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?AOA?AO

Ii Eoeueoo?ieiaee

Niioiioaiea ycuea e eoeueoo?u.

Niaoeeaeenou ii eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee a oa/aiea iineaaeieo 25 eao
iinoaiaiii ia?aoee io aoiienoe/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u, eioi?ia
?anniao?eaaei aa eae aieaa eee iaiaa neo/aeiue iaai? oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o, e
ae?oaiio, aeaeathuaio aeoeaio ia no?oeoo?a e oi?ia. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe,
iaeaieaa oi/ii yoo nia?aiaiioth eiioeaioeeth eoeueoo?u noi?ioee?iaaee
Eeaeoii e Eaeee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeeee aa “eae enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany,
yaiua eee oaeiua, ?aoeeiiaeueiua, e??aoeeiiaeueiua eee ia?aoeeiiaeueiua
iiaeaee ia?aca aeecie, nouanoaothuea a ethaia aeaiiia a?aiy a ea/anoaa
iioaioeeaeueiuo i?eaioe?ia aeey iiaaaeaiey ethaeae” (1945, n.97). A yoii
ii?aaeaeaiee oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe, yeaiaiou, eee eo/oa, iiaeaee
eoeueoo?u i?aaieciaaiu, eee no?oeoo?e?iaaiu a nenoaio, eee niaieoiiinoue
nenoai, eioi?ua a neeo enoi?e/aneiai oi?ie?iaaiey ioe?uou e iiaeaa?aeaiu
iinoiyiiui eciaiaieyi.

N yoei aieaa aeoaieei iiieiaieai i?e?iaeu eoeueoo?u, ?anniao?eaaaiie a
oeaeii, aicieeea iiaay eiioeaioeey acaeiinayce ycuea e eoeueoo?u. sscue
ia iiaeao aeaeaa i?aaenoaaeyony eae ia/oi, iieiinoueth ioi?aaiiia io
ae?oaeo eoeueoo?iuo nenoai, a nei?aa aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
/anoue ooieoeeiiaeueii naycaiiiai n iei oeaeiai. Eoae, ia?aae iaie iiaue
e?oa i?iaeai, eiathueo ioiioaiea e yoie oaia, eioi?ua aei neo ii?
iaiieii inaauaiu e a aieueoeinoaa naiai iaei enneaaeiaaiu. Oeaeue yoiai
aeieeaaea ninoieo a oii, /oiau ?anniio?aoue e i?aaenoaaeoue aaoaio
aieiaieth yoe i?iaeaiu aeey aeeneonnee.

Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa noa?a enneaaeiaaiee ana aua
ia eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai iacaaiey. *anoi eniieuecoaiua oa?ieiu
“yoiieeiaaenoeea” e “iaoaeeiaaenoeea” ii-i?aaeiaio aeeth/atho iiiaeanoai
cia/aiee, ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa a eioa?i?aoaoeee ?aciuo o/aiuo
(ni.,iai?eia?, Olmsted, 1950). “Yoiieeiaaenoeea”, aa?iyoii, iaeaieaa
?anieua/aoa a ii?aaeaeaieyo. Yoio oa?iei i?eiaiei e enneaaeiaaieyi (eae
Sapir’s “Time Perspective”,1916), eioi?ua iieacuaatho ?ieue
eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ai acaeiinayce n enoi?eae eoeueoo?, n
eco/aieai neooaoeee oeia: niaethaeaiea yoeeaoa i?e i?eaia ainoae
(Voegelin and Harris, 1945, c.457), “eiaaea neiaaniia iiaaaeaiea e
aaciieaiia neaaeiaaiea ?eooaeo aianoa ninoaaeytho yoiieeiaaenoe/aneoth
neooaoeeth”; e enneaaeiaaieyi (eae Meads’s, 1939; a oaeaea Lowie, 1940)
iieaciinoe eniieueciaaiey ycueia a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioia eco/aiey
yoiieiae/aneeo i?iaeai; e enneaaeiaaieyi Oi?oa (iai?eia?, 1941n) e
ae?oaeo i ?iee ycuea a iianaaeiaaiii iiaaaeaiee e iuoeaiee, e, aa?iyoii,
e i?i/ei eiui enneaaeiaaieyi. Oiio?aaeaiea oa?ieia “iaoaeeiaaenoeea”,
aeaaea e aieaa ia?aie/aiiia (aei neo ii aue eniieueciaai O?aaeaea?ii
aeaaiui ia?acii i?eiaieoaeueii e ?aaioa Oi?oa), eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia
iaoaeianoai ec-ca aiciiaeiie iooaieoeu n oa?ieiii “iaoaycue”, eioi?ui
iieuecothony oeeiniou, eioa?anothueany naieioeeie eee iauae oai?eae
ciaeiauo nenoai (Carrol et al., 1951, p.4).

1. I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea (a iauai
aieaa eee iaiaa i?eciaiiia aio?iiieiaaie, ii e?aeiae ia?a ni a?aiaie
Oaeei?a) i oii, /oi ycue ia nouanoaoao ioaeaeueii io eoeueoo?u, a
yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie aa /anoueth. Aaaaeei iaaeaaii oniiieeny a
i?aaeeueiinoe yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, iacaaa aai “nii?iui”. Ii aeiiieiyao:

I/aaeaeii, /oi ieeoi ia iaia?oaeeo eoeueoo?o a ninoiyiee
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, iineieueeo ana /aeiaa/aneea niiauanoaa ninoiyo ec
/aeiaa/aneeo nouanoa, eioi?ua ?acaiaa?eaatho, ii eoeueoo?a, e, a
nouiinoe, oae e i?ienoiaeeo ia naiii aeaea, iiaeao eco/aoueny a
cia/eoaeueiie ecieyoeee, aeaaea a aieueoae, /ai /aeiaa/aneia nouanoai
enneaaeoaony a oece/aneie aio?iiieiaee; iaaeaeo oai eeiaaenoeea eco/aao
ia oi, i /ai aiai?eo /aeiaa/aneia nouanoai, a nei?aa no?oeoo?o
?acaiai?a. Oi, i /ai iii aiai?eo, iacuaaaony (e oeeinioaie e
naiaioeeaie) niuneii, ii aeey aieueoeinoaa aio?iiieiaia yoi /oi e anoue
eoeueoo?a [1949a, p.36].

Iicaeiaa, a ioaao ia e?eoeeo Iiea?a, Aaaaeei iuoaaony ionoiyoue yoo
oi/eo c?aiey:

Anee au ycue aue oieueei /anoueth eoeueoo?u, oiaaea niaoeeaeenou a
iaeanoe eeiaaenoeee aeaaiaea?y naiei eeiaaenoe/aneei iiciaieyi aeieaeiu
auee au iaeaaeaoue eiiiaoaioiinoueth a ianoaeaeaiee ae?oaeo /anoae
eoeueoo?u. Iu aeieaeiu aeiionoeoue, /oi anee eeiaaeno niiniaai
aeeneooe?iaaoue ii aii?inai eoeueoo?u, oi yoi aiciiaeii ia aneaaenoaea
iao/aiey eeiaaenoeea, a nei?aa aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ii aoaeo/e
nooaeaioii iaoiaeeeny a eoeueoo?iie n?aaea e iaiai?io.

Anee au ycue aue i?inoi /anoueth eoeueoo?u, i?eiaou auee au a ninoiyiee
/anoe/ii iao/eoueny /aeiaa/aneiio ycueo, eae iie, iiaoaeaeaaiua
i?eiaoieiaaie, aeaenoaeoaeueii iaeaaeaaatho iaaueaie /aeiaa/aneie
eoeueoo?u. Ie iaeii aunoaa aeeaioiia ieeiaaea ia auo/eo ieeaeie ec
/aeiaa/aneeo ycueia, aeaaea iiioaae. Oio oaeo, /oi o?aca Polly wants a
cracker (Iieee oi/ao ia/aiuea) ia aini?eieiaaony iiioaaai eae /anoue
ycuea, iaia?oaeeaaaony a ianiiniaiinoe ioeoeu eniieueciaaoue /anoue
i?ieciineiiai a ea/anoaa eiino?oeoeee (Polly wants a …) aeey
iineaaeothuae caiaiu no?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeu. Eae au?aceeny ii yoiio
iiaiaeo Aeaei?aeae Oa?oeya, niiniaiinoue e caoeiiiae?aaeaieth o aunoeo
aeeaioiuo ia?aie/eaaao ny i?iecianaieai iaeiie ii?oaiu; aeey iiioaay a
oaeii neo/aa Polly wants a cracker – yoi iaeciaiyaiia oeaeia. N yoie
oi/ee c?aiey iu iiaeai iaiaueoue: iaiouaieaiie iniaaiiinoueth anao
i?e?iaeiuo (naiiauoiuo) ycueia yaeyaony eo niiniaiinoue e ia?aciaaieth
ioeueoeii?oaiiuo au?aaeaiee [1949b, p.45].

Ia?aue aeiaiae Aaaaeeia i oii, /oi niaoeeaeeno a iaeiie iaeanoe
eoeueoo?u oaea ii yoie i?e/eia iaeeiaeiai eiiiaoaioai ai anao ae?oaeo,
iiaeieiaao ianeieueei eioa?aniuo aii?inia. Ianoaeaaao ee ii ia oii, /oi
iieeoieia (eioi?ue ii/oe iaaa?iyea yaeyaony niaoeeaeenoii a aaaeiaeoae
noa?a eoeueoo?u) a ?aaiie noaiaie eiiiaoaioai eae nioeeieia, yeiiiieno
eee aio?iiieia. Aa?ii ee oi, /oi ciaoiee aio?iiieiaee eoeueoo?u oi/ii
oae aea ?acae?athony a nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, oaoieea, ?aeeaee e
oieueeei?a. I?eieiay ai aieiaiea, /oi eiioeaioeey eoeueoo?u ioaaouaaao
oe?ieee niaeo? yaeaiee (iiieii ycuea), ?acaa iu ia iiaeai aeiionoeoue,
/oi o/aiiio iicaieyaony niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny. sscueiciaiea, ianiiiaiii,
o?aaoao aeiaieueii iiiai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo iaoiaeia e oaoie/aneeo
i?eaiia, ?aaii eae e oieueeei?enoeea, e ?acaa yoi aeaao eaeia-eeai
iniiaaiea aeey ioeo/aiey io eoeueoo?u i?aaeiaoa eo enneaaeiaaiee.

Aoi?ie aeiaiae, /oi i?eiaou e ae?oaea aunoea aeeaioiua iiaoo inaieoue
eia-eaeea eoeueoo?iua i?eaiu (eiaaea eo “iiaoaeaeatho”), ii ia eaeie au
oi ie auei ycue, noaaeo iiaue aii?in i i?e?iaea eoeueoo?u. *aio aea
iiaoo iao/eoueny i?eiaou iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii i?eiaoieiaia e
aeaenoaeoaeueii ee yoe iaauee yaeythony /anoueth eoeueoo?u? Oaa?aei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?eiaou ii/oe eae ethaee iaeaaeaaatho oaoieeie e
iao/athony ?aoaoue caaea/e, oioy e i/aiue i?inoua. Ii iao/aiea i?eiaoa
iineo eoioeyoeaiue oa?aeoa? oieueei a oii niunea, /oi ii aeiaaaeyao e
naiaio ?aia?ooa?o iiaua o?thee; ia nouanoaoao aeieacaoaeuenoa, /oi ii
ioaeaeeo io iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ oaea cao/aiiua ii?aaeaeaiiua iauea
i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue neiiaeie?iaaiu, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue
i?iaeaiu oaaee/eaathuaeny neiaeiinoe. Ei?i/a, i?eiao auo/eaaao oieueei
iaeciaiyaiua yeaiaiou /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey iin?aaenoaii eieoaoeee
eee iaoiaeii i?ia e ioeaie, eiaiii oae, eae iiioaae cao/eaaao ia
naycaiiua (n iei ), i?inoua ii cao/aieth ii?oaiu. O?the, auo/aiiue
i?eiaoii, iiaeiaii cao/auae o?aca iiioaay ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
eiino?oeoeey, a eioi?ie aiciiaeii caiauaiea, ii oieueei eae aeo,
iieiioeaiiue nai ii naaa e ioaeaeueiue io anao ae?oaeo.

*aeiaa/aneay eoeueoo?a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaeyaony ia oieueei
o?aieeeuai ?ac?iciaiiuo aeoia. Aio?iiieiae, eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
aieueoeinoai ec ieo aeaaiui-aeaaii ioeacaeenue io i?aaenoaaeaiey, /oi
eoeueoo?a – yoi i?inoi iaai? oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae, aeoia e
a?oaoaeoia. Eoeueoo?a nei?aa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, ii neiaai Eeaeoiia e
Eaeee, “enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoothny nenoaio yaiuo e oaeiuo iiaeaeae ia?aca
aeecie, eioi?ay i?eieiaaony anaie eee niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuie /eaiaie
a?oiiu” (1945, p.98). Aeoeaio a yoii ii?aaeaeaiee noaaeony ia
neiaini/aoaiee “iiaeaee ia?aca aeecie”; eoeueoo?a ia ninoieo ec aeoia e
a?oaoaeoia, a oieueei i?iyaeyaony a ieo. Noiia ciaiee, i?eia?aoaaiuo
/aeiaaeii a i?ioeanna i?eiauaiey e eaeie-eeai eoeueoo?a – yoi
i?aaieciaaiiue (eee no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue) iaai? aa?eaioia iiaaaeaiey, ec
eioi?uo ii ioae?aao e eniieuecoao oi, /oi i?eiaieii e aicieeathuei
neooaoeeyi iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Ni a?aiaiai e iniaaiii iiae
aicaeaenoaeai iiiaeo iiauo neooaoeee, iai?eia?, a ia?eiaeu auno?ie
aeeoeueoo?aoeee (i?ioeanna i?eia?aoaiey iaeiei ia?iaeii oao eee eiuo
oi?i eoeueoo?u ae?oaiai ia?iaea, i?ienoiaeyuee a ?acoeueoaoa eo iauaiey
iaaeaeo niaie), a /aeiaa/aneie a?oiia aicieeaee iiaua aa?eaiou
aeeciaono?ienoaa e iiaeeoeeaoeee i?aaeieo ia?acoeia, niciaoaeueii eee
aanniciaoaeueii ecaea/aiiua ec neooaoeee e i?iaeai, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaeenue /eaiu a?oiiu. Eiaiii yoa niiniaiinoue iaeiieaiey
aano?aeoiuo iiaeaeae nouanoaiaaiey iniaaiii iaaeyaeii ioee/aao
/aeiaa/aneoth eoeueoo?o io inaaaeieoeueoo?u i?eiaoia, iineieueeo
iineaaeiyy, e?iia i?eaaaeaiey iiauo aeoia, iieiinoueth eeoaia
niiniaiinoe ?acaeaaoueny e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia aieaa, /ai neo/aeiia
neiieaiea ?ac?iciaiiuo i?eaiia, eioi?uie, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa
eieoaoeee, aeaaeatho eeoue ioaeaeueiua iniae,ii ia ae?oaea /eaiu a?oiiu.

sscue aac o?oaea aienuaaaony a yoo eiioeaioeeth eoeueoo?u. Eae eoeueoo?a
aae?aao ana enoi?e/aneea neiaeeaoeany, no?oeoo?e?iaaiiua iiaeaee
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua “i?eieiathony anaie eee niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuie
/eaiaie a?oiiu”, oae e ycue aeeth/aao iiaeaee ?acaiai?iie ?a/e
(ninoaaiay /anoue iiaaaeaiey) n oi/ii oaeeie aea ao?eaooaie. sscue, eae
e ana ae?oaia a eoeueoo?a, o?aaoao eco/aiey ia ioaeaeueiuo au?aaeaiee
(aeoia) oeia Polly wants a cracker, a eiino?oeoeee, a eioi?ua ana
aiciiaeiua cia/aiey iiaoo auoue ano?iaiu. sscuee, eae e ae?oaea aniaeou
eoeueoo?u, ?aciiia?aciu e iaiioiaee; eaaeaeia iauanoai eiaao naie ycue,
?aaii eae e nianoaaiiua oaoie/aneea i?eaiu, oi?iu nioeeaeueiiai e
iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa e iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai e ?aeeaeiciiai
iiaaaeaiey. sscue iiaeiaii ethaiio ae?oaiio aniaeoo eoeueoo?u
aeeoioee?oao e iinoiyiii o?ainoi?ie?oao “aeaaioneoth e aiiieiioth
iiaeniciaoaeueioth ?aaioo iiiaeo iieieaiee” (Sapir,1921,p.235).
Iaeiiaoe, niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea eee
?acaeoea eoeueoo?u ioaeaeueii io ycuea, eai ycue – yoi oaeay /anoue
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay a aieueoae ia?a, /ai ethaay ae?oaay, aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue /aeiaaeo ia oieueei i?eia?aoaoue nianoaaiiue iiuo a
i?ioeanna iai?a?uaiiai iao/aiey, ii e iieueciaaoueny i?eia?aoaiiuie a
i?ioeii eee ianoiyuai iiuoii e ciaieyie ae?oaeo ethaeae, eioi?ua
yaeythony eee auee /eaiaie a?oiiu. A oie noaiaie, a eaeie eoeueoo?a eae
oeaeia ninoieo ec iauaiiieiaaiuo iiiaioia, aa eeiaaenoe/aneee aniaeo
yaeyaony aa iaeaieaa aeeciaiiie e iaiaoiaeeiie /anoueth.

2. Aeiaiae i oii, /oi ycue – yoi iaiouaieaiay /anoue eoeueoo?u, eiia/ii,
ia aeaeaao i/aaeaeiuie n ia?aiai acaeyaea aai ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie
aniaeoaie eoeueoo?u. ?acoiaaony, niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi ycue ea?aao
oieeaeueioth ?ieue a iauae nenoaia eoeueoo?iuo iiaeaeae, oaea ii oie
i?e/eia, /oi ii yaii ooieoeeiie?oao acaeiiaeaenoaoy n aieueoeinoaii,
anee ia ni anaie, eiuie ninoaaeythueie eoeueoo?iiai iiaaaeaiey. sscue,
eae ioia/ae Naie?, “a naiai eiie?aoiii ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ia noieo
ioaeaeueii io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iiuoa e ia ?aniieaaaaony ia?aeeaeueii
aio, ii oanii ia?aieaoaaony n iei” (1933,p.11). Iiyoiio /?acau/aeii
aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi icia/aao aeey aiai?yueo ia ycuea oaeia
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiea e eae iii iiaeao niioiineoueny n ae?oaeie aniaeoaie
eo eoeueoo?u.

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaiee ia ioiioaiee ycuea e eoeueoo?u aieioue aei
iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie aeaeaee oii? ia aiaoiae e niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeiie nayce
iaaeaeo eaeneeie e niaea?aeaieai eoeueoo?u. Niiaa e niiaa ioia/aeinue,
/oi eniieuecoaiay ethaeueie eaeneea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eo eoeueoo?a e,
n aieueoae eee iaiueoae oi/iinoueth io?aaeaao iniaua eioa?anu e
cia/aiea, eioi?ia yoio ia?iae i?eaeaao oaeei iaeanoyi naiae eoeueoo?u,
eae oaoieea, nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, ?aeeaey e oieueeei?. Ia?iaeu,
eioi?ua, eae /e?eeaoa-aia/a, aeeaoo, caieiaynue ioioie e
niae?aoaeuenoaii, n/eoatho iaiaoiaeeiui eiaoue aeaoaeueiua ia?a/ie
iacaaiee aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee, a oaeaea oi/iua iaeiaiiaaiey
ioee/eoaeueiuo oiiia?aoe/aneeo i?eciaeia n?aaeu eo iaeoaiey. Ae?oaea,
eae aai?eaaiu Aano?aeee, eioi?ua a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa nioeeaeueiiai
eiio?iey eniieuecotho ?iaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, iaeaaeatho ia?iiiui e
neiaeiui neiaa?ai oa?ieiia ?iaenoaa. Nouanoaothuea o oaeeo ia?iaeia, eae
yiiineee e ei?aeneee, nenoaiu ?aiaia e noaoonia iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii
iaoee io?aaeaiea a eaeneea e aeaaea io/anoe a a?aiiaoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoyo ycueia, eae, iai?eia?, a nenoaia ianoieiaiee.

Eco/aiea ycueia e eo neiaa?iuo ninoaaia iiaeao auoue iieacii oaeaea aeey
enoi?eea eoeueoo?u. I/aaeaeii, /oi aeaaea iiaa?oiinoiue acaeyae ia
aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?iaenoaaiiuo ycueia /anoi iicaieyao
iiaeia?aoue eeth/e e ii?aaeaeaieth iano ?annaeaiey ia?iaeia a ae?aaiinoe
e eo iineaaeothueo iea?aoeee. Iai?eia?, eco/ay a?aae ?ani?ino?aiaiey a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaeaeoeaa,aiai?yueo ia aoaianneeo ycueao, iu
iaia?oaeeee ainaiue-aeaayoue iniiaiuo eeiaaenoe/aneeo iiaea?oii a
caiaaeiie Eaiaaea e ia Aeynea, a oi a?aiy, eae aeaa ae?oaea,
niioaaonoaaiii, aaeieue oeoiieaaineiai iiaa?aaeuey io Aaoeiaoiia aei
naaa?iie Eaeeoi?iee, a oaeaea n?aaee ieaiai iaaaoi e aia/ae. Auaiae
caeanue ynai: iaei niiiaiee a oii, /oi enoiaeiia ianoi iaeoaiey yoeo
ethaeae iaoiaeeeinue ia naaa?a, e /oi iiyoiio oeoiieaaineea e
thai-caiaaeiua niiauanoaa aiai?yueo ia aoaianneeo ycueao iea?e?iaaee ia
tha aei iuiaoiaai ianoiiieiaeaiey.

*oiau i?ineaaeeoue o?iiieiaeth acaeiiaeaenoaey eoeueoo?iuo yeaiaioia,
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu, eae ioia/ae Naie?, aioo?aiiea eeiaaenoe/aneea
i?eciaee:

sscue, eae e eoeueoo?a, ninoieo ec yeaiaioia ?aciiai a?aiaie
aicieeiiaaiey; iaeioi?ua ec aai /a?o ainoiaeyo e iai?iieoeaaiiio
ooiaiiiio i?ioeiio, ae?oaea yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii iaaeaaiaai ?acaeoey e
iio?aaiinoae a/a?aoiaai aeiy. Anee iai oaeanony naycaoue eciaiaiey a
eoeueoo?a n eciaiaieyie a ycuea, iu niiaeai ia?anoe (a caaeneiinoe io
ianoiyoaeuenoa i?eaeeceoaeueioth eee oi/ioth) ia?o ecia?aiey
ioiineoaeueiiai aic?anoa yeaiaioia eoeueoo?u. A yoii ioiioaiee ycue
i?aaeinoaaeyao iai ia/oi a?iaea ?an/a?/aiiie iao?eoeu, n iiiiuueth
eioi?ie iiaeii ?anioouaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eciaiaiee a eoeueoo?a
[1916,p.432].

Aa?eaiou i?eiaiaiey yoiai iaoiaea iiiai/eneaiiu; a ea/anoaa
eeethno?aoeee iai iaiaoiaeeii i?eaea/ue aieiaiea oieueei e aeaoi
?aaioai: Naie?a “Aioo?aiiea eeiaaenoe/aneea i?eciaee naaa?iiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaaaoi” (1936) e Oa?oeiaa “Eoeueoo?iia eciaiaiea e ycue:
ia?aiauaiey a eaeneea ieia” (1941).

Eaeneea oiaaea auea anaoeaei naycaia ni iiiaeie oa?aeoa?iuie
iniaaiiinoyie iaeeiaaenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u, nouanoaoy eae a oa/aiea
iaeiie yiioe, oae e a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee ycuea ai a?aiaie, iiyoiio
eco/aiea eaeneee iieacii, anee ia iaycaoaeueii, aeey iieiie e
anaiauaiethuae yoiia?aoe/aneie ioeaiee. Ii oaeia eniieueciaaiea
eeiaaenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e aeaaea i/aaeaeiay naycue iaaeaeo eaeneeie e
niaea?aeaieai eoeueoo?u aeieacuaaao ia aieueoa, /ai oaeo, /oi o ycuea
anoue eoeueoo?iia ia?aieaiea. Oi aea naiia ni?aaaaeeeai a ioiioaiee
ia?aoiie neooaoeee: eeiaaeno, anee aio ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eaeoth-eeai
eaene/aneoth aaeeieoeo, aeieaeai eiaoue iaeioi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
eoeueoo?a, e eioi?ie iia ioiineony. Iaeiaei, eae ioiaoee Naie?
ianeieueei eao iacaae, “yoio iiaa?oiinoiue e aiaoiee aeae ia?aeeaeecia
ia i?aaenoaaeyao ?aaeueiiai eioa?ana aeey eeiaaenoa, anee oieueei
iiyaeaiea eee caeinoaiaaiea iiauo neia einaaiii ia a?inaao naaoa ia
oi?iaeueiua oaiaeaioeee ycuea. Eeiaaeno ieeiaaea ia aeieaeai aiaaeaoue a
ioeaeo ioiaeaeanoaeaiey ycuea n aai neiaa?ai” (1921,p.234).

sscue, eiia/ii, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ai?acaei aieaa iaoe?iia iiiyoea, /ai
aai neiaa?iue ninoaa, eioi?ue iiaeao, ia naiii aeaea, ?anniao?eaaoueny
nei?aa eae i?iecaiaeiia ycuea, iaaeaee eae aai /anoue. *oiau iiiyoue
?aaeueiua nayce ycuea n ae?oaeie eoeueoo?iuie nenoaiaie, iai iaiaoiaeeii
enneaaeiaaoue ia i?iaeoeou ycuea, a aai iiaeaee: eaene/aneea,
ii?oieiae/aneea e neioaene/aneea e niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie, a oaeaea,
nouanoaotho ee oaeea nayce n ae?oaeie iiaeaeyie a eoeueoo?a. Eiaiii yoi
aoaeao i?iaiaeece?iaaii a iineaaeothueo ?acaeaeao.

3. Iniiaiui aii?inii yoiai aeieeaaea, e?iia oiai, yaeyaony oacen,
i?aaeeiaeaiiue Naie?ii ai iiiaeo aai ?aaioao e iicaeiaa aieaa aeaoaeueii
?acaeoue Oi?oii e ae?oaeie. Niaeanii yoiio oaceno, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
ethaee, aiai?yuea ia ?aciuo ycueao, aeeaoo a ?aciuo “anaeaiiuo”, a oii
niunea, /oi ycuee, ia eioi?uo iie ?acaiaa?eaatho, a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie aicaeaenoaotho eae ia eo /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea, oae e ia eo
i?eau/iue ia?ac iunee. Naie? oi?ioee?oao yoio oacen oae:

sscue – yoi iooaaiaeeoaeue a “nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”. Oioy
ycue iau/ii ia n/eoaaony i?aaeiaoii iniaiai eioa?ana aeey
iauanoaiaaaeaiey, ii nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i
nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannao e i?iaeaiao. Ethaee aeeaoo ia oieueei a
iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a e ia oieueei a ie?a nioeaeueiii, eae yoi i?eiyoi
aeoiaoue: a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iie ana iaoiaeyony e ai aeanoe oiai
eiie?aoiiai ycuea, eioi?ue noae n?aaenoaii au?aaeaiey a aeaiiii
iauanoaa. I?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi /aeiaae i?eaioe?oaony ai aiaoiai
ie?a, ii nouanoao, aac iiiiue ycuea, e /oi ycue yaeyaony anaai eeoue
neo/aeiui n?aaenoaii ?aoaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo caaea/ iuoeaiey e
eiiioieeaoeee, – yoi anaai eeoue eeethcey. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea
“?aaeueiue ie?”, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iainiciaiii, no?ieony ia iniiaa
ycueiauo i?eau/ae oie eee eiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu. Aeaa ?aciuo ycuea
ieeiaaea ia auaatho noieue noiaeeie, /oiau eo iiaeii auei n/eoaoue
n?aaenoaii au?aaeaiey iaeiie e oie aea nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Ie?u, a eioi?uo aeeaoo ?acee/iua iauanoaa, – yoi ?aciua ie?u, a aiana ia
iaeei e oio aea ie? n ?acee/iuie, iaaaoaiiuie ia iaai y?eueaie.

Iiieiaiea, iai?eia?, i?inoiai noeoioai?aiey i?aaeiieaaaao ia oieueei
iiieiaiea eaaeaeiai ec ninoaaeythueo aai neia a aai iau/iii cia/aiee:
iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaiea anaai ia?aca aeecie aeaiiiai iauanoaa,
io?aaeathuaainy a neiaao e ?ane?uaathuaainy a iooaieao eo cia/aieey.
Aeaaea n?aaieoaeueii i?inoie aeo aini?eyoey a cia/eoaeueii aieueoae
noaiaie, /ai iu i?eaueee aeoiaoue, caaeneo i iaee/ey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
nioeeaeueiuo oaaeiiia, iacuaaaiuo neiaaie. Oae, iai?eia?, anee
ia?eniaaoue ianeieueei aeanyoeia eeiee i?iecaieueiie oi?iu, oi iaeie ec
ieo aoaeoo aini?eieiaoueny eae “i?yiua”(straight), ae?oaea – eae
“e?eaua” (crooked), “eciaiooua” (curved), eee “eiiaiua” (zigzag) iioiio
oieueei, /oi nai ycue i?aaeeaaaao oaeia ?acaeaiea a neeo iaee/ey a iai
yoeo neia. Iu aeaeei, neuoei e aiiaua aini?eieiaai ie?oaeathuee ie?
eiaiii oae, a ia eia/a, aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iao auai?
i?e aai eioa?i?aoaoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony ycueiauie i?eau/eaie iaoaai
iauanoaa [1929,p.162].

A naiai iineaaeiai enneaaeiaaiee Oi?o, aaeioiiaeaiiue i?eia?ii Naie?a,
aiaeece?oao “iiiai nioai aeieeaaeia [a no?aoiaoth eiiiaieth] ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, naycaiiuo n ia/aeii iiaea?ia”. Ii iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi
“ia oieueei oece/aneay neooaoeey qua eae oaeiaay, ii cia/aiea yoie
neooaoeee aeey ethaeae, auei eiiaaea aeaeaeouae neeie aneaaenoaea eo
iiaaaeaiey a ia/aea iiaea?a” (1941c, p.75). Yoeo i?eia?ia, aiai?eo ii,
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iieacaoue, eae iaiae ia ii?aaeaeaiioth eeieth
iiaaaeaiey /anoi auyaeyaony aeaaiaea?y aiaeeco eeiaaenoe/aneie oi?ioeu,
n iiiiuueth eioi?ie neooaoeey iaaiaa?eaaaony, a oaeaea io/anoe
iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie iia aiaeece?oaony, eeanneoeoee?oaony e
ii?aaeaeyaony ia i?aaeiacia/aiiia ae ianoi a yoii ie?a, eioi?ue, a
aieueoie noaiaie aanniciaoaeueii, aue aicaaaeai ia iniiaa oa?aeoa?iuo
iniaaiiinoae ycuea a?oiiu” (1941c, p.77).

N?aaiaiea neeueii ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa ycueia i?aaeinoaaeyao
aeinoaoi/ii i?eia?ia oiai, /oi a ycueao ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaeueiinoe ii
eaoaai?eyi inouanoaeyaony iiiai/eneaiiuie ?aciiia?aciuie iooyie.
Oa?ieiieiaey nenoai ?iaenoaa, iai?eia?, yaii ia neiaieece?oao oieueei
nenoaio aeieiae/aneeo ?iaenoaaiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee, iauoth aeey anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa, ii iaicia/aao nei?aa nioeeaeueii e eoeueoo?ii
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua ioiiouaiey, niaoeeoe/aneea aeey aeaiiiai iauanoaa. O
oaeeo aiaeeeneeo oa?ieiia, eae “father” (ioaoe), “mother” (iaoue),
“brother” (a?ao), “sister” (nano?a), “cousin” (aeaith?iaeiue a?ao,
nano?a), ia iaeaeaony oi/iuo ia?aeeaeae a eaeneeiia ia?iaeia, ia
eiathueo aiaeiae/ioth iaoae nenoaio ?iaenoaa. A ycuea eiaeaeoeaa
/e?eeaoa-aia/a, iai?eia?, anoue oieueei aeaa oa?ieia, iaicia/athueo
?iaenoaaiieeia aiai?yua ‘s icia/aao, /oi aiai?yuee neeueii e iaio
i?eaycai e iaoiaeeony n iei a ae?oaeaneeo ioiioaieyo; a yoii iauanoaa
aeaiiia neiai ioiinyo e ethaeyi, n eioi?ui eiaeeaaeooi aaaeao naay
iai?eioaeaeaiii e /oanoaoao naay a iaeaieueoae aaciianiinoe. A
eiio?anoa, n ?iaenoaaiieeaie, e eioi?ui aae?anoaony au?aaeaiea -lh,
ia?auathony, niaethaeay ana aiciiaeiua oi?iaeueiinoe, e ioiinyony e iei
n iniio?eoaeueiinoueth; neaaeoao aeaaea ecaaaaoue iaoiaeeoueny n -lh
iaaaeeia, a oieueei a i?enoonoaee ae?oaeo (Opler, 1941).

Iiaeiaiua i?eia?u iiaoo auoue i?eaaaeaiu i?e iienaiee oa?ieiia, eiathueo
ioiioaiea e oece/aneie n?aaea. O eiaeaeoeaa iaaaoi, e i?eia?o, iu
iaoiaeei oa?ieiu, iaicia/athuea oeaaoa, i?eaeeceoaeueii
ei??aniiiaee?othueany n iaoeie “white” (aaeue), “red” (e?aniue) e
“yellow” (aeaeoue), ii ie iaeiiai, eioi?ue aue au yeaeaaeaioai iaoei
“black” (/a?iue), “gray” (na?ue), “brown” (ei?e/iaaue), “blue” (neiee),
“green” (caeaiue). A ycuea iaaaoi anoue aeaa oa?ieia, niioaaonoaothuea
iiiyoeth “/a?iue”, iaeei iaicia/aao /a?iioo oaiiiou, ae?oaie – /a?iioo
oaeiai aauanoaa, eae oaieue. Iaoe oeaaoa “gray” e “brown” iaicia/athony
o eiaeaeoeaa iaaaoi, iaeiaei, iaeiei-aaeeinoaaiiui oa?ieiii, ?aaii eae e
iaoe “blue” e “green”. Ei?i/a aiai?y, iaaaoi ?acaeaeytho oeaaoiaie
niaeo? a niioaaonoaee oai, /oi ei i?aaeeaaaao eo eaeneeii, ia
ioee/athueany io iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ninoaaeythuea.

Aua iaeiei iieaciui enoi/ieeii i?eia?ia neoaeao ee/iua ianoieiaiey,
iniaaiii aoi?iai e o?aoueaai eeoea. Oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi iiiaea
aa?iiaeneea ycuee eiatho aeaa ee/iuo ianoieiaiey aoi?iai eeoea ( eae
o?aioeocneea tu, vous), ec eioi?uo a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii
iaia?oaeeaaaony oieueei iaeii. A ycuea iaaaoi iao yeaeaaeaioia
aiaeeeneeo “he”(ii), “she”(iia), “it”(iii); oaeiai aeaeaiey,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie neaae io noa?eiiie aaiaea?iie nenoaiu, oai ia
nouanoaoao. Ii iaaaoi ?acaeaeytho ianoieiaiey o?aoueaai eeoea ia /aou?a
eaoaai?ee: 1)eniieuecoaiua aeey iaicia/aiey eeoe, ineoieiae/anee aeeceeo
aiai?yuaio, eee oao, eoi aai iniai eioa?anoao; 2) eniieuecoaiua aeey
eeoe, ineoieiae/anee ioaeaeaiiuo io aiai?yuaai, iai?eia?, ia
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ieaiaie iaaaoi (a eiio?anoa n niieaiaiieeaie), e
?iaenoaaiieeia, n eioi?uie naycaiu oi?iaeueiuie ioiioaieyie (eae
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea oai, n eai iiaeaea?aeeaatho ioiioaiey ae?oaeaneea);
3) iaii?aaeaeaiiia o?aouea eeoei, “iii”, eioi?ia i?eiaiyaony e
iaonoaiiaeaiiiio aeayoaeth eee oeaee; 4) o?aouea eeoei, eioi?ia eiaao
ioiioaiea e ianoo, ninoiyieth eee a?aiaie.

Caeeth/eoaeueiui e iaaeyaeiui aeiiieiaieai iiaeao auoue acyoia ec ycuea
/e?eeaoa-aia/a oiiiieie/aneia iacaaiea tnogh, aiaeeeneee yeaeaaeaio (ia
ia?aaiae) eioi?iai “Dripping Springs”(Iecaa?aathueany ?iaeieee),
au?aaeaiiue ai o?aca, no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie eae eiy nouanoaeoaeueiia. Oae
iacuaaaony ianoi a ooaoa Iueth-Iaeneei, aaea aiaea ec ?iaeieea
ia?aoaeaao /a?ac /a?ac ioaanioth neaeo e iaaeaao a iaoiaeyuaany aieco
iaaieueoia ica?i; i/aaeaeii, /oi aiaeeeneia iacaaiea iineo iienaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, eioi?ue io?aaeaao oieueei iaeio /anoue yoie noeaiu –
aeaeaeaiea aiaeu. Oa?iei ycuea aia/ae ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeeeneei
no?oeoo?e?iaai a aeaaieueiie oi?ia e iiae/a?eeaaao niaa?oaiii eiie
aniaeo noeaiu. Yeaiaio t, eioi?ue eiaao cia/aiea “aiaea”, i?aaeoanoaoao
aeaaieo nogh, eioi?ue, i?eaeeceoaeueii, icia/aao “aaeecia i?inoe?aaony
aeiieco”. Oiaaea oiiiiei tnogh oeaeeeii iiaeao auoue ia?aaaaeai eae
“aiaeiay aaeecia i?inoe?aaony aeiieco”, niaea?aea nnueeo ia oio oaeo,
/oi oe?ieay iieina ioeiaeaiee aaeiai ecaanoiyea, iie?uoay aaaouae
aiaeie, i?inoe?aaony aei iiaeiiaeey neaeu.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua i?eia?u ynii
iieacuaatho, /oi ycueiaua iniaaiiinoe aeeytho ia /oanoaaiiua iuouaiey e
iuoeaiea, iu ia aeieaeiu ia?aioeaieaaoue yoi aeeyiea. Yoi iai?aaaea,
iai?eia?, /oi oae eae a ?acaiai?iie ?a/e eiaeaaoe /e?eeaoa-aia/a ia
aeaeaao ?acee/ee iaaeaeo -k’s, ii oaeaea ia a ninoiyiee ioee/eoue naieo
aaeeiie?iaiuo ?iaenoaaiieeia (iaeeiaeiaiai iiea) io ae?oaeo
?iaenoaaiieeia yoie eaoaai?ee a iaeiii e oii aea iieieaiee. Ii, eiia/ii,
iiaeao ?acee/aoue eo oaeaea, eae iu a ninoiyiee ?acia?aoueny a
aiaeeeneeo oa?ieiao, iiaeiaiui -k’s e -lh, ii oai eee eiui einaaiiui
iienaieyi. A oii aea niunea niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi iaaaoi, oioy e
iaicia/atho “brown”(ei?e/iaaue) e “gray”(na?ue) iaeiei oa?ieiii, a
“blue”(neiee) e “green”(caeaiue) ae?oaei, aiieia a ninoiyiee ioee/eoue
ei?e/iaaue io na?iai, a neiee io caeaiiai. E oiio aea yoi iiaeao auoue
naeaeaii, oioy e n aieaa iaii?aaeaeaiiui ?acoeueoaoii, n i?eiaiaieai
iienaoaeueiuo iai?ioia, eae iu naie aac iniauo oneeee au?aaeaai
ii-aiaeeenee ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeaoiy neiaaie ec ycuea iaaaoi,
iaicia/athueie /a?iue oeaao, e iaoei “black”.

Nooue caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oi eeiaaenoe/aneea iiaeaee iaecaaaeii
ia?aie/eaatho /oanoaaiiua aini?eyoey e iuoeaiea, ii a oii, /oi iie
aianoa n ae?oaeie eoeueoo?iuie iiaeaeyie iai?aaeytho iuouaiea e
?aciuoeaiea ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eau/iui eaiaeai. Yneeiin, eioi?ue
eniieuecoao a ?a/e ianeieueei aa?eaioia iienaiey niaaeiiai iie?iaa (e a
ycuea eioi?iai iao iauaai oa?ieia, ei??aniiiaee?othuaainy n iaoei
iiiyoeai “snow”(niaa)) ?aaae?oao ia oeaeue eiiieaen eoeueoo?iuo
iiaeaeae, eioi?ue o?aaoao, /oiau ii aeaeae yoe ?acee/ey, aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oece/aneiai aeaaiiieo/ey aai naiiai e aai a?oiiu. Yoi
eae aoaeoi eoeueoo?a a oeaeii (aeeth/ay ycue) auaeaeeea ec eaiaeoaooa
ii?aaeaeaiiua, iaeaieaa aaaeiua iniaaiiinoe, i?aaieciaaa e
no?oeoo?e?iaaa aai a niioaaonoaee n eneeth/eoaeueiui naiaia?aceai,
i?enouei aeaiiie a?oiia. A oaeii neo/aa ycue eae eoeueoo?iay nenoaia
aieaa eee iaiaa aa?ii io?aaeaao no?oeoo?e?iaaiea ?aaeueiinoe,
naienoaaiiie a?oiia, eioi?ay ia iai ?acaiaa?eaaao. Naie? oeacuaaao:

Ia?aoiae io iaeiiai ycuea e ae?oaiio ineoieiae/anee iiaeiaai ia?aoiaeo
io iaeiie aaiiao?e/aneie nenoaiu ion/aoa e ae?oaie. Ie?oaeathuee ie?,
iiaeeaaeauee au?aaeaieth iin?aaenoaii ycuea, iaeei e oio aea aeey
ethaiai ycuea; ie? oi/ae i?ino?ainoaa iaeei e oio aea aeey ethaie
nenoaiu ion/aoa. Iaeiaei oi?iaeueiua niiniau iaicia/aiey oiai eee eiiai
yeaiaioa iiuoa, ?aaii eae e oie eee eiie oi/e i?ino?ainoaa noieue
?acee/iu, /oi aicieeathuaa ia eo iniiaa iuouaiea i?eaioaoeee ia iiaeao
auoue oiaeaeanoaaiii ie aeey i?iecaieueiie ia?u ycueia, ie aeey
i?iecaieueiie ia?u nenoai ion/aoa. A eaaeaeii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii
i?iecaiaeeoue niaa?oaiii iniaoth eee iuooeii iniaoth iano?ieeo, e yoe
?acee/ey eiatho naie ineoieiae/aneea ei??aeyou [1924,p.153].

4.Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ua iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oacen,
eceiaeaiiue a ?acaeaea 3, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony ?aaiou Aaiaeaeaieia
E.Oi?oa, iniaaiii aai noaouey “Ioiioaiea i?eau/iiai iiaaaeaiey e
iuoeaiey e ycueo” (1941c). Acaeyaeu Oi?oa oaeaea iaiauaiu a aieaa
e?aoeie e iaiaa niaoeeaeueiie oi?ia a o?ao ae?oaeo noaoueyo: “Iaoea e
eeiaaenoeea” (1940b), “Eeiaaenoeea eae oi/iay iaoea” (1941a) e “sscuee e
eiaeea” (1941b). Ana /aou?a noaouee auee ia?aia/aoaiu a 1949 a.
Einoeoooii aeeieiiaoe/aneie neoaeau Ainaeaia?oaiaioa, Aaoeiaoii,
Oaaea?aeueiue ie?oa Eieoiaey (NOA), iiae iacaaieai *aou?a noaouee ii
iaoaeeiaaenoeea (Four Articles on Metalinguistics). Iu eceiaeei oieueei
ia?aoth ec ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa.

Oi?o ia/eiaao, eae iu oaea ioia/aee, n aiaeeca ioaeaeueiuo neo/aaa, ia
eioi?ua, ii-aeaeeiiio, ieacaei aeeyiea cia/aiea neooaoeee e iaeioi?uo
oece/aneeo yaeaiee. Ii ioia/aao, iaeiaei, /oi e?oa oaeeo eaene/aneeo
cia/aiee ia?aie/ai, e /oi “iaaiciiaeii enneaaeiaaoue aeoaaei?enoneoth
auioaeaeaiiinoue oaeiai ?iaea iino?iaiee aac i?aaeiieiaeaiey ia eo
ai?acaei aieueoae caaeneiinoe io iauae nenoaiu oaeeo a?aiiaoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee, eae iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, ?iae e iiaeiaiua eeanneoeeaoeee
(iaeooaaeaiiue, iaiaeooaaeaiiue e o.ae.), a?aiaia, caeiae e ae?oaea
aeaaieueiua oi?iu, eeanneoeeaoeee oeiia “/anoae ?a/e”, a oaeaea io
ioaaoa ia aii?in, eae ioaeii iaicia/aoue aeaiiue iiuo: aaeeiie ii?oaiie,
eioeaeoeaiui neiaii eee neioaene/aneie eiiaeiaoeeae” (1941c,p.77). Yoe
a?aiiaoe/aneea iiaeaee aeaenoaotho a oii aea iai?aaeaiee, /oi e aieaa
iaeeea e aieaa ia?aie/aiiua eaene/aneea iiaeaee. Ei?i/a aiai?y, aeeyiea
ycuea ia i?eau/iia iuoeaiea e iiaaaeaiea “caaeneo ia noieueei io
eaeie-eeai iaeiie nenoai (iai?eia?, a?aiai eee eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo)
aioo?e a?aiiaoeee, neieueei io niiniaia ?anniio?aiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey
iiuoa, eioi?ua ooaa?aeeeenue a ycuea eae caeii/aiiua “iiaeaee ?a/e”, e
eioi?ua i?i?acathony neaicue oeie/iua a?aiiaoe/aneea eeanneoeeaoeee n
oai, /oiau oaeay “iiaeaeue” iiaea aeeth/aoue eaene/aneea,
ii?oieiae/aneea, neioaene/aneea eee eia/a nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua ae?oaea
n?aaenoaa, neii?aeeie?iaaiiua a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
(1941c, p.92).

Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe “i?eau/iiai iuoeaiey” eee ” iuneeoaeueiue ie?”
ethaeae i?ienoiaeyo io ?a/aauo iiaeaeae eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
iaicia/athony eie; iiae ieie Oi?o iiae?acoiaaaao ia/oi “aieueoaa, /ai
i?inoi ycue eee /ai eeiaaenoe/aneea iiaeaee eae oaeiaua”. Iuneeoaeueiue
ie? aeeth/aao “anth aiaeiae/aneoth e annioeeaoeaioth oeaiiinoue
[eeiaaenoe/aneeo] iiaeaeae… e ana acaeiiua nayce iaaeaeo ycueii e
eoeueoo?ie a oeaeii, i?e yoii aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oio oaeo, /oi oai
aua ia eeiaaenoe/anee, ii ana aea i?iyaeyaony oi?iiia?acothuaa aeeyiea
ycuea. Ei?i/a, yoio “iuneeoaeueiue ie?” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iee?ieini,
eioi?ue eaaeaeue /aeiaae niaea?aeeo a naaa naiii e aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio
ii ii?aaeaeyao e iniciaao oi, ia /oi ii niiniaai a iae?ieinia”
(1941c,p.84).

?a/aaua iiaeaee, naienoaaiiua ia?iaeo, eae e ae?oaea aniaeou aai
eoeueoo?u, io?aaeathuea acaeyae ia aeeciue, iaoaoeceea aai eoeueoo?u
neiiiiiiaaia ec iainii?eiuo e a iniiaiii ianoi?ioee?iaaiiuo
i?aaeiinueie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho i?e?iaeo eo anaeaiiie e iieiaeaiea
/aeiaaea aioo?e iaa. Eeaeoii e Eaeoii, aiai?y ia eiaeaeoeao iaaaoi,
iieaaaee, /oi “ionoonoaea yeaeaaeaioiuo oa?ieiia a eo ycuea e a
aiaeeeneii – yoi oieueei aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea aioo?aiieo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
aeaoiy ia?iaeaie a i?aaeiinueeao, a iniiaiuo eaoaai?eyo, a ainieoaiee
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i /oanoaaiiinoe e iniiaiiieaaathuai
acaeyaea ia ie?”(1948, p.215). Yoi oa naiay iaoaoeceea, i?iyaeythuayny a
iaeioi?ie noa?aie ai anao iiaeaeyo eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay iai?aaeyao
aini?eyoey e ?aciuoeaiey oao, eoi caaeaenoaiaai a eoeueoo?iii i?ioeanna,
e eioi?ay i?aae?aniieaaaao eo e ii?aaeaeaiiui oi?iai iaaethaeaiey e
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Iaoaoeceea oaeaea iaania/eaaao naycue iaaeaeo ycueii eae
eoeueoo?iie nenoaiie e anaie ae?oaeie nenoaiaie, nicaeaiiuie a oie aea
eoeueoo?a.

Ec yoiai ia neaaeoao, eiia/ii, /oi eoeueoo?iay iaoaoeceea i?aiyonoaoao
?aciiia?aceth e eciaiaieyi; yoi ia cae?uoay eiae/aneay nenoaia aa?iaaiee
e i?aaeiinueie, ii nei?aa enoi?e/anee oianeaaeiaaiiay ineoieiae/aneay
nenoaia, ioe?uoay aeey eciaiaiee. Yoi iiaeao auoue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii
ia i?eia?a enoi?ee iaoae nianoaaiiie eoeueoo?u. Aio eae yoi eceaaaao
Naie?:

Ii ia?a oiai eae aoaeao ?anoe iao iao/iue iiuo, iu aeieaeiu aoaeai
o/eoueny ai?ioueny n aicaeaenoaeai ycuea. I?aaeeiaeaiea The grass waves
in the wind (O?aaa eieuoaony iiae aao?ii)(aoea. “a aao?a”) ii naiae
ycueiaie oi?ia aoiaeeo a oio aea eeann yiie?e/aneeo ciaiee i
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo, /oi e The man works in the house (*aeiaae
?aaioaao iiae e?uoae)(aoea. “a aeiia”) ssnii, /oi ycue aeieacae naith
iieaciinoue eae i?iiaaeooi/iue niinia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu au?aaeaiey
yiie?e/aneiai iiuoa, n eioi?ui niioiineony yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea, oae eae ii
iaania/ee iniuneaiiia oiio?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo neiaieia aeey oaeeo
eiae/aneeo ioiioaiee, eae aeayoaeueiinoue e eieaeecaoeey. Anee iu
aini?eieiaai i?aaeeiaeaiea eae iiyoe/aneia eee iaoaoi?e/aneia, yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi ae?oaea aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu iiuoa n
niioaaonoaothueie ei neiaiee/aneeie niiniaaie iaicia/aiey aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue neooaoeeth e, iai?eia,
neacaoue: The grass is waved by the wind (O?aaa aieioaony aao?ii) eee
The wind causes the grass to wave (Aaoa? canoaaeyao o?aao aieiiaaoueny).
Naiia aeaaiia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iacaaeneii io oiai, ianeieueei
eneoniuie ieaaeoony iaoe niiniau eioa?i?aoaoeee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iu
ieeiaaea ia a ninoiyiee aueoe ca i?aaeaeu oi?i ecia?aaeaiey e niiniaa
ia?aaea/e ioiioaiee, i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiuo oi?iaie iaoae ?a/e. A eiia/iii
n/aoa o?aca Friction causes such and such a result (O?aiea i?eaiaeeo e
oaeei-oi e oaeei-oi ?acoeueoaoai) ia i/aiue ioee/aaony io The grass
waves in the wind (O?aaa eieuoaony iiae aao?ii). sscue a iaeii e oi aea
a?aiy iiiiaaao, e iaoaao iai enneaaeiaaoue yiie?e/aneee iiuo, e aeaoaee
yoeo i?ioeannia niaeaenoaey e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey ioeeaaeuaathony a
oii/aeoeo iooaieao cia/aiee, oi?ie?oaiuo ?acee/iuie eoeueoo?aie
[1916,pp.10-11].

5. Aa?iainy e Oi?oo, oaia?ue ii i?iaeieaeaao n?aaieaaoue ycue
aia?eeaineeo eiaeaeoeaa oiie n ycueaie caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. A oiaea aai
enneaaeiaaiey nei?i noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi a?aiiaoeea oiie naycaia n
eoeueoo?ie oiie, a a?aiiaoeea aa?iiaeneeo ycueia n iaoae nianoaaiiie
“caiaaeiie” eee “aa?iiaeneie” eoeueoo?ie. E ieacaeinue, /oi acaeiiay
naycue i?eaianea a yoe aieueoea eaoaai?ee iiuoa iin?aaenoaii ycuea oaeea
iaoe nianoaaiiua oa?ieiu, eae “time”(a?aiy), “space”(i?ino?ainoai),
“substance”(aauanoai), “matter”(iaoa?ey). *oi eanaaony n?aaieoaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae, oi ca aiciiaeiui (ii niiieoaeueiui) eneeth/aieai
aaeoi-neaayineeo e iaeiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia, iaaeaeo aiaeeeneei,
o?aioeocneei, iaiaoeeei e ae?oaeie aa?iiaeneeie ycueaie nouanoaoao oaeay
iaaieueoay ?acieoea, /oi y iauaaeeiee yoe ycuee a iaeio a?oiio,
iacaaiioth INA (ii?iaoeaiue n?aaeiaaa?iiaeneee)(“Standart Average
European” [1941c,pp.77-78].

Oi?o iienuaaao, iaeiaei, oieueei /anoue oeaeiai enneaaeiaaiey, naiaey
aai e aeaoi aii?inai: “(1) Noi?ie?iaaiu ee iaoe nianoaaiiua eiioeaioeee
“a?aiaie”, “i?ino?ainoaa” e “iaoa?ee”, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie,
iin?aaenoaii iiuoa anaai /aeiaa/anoaa eee iie, io/anoe, iaoneiaeaiu
no?oeoo?ie ioaeaeueiuo ycueia? (2) Nouanoaoao ee ?acee/eiia noiaenoai
iaaeaeo (a) eoeueoo?iuie e iiaaaeai/aneeie ii?iaie e (a) e?oiiuie
eeiaaenoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie?” (1941c,p.78).

A iineaaeiai aii?ina Oi?o iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi ii ia euao acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo ycueii e inoaeueiie eoeueoo?ie, iaeaii iieaaay, /oi oeiu
eeiaaenoe/aneie no?oeoo?u (iai?eia?, “eciee?othuea”, “neioaoe/aneea”,
“oeaeoeaiua” e oiio iiaeiaiua) iiaoo auoue naycaiu n oe?ieeie
eoeueoo?iuie eaoaai?eyie, aace?othueieny ia niaoeeaeueiie oa?ieiieiaee
(iai?eia?, “ioioie/ueae” a ioee/ea io “naeueneioicyenoaaiiie”,
iai?eia?). A yoii ii neaaeoao iauae aio?iiieiae/aneie i?aeoeea,
noi?ioee?iaaiiie Naie?ii a neaaeothueo neiaao: “Ana iiiuoee naycaoue
ioaeaeueiua oeiu eeiaaenoe/aneie ii?oieiaee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie
ei??aeyoiuie noaaeeyie eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey ouaoiu.

… E i?inoua, e neiaeiua oeiu ycuea n iaia?aie/aiiui eiee/anoaii ?ac-
iiaeaeiinoae iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu ia ethaii aeaeaaiii o?iaia
eoeueoo?iiai i?ia?anna” (1921, p.234). Ioiioaiea ycuea e inoaeueiie
/anoe eoeueoo?u, eae iu oaea iieacaee (ni.?acae.4), nei?aa a oii, /oi
ana eoeueoo?iua nenoaiu (aeeth/ay ycue) ia?auathony e ianoi?ioee?iaaiiie
iaoaoeceea, eioi?ay aunooiaao a ea/anoaa niunea nouanoaiaaiey raison
d’etre eoeueoo?u a oeaeii. Yoi, aiciiaeii, oi naiia ioiioaiea, eioi?ia
eiae a aeaeo Naie?, eiaaea aiai?ee: “Anee au iiaeii auei iieacaoue, /oi
eoeueoo?a iaeaaeaao a?iaeaeaiiie oi?iie, ?yaeii eiioo?ia, aaniethoii
ioaeaeueii io eaeiai au oi ie auei i?aaeiaoa ethaiai oeia, o ian a
eoeueoo?a auei au ia/oi oaeia, /oi iiaei neoaeeoue a ea/anoaa oa?ieia
aeey n?aaiaiey eee a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiey niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
iae e ycueii” (1921, pp.233-34).

sscue eiaeaeoeaa oiie e INA, ieacuaaaony, caiaoii ioee/athony ae?oa io
ae?oaa ii eiee/anoao ianooaaiuo eeiaaenoe/aneeo iiaeaeae: (a)
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue e en/eneaiea, (a) nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea
oece/aneea aaee/eiu, (a) oacu oeeeeia, (a) a?aiaiiua oi?iu aeaaiea e
(ae) i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, eioaineaiinoue, oaiaeaioeey. Iu iiaeai
iaiaueoue yoe eiio?anou a iineaaeothueo ia?aa?aoao:

a) A INE eiino?oeoeeth: eiee/anoaaiiia /eneeoaeueiia iethn
nouanoaeoaeueiia iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea (cardinal number plus plural
noun) i?eiaiytho e aeaoi iauaeoeaii ?acee/iui neooaoeeyi: e
niaieoiiinoyi, eae “ten apples” (aeanyoue yaeie) eee “ten men” (aeanyoue
/aeiaae), eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou eae oaeiaua, e e oeeeeai, eae
“ten days” (aeanyoue aeiae), eioi?ua iaeuecy iauaeoeaii iuooeoue, ii
eioi?ua ia?acothony acaiai iaoaoi?e/iuo eee aiia?aaeaaiuo niaieoiiinoae.
A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio, a ycuea oiie eiee/anoaaiiua /eneeoaeueiua e
neiaa ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea caeeth/athony a no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua
ia?acotho eee iiaoo ia?aciauaaoue a?oiio iauaeoiiai (einaaiiiai)
iaaeaaea; a iai iao aiia?aaeaaiuo niaieoiiinoae. Aeey au?aaeaiey oeia
“ten days” a ycuea oiie eniieuecothony ii?yaeeiaua /eneeoaeueiua ni
neiaaie a aaeeinoaaiiii /enea, i?eia?ii eae a aiaeeeneeo au?aaeaieyo
“until the eleventh day” (aei iaeeiiaaeoeaoiai aeiy) eee “after the
tenth day” (iinea aeanyoiai aeiy). ?acei au?aaeaiiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
iaaeaeo INA e ycueii oiie ninoieo a oii, /oi a INA iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
oo aea naioth no?oeoo?o e aeey niaieoiiinoae, e aeey oeeeeia (oioy
oeeeeu iiaoo oaeaea auoue au?aaeaiu ii-?aciiio), a oi a?aiy, eae ycue
oiie aeaeaao /aoeia eeiaaenoe/aneia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie iaieie.

b) A INA ii eeiaaenoe/aneie oi?ia ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea
nouanoaeoaeueiuo: en/eneyaiua (ia?aie/aiiua), iaicia/athuea oaea
(i?aaeiaou) n ii?aaeaeaiiuie eiioo?aie (iai?eia?, “dog”(niaaea),
“man”(/aeiaae), “stick”(iaeea), e iaen/eneyaiua (iaia?aie/aiiua),
eioi?ua iaicia/atho iaii?aaeaeaiiua iiiyoey aac a?aieoe e aeaeeiuo
i/a?oaiee, iai?eia?, “air”(aicaeoo), “water”(aiaea), “milk”(iieiei).
Iaeiaei, ia ana oece/aneea aaee/eiu, au?aaeaiiua iaen/eneyaiuie
nouanoaeoaeueiuie, ano?a/athony eae iaia?aie/aiiua; iu /anoi eiaai
aiciiaeiinoue i?eaeaoue ei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? eo e aeaeaai yoi
iin?aaenoaii aeao/eaiiie eiino?oeoeee, ninoaaeaiiie ec en/eneyaiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, naycee-i?aaeeiaa “of” e iaen/eneyaiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, eae iai?eia?, a ni/aoaieyo “glass of water” (noaeai
aiaeu) eee “piece of cheese”(eonie nu?a). Ai iiiaeo i?eia?ao yoa
eiino?oeoeey iiaeao auoue eioa?i?aoe?iaaia eae “container full of
something” (aieinoue, caiieiaiiay /ai-eeai), eae iai?eia?, a ni/aoaieyo
“cup of coffee” (/aoea eioa), “bowl of milk”(eoaoei iieiea) eee “bag of
flour”(iaeao ioee), ii a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iaen/eneyaiia nouanoaeoaeueiia
ia?aaiaeeony a ?ac?yae en/eneyaiuo oieueei a aeaea eiino?oeoeee
“aauanoai-oi?ia”(body-type) eae, iai?eia?, “piece of wood”(eonie
ae?aaaneiu), “lump of coal”(aeuaa oaey) eee “pane of glass”(a?aiue
noaeea). Niaeanii Oi?oo, aeeyiea eiino?oeoeee
“aieinoue-niaea?aeeiia”(container-contents) oaeei ia?acii, ia?aiineony
ia eiino?oeoeeth “aauanoai-oi?ia”, /oi a iineaaeiae cia/eiay /anoue
auaeyaeeo eae niaea?aeauay /oi-ieaoaeue – “stuff”(iaoa?eae), “mat iai ia
nouanoaoao i?ioeaiiieiaeaiey iaaeaeo en/eneyaiuie e iaen/eneyaiuie
nouanoaeoaeueiuie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao e oiiieiaiee i aieinoe eee oi?ia
aauanoaa, a oaeaea iao “aiaeiaee, ii eioi?ui iiaeii iino?ieoue
eiioeaioeeth nouanoaiaaiey a ea/anoaa aeeoioiiee: aanoi?iaiiue i?aaeiao
e oi?ia” (Whorf,1941c,p.80).

c) Oacu oeeeeia, noauaeoeaiia iniciaiea oa/aiey a?aiaie iaicia/athony a
INA oaeeie oa?ieiaie, eae “summer”(eaoi), “morning”(oo?i),
“sunset”(caeao) eee “hour”(/an), eioi?ua eeiaaenoe/anee iaei ioee/athony
io ae?oaeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo. Iie iiaoo auoue iiaeeaaeaueie (“summer has
come”) (i?eoei eaoi ), aeiiieiaieyie (“he likes the summer”) (ii ethaeo
eaoi), nouanoaiaaoue a aaeeinoaaiiii eee ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea (“one
summer (iaeii eaoi)i?ioea “many summers” (iiiai eaoieo naciiia), iiaoo
auoue iaicia/aiu oeeo?aie eee ia?an/eoaiu eae aeene?aoiua “iauaeou”
(“forty summers”) (ni?ie eaoieo naciiia), i?eaeeceoaeueii oae, eae
nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea oece/aneea aaee/eiu. A nayce n yoei
iiciaiea a?aiaie e ia?eiaee/iinoe iau/ii aiieiuaaony a INA eae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ioaeaeeiuo aaeeieoe. Aieaa oiai, nouanoaeoaeueiia
“time”(a?aiy) naii ii naaa iiaeao auoue ioianaii e iaen/eneyaiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui, iaicia/athuei iaia?aie/aiioth i?ioyaeaiiinoue, ii aai
oiio?aaeaiea a aeao/eaiiie no?oeoo?a iaiiaeiaea “moment of time”(iiiaio
a?aiaie) (eeiaaenoe/anee aiaeiae/iie “glass of water” (noaeai aiaeu) eee
“piece of wood”(eonie aea?aaa) “iiiiaaao iai i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi eaoi (a
summer) aeaenoaeoaeueii niaea?aeeo noieueei eee ninoie o ec oaeiai-oi
eiee/anoaa a?aiaie (time)” (Whorf, 1941c,p.81).

A ycuea oiie oa?ieiu, iaicia/athuea oacu oeeeeia, eeiaaenoe/anee
ioee/athony io nouanoaeoaeueiuo eee ae?oaeo oi?iiia?acothueo eaoaai?ee;
iie ninoaaeytho ioaeaeueioth oi?iiia?acothuoth eaoaai?eth, eioi?ay
iacuaaaony “temporals” (ii?aaeaeyaiua a?aiaiai). “A iai,- aiai?eo Oi?o,-
ia io?aaeaiu oaeea iiiyoey, eae noa?a, i?ioyaeaiiinoue, eiee/anoai,
noauaeoeaiia iuouaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe. Iao ie/aai, /oi iaaiaeeei au
ia iuneue i a?aiaie, ca eneeth/aieai aaneiia/iuo “iicaeiaa, iioii, ii
i?ioanoaee iaeioi?iai a?aiaie” (“getting later”). E iiyoiio caeanue iao
iniiau aeey niioaaonoaothuaai iaoaio oa?ieio “time” (a?aiy) iiiyoey
aanoi?iaiiiai i?aaeiaoa” (1941c,p.81).

d) A?aiaiiua oi?iu aeaaieia INA, ii eioi?ui iie ?ani?aaeaeythony a
nenoaia o?ao iniiaiuo a?aiai ia i?ioaaeoaa, ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa,
yaeythony, ii Oi?oo, aua iaeiei i?iyaeaieai aieaa e?oiiiai iaoaiecia
aiieiuaiey iiiyoey a?aiaie, oaea iaia?oaeaiiiai iaie a ae?oaeo
eeiaaenoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo INA. Oae eae iu auno?aeaaai oaeea a?aiaiiua
aaeeieoeu, eae /anu, aeie e aiaeu, a ?yae, iai i?eoiaeeony ?aniieaaaoue
i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa ii eeiaeiie oeaea: i?ioeia iinea
ianoiyuaai, a aoaeouaa ia?aae iei. Oioy a?aiy, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, –
yoi noauaeoeaiua iiciaiey i oii, /oi oaeia “iicaeiaa, iioii”, eee
“iaia?aoeiue oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee”, iu, aeaaiaea?y
iaoae iauae neeiiiinoe e aiieiuaieth a?aiaie a inycaaiuo oi?iao e
a?aiiaoe/aneie nenoaia a?aiai, iiaeai e aeaenoaeoaeueii oieeoai e
?aciuoeyai i niioiioaiee i?ioeiai, ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai, eae i
acaeiiii ?aniieiaeaiee oi/ae ia eeiee” (1941c,p.82). Yoi /anoi i?eaiaeeo
e ii?aaeaeaiiui ianiia?aciinoyi, iniaaiii caiaoiui i?e ?acee/iuo
oiio?aaeaieyo ianoiyuaai a?aiaie a aiaeeeneii ycuea, /oi eeethno?e?otho
n?aaieoaeueiua ooaa?aeaeaiey (iai?eia?, “Man is mortal” (*aeiaae ia?oa),
aeeth/aiea a /oanoaaiioth noa?o (iai?eia?,”I see him” (ss aeaeo aai), a
oaeaea i?eau/iua iainiiaaiiua aeiaiaeu (iai?eia?, “We see with our eyes”
(Iu aeaeei naieie aeacaie).

Aeaaieu a ycuea oiie ia eiatho a?aiai, a oieueei aeaenoaeoaeueiua,
aniaeoiua e iiaeaeueiua oi?iu , naycuaathuea i?aaeeiaeaiey. A iai anoue
o?e aeaenoaeoaeueiua oi?iu: (1) iaiciathuay i?inoi, /oi aiai?yuee
?anneacuaaao i i?ioeii eee ianoiyuai niauoee, (2) /oi aiai?yuee
iaeeaeaao, /oi niauoea i?iecieaeao, (3) /oi ii aeaeaao i?eau/iia
iainiiaaiiia cayaeaiea. Aniaeoiua oi?iu ia?aaeatho ioee/athueany noaiaie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe niauoey; a oiio?aaeyaiua oieueei a neo/aa, eiaaea
au?aaeaiea aeeth/aao aeaa aeaaiea eee i?aaeeiaeaiey (eae /anoe neiaeiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey), iiaeaeueiua oi?iu “iaicia/atho ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie,
aeeth/ay niioiioaiea iineaaeothuaai e i?aaeuaeouaai, a oaeaea
iaeiia?aiaiiinoe. Iiyoiio a aeaaieao ycuea oiie ia aieueoa iniiaaiey
aeey au?aaeaiey iiiyoey a?aiaie, /ai a ae?oaeo i?enoueo aio
eeiaaenoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo” (Whorf, 1941c,p.82.).

e) I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, eioaineaiinoue e oaiaeaioeey aeieaeiu,
niaeanii Oi?oo, iaoiaeeoue au?aaeaiea ai anao ycueao, ii iaiaycaoaeueii,
/oi iie aeieaeiu auoue au?aaeaiu iaeeiaeiauie niiniaaie. Aeey INA
oa?aeoa?ii au?aaeaoue yoe iiiyoey, a iniiaiii, iaoaoi?aie
i?ino?ainoaaiiie i?ioyaeaiiinoe, anee e?aoei iaoaoi?aie: “size (?acia?),
number (plurality) (/enei,iiiaeanoai), position (iieiaeaiea), shape
(oi?ia, i/a?oaiea)e motion (aeaeaeaiea). Iu au?aaeaai
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, eniieuecoy: long (aeeeiiue), short (ei?ioeee),
great (ia?iiiue), much (iiiai), quick (auno?ue), slow (iaaeeaiiue) e
o.ae.; eioaineaiinoue: large (aieueoie), great (ia?iiiue), much (iiiai),
heavy (oyaeaeue), light (eaaeee), high (aunieee), low (ieceee), sharp
(?aceee), faint (neaaue) e o.ae.; oaiaeaioeeth: more (aieueoa), increase
(oaaee/eaaoue), grow (?anoe), turn (iiai?a/eaaoueny), get (iieo/aoue),
approach (i?eaeeaeaoueny), go (eaeoe), come (i?eoiaeeoue), rise
(aicauoaoueny), fall (iaaeaoue), stop (inoaiaaeeaaoueny), smooth
(niya/aoue), even (?aaiyoue), rapid (nei?ue), slow (iaaeeaiiue) e oae
aeaeaa ec ii/oe iaen/a?iaaiiai nienea iaoaoi?, eioi?ua iu n o?oaei i
iiaeai i?eciaoue oaeiauie, iineieueeo iie oaeoe/anee yaeythony
aaeeinoaaiiui eiathueiny a ?anii?yaeaiee eeiaaenoe/aneei n?aaenoaii.
Iaiaoaoi?e/iua oa?ieiu a yoie iaeanoe, iiaeiaiua: early (?aiiee), late
(iicaeiee),soon (nei?ue), lasting (i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue), intense
(eioaineaiue), very (enoeiiue), tending (iaaeiue) – ninoaaeytho anaai
eeoue ai?noeo, aaniethoii iaaaeaeaaoioth iio?aaiinoyi”. Yoi iieiaeaiea,
i/aaeaeii, i?ienoaeaao ec iaoae iauae noaiu aiia?aaeaaiuo
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo naienoa e aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua aiana ia yaeythony
i?ino?ainoaaiiuie (ianeieueei iai iiaoo iiaaaeaoue ethaua iuouaiey,
aini?eei/eaua e i?ino?ainoao)”; iia iniiauaaaony ia iiaeaeyo, iienaiiuo
auoa (1941c,p.83).

A ycuea oiie, eae neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, iao oaeeo iaoaoi?. “I?e/eia
noaiiaeony yniie, eiaaea iu ociaai, /oi ii eciaeeoao niaaeeieoaeueiuie e
eaene/aneeie n?aaenoaaie au?aaeaiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, eioaineaiinoe
e oaiaeaioeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii eae oaeiauie, e /oi iniiaiua
a?aiiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ia iaania/eaatho, eae ian, aiaeiaeyie aeey
aiia?aaeaaiiai i?ino?ainoaa”. Aniaeoiua oi?iu ycuea oiie “au?aaeatho
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e oaiaeaioeeth i?iyaeaiee, oiaaea eae iaeioi?ua
“aieina” (“voices”) au?aaeatho eioaineaiinoue, oaiaeaioeeth e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee eee i?e/ei, aucuaathueo i?iyaeaiey.
E?iia oiai, niaoeeaeueiay /anoue ?a/e, “oaici?u” (“tensors”),
ninoaaeythuea ia?iiiue eeann neia, iaicicia/atho oieueei eioaineaiinoue,
oaiaeaioeeth, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue… Eo
ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony ionoonoaea noiaenoaa n oa?ieiaie,
iaicia/athueie ?aaeueiia i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy a iaoai iiieiaiee. “Oai
iao aeaaea neaaea aeaeeiuo i?iecaiaeiuo io oa?ieiia i?ino?ainoaa”
(Whorf, 1941c, pp.83-84).

7. Ec eeiaaenoe/aneeo n?aaiaiee, iaiauaiiuo a ?acaeaea 6, Oi?o aeaeaao
auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee “ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeiieie?othueo eiio?anoia” a
“i?eau/iii iuoeaiee” aiai?yueo ia INA e oiie, a eiaiii, a “iee?ieinia,
eioi?ue ninoaaeyao aioo?aiiee ie? eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, e aeaaiaea?y
eioi?iio ii ni?acia?yao e iiieiaao oi, ia /oi niiniaai a iae?ieinia”.

Iee?ieini INA aiaeece?iaae ?aaeueiinoue aeaaiui ia?acii a oa?ieiao,
niioaaonoaothueo iiiyoeth, iacuaaaiiio a iai “things” (oaea e eaaceoaea)
iethn ia?acu i?ioyaeaiiiai, ii aii?oiiai auoey, eioi?ua eiaiothony
“noanoaioeeyie” (substances) eee “iaoa?eae” (matter). Ii neeiiai
?anniao?eaaoue ana nouanoaothuaa /a?ac aeiiieaeueioth (aeao/eaiioth)
oi?ioeo, eioi?ay au?aaeaao nouanoaiaaiea /aai-eeai aiiaua eae
i?ino?ainoaaiioth oi?io iethn i?ino?ainoaaiiue aanoi?iaiiue eiioeieoi,
niioiinyueeny n oi?iie, eae niaea?aeeiia niioiineony n i/a?oaieyie
aieinoe, a eioi?ie iii iaoiaeeony. Iai?ino?ainoaaiiua (aano?aeoiua)
nouiinoe yaeythony aiia?aaeaaii i?ino?ainoaaiiuie, iaaeaeaiiuie
iioiaeeie niuneiauie cia/aieyie oi?iu e eiioeieoia [1941c,p.84].

Iee?ieini oiie, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii-aeaeeiiio, aiaeece?iaae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie, a oa?ieiao niauoee
(events), eee oi/iaa oiaea niauoee (eventing), ?anniao?eaay eo n
iauaeoeaiie e noauaeoeaiie noi?iiu. Iauaeoeaii, e oieueei, anee iie
oece/anee iuooeiu, niauoey au?aaeathony, aeaaiui ia?acii, eae eiioo?u,
oeaaoa, aeaeaeaiey e ae?oaea ioiinyueany e aini?eyoeth iienaiey.
Noauaeoeaii, eae iaoa?eaeueiua, oae e iaiaoa?eaeueiua niauoey n/eoathony
au?aaeaieai iaaeaeeiuo oaeoi?ia yia?aee, io eioi?uo caaeneo eo (niauoee)
noaaeeueiinoue e iinoiyinoai, eee eo iai?i/iinoue e oaiaeaioeee. Yoi
iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi ana nouanoaothuaa ia “noaiiaeony iicaeiaa e
iicaeiaa” (“become later and later”), oi anoue ia?aoiaeeo a
iineaaeothuaa ii a?aiaie ninoiyiea iaeiei e oai aea niiniaii; ii
iaeioi?ua oi?iu nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee inouanoaeytho yoi iin?aaenoaii
?inoa, eae ?anoaiey; iaeioi?ua – ?annaeaaieai e en/aciiaaieai, iaeioi?ua
a i?ioeanna iaoaii?oic, iaeioi?ua aeaaiaea?y i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiio
i?aauaaieth a iaeciaiiii aeaea aieioue aei ianeeuenoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
eaeeo-eeai nee. A i?e?iaea eaaeaeay oi?ia iaoa?ee, niiniaiay
i?iyaeyoueny eae ii?aaeaeaiiia oeaeia, aeanoia iaae nianoaaiiie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth, ?inoii, oiaaeeii, noaaeeueiinoueth,
oeeeee/iinoueth eee niceaeaoaeueiinoueth. Iiyoiio aeey iuiaoieo
i?iyaeaiee ana oaea “iiaeaioiaeaii” i?aaeoanoaothueie oacaie, a oi, /oi
i?iecieaeao iicaeiaa, io/anoe oaea naeaeaii, a io/anoe iaoiaeeony a
noaaeee oaeie “iiaeaioiaee”. Iniaia cia/aiea e aaaeiinoue i?eaeaaony
yoiio nouanoaothuaio a ie?icaeaiee aniaeoo oaea naeaeaiiie eee
inouanoaeyaiie iiaeaioiaee, eioi?ay, aa?iyoii, aeey oiie niioaaonoaoao
oiio “ea/anoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe” (“quality of reality”), /oi iaoa?ey
(matter) e aauanoai (stuff) aeey ian [Whorf,1941c,p.84].

Iee?ieini, auaaaeaiiue a aeaiiii neo/aa, a iniiaiii, ec aiaeeca i?enouae
eoeueoo?a ecioo?e eeiaaenoe/aneie nenoaiu, ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo,
oeacuaaao Oi?o, niaeanoaony n i?eau/iui iiaaaeaieai, oi anoue n oaie
iau/ayie, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ethaee nei?aa aeaenoaotho a ?aciuo
neooaoeeyo, iaaeaee ?acaiaa?eaatho. Ii eeethno?e?oao yoo oi/eo c?aiey,
iienuaay e aiaeece?oy oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey oiie, iniaia
cia/aiea, eioi?ia iie i?eaeatho iiaeaioiaea: “Iia aeeth/aao
caaeaaia?aiaiiia iiiaauaiea e aeinoeaeaiea iaaeeaaeauae aioiaiinoe e
niauoeyi, ouaoaeueioth ?ac?aaioeo ia? i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe n oai, /oiau
iaania/eoue nio?aiaiea o?aaoaiuo oneiaee, a oaeaea aeoeaio ia
iieiaeeoaeueiue iano?ie a ea/anoaa i?aaa?eoaeueiiai oneiaey iieo/aiey
iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia” (1941c,p.85).

Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiia iiaaaeaiea oiie iiaeii i?eaeeceoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue
ii neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ai: iiiaauaiea, aiaoiyy iiaeaioiaea, aioo?aiiyy
iiaeaioiaea, ne?uoia o/anoea e iinoiyiiia aini?iecaiaenoai a
iineaaeothuai naienoa i?aaeuaeouaai. Iiiaauaiea … yaeyaony aaaeiie
ooieoeeae niaoeeaeueiiai ioeoeeaeueiiai eeoea, Aiaeaey-i?iaicaanoieea
(Crier Chief). Aiaoiyy iiaeaioiaea … aeeth/aao iau/iua oi?aaeiaiey,
?aiaoeoeee, aeiaaaeaiea aei iieiie aioiaiinoe, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
oi?iaeueiinoe, i?eaioiaeaiea niaoeeaeueiie aaeu e o.ae. (i?e/ai ana yoi
n oaeie ouaoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay iai i?aaenoaaeyaony /?acia?iie),
oneeaiioth, aeeeoaeueioth oece/aneoth aeoeaiinoue, oaeoth, eae
ninoycaiey a aaaa, nea/ee, oaioeu, eioi?ua, eae i?aaeiieaaaaony,
aeieaeiu oneeeoue eioaineaiinoue ?acaeoey niauoee (oaeeo, eae nic?aaaiea
iinaaia), ieiaoe/aneea (iiae?aaeaoaeueiua) e ae?oaea iaae/aneea
i?eaioiaeaiey ycioa?e/aneiai oieea, aiciiaeii, n eniieueciaaieai
ieeoeueoiuo i?eniiniaeaiee, … e, iaeiiaoe, a?aiaeeiciua oeeeee/aneea
oea?aiiiee e oaioeu, eiathuea iniaoth cia/eiinoue a i?aaeuanoaothueo
aeiaeaeth e o?iaeath, i?eaioiaeaieyo [Whorf,1941c,p.85].

“Aioo?aiiyy iiaeaioiaea – yoi eniieueciaaiea iieeoa e iaaeeoaoeee e, a
iaiueoae ia?a, aeia?uo iiaeaeaiee e iieiaeeoaeueiiai iano?iy aeey
niaeaenoaey a aeinoeaeaiee aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia” (Whorf,1941c,p.85).
Eiaeaeoeu oiie, a niioaaonoaee ni naiei iee?ieiniii, i?eaeatho ia?iiiia
cia/aiea iiaouanoao neeueiiai aeaeaiey e iunee, aeey ieo
“ia?aiia/aeueiay e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeaieaa aaaeiay, naiay ?aoathuay –
yoi noaaeey iiaeaioiaee. Aieaa oiai, aeey oiie aeaeaiey e iiiuneu
iaeiiai /aeiaaea ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oieueei ia aai nianoaaiiua
iinooiee, ii e ia anth i?e?iaeo” (1941c, pp.85-86). A ioee/ea io ian,
/uea iuoeaiea i?eaycaii e eiioeaioeee aiia?aaeaaiiai i?ino?ainoaa, oiie
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aai ?aciuoeaiey, neaaeai, i ?inoea eoeo?ocu,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, nii?eeanathony n ?anoaieai eee aicaeaenoaotho ia iaai.
“Iuneue a oaeii neo/aa inoaaeo ia iieaaii ?anoaiee naie neaae. Anee
iiiuneu aeaaea, e i?eia?o, /oiau iii e?aiei e ?acaeaaeinue, yoi
aeaaioai?ii aeey ?anoaiey, a anee iaaeia?ua, oi iaiai?io” (1941c,p.86).

Ne?uoay iiaeaioiaea – yoi iuneaiiia niaeaenoaea ethaeae, eioi?ua ia
i?eieiatho o/anoey a ?aaeueiuo aeaeao, aoaeue oi o?oaeiaieay ?aaioa,
ioioa, ninoycaiey eee oea?aiiiee, ii ono?aieytho naie iiiuneu e
iieiaeeoaeueioth yia?aeth ia oniao iauaai aeaea … oi anoue io oaeiuo
o/anoieeia i?aaeaea anaai iaeeaeatho eiaiii eiioeaio?aoeee iai?aaeaiiie
iunee, a ia i?inoi au?aaeaiey neiiaoee eee iaiae?aiey
[Whorf,1941c,pp.86-87].

Iaeiiaoe, oiie, niiaa a niaeanee ni naiei iee?ieiniii, a i?ioeanna
iiaeaioiaee i?eaeatho iniaia cia/aiea iinoiyiii aini?iecaiaeyueiny
ianoie/eaui iiaoi?aieyi … Iai, aeey eioi?uo a?aiy – yoi aeaeaeaiea a
i?ino?ainoaa, eaaeaony, /oi iaeiiia?aciia aeaenoaea, ii ia?a
iaiaeiie?aoiuo iiaoi?aiee a yoii i?ino?ainoaa, oo?a/eaaao naie niune e
i?aaenoaaeyaony ionoie o?aoie a?aiaie. Eiaeaeoeu oiie, eioi?ua
?anniao?eaatho a?aiy eae anooieaiea anaai, eiaaea-eeai nouanoaiaaaoaai,
a iineaaeothuoth oaco, a ia eae aeaeaeaiea, n/eoatho iinoiyiiua iiaoi?u
ia eceeoieie, a niinianoaothueie iaeiieaieth iiuoa. Yoi aeeoioee?iaaiea
iaaeaeeiuo eciaiaiee, ia?aoiaeyueo a iineaaeothuea niauoey, … eae anee
au aica?ao oaeouaai aeiy iuouaeny au eae aica?auaiea oiai aea naiiai
/aeiaaea, noaaoaai ianeieueei noa?oa, ii ni anaie aia/aoeaieyie aeiy
a/a?aoiaai; i?e yoii nai aeaiue ia aini?eieiaeny au eae “ae?oaie”, oi
anoue eae niaa?oaiii eiie noauaeo. Yoio i?eioeei ia?yaeo n iuneeoaeueiie
yia?aeae e iau/ayie, naienoaaiiuie iauae eoeueoo?a ioyaei, au?aaeai a
oai?ee i?ecaaiiiai niinianoaiaaoue auiaaeaieth aeiaeaey e nic?aaaieth
o?iaeay oea?aiiieaeueiiai oaioea oiie, ?aaii eae e a i?enoueo aio
ei?ioeeo, eae oeeeee/aneee oiae ii?oiy, aeaeaeaieyo, iiaoi?yaiuo ouny/e
?ac, /an ca /anii [Whorf,1941c,p.87].

8. A oii aea aeooa Oi?o oaia?ue iuoaaony iaiaueoue iaeioi?ua
eeiaaenoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iaoae nianoaaiiie
eoeueoo?u, “ii?aaeaeaiiua ea/anoaa, niioaaonoaothuea, i?aaeaea anaai aa
aeiiieaeueiie no?oeoo?a: oi?ia iethn aanoi?iaiiue i?aaeiao eee
“noanoaioeey”, a oaeaea iaoae iaoaoi?e/iinoe, iaoaio aiia?aaeaaiiio
i?ino?ainoao e iaoaio aiieiuaiiiio a?aiaie”, oi anoue ia?aiao?ai,
eioi?ua ana, eae iu aeaeei, yaeythony eeiaaenoe/aneeie (1941c,p.87).
Aeeoioiiey oi?ia-noanoaioeey, ii iiaieth Oi?oa, ai iiiaii ?acaeaeyaony
caiaaeiie oeeinioeae, ii e?aeiae ia?a, oie aa /anoueth, eioi?ay
i?eaea?aeeaaaony aeoaeenoe/aneiai acaeyaea ia anaeaiioth, a oaeaea
i?eciaao caeiiu oeceee Iuethoiia. Ae?oaea oeeinioneea o/aiey (aeeth/ay
iiieci, oieeci, ?aeyoeaeci), a oaeaea oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, oioy e
noi?ioee?iaaiu a iaoae eoeueoo?a, “n o?oaeii aini?eieiathony “cae?aaui
niuneii” n?aaeiaai caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea. E yoi aiana ia iioiio, /oi naia
i?e?iaea ii?iaa?aaao eo, a aneaaenoaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaoue i?e
oieeiaaiee iiaue ycue”. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiioeaioeee i?ino?ainoaa,
a?aiaie e iaoa?ee a eceiaeaiee Iuethoiia aac iniauo oneeee onaaeaathony
iaoei “cae?aaui niuneii”, iineieueeo iie aini?eiyou ycueii e eoeueoo?ie,
ioeoaea, nianoaaiii, eo e ii/a?iioe Iuethoii” (1941c,p.88).

Naienoaaiiay iai /a?oa i?aaenoaaeyoue a?aiy eae ia/oi inycaaiia, eioi?ay
“i?aaeaea anaai io?aaeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i iai, eae i /ai-oi iaiiaeiaea
eaiou eee naeoea, ?acaeaeaiiiai ia ?aaiua iacaiieiaiiua i?iiaaeooee,
eioi?ua, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, aeieaeiu auoue caiieiaiu”
(Whorf,1941,p.88), iaeeo/oei ia?acii niioaaonoaoao iniaiio cia/aieth,
i?eaeaaaaiiio iaoae eoeueoo?ie iiiyoeth enoi?e/iinoe. Yoi au?aaeaaony a
oaeeo i?iyaeaieyo, eae o?aiaiea caienae, aeiaaieeia e n/aoia, a iaoai
iau/aa nicaeaaaoue, eiay a aeaeo aoaeouaa, eaoaeiae, i?ia?aiiu,
athaeaeaou, ?aaii eae e a neiaeiii iaoaiecia iaoae eiiia?/aneie
no?oeoo?u n aa aeoeaioaie ia “iia?aiaiiua oa?eou, ?aiou, e?aaeeo,
i?ioeaiou, iaanoeaieaaiea, ecaea?aeee e no?aoiaua i?aiee. Iao niiiaiey,
/oi yoa oaea nicaeaiiay ia?iiiay nenoaia, aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue
eniieueciaaoue ethaie aeae eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaicia/aiey a?aiaie, ii anee
au iia auea noi?ie?iaaia iieiinoueth a iaiaoiaeeiii caiaaeiiio ie?o
iauaia e niaoeeoe/aneie oi?ia, yoi, aannii?ii, i?ieciuei au a
niioaaonoaee n ycueiauie iiaeaeyie, i?enoueie INA” (1941c,p.89).

9.Oi?o i?eaiaeeo oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaoaee ioiineoaeueii
eeiaaenoe/anee iaoneiaeaiiuo iniaaiiinoae caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u,
ii o ian, aiciiaeii, aeinoaoi/ii aeaiiuo, /oiau i?eaeoe e auaiaeo, /oi
iia eiio?anoe?oao n eoeueoo?ie oiie. Aeaeaa Oi?o, eanaynue enoi?e/aneiai
eiioaenoa yoie aeiioacu, iuoaaony e?aoei ioaaoeoue ia aii?in: “Eae oaeay
niaieoiiinoue ycuea, eoeueoo?u e iiaaaeaiey [eae INA e oiie] neiaeeeanue
enoi?e/anee? *oi auei ia?ae/iui: ycueiaua iiaeaee eee eoeueoo?iua
ii?iu?” E aeaeaao neaaeothuee auaiae:

A iniiaiii iie nicaeaaaeenue iaeiia?aiaiii, iinoiyiii aicaeaenoaoy ae?oa
ia ae?oaa. Ii a yoii ia?oia?noaa i?e?iaea ycuea yaeyaony oaeoi?ii, aieaa
aeanoii naea?aeeaathuei iaia?aie/aiioth ieanoe/iinoue e aeanoei
?aaeaiaioe?othuei eaiaeu ?acaeoey. Yoi iioiio, /oi ycue i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie nenoaio, a ia i?inoi neiieaiea ii?i. Aeoaeiiua nenoaiiia?acothuea
iniiau iiaoo aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiyoueny e /aio-oi iiaiio i/aiue
iaaeeaiii, a oi a?aiy, eae iiiaea ae?oaea eoeueoo?iua eiiiaaoeee
inouanoaeythony ioiineoaeueii auno?i [1941n,p.91].

Iiaeii aeiaaaeoue, iaeiaei, /oi aeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ia eeiaaenoe/aneea
nenoaiu e ae?oaea ninoaaeythuea ioithaeue ia oae ?acei iaicia/aii, eae
yoi i?aaeiieaaaao Oi?o. Ia ana iaeeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou eoeueoo?u
yaeythony eeoue nia?aieai ii?i; iaeioi?ua ec ieo oaeaea no?oeoo?e?iaaiu,
e aiciiaeii noieue aea aeanoei, eae ycue, e aa?iyoii, iiyoiio a oaeie
aea noaiaie i?ioeainoiyo ia?aiaiai. Aaaeiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ae?oaeie
eoeueoo?iuie nenoaiaie e ycueii, eae iia i?aaenoaaeyaony, ninoieo ia a
oii, /oi ycue yaeyaony aieaa aeanoei nenoaiaoece?iaaiiui i?aaieciii, a a
oii, /oi eeiaaenoe/aneay nenoaia oae i/aaeaeii e aeoaiei i?iieeaao ai
ana ae?oaea ninoaaeythuea eoeueoo?u. Oieueei yoei iiaeii iauynieoue aai
aieaa cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue, anee oae iii e anoue, a naea?aeeaaiee
“iaia?aie/aiiie ieanoe/iinoe” e aeanoeii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiee “eaiaeia
?acaeoey”.

Caeanue iu oaeaea aeieaeiu iinoaaeoue /anoi ianoaeaeaaiue aii?in: eae
aeiioaca i oaniie nayce ycuea n ae?oaeie aniaeoaie eoeueoo?u niaeanoaony
n iaiaeiie?aoii oiiieiaaiui oaeoii, /oi ?iaenoaaiiua ycuee (iai?eia?,
ooia e iaaaoi) iiaoo ni/aoaoueny n eoeueoo?aie, noieue ?aciyueieny a
ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo, e, iaiai?io, /oi eoeueoo?u, noiaeea ii iiiaei
ia?aiao?ai (iai?eia?, ioyaei eee eiaeaeoeaa ieaein), iiaoo auoue naycaiu
n ycueaie, eioi?ua neeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa. ?acaa yoi
ianiaiaaeaiea a?aieoe ycueiauo a?oii e eoeueoo?iuo a?aaeia ia iaaiaeeo
ia iuneue, /oi ycue e eoeueoo?a – yoi ioaeaeueiua ia?aiaiiua aaee/eiu,
aiana ia iaycaoaeueii eaeei-oi ia?acii niaaeeiaiiua?

Anee ycue e eoeueoo?a ?anniao?eaaeenue iaeioi?uie eae ioaeaeueiua
ia?aiaiiua aaee/eiu (niio?e, e i?eia?o, Carrol et al.,1951,p.37), oi
yoi, aa?iyoii, iioiio, /oi, ai-ia?auo, iie ?anniao?eaaee ycue neeoeii
ocei, a, ai-aoi?uo, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u (iniaaiii a
onoaiaaeeaaaiuo eoeueoo?iuo a?aaeao) ia?aie/eaaeenue iaeaieaa
oi?iaeueiuie eee yaii au?aaeaiiuie i?eciaeaie, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae
noaiaie iiaeaa?aeaiu caeinoaiaaieyi e eciaiaieyi.

Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi eiaaea iu no?aieiny naycaoue ycue n inoaeueiui a
eoeueoo?a, e?aeia aaaeii o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe ycuea (a aieueoie
noaiaie, oiiaiaoe/aneea), iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo iu niaaeeiyai aai n
ae?oaeie a a?oiia eee naiuea ?iaenoaaiiuo ycueia. Oi?iu ?acaiai?iie
?a/e, eioi?ua Oi?o n/eoaao noieue aaaeiuie a i?eau/iii iiaaaeaiee e
iuoeaiee, a eiioea eiioeia aaaeoo naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea io eaene/aneeo,
ii?oieiae/aneeo e neioaene/aneeo iiaeaeae ycuea, a oa, a naith
i/a?aaeue, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aca?aoa?u aeey oiiaiaoe/aneeo
eiino?oeoeee. A oaeii neo/aa aeaa eee aieaa ycueia, aiieia aiciiaeii,
/a?iatho iaoa?eaeu aeey naieo oiiaiaoe/aneeo eiino?oeoeee ec iaeiiai e
oiai aea enoi?e/aneiai enoi/ieea, e iiae aeeyieai ?aciuo iee?ieiniia ana
aua i?iaeieaeatho ?acaeaaoue niaa?oaiii ioee/iua ae?oa io ae?oaa oi?iu
?a/aaiai i?ioeanna. Ei?i/a aiai?y, nai ii naaa oaeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
ycueia e iauae a?oiia ia aeieacuaaao, /oi o ieo iaeeiaeiaua oi?iu
?acaiai?iie ?a/e; aa?iyoii, a neo/aa iaaeiaiinoe yoi aeieacuaaaony
yiie?e/anee.

Eoeueoo?u, aoiaeyuea a iaeei e oio aea eoeueoo?iue a?aae, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, neeiiiu noiaeeoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii oieueei a ioaeaeueiuo
eoeueoo?iuo /a?oao, oao, eioi?ua eaa/a ?annaeaathony e ia iaycaoaeueii
oaie aea niiniaaie, eaeeie yoe /a?ou neiiaeie?iaaiu a iiaeaeyo
iiaaaeaiey eee ia iniiaa i?aaeiinueie, ia eioi?ua yoe iiaeaee iiaaaeaiey
iiaoo oeacuaaoue. Iai?eia?, o eoeueoo? iaaaoi e oiie, ?aniieaaathueony
aioo?e thai-caiaaeiiai a?aaea, iaia?oaeeaaaony iiiai ioaeaeueiuo
iiiaioia noiaenoaa: a iauae nianoaaiiinoe eeaiia, ian/aiie aeeaiiene e
ae?oaeo iniaaiiinoyo ?eooaea, a iaeioi?uo i?eaiao oea/anoaa e
naaeiaiaenoaa. Ii niaea?aeaiea eee nenoaiaoeea yoeo iau/aaa a aeaoo
eoeueoo?ao neeueii ?anoiaeyony. Niaea?aeaiea ?eooaea e i?aaiecaoeey
naiuee (eee eeaia) o iaaaoi, e i?eia?o, nianai iaiioiaee ia oa, /oi
anoue o oiie. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi e ii iiaieth Oi?oa (1941c) e
ii iiaio nianoaaiiiio (1951), ycuee oiie e iaaaoi, niioaaonoaaiii,
io?aaeatho aaniethoii ?acee/iua eeiaaenoe/aneea iee?ieiniu, a oaeaea oi,
/oi acaeyaeu iaaaoi ia aeeciue, iienaiiua Eeaeoiiii e Eaeoiiii
(1948,pp.216-38), niaa?oaiii ia niaiaaeatho n iienaieai acaeyaeia oiie,
aeaiiuo Oi?oii.

10. Aica?aoeiny e Oi?oo, caeanue ii iaiauaao, aeaaay ioaaou ia aii?inu,
iinoaaeaiiua a aai ?aaioa. Ioaa/ay ia ia?aue ec ieo (“Noi?ie?iaaiu ee
iaoe nianoaaiiua eiioeaioeee “a?aiaie”, “i?ino?ainoaa” e “iaoa?ee” a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iin?aaenoaii iiuoa anaai /aeiaa/anoaa eee iie,
io/anoe, iaoneiaeaiu no?oeoo?ie ioaeaeueiuo ycueia?” [1941c,p.78], ii
caeeth/aao, /oi eiioeaioeee “a?aiaie”, “i?ino?ainoaa” e “iaoa?ee”,
eiathueany a INA e,ii e?aeiae ia?a, o oiie, ii-aeaeeiiio, caaenyo, ii
aieueoae /anoe, io naienoaaiiuo eaaeaeiio ycueo eeiaaenoe/aneeo
no?oeoo?.

Iaoa nianoaaiiia “a?aiy” cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io
“i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe” o oiie. Iii i?aaenoaaeyeinue eae no?iai
ia?aie/aiiia ?aieaie i?ino?ainoai eee /ai-oi iaiiaeiaea aeaeaeaiey ii
oaeiio i?ino?ainoao e eniieueciaaeinue, niioaaonoaaiii, a ea/anoaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?oaeey. I?aaenoaaeyy niaie ia?ac,a eioi?ii aeeciue
ioee/aaony io oi?iu, a ana niciaiea in toto io i?ino?ainoaaiiuo
yeaiaioia niciaiey, “i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue” oiie eaaeaony iaaiia?aceiie
a oa?ieiao i?ino?ainoaa eee aeaeaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiyoey,
ii?iaeaeaiiua iaoae nianoaaiiie eiioeaioeeae a?aiaie, oaeea, eae
aaniethoiay iaeiia?aiaiiinoue,a ?aieao eiioeaioeee oiie oaeaea auei au
i/aiue o?oaeii au?aceoue, eee iie ieacuaathony eeoaiiuie niunea e
aeieaeiu auoue caiaiaiu iaueie i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Iaoa “iaoa?ey”
ioiineony e a?oiia oaeeo aea oece/aneeo iiiyoee, eae “noanoaioeey” e
“aauanoai”, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeythony eae aanoi?iaiiua i?ioyaeaiiua
yaeaiey, eioi?ua aei naiaai ?aaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey, aeieaeiu i?eiyoue
eaeoth-eeai oi?io. Iioiaea, /oi oiie ia iaeaaeatho /ai-eeai
niioaaonoaothuei yoiio; o ieo iao aanoi?iaiiuo i?ioyaeaiiuo yaeaiee; ana
nouanoaothuaa iiaeao eiaoue eee ia eiaoue oi?io, ii i?e iaee/ee eee
ionoonoaee oi?iu, aio iai?aiaiii i?enoue eioaineaiinoue e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, i?aaenoaaeythuea yaeaiey iai?ioyaeaiiua e ii nooe
iaeeiaeiaua [1941c,p.92].

Eiioeaioeey i?ino?ainoaa ia ioee/aeanue noieue ?aceoaeueii, e Oi?o
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi, aa?iyoii, i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ino?ainoaa
noi?e?iaaeinue, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie, iacaaeneii io ycuea … Ii
eiioeaioeey i?ino?ainoaa (concept of space) aoaeao ianeieueei iaiyoueny
aianoa n ycueii, iineieueeo ii eae eioaeeaeooaeueiia i?oaeea (eae,
iai?eia?, a iuethoiieaineii e yaeeeaeiaii i?ino?ainoaa) oaeaea oanii
naycai n niioonoaothuei i?eiaiaieai ae?oaeo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo n?aaenoa,
e i?eia?o, “a?aiaie” e “iaoa?ee”, eioi?ua eeiaaenoe/anee iaoneiaeaiu. Iu
aeaeei i?aaeiaou naieie aeacaie a oao aea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo oi?iao, /oi e
oiie, ii iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ino?ainoaa iaeaaeaao oaeaea naienoaii
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa caiaieoaey iai?ino?ainoaaiiuo caaeneiinoae,
iiaeiaiuo a?aiaie, eioaineaiinoe, oaiaeaioeee, a oaeaea a ea/anoaa
aaeooia, /oiau caiieieoue aai aiia?aaeaaiuie aanoi?iaiiuie yaeaieyie,
iaeii ec eioi?uo iiaeao auoue iacaaii “i?ino?ainoaii”. I?ino?ainoai a
iiieiaiee oiie aeaaea iuneaiii ia naycaii n oaeeie no??iaaoaie, a
yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii “/enoui”, ia niaoaiiui n eii?iaeiuie iiiyoeyie
[1941c,pp.92-93].

Ioaa/ay ia aoi?ie aii?in, iinoaaeaiiue a naiae ?aaioa (“Nouanoaoao ee
?acee/eiia noiaenoai iaaeaeo a) eoeueoo?iuie e iiaaaeai/aneeie ii?iaie e
a) e?oiiuie eeiaaenoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie? [1941c,p.78], Oi?o aiai?eo
neaaeothuaa:

Iaaeaeo eoeueoo?iuie ii?iaie e eeiaaenoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie nouanoaotho
annioeeaoeaiua nayce, ii iao acaeiicaaeneiinoae eee iiaeaeathueony
oi/iiio ii?aaeaeaeaieth aiaeiaee. Oioy ec oaeoa ionoonoaey a?aiai a
ycuea oiie auei au iaaiciiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i nouanoaiaaiee
aiaeaeae-i?iaicaanoieeia, e iaiai?io, ycue e inoaeueiia a eoeueoo?a
iauanoaa, eioi?ia ei iieuecoaony, naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie.

Auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea “oi?iu ?acaiai?iie ?a/e” ninoaaeyao aaeeiia
oeaeia ni anae eoeueoo?ie, yaeyaony ee yoi oieaa?naeueii i?aaeeueiui eee
iao, e nouanoaotho nayce aioo?e yoie eioaa?aoeee, iaaeaeo
?aciiaeaeiinoueth eniieuecoaiiai eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca e
?aciiia?aciuie iiaaaeai/aneeie ?aaeoeeyie, a oaeaea iiaeaeyie,
aini?eiyouie iin?aaenoaii ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Oaeei
ia?acii, cia/aiea aiaeaeae-i?iaicaanoieeia aeaenoaeoaeueii naycaii, ii
ia n ionoonoaeai a?aiai a ycuea, a n nenoaiie iuoeaiey, a eioi?ie,
anoanoaaiii, nouanoaotho eaoaai?ee, ioee/athueany io iaoeo a?ai?i.
Nin?aaeioi/ea aieiaiea ia oeie/iuo ?oa?eeao eeiaaenoe/aneeo,
yoiia?aoe/aneeo eee nioeeieiae/aneeo iienaiee, iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue yoe
nayce, ii ia oae iiiai, eae i?e eco/aiee eoeueoo?u e ycuea (anaaaea e
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iaa enoi?e/anee nouanoaotho aianoa a oa/aiea
cia/eoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie) eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai, aaea, eae iiaeii
i?aaeiieaaaoue, nouanoaotho acaeiiua noeaieaiey, i?iiecuaathuea yoe
?iaenoaaiiua noa?u, e, a neo/aa eo ?aaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey, iie
aeieaeiu auoue ni a?aiaiai iaia?oaeaiu iin?aaenoaii enneaaeiaaiee
[1941c,p.93].

11. Ae?oaay iiiuoea iieacaoue, eae ycue iiaeao aeeyoue ia “eiae/aneea
eiioeaioeee ethaeae, eioi?ua ia iai aiai?yo”, iaia?oaeaia a ?aaioao Ee
(Lee) i ycuea eaeeoi?ieeneeo eiaeaeoeaa aeioo (niio?e 1938,1944a,b). Iu
?anniio?ei aeaa ec ieo iiae?iaii: “Eiioeaiooaeueiue iiaeoaeno ycuea
eiaeaeoeaa” (“Conceptual Implications of an Indian Language”) e
“Eeiaaenoe/aneia io?aaeaiea iuoeaiey aeioo” (“Linguistic Reflection of
Wintu Thought”).

Ee ia/eiaao ia?aoth ec noaoae oae:

Aiai?eeinue, /oi ycue i/a?/eaaao e ia?aie/eaaao eiae/aneea eiioeaioeee
eiaeeaeaeooia, eioi?ue aiai?eo ia iai. Iaiai?io, ycue – yoi i?aai aeey
au?aaeaiey iunee, eiioeaioeee e i?eioeeiia eeanneoeeaoeee. Iuneue
eiaeeaeaeooia aeieaeia aeaeaaoueny ii naiei eaiaeai, ii yoe eaiaeu naie
yaeythony ianeaaeeai eiaeeaeaeooiia, eioi?ua i?ieeaaeuaatho eo a
aanniciaoaeueiie iiiuoea au?aceoue naia ioiioaiea e ie?o. A?aiiaoeea
niaea?aeeo a naaa a e?enoaeeciaaiiie oi?ia iaeiieaiiue e iaeaieeaaaiue
iiuo, ie?iaicc?aiea (Weltanschauung) ia?iaea.

Enneaaeiaaiea, eioi?ia y iaia?aia i?aaenoaaeoue ieaea, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iiiuoeo /a?ac eco/aiea a?aiiaoeee iiiyoue ianoi?ioee?iaaiioth
oeeinioeth ieaiaie eaeeoi?ieeneeo eiaeaeoeaa aeioo [1938,p.89].

12. I iiaieth Ee, a ycuea aeioo aeaaie ia?acoaony io iaeiie ec aeaoo
iniia (caeanue iie iacaaiu I e II ), aeaeieciaiythueony eae aaeaooiua
oi?iu (iai?eia?, wir-,I e wer-,II ). Iniiau oeia I iaicia/atho ninoiyiey
eee niauoey, a eioi?uo a?aiiaoe/aneee noauaeo aeaaiea o/anoaoao eae
naiaiaeiue aaaio, e a eioi?ii aiai?yuee (oae eee eia/a oiaeaeanoaaiiue
a?aiiaoe/aneiio noauaeoo) oaeaea i?eieiaao o/anoea, “iineieueeo ii ciaao
i oa?aeoa?ecoaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e ninoiyiee” (1938,p.94).

Aiai?yuee iiaeao eniieueciaaoue iaeio iniiao oeia I aac noooeena, oai
naiui onoaiaaeeaay iauaecaanoiue oaeo. Ii anee ii iuoaaony auneacaoueny
aieaa iiae?iaii e ii?aaeaeeoue a?aiaiiua a?aieoeu eee ioiioaiea e
noauaeoo, aiai?yuee auioaeaeai iaiiaaiii iiaeeeth/eoue eiaiii oaeie
nianoaaiiue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiuo, eioi?ue yaeyaony cia/eiui aeey
aeaiiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey” (1938,p.90). Aeey yoie oeaee nouanoaoao iyoue
noooeenia, iaicia/athueo: 1) /oi aiai?yuee ciaao i ninoiyiee eee niauoee
ii neooai; 2) /oi aiai?yuee ciaao i ninoiyiee eee niauoee, oae eae nai
aeaeae yoi eee eiaaony iaii?iaa?aeeiia naeaeaoaeuenoai; 3) /oi aiai?yuee
ciaao i ninoiyiee eee niauoee nei?aa ia o?iaia iuouaiee, a ia ec
aecoaeueiuo aia/aoeaiee (iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth iaiiyiey, neooa,
eiooeoeee e o.ae.); 4) /oi aiai?yuee aeaeaao auaiae i ninoiyiee eee
niauoee ii einaaiiui i?eciaeai (iai?eia?, Eieio, eioi?ue aeaeeo, /oi
neaaeu Eieea?e iaiaeeaeaiii ia?uaathony e /oi aeieeia e thao iie?uoa
y?eeie oeaaoaie, i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi Eieea?e, aeieaeii auoue,
ioi?aaeeanue ia tha); 5) /oi aiai?yuee noaeeo i ninoiyiee eee niauoee ia
iniiaaiee i?aaeieo naaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo ia ec neooia, ia ii aecoaeueiui
eee ae?oaei /oanoaaiiui aeaiiui (iai?eia?, /aeiaae, eioi?ue ciaao, /oi
i?eeiaaiiue e iinoaee ioaoe aai aeaiu aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeny a
iaeeii/anoaa, oiicaeeth/aao: “iie oanoue – aieiaeai”).

“Niuneiaua iooaiee, i?eaeaaaaiua noooeenaie, ei??aniiiaee?othony n
noauaeoeaiuie aioo?aiieie ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie aiai?yuaai, a ia n
a?aiiaoe/aneei noauaeoii. Ae?oaea aooeenu, aeiaaaeyaiua e iniiaa, e
noiyuea ia?aae ethauie ee/iuie eee a?aiaiiuie noooeenaie, ii anae
aa?iyoiinoe, iaicia/atho ?acee/ey a ioiioaiee e /anoe a?aiiaoe/aneiai
noauaeoa” (1938,p.92). Aio o?e ec ieo: 1) icia/athuee iaia?aiea eee
oeaeue, 2) oeacuaathuee ia aeaeaiea eee oneeea, e 3) iaicia/athuee
i?eaeeaeaiea iaeiai iiuoa, ia nianai naycaiiiai n i?ioeui ee, ianoiyuei
eee aoaeouei” (1938,p.93).

Iniiau oeia II iaicia/atho ninoiyiey eee niauoey, eioi?ua nouanoaotho
eee eiatho ianoi “iacaaeneii io aeaenoaey noauaeoa”, e eiaaea aiai?yuee,
“auneacuaaynue ia yoii …, ionoaeaaao ianiiiaiioth enoeiiinoue, eioi?ay
auoa iiuoa” (1938,p.89). A ooaa?aeaeaieyo, ioiinyueony e yoie eaoaai?ee,
“aieiaiea eiioeaio?e?oaony ia niauoee e niioonoaothueo yaeaieyo, a ia ia
eniieieoaea. Aeaaie, n oi/ee c?aiey o/anoey, ia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue. Oai
?aaeei oiio?aaeythony eaeea-eeai ee/iua noooeenu, e aiai?yuee ieeiaaea
ia nnueaaony ia naay. Nai ii ooo ia aeanoai. Ii aiai?eo i iaecaanoiii e
auneacuaay noaeaeaiea, ooaa?aeaeaao enoeio, eioi?ay ia iniiaaia ie ia
iiuoa, ie ia niiiaiee eee aeieacaoaeuenoaa” (1938,p.95).

Iniiau oeia II eniieuecothony aeey ia?aciaaiey oaeeo oi?i aeaaiea, eae
iannea, iaaeei-iannea, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iiaaeeoaeueiiai iaeeiiaiey, a
oaeaea aeey oiai, /oiau “noi?ioee?iaaoue aii?inu, ioaaou ia eioi?ua, ia
caaenyuea io iiciaiee aiai?yuaai eee neooaoaey, aoaeoo noaiiaeoueny
ianauoi/iuie iiaeaeaieyie. *oiau au?aceoue io?eoeaiea, aii?in eee
oaeeaeaiea, e yoie iniiaa i?eaaaeyaony noooeen iainaaaeiieaiiinoe”
(1938,p.94). E?iia oiai, iniiau oeia II aeiiieiythony iiiaicia/iui
noooeenii, eioi?ue ” iaeei eniieuecoaony aeey au?aaeaiey aoaeouiinoe,
i?e/eiiinoe, iioaioeeaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe, aa?iyoiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoe;
a oaeaea, /oiau neacaoue i iaecaaaeiii aoaeouai, eioi?ia, aa?iyoii,
iiaeao e aeieaeii ianooieoue, e ia?aae eeoeii eioi?iai eiaeeaeaeooi
aaccaueoai” (1938,p.95).

Iaee/ea yoeo ?acee/ee, ii iiaieth Ee, icia/aao, /oi “n?aaea iaeoaiey, a
eioi?ie aeioo iiaeao auae?aoue e aeaenoaiaaoue, iiaeao /oanoaiaaoue e
aeoiaoue, e i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, ia?aie/aiia”. A e?aoeii iienaiee, yoi
ie? anoanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aaea ana iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiua e
aa?iyoiua yaeaiey oaeaea iaecaaaeiu, aaea ana nouanoaothuaa iaiinoeaeeii
e iaau?aceii. Aeioo ia ciaao yoio ie?, ii aaciaeyaeii aa?eo a iaai;
oaeoth aa?o ii ia i?aaeeaaaao i?e?aaieaaoue e naa?ouanoanoaaiiiio,
eioi?ia i?enoonoaoao a /oanoaaiiii iiuoa e iiaeao auoue ia?aaeaii
iin?aaenoaii =-nte= (y /oanoaoth)” (1938,p.102).

13. Aoi?ay noaouey Ee “Eeiaaenoe/aneia io?aaeaiea iuoeaiey aeioo”
(1944b), i?aaeeaaaao aieueoa aeaiiuo eae ec ycuea, oae e ec ae?oaeo
aniaeoia eoeueoo?u aeioo, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo oi aea naiia. Iia ioia/aao,
/oi a ycuea aeioo iao oi?iu iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea nouanoaeoaeueiuo, oai
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aiiaua au?aaeaaony a iaaeaaea nouanoaeoaeueiuo.
“Ei?aiue neiaa, iaicia/athuaai iiiaeanoaaiiia iiiyoea, iieiinoueth
ioee/aaony io neiaa a aaeeinoaaiiii /enea: man (/aeiaae) – wi Da, ii men
(ethaee) – q’i s” (1944b,p.181). Ii aeioo aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eaeatho
iniaia cia/aiea ?aca?aie/aieth /anoiiai e iauaai, aeaaea anee yoi nei?aa
iaiaycaoaeueii, /ai aaconeiaii, eae a iaoai neo/aa n ?acieoeae iaaeaeo
aaeeinoaaiiui e iiiaeanoaaiiui /eneii. Oae, ec ia?aiia/aeueiie oi?iu,
eiathuae cia/aiea “aaeecia” (“whiteness”), o.a. iauaa ea/anoai,
eiaeaeoeu aeioo, eniieuecoy noooeenu, ia?acotho /anoioth oi?io,
icia/athuoth “ia/oi aaeia” (“the white one”); ec neiaa “ieaiue” (“deer”)
a iauai niunea (iai?eia?, “ii ioioeeny ia ieaiy (“he hunted deer”),
ia?acotho i?iecaiaeiia neiai, iiae?acoiaaathuaa eiie?aoiiai ieaiy
(iai?eia?, “ii cano?aeee ieaiy” (“he shot a deer”). Aeaa aa?nee
ia?anneaca oie aea naiie neacee a eioa?i?aoaoeee niioaaonoaaiii ioae/eiu
e aeaiueiu ?acee/athony oai, /oi “ioae/eia aeaoaeueii iienuaaao ioaeneia
i?oaeea e aioieoeeth, a aeaiueia oiiieiaao i ieo a iauai ieaia. I?eia?
eniieueciaaiey neiaa sm ?acuyniyao yoo eieeeceth. A iauai niunea iii
icia/aao ?oea (hand) eee iaa ?oee (both hands) iaeiiai /aeiaaea,
iaeueoeu, niaaeeiaiiua a iaeiii eoeaea; ?aneeiueoa ?oee e oaia?ue o aan
?acaeaeaiiua /anoe ?oee smum, iaeueoeu (fingers)” (1944,p.182).

Ee ?anniao?eaaao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeaaieueiuie iniiaaie oeia I e II eae
aiaeiaeth n oai ?acee/eai, eioi?ia nouanoaoao iaaeaeo iaen/eneyaiuie (a
ycuea aeioo) nouanoaeoaeueiuie, iaicia/athueie oeaeia (iai?eia?, sm,
“?oea”), e oaie, eioi?ua iaicia/atho ?acee/iua /anoe ?acaeaeaiiiai
oeaeiai (iai?eia?, smum, “iaeueoeu”). Aeaaieueiua iniiau oeia I
eniieuecothony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i /anoiuo yaeaieyo
aeaiiie ia?acaeaeaiiie (oeaeinoiie) ?aaeueiinoe, aaea “niciaiea,
iiciaaaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue e iuouaiea aiai?yuaai aunooiatho
ioiineoaeueii aii?oiie ?aaeueiinoe eae ia?aie/eaathuee e oi?iaeecothuee
yeaiaio”, /oi, eae iu oaea iiynieee, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?iyaeyaony n
iiiiuueth noooeenia (1944b,p.183). Aanoi?iaiiay ?aaeueiinoue, aeaiiay a
i?aaenoaaeyaiie eiaeaeoeaie aeioo anaeaiiie, e i?eieiaaiay eie ia aa?o,
iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia oieueei aeaaieaie n iniiaaie oeia II.

“Naia yoa iniiaa i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea eiiaiaeu …oi?ioeu
iaycaoaeuenoaa, aeeeooaiiai ecaia. N iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo noooeenia yoa
iniiaa iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue ninoiyiea aac ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aiaiiuo ?aiie,
eae a neo/aa onoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo oneiaee aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe; eee oi, /oi iu iacuaaai ianneaii, eiaaea eiaeeaeaeooi ia
i?eieiaao o/anoey a aeaenoaee. A iauai, iia eiaao ioiioaiea e
iaiiciaaaaiiio e iaecaanoiiio” (1944b,p.183).

Ei?i/a aiai?y (e Ee iiyniyao yoio iiiaio i?eia?aie ec iiiaeo ae?oaeo
aniaeoia ycuea), yoe oi?iu ?acaiai?iie ?a/e iaaiaeyo ia iuneue, /oi
aeioo i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ?aaeueiinoue nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io iaai
naiiai. ?aaeueiinoue – yoi aaca?aie/iay nouiinoue, a eioi?ie ii
iaia?oaeeaaao ea/anoaaiiua aaee/eiu, aaeaa ioee/eiua ae?oa io ae?oaa. E
?aaeueiinoe ii ia?auaao naith aa?o e ii/oaiea. Oai aa i?iyaeaieyi,
eioi?ua aoi?aathony a aai niciaiea, ii i?eaeaao a?aiaiiua i/a?oaiey. Ii
auaeaeyao aaeeie/iia e /anoiia oieueei ec ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa yaeaiee,
caia/aoeaiiuo a aai niciaiee, inouanoaeyy aeaeaaiua aeaenoaey n
iaoaa?aiiinoueth a naaa e ianoi?iaeaiiinoueth. Inoaaeyy nooue, ii
nouanoao, iao?iiooie, ii oieueei a ioiioaiee oi?iu, aeaenoaeoaeueii,
i?iyaeyao ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue [1944b,p.181].

Yoa iinueea ia “enoiaeiii aaeeiiia?acee”, eioi?iio eiaeaaoe aeioo iiaeao
i?eaeaaaoue “a?aiaiiua i/a?oaiey” e ec eioi?iai ii iiaeao auaeaeyoue
aaeeie/iia e /anoiia, eaaeeo a iniiaa ia oieueei eeiaaenoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee, ii aai iuoeaiey e iianaaeiaaiiai iiaaaeaiey … Yoi
iauyniyao, ii/aio oa?ieiu ?iaenoaa eeanneoeoee?iaaiu ia ii eiaiai
nouanoaeoaeueiui, a ii ianoieiaieyi, oaeei, eae this (yoio, yoa); ii/aio
niaoeeaeueiua iinneau (i?eoyaeaoaeueiua ianoieiaiey), oiio?aaeyaiua n
ieie, eae iai?eia?, nD a nDDan: my father (iie ioaoe) aeaenoaeoaeueii
yaeythony ianoieiaieyie nii?e/anoiinoe e iiaoo auoue oaeaea
eniieueciaaiu n aniaeoaie, eiathueie ioiioaiea e iaeiie ee/iinoe, eae,
iai?eia?, iie iinooiie, iia iaia?aiea, iiy aoaeouay nia?oue. Aeey ian,
ii neiaai ?aeueoa Eeioiia, “iauanoai a iniiaa naiae ninoieo ec
niaieoiiinoe eiaeeaeaeooiia”. Aeey aeioo eiaeeaeaeooi anoue eiathuay
ii?aaeaeaiiua a?aieoeu /anoue iauanoaa; iniiaiia – yoi iauanoai, a ia
iiiaeanoai eiaeeaeaeooiia [1944b,p.185].

Iiaeiaiua io?aaeaiey “eiioeaioeee iaeciaiiinoe nouanoaiaaiey e
iaaeieaiaa/iinoe oi?iu, ieiieaoiiai cia/aiey ii?aaeaeaiey a?aieoe”
iaia?oaeaiu a ieoieiaee aeioo. Aia, “ii – oio, eoi iaaa?oo”, i?iecioae
ec iaoa?ee, eioi?ay oaea ooo auea; ethaee ia “aicieeee”, iie “i?iec?inee
ec caiee”, eioi?ay anaaaea nouanoaiaaea. “?annaao e aeiaaiie naao, naao
e ianeaeeai, anaaaea nouanoaiaaaoea a i?e?iaea, o?aieeenue a oaeia e,
iaeiiaoe, auee oe?aaeaiu e iaaeaeaiu iiaie ?ieueth”. Eiaia ieoe/aneeo
ia?niiaaeae, oaeeo, eae Eieio, Eaithe, Iaaeaaaeue-A?ecee, Aeoaiiin e
Iiey?iay Aaaa?a, aa?iyoii, “eiatho ioiioaiea e /aio-oi, ia eiathuaio
ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?aieoe, eae iu, iai?eia?, ?acee/aai iaiiue aiiaua (fire)
e eiie?aoiue iaiiue (a fire). Yoe ia?niiaaee oie?atho e aine?anatho a
ae?oaii ieoa aac iauyniaiey. A eiioea eiioeia iie noaee eieioaie e
iaaeaaaeyie-a?ecee, eioi?uo iu ciaai, ii ia /a?ac i?ioeann ca?iaeaeaiey.
Iie ieeoeaoai?ytho i?ioioei, ?iae, ea/anoai, eioi?ua, iaeiaei,
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ia i/aiue no?iai” (1944b,p.186).

14. I/aaeaeii, /oi auaiaeu Ee aeecei nii?eeanathony n oaie, e eioi?ui
i?eoae Oi?o e neoaeao aeiiieieoaeueiie eeethno?aoeeae e i?iaa?eie aai
aeiioacu. Nouanoaoao eeoue iaiiiai aieueoa aeaiiuo oaeiai ?iaea;
iaeioi?ua ec ieo, a /anoiinoe oa, eioi?ua iu ca iaeiaieai ianoa ia
eceiaeeee, iiaeii iaeoe a ?aaioao Ano?iaa (Astrov) (1950) e Oieaeaea?a
(Hoijer) (1948, 1951) i iaaaoi; Ee (Lee) (1940) i o?ia?eaiaeneii ycuea;
e Oi?oa (Whorf) (1940a) i ycuea oiie. Ae?oaea ioieou aeaeeia?aoee
ioiinyony, aeaaiui ia?acii, e oai?aoe/aneie aeeneonnee (niio?e E??aa?
(Kroeber), 1941; Ieaea (Nida), 1945; Aaaaeei e Oa??en (Voegelin and
Harris), 1945; A?eiaa?a (Greenberg), 1948; Oieeao (Hockett), 1949;
Yiaiao (Emeneau), 1950; Ieinoaae (Olmsted), 1950; Aaaaeei, 1950;
Eaae-No?inn (Levi-Strauss), 1951), a oaeaea e oaiai, ?anniio?aiiui a
yoie noaouea, eee e ae?oaei, eioi?ua iu iiae?iaii ia ?anniao?eaaee.
Aeaeeia?aoey ia ayeyaony en/a?iuaathuae; ianiiiaiii, anoue ae?oaea
iaoa?eaeu, iniaaiii a aa?iiaeneeo enoi/ieeao, eioi?ua ieacaeenue aia
iiaai aieiaiey.

15. A caeeth/aiea, iiiaia a oacena, eioi?ue iu iaiaoeee a iaueo /a?oao,
o?aaoao i?iaa?ee; a ?aaioa Oi?oa (i oiie), Ee (i aeioo) e iiae (i
iaaaoi) aeiioaca ia ioiioaiee ycuea e eoeueoo?a eeoue a/a?ia ia?eniaaia,
ii ia oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaia. Iai iaiaoiaeeii, eae ioia/ae Oi?o
(1941c,p.93), eiaoue iaiiiai aieueoa eiio?anoe?othueo enneaaeiaaiee
oeaeueiuo eoeueoo?, aeeth/athueo eeiaaenoe/aneea, a oaeaea ae?oaeo
iiaeaeae eoeueoo?u, iai?aaeaiiuo ia auyaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuo nenoai
iuoeaiey e nayce iaaeaeo ieie e oi?iaie ?acaiai?iie ?a/e e iiaaaeaiey a
oeaeii. ?aaiou i oiie, aeioo e iaaaoi, eioi?ua o ian anoue, e?aoee, ii
eo aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai oeacuaaao ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoeo
enneaaeiaaiee e iaaiaeeo ia iuneue, /oi iie iiaoo auoue ieiaeioai?iuie.

?anniao?eaaaiue iaoa?eae oaeaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
enneaaeiaaiey oaeiai ?iaea eiatho oeaiiinoue ia oieueei aeey oceeo
aeenoeeieei eeiaaenoeee e aio?iiieiaee, ii e aeey anae iaoee. Eae
ioia/ae Oi?o, aiaeec e iiieiaiea eeiaaenoe/aneeo iee?ieiniia,
ioee/athueony io iaoeo nianoaaiiuo, ioe?uaaao “aiciiaeiua iiaua oeiu
eiaeee e aiciiaeiua iiaua einie/aneea ia?acu” (1941b,p.16), eioi?ua
eiatho ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey iiieiaiey iaoeo nianoaaiiuo niiniaao
iuoeaiey e eo yaiethoeee. “Caiaaeiay eoeueoo?a iin?aaenoaii ycuea
i?iecaaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec ?aaeueiinoe e aac ei??aeoea, oaa?aei
n/eoaao yoio aiaeec ieii/aoaeueiui”. Ii anoue ae?oaea eoeueoo?u,
“eioi?ua yiioaie iacaaeneiie yaiethoeee i?eoee e ?acee/iui, ii a ?aaiie
noaiaie eiae/aneei, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui aiaeecai” e iie iiaoo ieacaoueny
iieaciuie a ea/anoaa iii?aaie e iaoaio nianoaaiiiio (1941b,p.18).

I?eia/aiea:

Oeeoaou Y.Naie?a i?eaiaeyony ii oaenoo: Naie? Y.Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ii
ycueiciaieth e eoeueoo?ieiaee: Ia?.n aiae./ Iau. ?aae. e anooi.no.A.A.
Eea?eea. – I.: Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia “I?ia?ann”, “Oieaa?n”,1993.- 656 n.
– (Oeeieiae ie?a).

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