiinoe, iaoeee (ni. ieaea). Iao niiiaiey,
/oi ycue oanii naycai n iauanoaii; a naiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiee e
enoi?e/aneii aeaeaeaiee ii ii?aaeaeaiiuie naieie n?aaenoaaie io?aaeaao
iiiainoi?iiithth aeeciue iauanoaa. Iaeiaei naycue ycuea n iauanoaaiiuie
i?ioeannaie e oi?iaoeeyie ia oae i?yiieeiaeia, eae yoi auaeyaeeo ia
i?eaaaeaiiie auoa noaia. E auaeaeaiea iniauo ycueia aeey ?aciuo, e
i?aaeaea anaai ninaaenoaothueo, iauanoaaiiuo oi?iaoeee a enoi?ee iaeiiai
e oiai aea ia?iaea no?aaeaao iaoaienoe/iinoueth. Ia?iae, aeeaoee a naiae
enoi?ee a ?aciuo iauanoaaiiuo oi?iaoeeyo, ia eeoaaony naiaai
oiaeaeanoaa. Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii e ycue ia eeoaaony oiaeaeanoaa,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ianeoaeeaae yoe oi?iaoeee. ?acoiaaony, ycue
eciaiyaony e ?acaeaaaony, e ia eaeii-oi yoaia naiaai enoi?e/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey iiaeii aiai?eoue i aai ea/anoaaiii iiaii ninoiyiee. Ii yoi
aai iiaia ea/anoaaiiia ninoiyiea iaoneiaeeaaaony ia aai
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth eiaiii e aeaiiie oi?iaoeee, oioy aa aeeyiea ia
iiiaea noi?iiu ycuea, e a oii /enea ia aai no?oeoo?o, aoaeao
ianiiiaiiui. «…sscue, ?anniao?eaaaiue a aeaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
iiiaioa enoi?ee,— ienae A. Eina?eo,— ia yaeyaony ie niaa?oaiii ae?oaei,
ie a oi/iinoe oai, aea naiui» (4, n. 343).

Aeey iiieiaiey oaeiai iaiaeiicia/iiai niioiioaiey ycuea e iauanoaa
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aeaienoaaiiinoue, aioeiiie/iinoue no?oeoo?u
ycuea, i /ai iu ienaee auoa (ni § 48). I?enouay ycueo i?ioeai?a/eainoue
aeaaaea iniiaaiea o/aiui auaeaeyoue a iai aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth
enoi?eth (Aiaeoyi aea Eo?oaiy), aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth eeiaaenoeeo
(Ninnth?), aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth no?oeoo?o (A Eina?eo), aeaa aniaeoa
eco/aiey ycuea — no?oeoo?iue e ooieoeeiiaeueiue (A.A. Aa?i?ei, O.I
Oeeei, TH Ae. Aeaoa?eaa e ae?.).

I?iaeoeoeaiie iinueeie eco/aiey i?ioeai?a/eaie i?e?iaeu ycuea, aua
iaeiie aai aioeiiieae i?aaenoaaeyaony auaeaeaiea a iai aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae no?oeoo?u. Oaeia auaeaeaiea eiaao ianiiiaiiua iauaeoeaiua
iniiaaiey, iineieueeo iicaieyao iauynieoue oiaeaeanoai ycuea eae a aai
enoi?e/aneii aeaeaeaiee, oae e i?e iaee/ee ecaanoiie oa??eoi?eaeueiie e
nioeeaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee. A naaoa oaeiai eco/aiey ycuea iieo/atho
iai?ioeai?a/eaia iauyniaiea eeanniaua e nineiaiua iniaaiiinoe ycuea,
iaoiaeyuea naia au?aaeaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii a aai aiaoiae no?oeoo?a, o.
a. io?aaeathuea iniaaiiinoe iauaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo
oneiaeyo.

*oi ia?acoao aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o ycuea. Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai,
oiiaoe/aneee, a?aiiaoe/aneee, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue no?ie ycuea.

Oiiaoe/aneay nenoaia (aiaoiyy oi?ia) ia?acoaony a oa/aiea noieaoee e
ouny/aeaoee, iia no?iai no?oeoo?e?iaaia; yoi aiaoiee iaoa?eaeueiue
noano?ao iaoae iunee. A neeo oaeie naiae i?e?iaeu iia aac?acee/ia e
aiaycueiaui niauoeyi, nioeeaeueiui i?ioeannai, niaiai oi?iaoeee e i?.

A?aiiaoe/aneay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaeaeueii ioaea/aiioth a
eaaeaeii ycuea oi?iaeueii-niaea?aeaoaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth aaeeieoe
ycuea, eo naycae e ioiioaiee, iaania/eaathueo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ycuea.
A?aiiaoe/aneay nenoaia oaeaea oi?ie?oaony a oa/aiea enoi?e/anee
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie e, iiaeiaii oiiaoe/aneie, iia iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
?aaae?oao ia iauanoaaiiua aiaycueiaua i?ioeannu e niauoey. Noiaeia n iae
e neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiay nenoaia.

Iauai?eiyoi iiaiea, /oi eaeneea iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeaao oi, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo a iauanoaa. Iiyoiio aa iau/ii ioiinyo e aiaoiae no?oeoo?a
ycuea, oanii naycaiiie n i?ioeannaie, yaeaieyie, niauoeyie aeecie
iauanoaa. Iaeiaei e eaeneea ycuea aeeth/aao enoi?e/anee noi?ie?iaaaoaany
yae?i, iaicia/athuaa oaeea i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai
ie?a /aeiaaea, eioi?ua anaaaea niioonoaotho aeecie aai e iauanoaa.
?acoiaaony, yoio einoye eaeneee, eee aioo?aiiee neiaa?iue oiiae, ia
inoaaony iaeciaiiui. Ii ii eciaiyaony aanueia iaaeeaiii; aeaaea
eciaiaiey oiiaoe/aneie e a?aiiaoe/aneie noi?ii ycuea iiaoo iia?aaeaoue
ii naiei oaiiai eciaiaiea neiaa?iiai oiiaea I?aaaea, iaaei caiaoeoue,
/oi i?e aiaoiai oiaeaeanoaa iaeieo e oao aea neia ?aciuo enoi?e/aneeo
yiio iaiythony eo cia/aiey, niaea?aeaiea e niuneu Aeey ethaeae ?aciuo
enoi?e/aneeo yiio niaea?aeaiea e niuneu ei neioaaiaoe/aneeie e
ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneeie i?aaeeaie, ia oieueei a aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee.
Io?aaeay e iaicia/ay aaneiia/iia iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiuo neooaoeee,
aaeeieoeu ycuea inoathony naiaiaeiuie io yoeo neooaoeee. E yoa naiaiaea
yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiui naienoaii eae eo, oae e ycuea a oeaeii Anee
au aaeeieoeu anao o?iaiae ycuea auee naycaiu oieueei n iaiin?aaenoaaiii
io?aaeaaiie eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae, oi i?eiaiaiea ycuea eae n?aaenoaa
iauaiey, ?acaeaeaiiiai ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa e iaeiia?aiaiii
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie aaeeinoai, auei au iaaiciiaeii sscue
noauaeoeaiia e ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiia n?aaenoai iauaiey e
io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e, eae oaeiaia, iii niiniaii io?aaeaoue e
iaicia/aoue iaiythueany niaea?aeaiey i aiaycueiaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth oaeeo naieo onoie/eauo iaoaieciia, eioi?ua, a
ecaanoiuo i?aaeaeao, iacaaeneiu io iaiythuaainy niaea?aeaiey. Aeaaea
neiaa, eioi?ua, eacaeinue au, naieie cia/aieyie iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu
n aeaenoaeoaeueiuie oaeoaie, o/anoaotho ia oieueei aeey iaicia/aiey
i?aaeiaoia oie eee ae?oaie neooaoeee, ii aeaaiaea?y naiei ioaea/aiiui
cia/aieyi iie niiniaiu i?eiaiyoueny a ioe?uoii /enea neooaoeee

Aaneiia/iia iiiaiia?acea yaeaiee aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai ie?a /aeiaaea
io?aaeaaony aaneiia/iie a i?eioeeia oeaiueth ni/aoaiee eiia/iiai /enea
aaeeieoe ycuea ia eaaeaeii aai o?iaia, ia/eiay n ni/aoaiey oiiai aeey
ia?aciaaiey neia e eii/ay ni/aoaieyie neia i?e ia?aciaaiee auneacuaaiee.
?acoiaaony, ia ana oai?aoe/anee aiciiaeiua ni/aoaiey aaeeieoe ?acee/iuo
o?iaiae ycuea ?aaeecothony a aai oiio?aaeaiee. Neioaaiaoe/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe ycueiauo aaeeieoe, eo aaeaioiinoue e aeeno?eaooeey ia
eaaeaeii o?iaia eiatho naie i?aaeea e ia?aie/aiey, iaoneiaeaiiua eae
aioo?eycueiauie, oae e aiaycueiauie oaeoi?aie, aiai?eoue i eioi?uo
caeanue ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Oeaaeai oieueei ia
i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea ni/aoaaiinoe cia/eiuo aaeeieoe ycuea, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, neia ia neioaene/aneii o?iaia e, n ae?oaie,— ii?oai ia
ii?oaiii-ii?oieiae/aneii o?iaia.

Ia neioaene/aneii o?iaia neiaini/aoaiey e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?acothony
iooai naiaiaeiiai ni/aoaiey neia, oi?aaeyaiiai, iaeiaei, a?aiiaoe/aneeie
i?aaeeaie niaaeeiaiey neia ii?aaeaeaiiuo /anoae ?a/e, a oaeaea
i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneeie ioiioaieyie.

Ii noiaeiiio i?eioeeio ia?acothony e iiaua neiaa. A neiaa o/-e-oaeue
ei?aiue ano?a/aaony a ae?oaeo neiaao aeaiiiai neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiiai
aiacaea (o/eoue, o/aiee, o/aieoea, o/aaa, o/aiea, o/aiue, o/aueeny ae?.
oae aea, eae e noooeen —oaeue — ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo neiaao (ienaoaeue,
/eoaoaeue, iauaaoaeue, ii?o/aoaeue, nianaoaeue e o i.) Ni/aoaiea
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia o/—e— oaeue ia?acoao iiaia neiai n iiaui
cia/aieai ?acieoea iaaeaeo ia?aciaaiiui n iiiiuueth oeacaiiuo
aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo yeaiaioia neiaii e neiaini/aoaieai e i?aaeeiaeaieai
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi neiai e aai cia/aiea cae?aieyaony a ycue
noaiiaeony iinoiyiiui aai yeaiaioii, a oi a?aiy eae i?aaeeiaeaiea e
neiaini/aoaiea ia?acothony naiaiaeiui ni/aoaieai neia, acyouo aeey
iaicia/aiey eiie?aoiiai yaeaiey eee neooaoeee. Nicaeaiiua oaeei ia?acii
neiaa ninoaaeytho eiia/iia /enei aaeeieoe, iaaeaeo oai i?aaeeiaeaiey e
naiaiaeiua neiaini/aoaiey i?aeoe/anee aaneiia/iu a ?a/e aiai?yueo.

Caoeiaua iaiei/ee neia ycuea oaeaea ia?acothony ec ia?aie/aiiiai
eiee/anoaa oiiai, a niaieoiiinoe i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie no?iai
iino?iaiioth, caieioooth nenoaio.

A eaaeaeii neo/aa ni/aoaaiinoue ?acee/iuo aaeeieoe ycuea (neia — i?e
ia?aciaaiee neiaini/aoaiee e i?aaeeiaeaiee, ii?oai e oiiai — i?e
ia?aciaaiee neia) iiae/eiyaony naiei neioaaiaoe/aneei i?aaeeai e
caeiiiia?iinoyi. Ni/aoaaiinoue ii?oai e oiiai oeene?iaaia a neiaa, a
ioee/ea io ni/aoaaiinoe neia a neiaini/aoaieyo e i?aaeeiaeaieyo, aaea
iia anyeee ?ac nicaeaaony a eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo ?a/e. Ii e a oneiaeyo
?a/e naycue neia, io?aaeathuay iaiiaoi?eioth neooaoeeth e ia?acothuay
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue niune neiaini/aoaiey eee i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeeth/aao
yeaiaiou (a?aiiaoe/aneea oi?iu neia, iiaeaee neiaini/aoaiee e
i?aaeeiaeaiee, oeiiaua eo cia/aiey), eioi?ua naienoaaiiu nenoaia ycuea
aiiaua e ioi?ieytho iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo neia e neioaene/aneeo
eiino?oeoeee.

I?eaaaeaiiua auoa oaeou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ycue, i?aaeiieaaay
a ea/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueee naiaai aicieeiiaaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoai, oai ia iaiaa, ii ioiioaieth e iaio, eae e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aiiaua, inoaaony ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiui
ia?aciaaieai ni naieie iniauie caeiiaie e i?aaeeaie io?aaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iu iacuaaai ycue iauanoaaiiui yaeaieai, i?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi a aai
ia?aciaaiee o/anoaoao iauanoai; aiai?yuee iaeaaeaaaao ycueii oieueei a
iauanoaa; iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey ycuea oaeaea i?ienoaeaao iooiai,
/oi ycue auiieiyao iauanoaaiiua ooieoeee; iaeiiaoe, naiae naiaioeeie, a
a ecaanoiie noaiaie e naiae no?oeoo?ie ycue a «niyoii» aeaea io?aaeaao
iauanoai e aai no?oeoo?o. Ii ana yoi ia eeoaao ycue iniaiai noaoona
naiinoiyoaeueiie ciaeiaie nenoaiu ii ioiioaieth e io?aaeaaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea e e iauanoao

Oaeei ia?acii, oneiaeai nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey ycuea eae n?aaenoaa
iauaiey, ia?aciaaiey e au?aaeaiey iunee yaeyaony aeeaeaeoe/aneia
aaeeinoai a iai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e iauanoaaiiiai. Oaeay aai I?e?iaea
iauaaeeiyao e eniieuecoao aeinoeaeaiey e yia?aeth ycueiaie ee/iinoe e
anaai ycueiaiai niiauanoaa.

Ethaay /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, eiathuay oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?,
I?eaiaeeo e ii?aaeaeaiiui iiaui ?acoeueoaoai Iniaaiiinoue ?a/aaie
Aeayoaeueiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia auiieiyao ia oieueei
ecaanoiua ooieoeee iauaiey (ia?aciaaiea iunee, niiauaiea iunee ae?oaiai,
aini?eyoea e iiieiaiea aa iineaaeiei e ae?.) A yoie iinoiyiii
niaa?oathuaeny a iauanoaa aeayoaeueiinoe enoi?e/anee e ooieoeeiiaeueii.
A.Ae. Iieeaaiia iiae/a?eeaae neiaeioth i?e?iaeo ycuea: «…sscue anoue
yaeaiea ineoe/aneia e nioeeaeueiia: oi/iaa, a iniiaa ycueiaie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eiathony oaeou oece/aneiai, ineoe/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea; ionthaea eeiaaenoeea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yaeyaony
iaoeie anoanoaaiiienoi?e/aneie (nii?eeanaynue caeanue n aeonoeeie e
oeceieiaeae), n ae?oaie noi?iiu,— iaeiie ec aeenoeeieei, eco/athueo
ineoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, e, a-o?aoueeo, iaoea
nioeeieiae/aneay» (3, n. 182).

Eaeeie nioeeaeueiuie i?aaeiinueeaie iiaeii, iai?eia?, iauynieoue a
?onneii ycuea iaaeaiea ?aaeooee?iaaiiuo aeaniuo, 1 e 2-a niya/aiea
caaeiaycu/iuo , iaeaoaeecaoeeth niaeaniuo, ?aaeoeoeeth aeaniuo,
iaeooaiea caiieeo ia eiioea neiaa, aeaeu a?aiiaoe/aneie nayce, iiaeaee
neioaene/aneeo eiino?oeoeee e o. ae. e o. ae. Iaaeaeo oai ana yoi
aeoaeiiua ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee ?onneiai ycuea.

Iauanoaaiiay i?e?iaea ycuea iaia?oaeeaaaony a iaycaoaeueiinoe aai
caeiiia e i?aaee aeey anao aiai?yueo. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi/iiai au?aaeaiey
naieo iuneae n oeaeueth acaeiiiiieiaiey canoaaeyao aiai?yueo — noeoeeii,
a ii ia?a iiciaiey ycuea e niciaoaeueii — no?iai i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
onaiaiiuo iaueo caeiiia e i?aaee ycuea. Oaeea oneiaey iauaiey iauaeoeaii
au?aaaouaatho ycueiaoth ii?io, a ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey ycuea e
iauanoaa, eae neaaenoaea,— eeoa?aoo?ioth ii?io ycuea (ni. ieaea).

Iauea caeiiu ycuea, iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao aiai?yueo, ni/aoathony n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth ?a/e e i?eioeeieaeueii oai?/aneei aa oa?aeoa?ii.
Iauaeoeaii ycue eae iauanoaaiiia yaeaiea nouanoaoao a aeaea «ee/iuo
ycueia», ii-?aciiio ?ai?acaioe?othueo ycue a ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiiai
n?aaenoaa iauaiey. Iai?a?uaiinoue ycuea e aai eciaiaiea ai a?aiaie
iaania/eaaaony ninouanoaiaaieai ?aciuo iieieaiee iineoaeae ycuea e eo
iinoaiaiiie ?aciia?aiaiiie niaiie. Ionthaea aaaeiinoue eco/aiey ycuea
ee/iinoe, iineieueeo, eae neaaeoao ec neacaiiiai auoa, ?aaeueii ycue
nouanoaoao, aiieiuaaony a ?a/e aiai?yueo.

sscueiciaiea ia iiaeao ioaaoeoue a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa naiaai eco/aiey
niaea?aeaiea ycuea ee/iinoae, ioiinyuaany e ?aciui iaeanoyi
aeayoaeueiinoe e ciaiey, a oaeaea e e iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Ii
ycueiciaiea eiaao naie iiaeoiae e eco/aieth ycuea ee/iinoe. Iaeiaei aei
naiiai iineaaeiaai a?aiaie oieueei ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu yoie aieueoie
i?iaeaiu enneaaeiaaeenue a ycueiciaiee. Oae, noaiiaeaiea ycuea o aeaoae,
ycue e noeeue ienaoaeae o?aaeeoeeiiii eco/athony a ycueiciaiee, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oi?ie?oaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea eco/aiey ycueia i ee/iinoe
(TH.I. Ea?aoeia).

?iaeeaoeeny /aeiaae «canoaao» ycue noi?ie?iaaaoaainy, n iiiiuueth
ae?oaeo ethaeae ii iaeaaeaaaao a iauanoaa ycueii a aeaonoaa, i?eiauaynue
oai naiui e nouanoaothuei oi?iai e iiieiaiey ie?oaeathuaai aai ie?a,
cae?aieaiiui a iauanoaa niciaiee, e iauae ycueiaie ea?oeia ie?a. Inaiea
ycue eae n?aaenoai io?aaeaiey e iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ia?aciaaiey
iunee e ia?aaea/e aa ae?oaei, aiai?yuee oai naiui iiaeeeth/aaony e
iauaio aeaeaeaieth ycuea e eieeaeoeaiiio iiciaieth n aai iiiiuueth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Niaea?aeaiea auneacaiiie aiaia ?a/e noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai niaanaaeieea,
ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe eeai — a ecaanoiuo neo/ayo — anaai aiai?yuaai
eieeaeoeaa. I?e yoii aa aicaeaenoaea iiaeao ia ia?aie/eaaoueny iiiaioii
aa i?iecianaiey. Aa niaea?aeaiea, onaiaiiia ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie
iauaiey, iiaeao caoai ia?aaeaaaoueny a niiauanoaa, ?anoe?yy oai naiui
aini?eyoea aa ae?oaeie a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. O/anoeai a iauaiee
iiiaeo aiai?yueo, acaeiiui iaiaiii eioi?iaoeeae e aa onaiaieai
nicaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiue nioeeaeueiue iiuo a aini?eyoee e iiciaiee
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. sscue cae?aieyao yoio iiuo a naieo ciaeao e eo
cia/aieyo. sscue, oaeei ia?acii,— yoi n?aaenoai o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e ec
iieieaiey a iieieaiea nioeeaeueiiai iiuoa. Aeaiiay ?ieue ycuea
aic?anoaao n ecia?aoaieai ienueia, iineieueeo cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yao
a?aiaiiua e i?ino?ainoaaiiua a?aieoeu ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Yoe
a?aieoeu aua aieaa ?anoe?ythony a iaoa a?aiy i?e eniieueciaaiee
yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee, ian?aaiaiii oaaee/eaathueo
aiciiaeiinoe iaeiieaiey, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Ec neacaiiiai iai?aoeaaaony auaiae, /oi aeaa naienoaaiiua ycueo aeaaiua
aai ooieoeee — eiiioieeaoeaiay e neaieoeeaoeaiay — io?aaeatho aioo?aiia
i?enouaa aio i?ioeai?a/ea a iioieiae/aneii e aiinaieiae/aneii ioiioaiee.
Yoe aeaa ooieoeee aeaeatho ycue i?oaeeai iaeiia?aiaiii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e iauanoaaiiiai io?aaeaiey e iiciaiey ie?a. E a yoii,
iaaei aeoiaoue, caeia i?ia?anna iiciaiey, iinooiaoaeueiiai aai
aeaeaeaiey.

Iauaa (iauanoaaiiia) e aaeeie/iia (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia) iaia?oaeeaaaony a
eaaeaeii oaeoa ycuea, a ethaii aai i?aaeeiaeaiee. Aeeaeaeoe/aneia
aaeeinoai yoeo noi?ii io?aaeaao i?e?iaeo ycuea, aai nouiinoue. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a aicueiai i?aaeeiaeaiea:

A oio aiae inaiiyy iiaiaea noiyea aeieai ia aeai?a

I?aaeeiaeaiea au?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue niune, iaicia/ay niioaaonoaothuoth
aiaycueiaoth neooaoeeth. Iauee niune i?aaeeiaeaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec
niuneia oiio?aaeaiiuo a iai neiaini/aoaiee e neia. A N?aaeaiee e
iaicia/aiee niunea o/anoaotho ana aaeeieoeu i?aaeeiaeaiea,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea e ?aciui o?iaiyi ycuea, auiieiyy eaaeaeay naienoaaiiua
ae ooieoeee, /oi e ia?acoao i?aaeeiaeaiea eae a?aiiaoe/aneia e
naiaioe/aneia aaeeinoai, niioianaiiia n iaicia/aaiie neooaoeeae.
Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e eiinoeoooeaiuie aaeeieoeaie ycuea, eaaeaeay ec oiiaia,
ii?oaia, neiai, neiaini/aoaiea e i?aaeeiaeaiea (iineaaeiea eae iiaeaee)
— i?eiaiythony a niioaaonoaee ni naienoaaiiuie.

A ioa/anoaaiiii ycueiciaiee acaeiinaycue ycuea e iauanoaa
i?aeiouanoaaiii enneaaeiaaeanue a i?aaeaeao ioiioaiee iauanoaa e oao
o/anoeia ycuea, eioi?ua ioaeaeueiua eeiaaenou ioiinyo e aiaoiae aai
no?oeoo?a. Yoi i/aaeaeiay naycue, e aa eco/aiea iaeiicia/ii aeieacuaaao
iaoneiaeaiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo noi?ii nenoaiu ycuea aeeciueth e
?acaeoeai iauanoaa (iaee/ea a ycuea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noeeae,
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo e nioeeaeueiuo aeeaeaeoia, iao/iuo iiaeuycueia,
eeanniauo, nineiaiuo iniaaiiinoae ?a/e, oaiaoe/aneeo, naiaioe/aneeo
a?oiie?iaie neia, enoi?eciia e ae?.). Eco/aiea acaeiiioiioaiee ycuea e
iauanoaa ia?aie/eaaeinue iau/ii yoeie aii?inaie, ianiiiaiii, aaaeiuie e
ioaeiuie. A ioa/anoaaiiii ycueiciaiee a 20—40-a aiaeu ia iniiaa eco/aiey
oaeeo oaeoia aeaeaeenue caeeth/aiey i eeanniainoe ycuea, i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aai e iaaeno?ieea iaae yeiiiie/aneei aacenii iauanoaa e
ae?. Iiiuoee ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe
nioeeaeueiuie, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u ycuea
(oiiaoeea, a?aiiaoeea, io/anoe neiaiia?aciaaiea) ieacaeenue
ianinoiyoaeueiuie. Iaaei, iaeiaei, caiaoeoue, /oi ia eneeth/aaony
iiin?aaeiaaiiia aeeyiea iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e ia aioo?aiithth
no?oeoo?o ycuea. Ii yoa noi?iia acaeiiioiioaiey ycuea e iauanoaa, ii
nooe aeaea, ia enneaaeiaaia.

Ia iieo/eee aeinoaoi/iiai oai?aoe/aneiai iauyniaiey iiiaea aii?inu,
eanathueany aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ycuea iiae aicaeaenoaeai eeanniaiai,
nineiaiiai, i?ioanneiiaeueiiai, aic?anoiiai e eiiai ?acaeaeaiey
iauanoaa. sscue iiaeao ianeoaeeaaoue ?aciua eeannu, nineiaey,
eaeaieiaee, i?ioannee, aic?anoiua a?oiiu ethaeae, ia ia?ooay naiaai
oiaeaeanoaa. Iaeei e oio aea ycue, oaeaea ia ia?ooay naiaai
aaiaoe/aneiai e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oiaeaeanoaa, iiaeao auoue n?aaenoaii
iauaiey a ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noaao n ?aciui ia?acii aeecie ethaeae,
yeiiiie/aneei, ainoaea?noaaiiui ono?ienoaii, eaeaieiaeae e ae?.
?acoiaaony, yoe ?acee/ey io?aaeathony a yeaiaioao aiaoiae no?oeoo?u,
iaeiaei iie ia ia?ooatho oiaeaeanoaa ycuea. Iai?a?uaiinoue ycuea
nio?aiyao aai oiaeaeanoai a oneiaeyo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo
iio?ynaiee, ia?aai?ioia, eaoano?io, iaania/eaay e a oaeeo
eneeth/eoaeueiuo oneiaeyo iauaiea e ecaanoiia acaeiiiiieiaiea aiai?yueo.
sscue eae oi?ia niiniaai au?aaeaoue ?acee/iia, a oii /enea e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia niaea?aeaiea; ii a aeaea «o?aoueaai auoey» eae au
aicauoaaony iaae iauanoaii, aai ?acaeaeaieai ia eeannu, nineiaey,
i?ioannee, aic?anou e i?., io?aaeay ii?aaeaeaiiuie naieie yeaiaioaie eo
?acee/ey, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e iauaaeeiyy eo naiae iauae nenoaiie e
no?oeoo?ie, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueie, /oi yoe ?acee/ey ia ia?ooatho aai
oiaeaeanoaa.

A 60—70-a aiaeu a ioa/anoaaiiii ycueiciaiee iaiaoeeny e?ai a noi?iio
noaoai aioo?aiiaai, no?oeoo?iiai eco/aiey ycuea. Iiae aeeyieai
no?oeoo?iuo, iaoaiaoe/aneeo, eeaa?iaoe/aneeo i?eaiia e iaoiaeia
enneaaeiaaiey ycue noae ?anniao?eaaoueny iiiaeie eeiaaenoaie eae naiaai
?iaea ii?iaeaeathuaa ono?ienoai, eioi?ia ia aoiaea eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiue
neiaa?ue e i?aaeea iia?e?iaaiey ei, a ia auoiaea — iino?iaiiua ii yoei
i?aaeeai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A yoeo i?ioeaaeo?ao iienaiey, ii nooe aeaea, ia
aiai?eeinue i eaeie-eeai nayce ycuea e iauanoaa, ia iaoneiaeaiiinoe
ycuea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth aiiaua. Oai naiui iie/aeeai aeiioneaeanue
iuneue i iieiie niiioaiiinoe aai ?acaeoey, iacaaeneiinoe io
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iauanoaa. A oaeii naiai eco/aiee ycuea eeiaaenou
neaaeiaaee caaaoo Ninnth?a: «…Aaeeinoaaiiui e enoeiiui iauaeoii
eeiaaenoeee yaeyaony ycue, ?anniao?eaaaiue a naiii naaa e aeey naay» (1,
n. 269). Aeey eeiaaenoia yoiai iai?aaeaiey aeaaiia a ycuea — yoi
no?oeoo?a ycuea, aai yeaiaiou e iiaeaee eo acaeiiioiioaiee. Iao niiiaiey
a oii, /oi yoe aniaeou eco/aiey ycuea io?aaeatho aai nouanoaaiiua
noi?iiu. Ii ia?aie/aiea aai eco/aiey oieueei eie e eaii?e?iaaiea eee
aiana io?eoeaiea ae?oaeo, oaeaea, ianiiiaiii, aaaeiuo, aaei au e
iaeiinoi?iiiinoe, eneaaeaieth aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aauae. Aia
nayce n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue ?ieue, ianoi e naiie
aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u ycuea. Aa ioaea/aiiue oa?aeoa? ia icia/aao aa
iieiiai io?uaa io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a eeoue aiai?eo ia iniaie aa ?iee
a io?aaeaiee ana oie aea ? aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Auoa iu iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi naycue ycuea n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, iaoneiaeaiiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth ia eeoaao
ycue naiaia?aciie i?e?iaeu e naiiauoiinoe. E a ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa
no?oeoo?aeecia e a iineaaeothuaa a?aiy e?aeiea aai i?iyaeaiey
iiaeaa?aaeenue ni?aaaaeeeaie e?eoeea. I?e anae aaaeiinoe eco/aiey
no?oeoo?u ycuea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi ycue auiieiyao iauanoaaiiua
ooieoeee, a iioiio eniuouaaao aicaeaenoaea iauanoaa e, oe?a,
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aiiaua, eioi?oth ii io?aaeaao a naieo ciaeao, eo
cia/aieyo e ioiioaieyo.

Neacaiiia auoa aeieacuaaao, /oi a ycuea iu eiaai aanueia naiaia?aciia
yaeaiea, ioe?uoia ii ioiioaieth e iauanoao, neoaeauaa iaiaoiaeeiui aai
oneiaeai e ao?eaooii, ii ii-naiaio «ia?a?aaaouaathuaa» iauanoaaiioth e
eioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. sscue eiaao naie «oeeueo?u», i?iioneay /a?ac
eioi?ua iauanoaaiiua i?ioeannu e niauoey, ii naiaia?acii eo i?aeiieyao e
cae?aieyao a naieo ciaeao e eo ioiioaieyo. A yoeo naycyo e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoyo ycuea e iauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue oi?io e
niaea?aeaiea ycuea. Oi?ia ycuea, iiaeiaii aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?a (a
ecaanoiie noaiaie niaiaaeathuay n iae, ni. ieaea),— aeoaeiiia yaeaiea
ycuea. Iaeaieaa aano?aeoiuie naieie yeaiaioaie iia niiniaia o/anoaiaaoue
a au?aaeaiee ?acee/iuo, a oii /enea i?ioeai?a/aueo e eneeth/athueo ae?oa
ae?oaa, eiie?aoiuo niaea?aeaiee.

*oiau iiiyoue neiaeiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue nayce iaaeaeo ycueii e
iauanoaii, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ycue ia oieueei iauanoaaiiia, Ii
e i?e?iaeiia e ineoieiae/aneia yaeaiea (2, n 47 e ae.). I oii, /oi ycue
ia oieueei nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea, ienaee iiiaea o/aiea.

IX. ssCUE E IAUANOAI

§ 82-ssCUE EAE IAUANOAAII0A ssAEAIEA

I?iaeaia ycuea e iauanoaa a oai?aoe/aneii ioiioaiee ?ac?aaioaia
iaaeinoaoi/ii, oioy, eacaeinue au, iia aeaaii auea a e?oao aieiaiey
ycueiaaaeia, iniaaiii ioa/anoaaiiuo.

Iaaeaeo oai eco/aiea yoie i?iaeaiu aanueia aaaeii aeey iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa, iineieueeo iia naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii cao?aaeaaao
iiiaea noi?iiu aeecie ethaeae. Aac iao/iiai ?ac?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu
iaaiciiaeii i?iaiaeeoue i?aaeeueioth ycueiaoth iieeoeeo a
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo e iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noaao. Enoi?ey aea
ia?iaeia ie?a, iniaaiii a XX noieaoee, iieacaea, /oi ycueiaay iieeoeea
ainoaea?noa ioaeaeaaony a iao/iii iainiiaaiee. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi
eanaaony iiieiaiey iauanoaaiiuie e ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeayoaeyie, a
oaeaea, a eaeaaea, anaie /eaiaie iauanoaa naiiai oaiiiaia ycuea eae
iaeiiai ec iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eciaeia ia?iaea. E?iia oiai, iaoea
i?ecaaia iaiaueoue iiiaiaaeiaie iiuo nouanoaiaaiey iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo
ainoaea?noa, i?iaiaeeaoaeny a ieo ycueiaie iieeoeee e aeaoue i?aaeeueiua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iaania/eaathuea naiaiaeiia i?eiaiaiea e ?acaeoea ycueia
ia?iaeia, i?iaeeaathueo a oii eee ae?oaii ainoaea?noaa.

A i?aaeoanoaothuae e nouanoaothuae ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a ii yoie
i?iaeaia iiiai aeaeea?aoeaiuo, iaueo iieiaeaiee, i?iecaiaeiuo io
eaeaieiae/aneie, oeeinioneie iiceoeee aaoi?ia, a oi a?aiy eae nianoaaiii
eeiaaenoe/aneay noi?iia i?iaeaiu inoaaony iaaeinoaoi/ii i?iyniaiiie. Ia
ane?uo e ia iauyniai nai iauanoaaiiue iaoaieci, ii?aaeaeythuee
oi?ie?iaaiea ycuea eae iauaeoeaii ?acaeaathuaainy, naii?aaoee?oaiiai
iauanoaaiiiai yaeaiey, iacaaeneiiai io aiee ioaeaeueiuo aai iineoaeae.
Iaeiicia/ii ia aeieacaia aaiaoe/aneay naycue iaaeaeo iauanoaii, o?oaeii,
iuoeaieai e ycueii. Iaeiia?aiaiiinoue eo iiyaeaiey oeaeeeii iniiauaaaony
ia eo acaeiinayce e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa e ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiee e aa?a, /oi oaeay naycue e acaeiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue auee
anaaaea, e a ia?eiae ia?aciaaiey ycuea. Iaeiaei i?e oaeie iinoaiiaea
i?iaeaiu ?yae iniiaiiieaaathueo aii?inia inoaaony aac ioaaoa (ni. ia
yoii a ae. X).

Aeaaeaioiay aeeno?eaooeey iaaethaeaaony a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ieii/aieyie
oa. iaaeaaea nouanoaeoaeueiuo ae. ?. ia?aiai neeiiaiey (caieae =
caieath); aeiiieieoaeueiay — a ioiioaieyo oa. iaaeaaea nouanoaeoaeueiuo
ae ?. ?aciuo oeiia neeiiaiey (caieae —?iaeueth); aeeth/aiiay — iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie ?ac?yaeaie nouanoaeoaeueiuo a ?iae. iaaeaaea (oeia, /ay =
/ath), ia?anaeathuayny — a ioiioaieyo noooeenia -i-, -ia-, aeeno?eaooeey
eioi?uo /anoe/ii niaiaaeaao (n?. nii?iaeeiiaue = nii?iaeeiiue, iaeeiiaue
– iaeeiiue, ii oieueei eeiiaue, aeiia?aaeiue, a?ooaaue e o. ae.).
oe??ieth e ae?oaei oiiaiai nenoaiu (n? iiaiea Ninnth?a, /oi oiiaiu
ii?aaeaeythony io?eoeaoaeueii).

A oiiieiae/aneie nenoaia auaeaeythony oaeea i?eciaee, ii eioi?ui
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ?yaeu oiiai (n?. i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea a nenoaia oiiai
?onneiai ycuea: aeaniuo e niaeaniuo, iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue,
aeaeyony ia caiieea e aeooea, oaa?aeua e iyaeea e ae? ). Ana yoe
i?eciaee eiiioieeaoeaii aaaeiu. Iaoiaee/aneei i?eaiii auaeaeaiey oiiai
yaeyaony niiinoaaeaiea aeaoo neia, niaiaaeathueo anai naiei caoeiaui
ninoaaii, ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai caoeiaiai yeaiaioa, aeaeaa
iaaeaeeiiai, neoaeauaai iaoa?eaeueiui ?acee/aieai yoeo neia eae cia/eiuo
aaeeieoe ycuea (n?.: iue — iueue, eio — eeo, eii — eii, iae — ioe — iie
—iee e o. i.). Auaeaeaiiua oaeei ia?acii oiiaiu iiaoo ii-?aciiio
?acee/aoue caoeiaua iaiei/ee neia: ni/aoaieai ?aciuo oiiai (e?ai — iiea)
e ?aciui eiee/anoaii ?aciuo oiiai (eanoi/ea — iueue); ionoonoaeai iaeiie
oiiaiu o n?aaieaaaiuo neia (ieeaae — eeaae — eaae — aae; iiaaaea —
iaaaea — aaaea — aaea — aea — a; e o i.); ?aciui ii?yaeeii iaeieo e oao
aea oiiai (?ino — ni?o — o?in — oi?n) e ae?.

Aeey ?acee/aiey caoeiauo iaiei/ae neia ycue eniieuecoao eeoue
iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oai?aoe/anee aiciiaeiuo ni/aoaiee oiiai.
Ai-ia?auo, ia ana aiciiaeiua ni/aoaiey oiiai /aeiaae iiaeao i?iecianoe,
e, ai-aoi?uo,— e yoi aeaaiia — iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaoue a
oeaeyo iauaiey ana aiciiaeiua ni/aoaiey (ec 41 oiiaiu ?onneiai ycuea
iiaeii ia?aciaaoue i?aeoe/anee aaneiia/iia /enei ni/aoaiee).

Oiiaia eae aaeeieoea ycuea ?aaeecoaony a aeaea oaeeo naieo
aeaeieciaiaiee, eioi?ua ia ia?ooatho aa oiaeaeanoaa. A ?aciuo
eeiaaenoe/aneeo iai?aaeaieyo, o ?aciuo o/aiuo yoe aeaeieciaiaiey
eaaeeoeoee?othony e iacuaathony ii-?aciiio a caaeneiinoe io iiieiaiey
naiie oiiaiu Ecaanoii, /oi Eaieia?aaeneay oiiieiae/aneay oeiea (EOO)
n/eoaao, /oi oiiaia eae oei caoea ?aaeueii nouanoaoao a aia naieo
iooaieia; i?aaenoaaeoaee Iineianeie oiiieiae/aneie oeieu (IOO)
iieaaatho, /oi oiiaia ?aaeecoaony a naieo aa?eaoeeyo e aa?eaioao
Ca?oaaaeiua eeiaaenou a aieueoeinoaa naiai niaeaniu n oai, /oi oiiaia
iaieoanoe?oaony a aeeioiiao.

Onoie/eaia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo EOO e IOO eaaeaony iai?aiaeieeiui i?e
oneiaee, /oi iu ?anniao?eaaai oiiaio a i?aaeaeao oiiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy.
Iaeiaei yoi eneonnoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea, oioy °ii a enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
oeaeyo e i?e ecaanoiuo aeiiouaieyo iaiaoiaeeii. Ii oiiaia, eae e ethaay
ae?oaay aaeeieoea, nouanoaoao a nenoaia ycuea a oeaeii, e aa i?e?iaeo,
aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea iu iiaeai iiiyoue i?e oneiaee aa
enneaaeiaaiey a yoie oeaeinoiie nenoaia.

Aeaaiia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo EOO e IOO caeeth/aaony a oieeiaaiee oiiai a
oneiaeyo eo oiiaiaoe/aneie iaeo?aeecaoeee a ?a/e, eaieia?aaeneea
oiiieiae aeaeyo caeanue ?aciua oiiaiu, ?acee/athuea neiaa eee oi?iu neia
(n?. a neiaa- i?oaea — i?oae oiiaiu [ae], [o]; iineae/e — aa?eaio oiiaiu
[ae], ia ia?ooathuee oiaeaeanoaa ii?oaiu, ianiio?y ia niaiaaeaiea a
cao/aiee n oiiaiie [o]). Iiaeiaiia iiaaaeaiea oiiai a ?a/e e aeaao
iniiaaiea iaeioi?ui eeiaaenoai aeaeaoue auaiae ia aano?aeoiie i?e?iaea
oiiaiu eae io/ea iiiiceoeee, aac?acee/iii e naiaio iaoa?eaeueiiio
aiieiuaieth.

Iaaeaeo oai oiiaia — yoi oei caoea, iaeo?aeecaoeey eioi?iai, o. a iioa?y
a ecaanoiuo oiiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo ?a/e naiae niune i ?acee/eoaeueiie
ooieoeee, ioithaeue ia eneeth/aao oiiaiaoe/aneiai i?ioeaiiieiaeaiey
oiiaiu a nenoaia ycuea a oeaeii eiaiii eae oeia caoea. Oiiaia —
aano?aeoeey, ii aano?aeoeey n ?aaeueiinoueth, i?aaeiieaaathuay naia
eiie?aoiia iaoa?eaeueiia aiieiuaiea e iaycaiiay naiei noaoonii a
oiiieiae/aneie nenoaia iaee/eth ?acee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia yoie
iaoa?eaeueiie, caoeiaie ?aaeueiinoe.

Iaeo?aeecaoeey oiiai a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?a/aauo oneiaeyo ieeiei ia?acii ia
aeeyao ia acaeiiiiieiaiea aiai?yueo. Nenoaia ycuea eioi?iaoeeiiii
ecauoi/ia, e iaeo?aeecaoeey iaeiie oiiaiu a iioiea ?a/e, a aa ecaanoiuo
ia?aciaaieyo, iiiaie?aoii eiiiaine?oaony ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeueiuie e
eaeaaeueiuie (naiaioe/aneeie) ?acee/eoaeyie, aoiaeyueie a aeaiiia
?a/aaia ia?aciaaiea. E oiio aea iaeo?aeecaoeey oiiaiu i?ienoiaeeo a
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeiiauo ?a/aauo oneiaeyo, eioi?ua aiai?yuee
onaaeaaao a i?ioeanna iaeaaeaiey ycueii. Eaaeaeay oiiaia eiaao oaeea
o/anoee a naiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiee, aaea aa niunei?acee/eoaeueiinoue
ineaaeyaony eee aiana iaeo?aeecoaony e aaea yoo ooieoeeth auiieiytho a
iioiea ?a/e nenoaiiua yeaiaiou eae oiiaoe/aneiai o?iaiy, oae e ae?oaeo
o?iaiae ycuea, ia?acothuea a niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiii ioi?ieaiioth,
naiaioe/anee caeii/aiioth ?a/aaoth oeaiue (n?. «?a/ue» a iiieiaiee
Iioaaie: 4, n. 44).

Eoae, i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo EOO e IOO io?aaeatho i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?
nouanoaiaaiey oiiai a ycuea, e iauyniaiea yoie i?ioeai?a/eainoe o?aaoao
?anniio?aiey oiiaiu a ycuea eae oeaeinoiie nenoaia, ?aaeueii
nouanoaothuae a ?a/e. ?anniao?eaay aea oiiaio a i?aaeaeao neiaioi?iu eee
ii?oaiu, iu oai naiui ia?aie/eaaai oiiaio, a ecaanoiie noaiaie,
eneonnoaaiii auaeaeaiiuie iinoiyiiuie oneiaeyie. Iaaeaeo oai oiiaia
nouanoaoao a ?a/e a aieaa iaoe?iuo ?a/aiuneeoaeueiuo ia?aciaaieyo,
niunei?acee/eoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eioi?uo cia/eoaeueiu, ecauoi/iu.
Oaeie oa?aeoa? ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oiiai (aa?eaoeaiinoue, iaeo?aeecaoeey)
ia aeeyao ia acaeiiiiieiaiea aiai?yueo.

§ 36. II?OAIII-II?OIEIAE*ANEEE O?IAAIUe

A aii?ina i auaeaeaiee yoiai o?iaiy o ycueiaaaeia iao aaeeinoaaiiiai
iiaiey. Iaeioi?ua o/aiua auaeaeytho oieueei ii?oaiiue o?iaaiue,
enneaaeoaiua nenoaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey naiaioe/anee ieieiaeueiuo
?aeeiee” ii?oai, auaeaeyy, a naith i/a?aaeue, a eo ninoaaa aooeenaeueiue
iiaeo?iaaiue. Ae?oaea o/aiua, e?iia ii?oai, aeeth/atho a
ii?oaiii-ii?oieiae/aneee o?iaaiue neiaioi?iu e eo ia?aaeeaiu eae
aaeeieoeu ii?oieiaee. O/eouaay oio oaeo, /oi ii?oaiu e eo nayce aeieaeiu
eco/aoueny a aaeeinoaa n auiieiyaiuie eie ooieoeeyie, iu oaeaea
aeeth/aai a ninoaa aaeeieoe yoiai o?iaiy ii?oaiu e neiaioi?iu. Eae oaea
aiai?eeinue auoa, neiai yaeyaony oceiaui yeaiaioii ycuea, oieonii
acaeiiaeaenoaey iiiaeo ycueiauo oaeoi?ia. A neeo yoiai ?aciuie naieie
noi?iiaie iii eiaao ioiioaiea e ae?oaei aaeeieoeai ycuea, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e e ae?oaei ycueiaui o?iaiyi Neiai ia oieueei iineoaeue
eaene/aneiai cia/aiey, iii iaeiia?aiaiii e ii?oieiae/aneay aaeeieoea,
ia?aciaaiiay ii i?enouei aeaiiie ycueiaie nenoaia i?aaeeai. Iiyoiio
neiaioi?ia e eaenaia eae niaieoiiinoue neiaioi?i — yoi ii?oieiae/aneea
ia?aciaaiey, a iioiio eiatho ioiioaiea e ii?oaiii-ii?oieiae/aneiio
o?iaith.

Iiaeiaii ae?oaei aaeeieoeai ycuea, ii?oaia aunooiaao a aeaea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo naieo aeaeieciaiaiee, aucaaiiuo enoi?e/aneeie i?e/eiaie
eee eiie?aoiuie oaenoiauie oneiaeyie I?aaenoaaeoaee (?ai?acaioaiou)
ii?oaiu, ia?acothuea a niaieoiiinoe ia?aaeeaio aa eciaiaiee a nenoaia
ycuea, o. a. aa oiaeaeanoai, iacuaathony ii?oaie, eee aeeiii?oaie (ii
aiaeiaee n aeeioiiaie oiiaiu, n?.: ae?oa — ae?oaa — ae?ocuey —
ae?oaeeoue; naa/ie — oo/ae; ecaeoue — enieoue; eneaoue — iiaeuneaoue;
enoi?ey — i?aaeunoi?ey e o. i.).

Ii?oaiu naiinoiyoaeueii ia oiio?aaeythony a i?aaeeiaeaiee, ia yaeythony
oai naiui iiieiaoeaiuie eee eiiioieeaoeaiuie aaeeieoeaie ycuea. Iie
neoaeao aeey ia?aciaaiey neia e neiaioi?i. Auaeaeythony ciaiaiaoaeueiua
ii?oaiu (ei?ie) e neoaeaaiua (aooeenu). A naith i/a?aaeue aooeenu
iiae?acaeaeythony ia neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua e neiaieciaieoaeueiua. N
iiiiuueth neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo noooeenia ia?acothony iiaua neiaa
?acee/iuo /anoae ?a/e; neiaieciaieoaeueiua aooeenu o/anoaotho a
ia?aciaaiee oi?i neiaa. I?enoaaee ia?acotho iiaua neiaa iaeiie e oie aea
/anoe ?a/e. A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeaeaieai neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua
aooeenu eiatho neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiia cia/aiea, neiaieciaieoaeueiua —
a?aiiaoe/aneia.

Ii?oaia — yaii au?aaeaiiue iieacaoaeue eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie i?e?iaeu
neiaa. Anee n ei?iai naycaii au?aaeaiea aauanoaaiiiai cia/aiey neiaa, oi
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua e neiaieciaieoaeueiua aooeenu yaeythony
iieacaoaeyie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe neiaa e oiio eee ae?oaiio niioaaonoaaiii
niaea?aeaoaeueiiio eee oi?iaeueiiio ?ac?yaeo neia.

Ia?aciaaiiay n iiiiuueth neiaieciaieoaeueiiai aooeena neiai-oi?ia
aeeth/aaony a ia?aaeeaio oi?iaeueiiai eciaiaiey neiaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai
e ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ?a/e Niaieoiiinoue oaeeo neiai-oi?i, ia?acothueo
ia?aaeeaio, ii?aaeaeyaony eae eaenaia.

Eiie?aoiua a?aiiaoe/aneea cia/aiey iauaaeeiythony a a?aiiaoe/aneea
eaoaai?ee (n? eaoaai?ee ?iaea, /enea, aeaea, iaeeiiaiey e ae?.).
A?aiiaoe/aneea eaoaai?ee — yoi i?aaeaeueii ioaea/aiiua a?aiiaoe/aneea
iiiyoey, eioi?ua /anoi ia caiueathony i?aaeaeaie iaeiie /anoe ?a/e. N
iiiiuueth eaoaai?ee inouanoaeythony neaiciua a?aiiaoe/aneea
eeanneoeeaoeee, ioaaouaathuea ?aciua /anoe ?a/e e aeieacuaathuea oai
naiui aaeeinoai a?aiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu ycuea

Cia/eiua yeaiaiou ycuea ii-?aciiio iniuneyeenue ioa/anoaaiiuie e
ca?oaaaeiuie eeiaaenoaie e a niioaaonoaee n yoei ii-?aciiio
eeanneoeoee?iaaeenue. Oeaaeai a ea/anoaa i?eia?a ia i?eaeiaeueioth
eeanneoeeaoeeth cia/eiuo yeaiaioia ycuea iioaaiu.

Iioaaiy aeaeeo cia/eiua aaeeieoeu ycuea, n ecaanoiie aeieae oneiaiinoe,
ia iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua. Iauaeoeaiua — yoi yeaiaiou neiaa,
au?aaeathuea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea, o. a. ei?ie N ieie naycaii
iaicia/aiea aauanoaaiiiai cia/aiey; iie, eae ieoao Iioaaiy,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeacuaatho ia oa eee ae?oaea yaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Noauaeoeaiua — yoi yeaiaiou, au?aaeathuea ?acee/iiai
?iaea iauea, eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua cia/aiey, ioiiny neiai e ?aciui
niaea?aeaoaeueiui eee oi?iaeueiui ?ac?yaeai. Eiaiii yoe noauaeoeaiua
cia/aiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie «i?eniiniaeaiey» ycuea aeey i?aaiecaoeee,
ioi?ieaiey e au?aaeaiey oae iacuaaaiiai «aiaycu/iiai niaea?aeaiey»,
ia?acothuaainy ia iniiaa /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey yaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e aai iiieiaiey. Noauaeoeaiua cia/aiey — yoi
niioonoaothuea (neinaiaioe/aneea) cia/aiey, ooi/iythuea a oii eee
ae?oaii ioiioaiee e ioi?ieythuea cia/aiea ei?iy, aauanoaaiiie /anoe
neiaa (ni.: 13, n. 119—168).

N iiiiuueth «noauaeoeaiuo i?eniiniaeaiee» inouanoaeythony caeiiiia?iua
i?aia?aciaaiey «aiaycu/iiai niaea?aeaiey», a /ai iaoiaeyo au?aaeaiea
nenoaiiua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo eaeneeie, neiaiia?aciaaieai e
a?aiiaoeeie.

§ 37. EAENEEI-NAIAIOE*ANEEE O?IAAIUe

Aeaaiie EA yoiai o?iaiy yaeyaony neiai eae iineoaeue eaene/aneiai
cia/aiey e?iia iaai, e yoiio o?iaith ioiinyony oaeaea i?e?aaieaaaiua e
neiao — ii oa?aeoa?o naieo cia/aiee e auiieiyaiui ooieoeeyi —
iaiaeiineiaiua aoi?e/iua aaeeieoeu ycuea: o?acaieiaeciu,
eaeneeaeeciaaiiua iiieiaoeaiua e i?aaeeeaoeaiua ni/aoaiey neia, a oaeaea
aaa?aaeaoo?u. Eaeneei-naiaioe/aneee o?iaaiue aeeoioee?oao e cae?aieyao
eoiae iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiai?yuaai eieeaeoeaa, au?aaioaiiua
a i?aeoeea iauaiey iiiyoey. A neeo yoiai eaeneei-naiaioe/aneee o?iaaiue
nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io anao ae?oaeo o?iaiae. sscueiaaaeu oeacuaatho
ia ?yae ii?aaeaeythueo aai oa?aeoa?enoee.

Neiaa?iue ninoaa iiaeaeaeai e i?iieoeaai, yoi ioe?uoue o?iaaiue ycuea
Iiaua oaeou aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiiaaeathuea a noa?o /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaua iiiyoey, oi?ie?othueany ia yoie iniiaa, iieo/atho
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia io?aaeaiea a neiaa?iii ninoaaa ycuea A niioaaonoaee n
?aciuie oneiaeyie e oeaeyie iauaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey naiiai
ycuea e enoi?e/aneie niaiu eiiioieeaoeaiuo nenoai, iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ae?oaeo ycueia a eaene/aneie nenoaia ycuea oi?ie?othony ?aciua neie
eaeneee aeeaeaeoiay, i?ioanneiiaeueiay, oa?ieiieiae/aneay,
noa?ineaayineay (a ?onneii ycuea) e ae?. ?aciiia?aciu oaiaoe/aneea e
naiaioe/aneea o?oiie?iaee neia, io?aaeathuea ?acee/iua naycaiiua iaaeaeo
niaie yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iiiyoey.

Eaeneea ycuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n ?aciuie noa?aie iauaiey, n
?aciuie aiaoieie eiiioieeaoeaiuie o/anoeaie ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii o?iaia niueaaony e ia?ae?aueaaaony aioo?aiiyy e
aiaoiyy no?oeoo?a ycuea. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo noeeenoe/aneay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey eaeneee ycuea. Iaeiaei iniiaaieai oaeie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aunooiaao iaaenoeeaaay, iaeo?aeueiay eaeneea,
neoaeauay neiaa?iui yae?ii a ethaii noeea e noa?a iauaiey; yoa eaeneea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noeeenoe/aneee oii, ia eioi?ii auaeaeythony ae?oaea
noeeenoe/anee ia?ee?iaaiiua neie eaeneee.

Eaeneea ycuea aioo?aiia nenoaiii i?aaieciaaia ia ?aciuo naiaioe/aneeo
iniiaaieyo. Ioia/aaony eiae/aneay iiae/eiaiiinoue e niiiae/eiaiiinoue
neiaa?iiai caiana ia yoii iniiaaiee auaeaeythony ?acee/iiai ?aiaa
aeia?iieiu (aaia?aeueiua, iauea iiiyoey) e aeiiieiu (aeaeiaua, eiae/anee
iiae/eiaiiua iiiyoey). Aeia?iieiey e aeiiieiey i?iiecuaatho eaeneeo
ycuea io aaciauo, eaoaai?eaeueiuo iiiyoee aei eiie?aoiuo, aaeeie/iuo

Nenoaiaoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey eaeneee ia naiaioe/aneeo iniiaaieyo
au?aaeaaony e a oaeeo yaeaieyo ycuea, eae iiiaicia/iinoue, neiiieiey,
aioiieiey, eaene/aneay anneieeyoeey, naiaioe/aneay ni/aoaaiinoue neia e
ae?. I?eia?ii nenoaiiie i?aaiecaoeee eaeneee iiaoo neoaeeoue oiiieiaaiua
auoa oaiaoe/aneea a?oiiu neia e naiaioe/aneea (iiiyoeeiua) iiey.

Eae aiai?eeinue auoa, e eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiio o?iaith i?eiaaeeaaeao e
ae?oaea eaeneeaeeciaaiiua aaeeieoeu, eioi?ua ii naiae naiaioeea,
auiieiyaiui a ycuea ooieoeeyi oiaeaeanoaaiiu neiao eeai i?eaeeaeathony e
iaio. Yoi o?acaieiaeciu, aeaaieueii-eiaiiua ni/aoaiey neia, ninoaaiua
iaeiaiiaaiey (n?.: ninoaaiua oa?ieiu, ?acee/iiai ?iaea onoie/eaua
aiaeeoe/aneea iacaaiey, neiaeiinie?auaiiua neiaa). A n?aaiaiee ni neiaii
yoe aaeeieoeu ii naiaio ia?aciaaieth aaiaoe/anee aoi?e/iu.

Neiai — ciae aieueoiai iaiauaiey, auiieiythuee a ycuea ?acee/iua
naiaioe/aneea e a?aiiaoe/aneea ooieoeee (iiieiaoeaioth, I?aaeeeaoeaioth,
ia?acioth, oa?aeoa?enoe/aneoth e ae?.). Iiyoiio aiieia anoanoaaiii e
caeiiiia?ii, /oi ni neiaii iiaoo niaianoue naiaioe/anee e
ooieoeeiiaeueii e auoue niioiineoaeueiuie ?acee/iiai ?iaea onoie/eaua
ni/aoaiey neia. Iaeiaei ?acee/iia ioi?ieaiea e au?aaeaiea
niioiineoaeueiiai ni neiaii cia/aiey (aiaeeoe/aneea iiieiaoeaiua e
i?aaeeeaoeaiua aaeeieoeu ?acee/athony ninoaaii naieo yeaiaioia,
niuneiaie no?oeoo?ie) ia iiaeao ia aiineoue naiaia?acey a eo cia/aiey e
auiieiyaiua ooieoeee, ii n?aaiaieth ni neiaii. Ana yoi ii?aaeaeyao eo
naiinoiyoaeueiia ianoi e ?ieue ia eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii o?iaia, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eo ioiioaiea e iaicia/aaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Naiaia?acea yoeo aoi?e/iuo aaeeieoe iniaaiii ?aeueaoii iaia?oaeeaaaony a
neo/aa eo neiiieie/iinoe neiao. Naii iaiauaiea a neiaa (iiiyoea)
?ac?aaaouaaaony enoi?e/anee e ia aunooiaao aeaiiui a iiiaio ia?aciaaiey
neiaa. Iiyoiio auei au neiaaniie aaa??aoeeae aeaeaoue a ae?oaeo
iiieiaoeaiuo e i?aaeeeaoeaiuo aaeeieoeao iaycaoaeueiue naiaioe/aneee e
a?aiiaoe/aneee yeaeaaeaio neiao n oiaeaeanoaaiiuie ooieoeeyie, o. a
?anniao?eaaoue eo eae ciaee n oaeie aea ?ac?aaioeie iiiyoey e anaie
aiciiaeiuie ooieoeeyie, eae e a neiaa, cia/aiea neiaa aeieaeii
?anniao?eaaoueny ia eae yoaeii i?e?aaiaiey e ioiaeaeanoaeaiey cia/aiey e
ooieoeee ae?oaeo iiieiaoeaiuo e i?aaeeeaoeaiuo aaeeieoe ycuea, a nei?aa
eae iauee naiaioe/aneee e ooieoeeiiaeueiue oii, ia eioi?ue
i?iaoee?othony cia/aiey e ooieoeee aoi?e/iuo ninoaaiuo aaeeieoe ycuea.
Yoi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue naiaia?acea yoeo aaeeieoe, aeoaeio e iauai
?ac?aaaouaaaiiai a ieo iaiauaiey, ?ieue ia?aciinoe, niaoeeoeeo e iaai?
inouanoaeyaiuo ooieoeee, ii n?aaiaieth ni neiaii. Iiyoiio iao iniiaaiee
iieiinoueth i?e?aaieaaoue naiaioeeo e ooieoeee neiaa e oaeeo aaeeieoe,
eae o?acaieiaeci, aeaaieueii-eiaiiua ni/aoaiey, ninoaaiua oa?ieiu ia oii
iniiaaiee, /oi iie ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o/anoea naiaai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iiaoo auiieiyoue iaeie e oa aea naiaioe/aneea e a?aiiaoe/aneea ooieoeee,
auoue naiaioe/anee eee iiiianeieiae/anee oiaeaeanoaaiiuie, o. a.
neiiieie/iuie. Aeecinoue ninoaaiuo eaeneeaeeciaaiiuo aaeeieoe neiao
?acee/ia, /oi caaeneo io ?acaeoiai a ieo iaiauaiey, auiieiyaiuo
naiaioe/aneeo e a?aiiaoe/aneeo ooieoeee, io eo niuneiaie no?oeoo?u
(aioo?aiiyy oi?ia) e aa niioiioaiey ni cia/aieai.

Ioiioaiea neiaa e o?acaieiaecia auei a oeaio?a aieiaiey o?acaieiaia ni
a?aiaie oi?ie?iaaiey o?acaieiaee eae ioaeaeueiie eeiaaenoe/aneie
aeenoeeieeiu. Anee ia?aiia/aeueii eaeneeieiae ii aieueoae /anoe
ioiaeaeanoaeyee neiai e o?acaieiaeci (e i?aaeaea anaai a naiaioe/aneii
ioiioaiee), oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiiaea ycueiaaaeu neeiiiu aeaeaoue ai
o?acaieiaecia iniaoth eiinoeoooeaioth aaeeieoeo ycuea, ia?acothuoth naie
no?oeoo?iue o?iaaiue; ooaa?aeaeaaony i?e yoii iniaue oa?aeoa? cia/aiey
o?acaieiaecia e auiieiyaiuo ei ooieoeee. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oaeiio
iiaieth iu n/eoaai, /oi iao aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee auaeaeyoue
o?acaieiaeci ec eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai o?iaiy e naiaioe/aneie
aeecinoueth, e naiae naiaioeei-a?aiiaoe/aneie ooieoeeae,
niioiineoaeueiinoueth n ii?oieiae/aneeie ?ac?yaeaie neia, niioiioaieai
aioo?aiiae oi?iu e cia/aiey o?acaieiaeci ia ii?uaaao ni neiaii.
?acoiaaony, yoe iauea /a?ou ia eneeth/atho naiaia?acey o?acaieiaecia.
Naiei ia?aciui, oa?aeoa?enoe/aneei cia/aieai, auiieiyaiuie a
i?aaeeiaeaiee ooieoeeyie o?acaieiaeci ?iaenoaai neiaai n neioaene/anee
iaoneiaeaiiui cia/aieai (ia?aciay, yiioeeiiaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea,
aeaaaaiay iiaeeaaeauaio). O?acaieiaeci, eiay ia?aciia,
oa?aeoa?enoe/aneia cia/aiea, eeai auiieiyao nianoaaiii i?aaeeeaoeaioth
ooieoeeth, eeai ia?acii ii?aaeaeyao, ooi/iyao i?aaeeeao. Ionthaea
noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, ii/aio naiuie iiiai/eneaiiuie a ycuea yaeythony
aeaaieueiua e ia?a/iua o?acaieiaeciu. Iaei/eneaiiua noanoaioeaiua e
aaeuaeoeaiua o?acaieiaeciu oiio?aaeythony, eae i?aaeei, a ooieoeee
neacoaiiai, o a. yaeythony i?aaeeeaoeaaie, ia?aciie, yiioeeiiaeueiie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie noauaeoa-iiaeeaaeauaai (n? : /o/aei ai?ioiaia, niiiay
oaoa?y, io ai?oea aeaa aa?oea, n eieiiaineoth aa?noo, ia ana aeiia e o.
i ).

Iniaia ianoi ia eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii o?iaia caieiatho aeaaieueiieiaiiua
ni/aoaiey. Yoi aanueia i?iaeoeoeaiue eeann eaene/anee ?an/eaiaiiuo
onoie/eauo i?aaeeeaoia, a aieueoeinoaa naiai ei??aeyoeaiuo aeaaieo
o/anoaiaaoue = i?eieiaoue o/anoea, iiiiaaoue = ieacuaaoue iiiiuue,
aeeyoue = ieacuaaoue aeeyiea e o. i ). I?aaeeeaou oaeiai oeia aanueia
i?iaeoeoeaiu ai iiiaeo nia?aiaiiuo ycueao, eae aoi?e/iua ia?aciaaiey iie
iaaethaeaeenue e a ae?aaiai ninoiyiee ycueia.

A ioa/anoaaiiii ycueiciaiee ooaa?aeeeinue iiaiea, auneacaiiia Iioaaiae,
/oi a ycuea, ii iai?aaeaieth e iaoaio a?aiaie, oaaee/eaaaony
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eiaie e aeaaiea. Yoi au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a eo
oi?iaeueiuo, a?aiiaoe/aneeo i?eciaeao, a eo ?iee a i?aaeeiaeaiee eae
aeaaiuo /eaiia, a iiey?ecaoeee e oyaioaiee aoi?inoaiaiiuo /eaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiey e yoei aeaoi a?aiiaoe/aneei oeaio?ai a i?aaeeiaeaiee. Ii
?yaeii n yoei a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ycuea iaaethaeathony e oaniua,
acaeiii?iieeathuea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiaiai e aeaaieii, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai ia?acothony aaeeieoeu, a eioi?uo iauaaeeiythony e aeoeaii
i?iyaeythony naienoaa eiaie e aeaaiea.

Oaiaeaioeey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ooi/iaieth a i?aaeeeaoeee
i?eienuaaaiiai iiaeeaaeauaio i?eciaea, n ae?oaie,— naiaioe/aneia
ineaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aanueia oiio?aaeoaeueiuo aeaaieia (oeia —
eiaoue, aeaoue, ieacuaaoue, aanoe e ae?.) ia iiaee ia i?eaanoe e
«nithco» eiaie e aeaaiea. Aiaaoua a?aiiaoe/aneea e aaeaioiua
aiciiaeiinoe yoeo aeaoo /anoae ?a/e, iauaaeeiaiiua a aeaaieueii-eiaiiuo
ni/aoaieyo, oneeaiii eniieuecothony, aeaaiaea?y /aio au?aaeaaiia iiiyoea
niaaaeaaony iiiaeie aeiiieieoaeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
i?aaenoaaeythueie aai ?anuaieaii, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiii (n?., iai?eia?,
aeeyoue = eiaoue aeeyiea — eiaoue aieueoia, cia/eoaeueiia,
ii?aaeaeythuaa, iaeioi?ia … aeeyiea, cia/eoue = eiaoue cia/aiea —
eiaoue aaaeiia, aieueoia, ia?ainoaiaiiia… cia/aiea e o. i.). Neioac
eiaie e aeaaiea ciaiaioao niaie aieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia e aeaoaeueiia
io?aaeaiea oaeoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A nia?aiaiiuo ycueao, a oii /enea e a ?onneii ycuea, aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony
aiaeeoeci ia oieueei a iaicia/aiee aeaenoaey, ii e i?aaeiaoa a oe?ieii
aai iiieiaiee. Iaeiaei a ycuea iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeieaeaao auoue
i?iaeoeoeaiui e ?acaeaathueiny e neioaoe/aneia, iaeiineiaiia iaicia/aiea
iiiyoee. Aiaeeoe/aneia e neioaoe/aneia iaicia/aiey iiiyoee
ninouanoaotho, acaeiiaeaenoaotho e ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?aaeiieaaatho
ae?oa ae?oaa, auiieiyy aeeooa?aioee?othuoth, aeiiieiythuoth, a oii /enea
e neiiieie/aneoth ooieoeee.

A ycueao ioia/aaony aieueoia eiee/anoai aiaeeoe/aneeo onoie/eauo
iacaaiee eae a iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiii ycuea, oae e — iniaaiii — a iao/iuo
oa?ieiieiaeyo (n?.: ca?aaioiay ieaoa, a?ociaie aaoiiiaeeue, ia/aeueiia
ia?aciaaiea, aeaeaciay aei?iaa, aua iaa o/aaiia caaaaeaiea, oai?ey
iiciaiey, oeie/aneia niaaeeiaiea, aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea e o. i.). Ii iaaethaeaieyi eeiaaenoia, a
nia?aiaiiuo iao/iuo oa?ieiieiaeyo ninoaaiua oa?ieiu i?aiaeaaeatho.
Aeaoeieoeaiay (ii?aaeaeeoaeueiay) i?e?iaea oa?ieia (A.A. Aeiia?aaeia)
iieo/aao a oaeeo iacaaieyo io/anoe aiaoiaa ycueiaia au?aaeaiea I?eciaee,
caeeth/aiiua a oaeii iacaaiee, a ecaanoiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeytho oi
iiiyoea eee i?aaeiao, eioi?ue iacaaiea iaicia/aao. E oioy ninoaaiua
oa?ieiu, eae aiai?eeinue auoa, aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiu a ycuea iaoee,
iioeiaeueiui aeey ycueiaie nenoaiu ciaeii, cae?aieythuei iiiyoea a
ycuea, inoaaony neiai. Ia ii/aa yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey ia?acothony
ia?aeeaeueiua iacaaiey aeey iaeieo e oao aea iao/iuo iiiyoee, eiathuea
iaiaeeiaeiaoth ooieoeeiiaeueioth oeaiiinoue, a iioiio aeiiieiythuea
ae?oa ae?oaa. Eiaiii niioiioaiea a ycuea oaeeo iacaaiee iicaieyao
ane?uoue eo ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee
iauaiey iaaac?acee/ii — yaii iacuaathony a ciaea auaeaeeoaeueiua,
ii?aaeaeythuea i?eciaee iiiyoey eee iiae?acoiaaathony. Eae iaeuecy
iinoaaeoue ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo neiaii e aai ii?aaeaeaieai, oioy iauai
cia/aiey, nouanoaaiiua i?eciaee, iaicia/aaiue eeann i?aaeiaoia yaeythony
iaueie, oae aea iaeuecy iieiinoueth eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue a niuneiaii
ioiioaiee iaeiineiaiue e ninoaaiie oa?iei (n?., iai?eia?, a?aiiaoe/aneea
oa?ieiu’ iaii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia aeaaiea — eioeieoea, iiaaeeoaeueiay oi?ia
aeaaiea – eiia?aoea, eiy nouanoaeoaeueiia — noanoaioea, aeieoaeueiue
iaaeaae — aeeocaoea e o i ) Iineieueeo ninoaaiie oa?iei yaii iacuaaao
i?eciaee iaicia/aaiiai iiiyoey, ii i?aaeii/oeoaeai i?e iao/aiee
(oeieueiay a?aiiaoeea i?eiaiyao yoe oa?ieiu). Ii ninoaaiua oa?ieiu
iai?iaeoeoeaiu a neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiii ioiioaiee, iiyoiio aea?eaaou
ia?acothony <>o eiiycu/iuo iaeiineiaiuo oa?ieiia (n?.. eioeieoeaiue,
ooeieaeoeaiinoue, eiia?aoeaiue, noanoaioeaiue, noanoaioeaiinoue e o.
i.), oaeei ia?acii, ?acee/iua aiciiaeiinoe ia? i?eia?aoatho ecaanoioth
ooieoeeiiaeueioth oeaiiinoue, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaao ninouanoaiaaiea
iacaaiee a oa?ieiinenoaia.

Aaa?aaeaoo?u — yoi au?aaioaiiua a i?aeoeea iauaiey aeaeu nie?auaiee
iaiaeiineiaiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo iaeiaiiaaiee, oiio?aaeythueony ii aieueoae
/anoe a iauai ycuea. Cae?aieaoeany a ycuea, oaeea neiaeiinie?auaiiua
iacaaiey ia?aaeei ia?acotho aea?eaaou (n?.: eieoiciue, eieoiciee,
niaoiciue, aocianeee, eiiniiieueneee, eiiniiieaoe, aeaoaeiiianeee,
aeaoaeiiiaaoe, yioyy?ianeee, ?aeeniieeiiianeee, /aeeno e o. i.).

§ 38. NEIOAENE*ANEEE O?IAAIUe

EA neioaene/aneiai o?iaiy yaeythony neiaini/aoaiea e i?aaeeiaeaiea.
Neioaenen, eae ?acaeae a?aiiaoeee, ia caieiaaony iienaieai e aiaeecii
eiie?aoiuo niuneia yoeo aaeeieoe; oai?aoe/anee e i?aeoe/anee iie
iaen/a?iaaiu. I?aaeiaoii eco/aiey neioaenena yaeythony ioaea/aiiua
iiaeaee no?iaiey yoeo aaeeieoe e eo oeiiaua cia/aiey, cae?aieaiiua a
nenoaia ycuea.

Oai?aoe/aneoth e i?aeoe/aneoth ?ac?aaioeo neiaini/aoaiea iieo/eei a
o?oaeao i?aaeaea anaai ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aiuo — O.O. Oi?ooiaoiaa, A.I.
Iaoeianeiai, I.I. Iaoa?niia, A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa, A.I. Nooioeia e ae?.

Iaeaieaa i?eciaiiie, oai?aoe/anee oeaeueiie yaeyaony eiioeaioeey
neiaini/aoaiey A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa. Neiaini/aoaiea — iiieiaoeaiay
aaeeieoea, iiaeiaiay neiao; iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie no?ieoaeueiue
iaoa?eae, ec eioi?iai ia?acoaony i?aaeeiaeaiea. Aneaae ca A.A.
Aeiia?aaeiaui, iiae neiaini/aoaieai iiieiatho ni/aoaiea, eae i?aaeei,
aeaoo ciaiaiaoaeueiuo neia, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie iiae/eieoaeueiie
naycueth e au?aaeathueo iaeii «?an/eaiaiiia iiiyoea». Oi?ia
neiaini/aoaiey caaeneo io a?aiiaoe/anee aeaaiiai, noa?aeiaaiai neiaa.
Neiaini/aoaiea — yoi, a nouiinoe, naiaioe/aneia ?ani?ino?aiaiea yoiai
neiaa ia iniiaa aai ii?oieiae/aneeo naienoa. Neiaini/aoaiea — aeeaeaeoee
eiioaeno neiaa, a eioi?ii nieiaaony ioaea/aiiinoue aai cia/aiey, iii
«i?eaycuaaaony» e eiie?aoiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ?aaeecoao oo eee eioth
naith naiaioe/aneoth ooieoeeth. Iaicia/aiea neiaini/aoaieai
«?an/eaiaiiiai iiiyoey» aiai?eo i oii, /oi cia/aiea, a oi/iaa — niune
neiaini/aoaiey, ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inooth noiio cia/aiee Aeaoo
ni/aoathueony neia.

Iaiaoeaoaany a ioa/anoaaiiii ycueiciaiee a 50—60-a aiaeu aeoeaiia
oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia eco/aiea neiaini/aoaiey i?aaeaea iaa9
?onneiai ycuea a iineaaeothuea aiaeu, ii nooe aeaea, naaaeaii ia o-
Iinea o?oaeia A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa, A.I Nooioeia, I.I. I?ieiiiae/a
caiaoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey a yoie iaeanoe ia iaaethaeaaony. Iaaeaeo oai yoi
ana aua iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aiiay iaeanoue ycuea: ia eiaaioa?eciaaiu e ia
iienaiu oeiiaua cia/aiey iiaeaeae neiaini/aoaiee ?onneiai ycuea, ia
enneaaeiaaiu ?aaoey?iua naiaioe/aneea ooieoeee neia, ia?acothuea niuneu
neiaini/aoaiee, ia ?ane?uoi naiaia?acea iiieiaoeaiie ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
oeiia neiaini/aoaiee, n?aaieoaeueii ni neiaii e eaeneeaeeciaaiiuie
ni/aoaieyie neia; ia i?eaaaeaia a ecaanoiinoue aiaaoaeoay neiiieieea
neiaini/aoaiee, auoue iiaeao, aieaa anaai aeaiiino?e?othuay
naiaioe/aneoth aeaeinoue e iiaeaeaeiinoue ycuea ia neioaene/aneii o?iaia
e ae?.

I?aaeeiaeaiea — yoi eiiioieeaoeaiay aaeeieoea ycuea. Iiaeiaii ae?oaei
iniiaiui aaeeieoeai ycuea, i?aaeeiaeaiea eiaao iiiai ii?aaeaeaiee. A
ea/anoaa ?aai/aai iu ainiieuecoainy ii?aaeaeaieai A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa:
«I?aaeeiaeaiea — yoi a?aiiaoe/anee ioi?ieaiiay ii caeiiai aeaiiiai ycuea
oeaeinoiay (o. a. iaaeaeeiay aeaeaa ia ?a/aaua aaeeieoeu n oaie aea
iniiaiuie no?oeoo?iuie i?eciaeaie) aaeeieoea ?a/e, yaeythuayny aeaaiui
n?aaenoaii oi?ie?iaaiey, au?aaeaiey e niiauaiey iunee» (11, n. 254).

O?aaeeoeeiiiia eco/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?auaei aieiaiea
ia no?oeoo?ii-a?aiiaoe/aneea aai i?eciaee. Yoi eco/aiea auyaeei
nouanoaaiiua a?aiiaoe/aneea i?eciaee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iooaeeeaaynue io
eiaeoeecia e ineoieiaecia, Iioaaiy e aai oeiea (Ae.I.
Ianyieei-Eoeeeianeee e ae?.) auaeaeeee i?aaeeeaoeaiinoue e
iiaeaeueiinoue eae oio iaiaoiaeeiue a?aiiaoe/aneee ieieioi, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aaeeiaeaiea a ea/anoaa iniaiai a?aiiaoe/aneiai yaeaiey
(eaoaai?ee a?aiaie, iaeeiiaiey, eeoea, ioiioaiey au?aaeaaiie — iunee e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe). Ii?oieiae/anee yoe eaoaai?ee au?aaeathony a oi?iao
aeaaiea. Iiyoiio aeaaieo ioaiaeeony a o?oaeao oaeeo o/aiuo, eae A.A.
Iioaaiy, A.I. Iaoeianeee, A.A. Aeiia?aaeia e ae?., eneeth/eoaeueiay
?ieue a ia?aciaaiee i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii Iioaaia, iniiaiua a?aiiaoe/aneea
i?eciaee nia?aiaiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey naycaiu n aeaaieii. Anee aeaaiui
i?eciaeii iaoaai i?aaeeiaeaiey, caia/ae ii, yaeyaony aeaaieueiinoue, oi,
ii?aaeaeea aeaaie, iu oai naiui ii?aaeaeei ieieioi i?aaeeiaeaiey.

A?aiiaoenou iienuaaee a?aiiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, eee noaiu, ii eioi?ui
no?iyony i?aaeeiaeaiey, enneaaeiaaee eo naiaioeeo. Niaea?aeaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ?anniao?eaaeinue n eiae/aneie eeai ineoieiae/aneie oi/ee
c?aiey (n?. auaeaeaiea ooaa?aeeoaeueiuo, io?eoeaoaeueiuo,
/anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiuo e ae?oaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee). I/aaeaeii, /oi i?e oaeii
iiaeoiaea i?aaeiao nianoaaiii ycueiaaae/aneiai aiaeeca niaea?aeaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey inoaaaeny iaaeinoaoi/ii cao?iiooui.

A nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo ii neioaeneno noaei aanueia
?ani?ino?aiaiiui auaeaeaiea a o?aaeeoeeiiii iiieiaaiii i?aaeeiaeaiee, Ii
nooe aeaea, aeaoo neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe — nianoaaiii i?aaeeiaeaiey e
auneacuaaiey. I?e yoii iiae i?aaeeiaeaieai iiieiaaony aano?aeoiay
iiaeaeue, eee noaia, i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?aaeecoaiay a ioe?uoii /enea
auneacuaaiee. Auneacuaaiey, oaeei ia?acii, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
eaene/aneea iaiieiaiey yoie iiaeaee, au?aaeathuea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
niuneu. Iineaaeiea ia?acothony a eiie?aoiuo ?a/aauo oneiaeyo a
?acoeueoaoa io?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo «neooaoeee». Aini?iecaiaeeiie a
auneacuaaieyo iiaeaee niioaaonoaaiii i?eienuaaaony noaoon ycueiaie
aaeeieoeu, auneacuaaieth — ?a/aaie. Oaeia iiieiaiea eiiioieeaoeaiie
aaeeieoeu ycuea, a eioi?ie ?aaeecothony ana ae?oaea aaeeieoeu, aeaao
iniiaaiea iaeioi?ui eeiaaenoai aiai?eoue i aeaienoaaiiinoe iaoae iaoee
aiiaua. O?aaeeoeeiiiia ycueiciaiea i?aaeeaaaaony ?acaeaeeoue ia iaoeo i
ycuea e iaoeo i ?a/e. Yoe eaeae ainoiaeyo e eiioeaioeee Ninnth?a i
aeeooiiee ycuea e ?a/e e niioaaonoaaiii i aeaoo eeiaaenoeeao.

Auaeaeaiea a i?aaeeiaeaiee iiaeaee, eee no?oeoo?iie noaiu, e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niunea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caeiiiia?iue ?acoeueoao
aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey e — /oi neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue — ia en/a?iuaaao
aai nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia. Iaeiaei ia iao acaeyae, auei au
iaoiaeieiae/aneie ioeaeie ?anniao?eaaoue auaeaeaiioth a ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiey noi?iio i?aaeeiaeaiey eae ioaeaeueioth aaeeieoeo, o. a
i?eienuaaoue ae iioieiae/anee naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea aia oiai
aaeeinoaa, a eioi?ii iia aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao e aeaaiaea?y
eioi?iio nicaeaaony ea/anoaaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey eae
ioaeaeueiiai ycueiaiai yaeaiey (iu aaaeue ia auaeaeyai ec neiaa aeaa
eaene/aneea aaeeieoeu, oioy a iai iaia?oaeeaaai ycueiaia cia/aiea e
?a/aaie niune).

Iiieiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey, o. a. eiiioieeaoeaiie aaeeieoeu, eae
oi?iaeueiie noaiu, eee iiaeaee, eiae/anee i?aaeiieaaaao e i?aaenoaaeaiea
i ycuea eae i eiino?oeoa.

Auaeaeaiea oeiiaiai cia/aiey iiaeaee, eee noaiu no?iaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey,
iieieaaaei aaciaiai?i/iia ioianaiea auneacuaaiey e ?a/e; noae aieaa
i/aaeaeai aai iaoaie/aneee io?ua io yoie iiaeaee. Iiaeaeue, eee noaia,
naiaioece?iaaia, e i?eoii oaeei ia?acii, /oi aa cia/aiea i?aaie/anee
neeoi ni niuneaie ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia i?aaeeiaeaiee, o.a. auaiaeeony ec
yoeo niuneia eae eo iauay eiaa?eaioiay /anoue (ni. ia yoii ieaea).
Auaeaeaiea a i?aaeeiaeaiee no?oeoo?iie iiaeaee e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
niunea («auneacuaaiey») — eneonnoaaiiue i?eai, aiinaieiae/anee
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iiciaiey nouiinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey, yaeythueeny
?acoeueoaoii aai aiaeeca. E niune, e aano?aeoiay iiaeaeue, aa cia/aiea
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiey eae yaeaiey ycuea
e, niioaaonoaaiii, aniaeou ?anniio?aiey i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ia ioaeaeueiua
iioieiae/anee naiinoiyoaeueiua aaeeieoeu ycuea, /Iinyueany e ycueo e
?a/e. Oieueei eo aeeaeaeoe/aneia aaeeinoai 3Aeaao ea/anoaaiioth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiey eae ioaeaeueiiai Ninoiyoaeueiiai yaeaiey
ycueiaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

NEIAI EAE OCEIAAss AAeEIEOeA ssCUEA

Iiaeuoiaeeaay ?anniio?aiea iniiaiuo EA ycuea, iu aeieaeiu a caeeth/aiea
neacaoue ia iniaii ianoa a ea?a?oee yoeo aaeeieoe neiaa eae oceiaie,
aeaaiie aaeeieoeu ycuea. A.A. Aeiia?aaeia ni?aaaaeeeai iiae/a?eeaae, /oi
neiai yaeyaony oieonii acaeiiaeaenoaey oiiaoe/aneeo, a?aiiaoe/aneeo,
naiaioe/aneeo, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo e eiuo oaeoi?ia. ?acee/iuie naieie
yeaiaioaie eee noi?iiaie iii aoiaeeo ai ana iacaaiiua o?iaie ycuea;
eiuie neiaaie, neiai eiaao ioiioaiea ei anai aaeeieoeai ae?oaeo o?iaiae
ycuea. Eae iineoaeue eaene/aneiai cia/aiey neiai ioiineony e
eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiio o?iaith, eae neiaioi?ia — e
ii?oaiii-ii?oieiae/aneiio, eae /eai iiieiaoeaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey — e
neioaene/aneiio. Oiiaia a ea/anoaa ycueiaie aaeeieoeu auaeaeyaony ia
iniiaa niuneiauo ioiioaiee neia e eo oi?i; iia aea yaeyaony yeaiaioii
(iaoa?eae) neiaa. Ii?oaia nouanoaoao a neiaa, aa aeeaeaeoei eiioaenoii
yaeyaony neiai. Neiai ia?acoaony n iiiiuueth ii?oai. Ec neia ia?acoaony
neiaini/aoaiea; neiaa, eo cia/aiey e niuneu o/anoaotho a ia?aciaaiee eae
oeiiaiai cia/aiey neiaini/aoaiey, oae e aai niunea; a?aiiaoe/aneea
naienoaa neia o/anoaotho a ia?aciaaiee oi?iu neiaini/aoaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaiea ia?acoaony n iiiiuueth neia e neiaini/aoaiee,
i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeao ninoiyoue e ec iaeiiai neiaa.

Ana yoe oaeou aiai?yo i oii, /oi neiai yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiie, oceiaie
aaeeieoeae ycuea. ?acoiaaony, naienoaa neiaa, eae e ana ae?oaia a ycuea,
enoi?e/anee eciaiythony, e neiai ia anaaaea auei oaeei, eaeiai iii
nae/an. Iaeiaei iu ai?aaa, aneaae ca Iioaaiae, n/eoaoue, /oi a ycuea ia
?aciuo yoaiao aai ?acaeoey, aeeth/ay e naiua ae?aaiea, nouanoaiaaea
oceiaay aaeeieoea ycuea, eioi?ay caieiaea a nenoaia ae?oaeo aaeeieoe
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi.

§0A. O?IAIE ssCUEA E O?AAeEOeEIIIUA ?ACAeAEU ECO*AIEss ssCUEA

Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iia no?iaiea ycuea, eae yoi i/aaeaeii, ia niaiaaeaao n
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ?acaeaeaie iaoee i ycuea. Iniiaiua ?acaeaeu iaoee i
ycuea ioaaouaatho eae EA, oae e IEA. Oae, a oiiaoeea, ia?yaeo n oiiaiaie
(eo ninoaaii, aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuie i?eciaeaie, iiceoeeiiiuie e
eiiaeiaoi?iuie /a?aaeiaaieyie, niiniaaie eo ia?aciaaiey e ae?.),
eco/athony e iaeiinoeoooeaiua oiiaoe/aneea aaeeieoeu (n?.: iai?eia?,
oiiaoe/aneia neiai, neiaaniia, neioaaiaoe/aneia oaea?aiea» eioiiaoeee e
ae?.).

EA ii?oaiii-ii?oieiae/aneiai o?iaiy eco/athony a ii?oaie^» ii?oieiaee,
neiaiia?aciaaiee, ii?oiiieiaee. A yoeo ?acaeaeao i ycuea, a naith
i/a?aaeue, auaeaeythony aaeeieoeu, ia ioiinyueany e (n?.:
iai?iecaiaeiay, i?iecaiaeiay, i?iecaiaeyuay iniiau,
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiay iiaeaeue e ae?.).

A neioaenena, ia?yaeo ni neiaini/aoaieai e i?aaeeiaeaieai, eco/athony
/eaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?acee/iua neioaene/aneea iai?iou, iainiaeaiey,
neioaaia e ae?.

?acoiaaony, enneaaeiaaiey ycueiauo aaeeieoe a nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iii e
o?aaeeoeeiiiii ioiioaieyo ia eneeth/atho e ia iiaeiaiytho, a acaeiii
aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. No?oeoo?iia eco/aiea ycueiauo aaeeieoe
ioe?uaaao aaaeioth ?ieue i?aaeaea anaai EA a i?aaiecaoeee ycuea. Oaeia
eco/aiea iaaeyaeii aeaiiino?e?oao no?aoeoeeaoeeth ycuea, iniiaiua
ninoaaeythuea e iaeaieaa iaiauaiiua yeaiaiou i?aaiecaoeee ycuea, ianoi e
?ieue iniiaiuo ycueiauo aaeeieoe a no?iaiee ycuea eae oeaeinoiie,
naii?aaoee?oaiie e ?acaeaathuaeny nenoaiu.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aoneaaa OE. Enoi?e/aneay a?aiiaoeea ?onneiai ycuea. I., 1959. 2.
Iioaaiy A A Iuneue e ycue. Oa?ueeia, 1913.

2. Iioaaiy A A Ineoieiaey iiyoe/aneiai e i?icae/aneiai iuoeaiey (1910).
Nouiinoue neiaa, ycue eae nenoaia/OO?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee ?onneiai
ycueiciaiey. I., 1973

3. Iioaaiy A A Ec caienieii ?onneie a?aiiaoeea. O. 1—2 I., 1958

Aiaeoyi aea Eo?oaiy E.A Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ii iauaio ycueiciaieth. O. 1.
I., 1963.

4. Aiaeoyi aea Eo?oaiy E.A Eca?*oiua o?oaeu ii iauaio ycueiciaieth. O.
2. I., 1963. 7 Ninnth? O O?oaeu ii ycueiciaieth I , 1976

5. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey no?oeoo?aeecia. I , 1964.

6 Cani?eea E.I. Aaaaeaiea a no?oeoo?ioth eeiaaenoeeo. I., 1974

7. Neiaa?ue ?onneiai ycuea/Iiae ?aae. aeI. Aaaaiueaaie. O AO. I., 1984.

8. Aeiia?aaeia A.A. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ^Enneaaeiaaiey ii ?onneie
a?aiiaoeea. I., 1975

9. Aeenii A. Aaaaeaiea a aeane?eioeaioth eeiaaenoeeo. I , 1959. 13
Iioaaiy A.A. Enoi?ey ?onneiai ycuea. Eaeoeee, /eoaiiua a 1882/83
aeaaeaie/aneii aiaeo, Ee?a, 1981.

10. Eaiioueaa A I. Aeayoaeueiinoue. Niciaiea. Ee/iinoue. I , 1975

11. Aeiia?aaeia A A ?onneee ycue. A?aiiaoe/aneia o/aiea i neiaa. Aui. 1.
I., 1938

12. Aeiia?aaeia A.A I ycuea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. I., 1959.

13. Aaeeineee A.A. Noeoioai?aiey I. Ea?iiioiaa//Nia? ni/.: A 3 o. I.,
1948. O. ?

14. Aaaoyi Y.A. Niune e cia/aiea. A?aaai, 1979.

15. Ooeioeaaa A.A. Naiaioeea neiaa//Aniaeou naiaioe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee
I , 1980

16. *aeiaiia A.E. Eiaeea. NIa., 1910.

17. Eiiaeaeia A.E Eiae/aneee neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee. I., 1975.

18. Aieeiaeaea? Ae. Aiaoiiecaoeey cia/aiey//Iiaia a ca?oaaaeiie
eeiaaenoeea Aui. X, I., 1981.

19. Eaooe Aeae. Naiaioe/aneay oai?ey//Iiaia a ca?oaaaeiie eeiaaenoeea
Aui X I.1981.

20. Ae?aeo I. Naiaioeea//Iiaia a ca?oaaaeiie eeiaaenoeea. Aui. X. I,
1981.

21. Eiooa Ae. N. E?aoeea oi?iu iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo oa?ieiia. I , 1971.

22. «Aii?inu oai?ee e ineoieiaee oai?/anoaa». O. 2. Aui. 2. NIa., 1910.

23. Aaoe O. O?aioeocneay noeeenoeea. I., 1961

24. Aoaeaaia ?.A. *aeiaae e aai ycue. I., 1974.

25. Ai?aa/aae/ EN, Ni?ieieaoia O.I. Cia/aiea e iooaiie cia/aiey a
eaeneeia?aoe/aneie i?aeoeea//Eca AI NNN?, IEEss. O. XXXIV 16. 1975.

26. IeeeueAe.N. Nenoaia eiaeee. I., 1899.

27. Ania?nai I Oeeinioey a?aiiaoeee. I., 1958.

28. Noia?aineay A.A. Iauay oai?ey eiaie nianoaaiiiai I., 1973.

29. Ooeioeaaa A.A. Oeiu neiaaniuo ciaeia. I., 1974

30. Noaaeei-Eaiaineee I.E. Nii?iia a a?aiiaoeea. E., 1974.

31. Aaeeeia-Oaaei?oe A.I I oi?ia e niaea?aeaiee a ycuea//Iuoeaiea e
ycue. I. 1957.

32. Na?aa?aiieeia A.A. E i?iaeaia oeiia eaene/aneie e a?aiiaoe/aneie
aano?aeoeee//Aii?inu a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy. I., 1955.

33. Iioaaiy A.A. Ec caienie ii ?onneie a?aiiaoeea. O. III. M., 1968.

34. Aaiaaieno Y. Iauay eeiaaenoeea. I., 1974.

35. Nie?ieoeeee A.E. Iauaeoeaiinoue nouanoaiaaiey ycuea. I., 1954.

36. Caaaeioeaa A.A. sscue e eeiaaenoe/aneay oai?ey. I., 1973.

37. Ia?ouiia A.A. Eeaa?iaoeea. Naieioeea. Eeiaaenoeea. Ieine, 1968.

38. Aeiia?aaeia A.A. Eaeaaeenoe/aneay iniiaa neioaene/aneie nenoaiu
i?io. A.I. Iaoeianeiai, aa yeeaeoeci e aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey//Aii?inu
neioaenena nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea. I., 1950.

39. Eana?an X. Aaaaeaiea a nia?aiaiioth eaeneeia?aoeth. I., 1959.

40. Aaaaiueaaa A.I. Ii?aaeaeaiea a oieeiauo neiaa?yo//I?iaeaia
oieeiaaiey neia a oeeieiae/aneeo neiaa?yo. ?eaa, 1963.

41. Aei?ioaaneee A. Yeaiaiou eaeneeieiaee e naieioeee. I., 1973.

42. Ia?eia A.A. En/eneaiea aa?iyoiinoae. I, 1924.

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