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Выполнение перевода текстов, применение причастия, инфинитива, герундия в английском языке

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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii aiaeeeneiio ycueo

Auiieiaiea ia?aaiaea oaenoia, i?eiaiaiea i?e/anoey, eioeieoeaa,
aa?oiaeey a aiaeeeneii ycuea

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ?3

Aa?eaio 1

I. Auaa?eoa i?aaeeueiue aa?eaio aeaeia?aiaiiie oi?iu aeaaiea, ia?aieoeoa
i?aaeeiaeaiey e ia?aaaaeeoa eo ia ?onneee ycue, oeacaa, a eaeie
aeaeia?aiaiiie oi?ia iaoiaeeony aua?aiiue aaie aeaaie

Example: The engineer … to test the device.

a) was asked; b) have been asked; c) are asking; d) has asked.

The engineer was asked to test the device. – Eiaeaia?a iii?ineee
eniuoaoue iaoaieci. (Past Simple, Passive Voice)

1. An ever-increasing volume of information … in digital form.

a) are transmitted; b) are been transmitted; c) is transmitted; d)
transmits.

An ever-increasing volume of information is transmitted in digital form.
– Iinoiyiii oaaee/eaathueeny iau?i eioi?iaoeee ia?aaea?ony a oeeo?iaie
oi?ia. (Present Simple, Passive Voice)

2. The digital pulses … perfectly after they become attenuated with
distance.

a) can be regenerated; b) can been regenerated; c) could have be
regenerated; d) being regenerated.

The digital pulses can be regenerated perfectly after they become
attenuated with distance. – Oeeo?iaua eiioeuenu iiaeii ainnoaiiaeoue
iinea oiai, eae iie auee ineaaeaiiu ?annoiyieai. (Present Simple,
Passive Voice)

3. Access to knowledge … far easier recently by computerized indexes of
scientific and technical journals.

a) were made; b) has been made; c) are made; d) make.

Access to knowledge has been made far easier recently by computerized
indexes of scientific and technical journals. – Aeinooi e ciaieyi noae
i?iua, aeaaiaea?y eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaiiui eaoaeiaai iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo
aeo?iaeia. (Present Perfect, Passive Voice)

4. Your watch is not ready yet. It … still … .

a) are … being repaired; b) was … being repaired; c) is … repairing; d)
is … being repaired.

Your watch is not ready yet. It is still being repaired. – Aaoe /anu au?
ia aioiau. Eo au? ?aiiioe?otho. (Present Continuous, Passive Voice)

II. I?i/eoaeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia?aieoeoa eo, auaeaeea oeacaoaeueiua
ianoieiaiey. Ia?aaaaeeoa ienueiaiii i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue

Example: We know that a computer is a complex electronic device. – Iu
ciaai, /oi au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia yaeyaony neiaeiui yeaeo?iiiui
ono?ienoaii.

1. That machine is quite automatic – it does everything by itself. – Yoa
iaoeia aeinoaoi/ii aaoiiaoece?iaaia – iia aeaeaao an? naia.

2. There are computers that can do many jobs. – nouanoaotho
eiiiuethoa?u, eioi?ua iiaoo auiieiyoue iiiai caaea/.

3. Two of these elements, germanium and silicon, are especially
important. – Aeaa ec yoeo yeaiaioia, aa?iaiee e e?aiiee, iniaaiii
aaaeiu.

4. The story of the telephone is similar to that of the telegraph. –
Enoi?ey oaeaoiia iioiaea ia enoi?eth oaeaa?aoa.

III. I?i/eoaeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia?aieoeoa eo, ia?auay aieiaiea ia
auaeaeaiiia ianoieiaiea it, ia?aaaaeeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue

Example: We find it necessary to repeat the experiment. (oi?iaeueiia
aeiiieiaiea) – Iu n/eoaai iaiaoiaeeiui iiaoi?eoue yoio yenia?eiaio.

1. It was in 1869 that Mendeleyev published his Periodic Table.
(aaiaeiia neiai) – A 1869 Iaiaeaeaaa iioaeeeiaae ia?eiaee/aneoth
oaaeeoeo.

2. Automation makes it possible to obtain and develop new sources of
energy. (oi?iaeueiia aeiiieiaiea) – Aaoiiaoecaoeey iicaieyao iieo/aoue e
?acaeaaoue iiaua enoi/ieee yia?aee.

3. This is a complex problem, but we can solve it. (ee/iia ianoieiaiea)
– Yoi neiaeiay caaea/a, ii iu niiaeai a? ?aoeoue.

4. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future.
(oi?iaeueiia iiaeeaaeauaa) – I/aaeaeii, /oi yeaeo?e/anoai aoaeao
yia?aeae aoaeouaai.

5. It is our future specialty, but we do not know much about it at
present. (oeacaoaeueiia ianoieiaiea) – Yoi iaoa aoaeouay
niaoeeaeecaoeey, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iu iaei i iae ciaai.

IV. I?i/eoaeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, ia?aieoeoa eo, ia?auay aieiaiea ia
auaeaeaiiua neiaa ones, one, ia?aaaaeeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue

Example: One should be very careful. – Ioaeii auoue i/aiue inoi?iaeiui.

1. One must know that these rays produce a harmful effect on man. –
Ioaeii ciaoue, /oi yoe eo/e ieacuaatho iaaoaiia aeeyiea ia /aeiaaea.

2. One may work in this laboratory only observing certain rules. – A
yoie eaai?aoi?ee iiaeii ?aaioaoue eeoue niaethaeay ii?aaeae?iiua
i?aaeea.

3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with
traditional ones. – Iiaua oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua nae/an ?ac?aaaouaathony,
aeieaeiu auoue naycaiu n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie (oaoiieiaeyie).

4. One of the wonderful applications of electronics is radar. – Iaeiei
ec caia/aoaeueiuo niiniaia i?eiaiaiey yeaeo?iieee yaeyaony ?aaea?.

V. Ia?aieoeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, oiio?aaea aeaaieu a i?aaeeueiie
aeaeia?aiaiiie oi?ia, ia?aaaaeeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue.
Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia ooieoeee aeaaieia to have, to do, to be a
i?aaeeiaeaieyo

Example: This material (to have) many valuable qualities. – This
material has many valuable qualities. – Yoio iaoa?eae eiaao iiiai
oeaiiuo naienoa.

1. A good conductor (to have) many free electrons. – A good conductor
has many free electrons. – O oi?ioaai i?iaiaeieea iiiai naiaiaeiuo
yeaeo?iiia.

2. The duration of the pulse (to have) to be approximately a
thousand-millionth of a second. – The duration of the pulse has to be
approximately a thousand-millionth of a second. – I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
eiioeuena aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue i?eia?ii ouny/o ieeeeiiiuo naeoiaeu.

3. The Internet (to be) composed of a large number of smaller
interconnected networks called internets. – The Internet is composed of
a large number of smaller interconnected networks called internets. –
Eioa?iao ninoieo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iaaieueoeo naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie naoae, iacuaaaiuo eioa?naoyie.

4. They (to be) to prepare everything for the experiment. – They are to
prepare everything for the experiment. – Iie aeieaeiu iiaeaioiaeoue an?
aeey iiuoa.

5. Scientists (to do) a lot of research recently. – Scientists have done
a lot of research recently. – A iineaaeiaa a?aiy o/?iua i?iaaee iiiai
enneaaeiaaiee.

6. (to do) semiconductors conduct electric current worse than metals? –
Do semiconductors conduct electric current worse than metals? –
Iieoi?iaiaeieee i?iaiaeyo yeaeo?e/aneee oie ooaea, /ai iaoaeeu?

VI. Ia?aieoeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, iiae/a?eieoa eioeieoea. Ia?aaaaeeoa
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue.

Example: To solve the problem is very important. ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio –
i/aiue aaaeii.

1. The problems to be solved are of great importance. – I?iaeaiu,
eioi?ua i?aaenoieo ?aoeoue, i/aiue aaaeiu.

2. To make this experiment you should use the new device. – *oiau
i?iaanoe yoio iiuo, aai i?eae?ony ainiieueciaaoueny iiaui ono?ienoaii.

3. They seem to have made a mistake in their measurements. – Eaaeaony,
iie aeiionoeee ioeaeo a ecia?aieyo.

4. To study this phenomenon requires much knowledge. – Eco/aiea yoiai
yaeaiey o?aaoao aieueoeo ciaiee.

VII. Ia?ao?ace?oeoa neaaeothuea i?aaeeiaeaiey, oiio?aaea noauaeoiue
eioeieoeaiue iai?io. Iaieoeoa eo e ia?aaaaeeoa ia ?onneee ycue

Example: It is expected that the experiment will be over soon. – The
experiment is expected to be over soon. – I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi
yenia?eiaio nei?i caeii/eony.

1. It is reported that the research has been carried out successfully. –
The research is reported to have been carried out successfully. –
Niiauaaony, /oi enneaaeiaaiea i?ioei oniaoii.

2. It is said that optical technology is cost-effective and versatile. –
The optical technology is said to be cost-effective and versatile. –
Aiai?yo, /oi iioe/aneay oaoiieiaey i?eaueueiay e iiiaioeaeaaay.

3. It was thought that the chemicals convey important information to the
brain. – The chemicals are thought to convey important information to
the brain. – N/eoaaony, /oi oeieeaou ia?aaeatho aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth
iicao.

4. It is expected that the new method will appear in future. – The new
method is expected to appear in future. – Iaeeaeaaony, /oi a aoaeouai
iiyaeony iiaue iaoiae.

?aaioa iaae oaenoii

I. I?i/eoaeoa oaeno eniieuecoy iiyniaiey e oaenoo. Auiieieoa oi?aaeiaiey
e oaenoo

Eioaa?aeueiua noaiu (1)

1. Eioaa?aeueiua noaiu auee nicaeaiu aeaaiaea?y yenia?eiaioaeueiui
ioe?uoeyi, eioi?ua iieacaee, /oi iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua i?eai?u iiaoo
auiieiyoue ooieoeee yeaeo?iiiie eaiiu, a oaeaea aeaaiaea?y
oaoiieiae/aneiio i?ia?anno a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo
i?eai?ia a na?aaeeia 20 aaea. Iauaaeeiaiea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
iaeaiueeeo o?aicenoi?ia a iaeio iaeaiueeoth eioaa?aeueioth noaio auei
cia/eoaeueiui oniaa?oainoaiaaieai, ii n?aaiaieth n ?o/iie nai?eie noai
ec ioaeaeueiuo yeaeo?iiiuo yeaiaioia. Iiuiinoue, iaae?aeiinoue e iaoiae
noaiaea?oiuo aeieia a noaiao, eioi?uie oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianniaia
i?iecaiaenoai eioaa?aeueiuo noai, iaania/eei auno?ia aiaae?aiea
noaiaea?oece?iaaiiuo EN oai, aaea ?aiaa eniieueciaaeenue aeene?aoiua
o?aicenoi?u.

2. Nouanoaoao 2 iniiaiuo i?aeiouanoaa EN ia?aae aeene?aoiuie noaiaie:
oeaia e ?aaioiniiniaiinoue. Oeaia ieaea, oae eae eioaa?aeueiay noaia, ni
anaie a? eiiiiiaioaie, auioneaaony eae iaeei yeaiaio n iiiiuueth
oioieeoia?aoee, e iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaaaoue ii ioaeaeueiinoe
eaaeaeue o?aicenoi?. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue auoa aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi
ninoaaiua /anoe auno?i ia?aeeth/athony e iio?aaeytho iaiueoa yia?aee,
oae eae iie iaiueoa ii ?acia?ai e ?aniieiaeaiu aeecei ae?oa n ae?oaii.
?acia?u eioaa?aeueiuo noai aa?uee?othony io ianeieueeeo eaaae?aoiuo ii
aei i?eia?ii 250 ii2, i?e yoii ia 1 ii2 oiauaaony aei 1 iei.
o?aicenoi?ia.

3. N?aaee iaeaieaa i?iaeaeioouo eioaa?aeueiuo noai iaoiaeyony
iee?ii?ioeanni?u, eioi?ua eiio?iee?otho an? – io eiiiuethoa?a aei
nioiaiai oaeaoiia e iee?iaieiiaie ia/e. Oeeo?iaua ea?ou iaiyoe oaeaea
yaeythony iaeiei ec aeaeia eioaa?aeueiuo noai, eiathueo aieueoia
cia/aiea a nia?aiaiiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa. Oioy noieiinoue
eiino?oe?iaaiey e ?ac?aaioee neiaeiuo eioaa?aeueiuo noai aeinoaoi/ii
auniea, noieiinoue ioaeaeueii acyoie EN cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa ieeeeiiia iaeiioeiiuo aaeeieoe. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue EN
auniea, oae eae iaeaiueeea ?acia?u iicaieytho nie?aoeoue o?anno (aeey
i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea), /oi a naith i/a?aaeue iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue
ia aunieeo nei?inoyo ia?aeeth/aiey eiae/aneea noaiu n ieceeie o?iaiyie
(oaeea eae eiiieaiaioa?iua III-no?oeoo?u).

4. Io aiaea a aiae eioaa?aeueiua noaiu iinoiyiii oiaiueoaeenue a
?acia?ao, iicaieyy oiauaoue ia iaeiie EN an? aieueoa e aieueoa noai. Yoi
oaaee/eei iau?i aaeeieoeu, /oi iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey oiaiueoaiey a?
noieiinoue e/eee oaaee/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe caeiia Io?a. A oeaeii, ii
ia?a oiaiueoaiey ?acia?ia, i?aeoe/anee an? oeo/oaaony – oeaia ca
aaeeieoeo nieaeaaony, oaeaea nieaeaaony iio?aaeaiea yia?aee i?e
ia?aeeth/aiee, a nei?inoue oaaee/eaaaony.

5. Eeoue nionoy iieaaea iinea ia/aea ?acaeoey eioaa?aeueiua noaiu noaee
oe?iei eniieueciaaoueny. Eiiiuethoa?u, nioiaua oaeaoiiu e ae?oaea
oeeo?iaua i?eai?u nae/an yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth no?oeoo?u
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. Nia?aiaiiua eiiiuethoa?iua, eiiioieeaoeeiiiua,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e o?ainii?oiua nenoaiu, a oii /enea e Eioa?iao, an?
caaeneo io nouanoaiaaiey eioaa?aeueiuo noai. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiiaea
o/?iua n/eoatho, /oi oeeo?iaay ?aaiethoeey, i?iecaaae?iiay aeaaiaea?y
eioaa?aeueiui noaiai, auea iaeiei ec naiuo cia/eiuo niauoee a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa.

II. Oeaaeeoa eaeea ec aeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee niioaaonoaotho niaea?aeaieth
oaenoa

1. It was shown that integrated circuits could perform the functions of
vacuum tubes.

It was shown that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of
vacuum tubes.

2. There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and
speed.

There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and
performance.

3. Advanced integrated circuits are incorporated into all modern
electronic devices.

Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors,
which control everything from computers to cellular phones to digital
microwave ovens.

4. The ICs size has remained the same for years.

ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years

5. Scientists believe that the digital revolution brought by ICs was one
of the most important events in the history of mankind.

Indeed, many scholars believe that the digital revolution brought about
by integrated circuits was one of the most significant occurrences in
the history of mankind.

III. Auaa?eoa i?aaeeueiua ioaaou ia aii?inu

1. What ensured the rapid adoption of ICs?

a) The IC’s mass production capability, reliability and building-block
approach;

b) ICs high speed;

c) ICs low power consumption.

2. Why is the ICs cost low?

a) because they are constructed a transistor at a time;

b) because they are printed as a unit by photolithography;

c) because they consume little power.

3. What has consistently been decreased in ICs?

a) their functionality;

b) their speed;

c) their feature size.

IV. I?i/eoaeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey. Auaa?eoa i?aaeeueiue aa?eaio ia?aaiaea.

1. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small
chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits
using discrete electronic components.

a) Eioaa?aoeey aieueoaai /enea iaeaiueeeo o?aicenoi?ia ia iaaieueoie
noaia yaeeanue aaee/aeoei oniaa?oainoaiaaieai ii ioiioaieth e ?o/iiio
nia?aieth noai ec ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia.

b) Eioaa?aoeey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa e?ioa/iuo o?aicenoi?ia ia iaaieueoie
ieanoeia eiaea aieueoia i?aeiouanoai iaae ?o/iie nai?eie, eniieuecothuae
aeene?aoiua yeaeo?iiiua eiiiiiaiou.

n) Eioaa?aoeey aieueoiai eiee/anoaa e?ioa/iuo o?aicenoi?ia ia iaeiie
iaeaiueeie noaia i?aaenoaaeyea ia?iiiia oniaa?oainoaiaaiea ii n?aaiaieth
n ?o/iie nai?eie noai ec ioaeaeueiuo yeaeo?iiiuo yeaiaioia.

2. There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and
performance.

a) EN eiatho aeaa aeaaiuo i?aeiouanoaa iaae aeene?aoiuie noaiaie:
noieiinoue e i?aaenoaaeaiea.

b) Aeaoiy aeaaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie EN iaae aeene?aoiuie noaiaie yaeythony
noieiinoue e aunooieaiea.

n) Aeaoiy aeaaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie EN iaae aeene?aoiuie noaiaie yaeythony
noieiinoue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

3. The increased capacity per unit area can be used to decrease cost
and/ or increase functionality of Moore’s law.

a) Oaaee/aiea aieinoe ia aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey
oiaiueoaiey noieiinoe e/ eee oaaee/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe caeiia Io?a.

b) Oaaee/aiiay aieinoue ia aaeeieoea ieiuaaee iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia, /oiau oiaiueoeoue noieiinoue e/ eee oaaee/eoue
ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue caeiia Io?a.

n) Oaaee/aiiay aieinoue ia ieiuaaeue iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey
oiaiueoaiey noieiinoe e/ eee oaaee/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe caeiia Io?a.

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ? 4

Aa?eaio 1

I. Ia?aieoeoa neaaeothuea i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeeoa, yaeyaony ee
iiae/a?eiooay oi?ia eioeieoeaii, i?e/anoeai eee aa?oiaeeai. Ia?aaaaeeoa
ienueiaiii i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue

Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – I?e/anoea I.
Iaaeathuay aiaea iaeaaeaao eeiaoe/aneie yia?aeae.

1. To recognize a substance it isn’t necessary to examine all its
properties. To recognize – eioeieoea. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue aauanoai,
iaiaycaoaeueii enneaaeiaaoue ana aai naienoaa.

2. The kinetic theory of gases assumes a gas to be made up of particles
moving about with random motion. To be made – ianneaiue eioeieoea.
Moving – I?e/anoea I. Niaeanii eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee aacia, aac ninoieo ec
oaioe/ii aeaeaeoueony /anoeoe.

3. Vacuum tubes are known to have been the principal building blocks of
electronic circuits until 1955. Known – I?e/anoea II. Building –
I?e/anoea I. Ecaanoii, /oi yeaeo?iiiua eaiiu auee aeaaiie ninoaaiie
/anoueth yeaeo?iiiuo oeaiae aei 1955 aiaea.

4. The engineers were glad to have obtained such good results. To have
obtained – Ianneaiue eioeieoea. Eiaeaia?u auee ?aaeu, iieo/eoue oaeea
oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou.

II. ?ane?ieoa neiaee, eniieuecoy Participle I eee Participle II.
Ia?aaaaeeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?onneee ycue

Example: (Heat) magnet loses some of its magnetism. – Heated magnet
loses some of its magnetism.

1. Central (process) unit – is the heart of the processor. – Central
processing unit – is the heart of the processor. – Oeaio?aeueiue
i?ioeanni? – yoi na?aeoea i?ioeanni?a.

2. They saw new types of machine-tools at one of the plants (visit). –
They saw new types of machine-tools at one of the plants visited. – Iie
oaeaeaee iiaua aeaeu noaieia ia iaeiii ec iinau?iiuo caaiaeia.

3. We need highly (develop) electronics and new materials to make
supercomputers. – We need highly developed electronics and new materials
to make supercomputers. – Iai ioaeiu ?acaeoay yeaeo?iieea e iiaua
iaoa?eaeu aeey nicaeaiey noia?eiiiuethoa?ia.

4. This (vary) current is carried along a wire to a receiver. – This
varied current is carried along a wire to a receiver. – Eciai?iiue oie
ia?aaea?ony ii i?iaiaeo a i?e?iiee.

III. Ia?ao?ace?oeoa aeaiiua neiaeiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, oiio?aaea
iacaaeneiue i?e/anoiue iai?io. Ia?aaaaeeoa ienueiaiii iieo/aiiua
i?aaeeiaeaiey

Example: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk. – The weather
being fine, we went for a walk. – Oae eae iiaiaea auea oi?ioay, iu iioee
aoeyoue.

1. When temperature rises, more and more electrons in the valence band
acquire sufficient energy to break bonds. – The temperature rising, more
and more electrons in the valence band acquire sufficient energy to
break bonds. – Ii ia?a iiauoaiey oaiia?aoo?u, an? aieueoa e aieueoa
yeaeo?iiia a aaeaioiie ciia iieo/atho aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai yia?aee,
/oiau i?aiaeieaoue a? a?aieoeu.

2. As the temperature reached the boiling point, the heater was switched
off. – The temperature reached the boiling point, the heater was
switched off. – Eiaaea oaiia?aoo?a aeinoeaea oi/ee eeiaiey, iaa?aaaoaeue
aueeth/eeny.

3. If the resistance is very high, the current in the circuit is very
low. – The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit is
very low. – Oae eae nii?ioeaeaiea i/aiue aunieia, oie a oeaie i/aiue
ieceee.

IV. I?i/eoaeoa e ia?aieoeoa neaaeothuea i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeeoa, e
eaeiio oeio oneiaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineony eaaeaeia ec ieo.
Ia?aaaaeeoa ienueiaiii i?aaeeiaeaiea

Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Oneiaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea I oeia. – Eaae i?aa?aoeony a aiaeo, anee aai iaa?aaaoue.

1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand. –
Oneiaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea I oeia. –Anee oa??aeia oaei eee aeeaeeinoue
iaa?aoue, iii iau/ii ?anoe?yaony.

2. If the Earth were as hot as Venus, the oceans would vapour. –
Oneiaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea II oeia. – Anee au ia Caiea auei au oae aea
aea?ei, eae ia Aaia?a, ieaaiu enia?eeenue au.

3. Marconi wouldn’t have succeeded to transmit his first transoceanic
message if he had attempted to transmit an entire sentence. – Oneiaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea III oeia. – Ia?eiie ia oaeaeinue au ia?aaeaoue ia?aia
o?ainieaaineia iineaiea, anee au ii iiiuoaeny ia?aaeaoue oeaeia
i?aaeeiaeaiea.

?aaioa iaae oaenoii

I. I?i/eoaeoa oaeno. Iinoa?aeoanue iiiyoue aai niaea?aeaiea. Auiieieoa
caaeaiey iinea oaenoa

Eiiiuethoa?iia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (CAD)

1. I?iaeoe?iaueee oaea ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao eniieuecotho
eiiiuethoa?u aeey au/eneaiee. Ia?aua ?ac?aaioee i?iaiaeeeenue a 1960uo
aiaeao aaeaoeeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee a iaeanoe
nicaeaiey o??oia?iuo ecia?aaeaiee iiaa?oiinoae, a oaeaea i?e
i?ia?aiie?iaaiee iai?oaeiaaiey n *IO. Aieueoeinoai aeaiiuo ?ac?aaioie
i?ienoiaeeei iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa, e eo ?acoeueoaou auee
iaia?iaeiaaiu cia/eoaeueii iicaea. N/eoaaony, /oi ?aoathuei iiiaioii
noaea ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu aaiaea e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey a?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee SKETCHPAD a 1963 aiaeo Eaaiii Naca?eaiaeii. Ioee/eoaeueiie
iniaaiiinoueth nenoaiu noaei oi, /oi iia iicaieyao i?iaeoe?iaueeo
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n eiiiuethoa?ii a?aoe/anee: i?iaeo iiaeii aaanoe a
eiiiuethoa?, ia/a?oea aai naaoiaui ea?aiaeaoii ia ye?aia iiieoi?a.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, yoi aue i?ioioei a?aoe/aneiai eioa?oaena, eioi?ue
yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth nia?aiaiiuo nenoai eiiiuethoa?iiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

2. Ia?aia iauai?eciaiiia i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey
ninoiyeinue a e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo aaoiiiaeeueiie e aaeaoeeiiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea a iaeanoe yeaeo?iieee. Oieueei e?oiiua
ei?ii?aoeee iiaee iicaieeoue naaa eiiiuethoa?u, niiniaiua i?iecaiaeeoue
au/eneaiey. Iaeaieaa cia/eiui niauoeai a ?acaeoee nenoai eiiiuethoa?iiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey noaei nicaeaiea eiiiaiee MCS (Manufacturing and
Consulting Services Inc.) a 1971 aiaeo aeieoi?ii I. Aeae. Oai?aooe,
eioi?ue iaienae nenoaiioth i?ia?aiio Automated Drafting and Machining
(ADAM) (aaoiiaoe/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e ia?aaioea).

3. Eiaaea eiiiuethoa?u noaee aieaa aeinooiiuie, noa?a eo i?eiaiaiey
iinoaiaiii ?anoe?eeanue. ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii eiiiuethoa?iiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeey ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia iineoaeeei ia/aeii eo
ii/oe oieaa?naeueiiai i?eiaiaiey ai anao noa?ao no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Ae?oaeie eeth/aauie iiiaioaie a 1960uo e 1970uo aiaeao noaei nicaeaiea
nenoai eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey a eiiiaieyo United Computing,
Intergraph, IBM a 1974. Noa?a i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey
n oao ii? cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeanue. A ia/aea, a 1970uo aiaeao, oae eae
eniieueciaaeinue aeaooia?iia ecia?aaeaiea, noa?a aai i?eiaiaiey
ia?aie/eaaeanue nicaeaieai /a?oaaeae, noiaeeo n /a?oaaeaie, naeaeaiiuie
io ?oee.

4. A 1980uo aiaeao aeinoeaeaiey a noa?a i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e
eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee iicaieeee i?eiaiyoue eiiiuethoa? i?e
i?iaeoe?iaaiee a aieueoae noaiaie. Ia/eiay n eiioea 1980uo aiaeia,
?ac?aaioea aioiauo aeinooiiuo nenoai eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, n
eioi?uie iiaeii ?aaioaoue ia ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ao, aucaaea aieio
ianniaiai nie?auaiey ooaoia a eiino?oeoi?neeo ioaeaeao iaeuo e n?aaeieo
eiiiaiee. Eae i?aaeei, iaeei iia?aoi? nenoaiu eiiiuethoa?iiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey iiaeao eaaei caiaieoue eae ieieioi 4 – 5 i?iaeoe?iaueeia,
?aaioathueo o?aaeeoeeiiiui niiniaii. E?iia oiai iiiaea eiaeaia?u noaee
naie /a?oeoue naie i?iaeou, eneeth/ay, oaeei ia?acii iio?aaiinoue a
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiino?oeoi?neeo ioaeaeao. Aeaiiia yaeaiea iiaoi?eei
noaeueao iiiaeo ioeniuo caaea/, eioi?ua ?aiaa o?aaeeoeeiiii auiieiyeenue
nae?aoa??i, a n iiyaeaieai oaenoiauo i?ioeanni?ia, yeaeo?iiiuo oaaeeoe,
aac aeaiiuo e o.ae., aioaaeoeo a noaiaea?oiue iaeao i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey, ?aaioaoue n ieie aeieaeai oiaoue eaaeaeue. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy eiiiuethoa?iia i?iaeoe?iaaiea eniieuecoaony ia oieueei aeey
nicaeaiey /a?oaaeae e ?enoieia, aai noaee eniieueciaaoue ai iiiaeo aieaa
«eioaeeaeooaeueiuo» noa?ao eneonnoaa i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Eiiiuethoa?iia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea eniieuecoaony iiiaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie ai
an?i ie?a.

II. Oeaaeeoa eaeea ec aeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee niioaaonoaotho niaea?aeaieth
oaenoa

1. The developments in the area of 3D surface construction and NC
programming were carried out in the late 1970s. The developments in the
area of 3D surface construction and NC programming were carried out in
the 1960s.

2. SKETCH PAD system allowed the designer to interact with computer
graphically.

3. The computer applications have been continuously expanding.

4. Today CAD tasks are multipurpose.

5. Computer aided design is used only in some spheres of our life. Today
CAD is not limited to drafting and rendering, and it ventures into many
more “intellectual” areas of a designer’s expertise. Computer aided
design is used in many businesses and organizations around the world.

III. Auaa?eoa i?aaeeueiua ioaaou ia aii?inu.

1. What tasks did SKETCH PAD allow designers to fulfill?

a) Computer graphics.

b) Computer calculations.

c) Commercial operations.

2. What was the impetus for a universal application of computers?

a) SKETCH PAD.

b) ADAM.

c) CAD software.

3. Where is CAD used today?

a) In businesses and organizations.

b) In IBM.

c) In drafting departments.

IV. I?i/eoaeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey. Auaa?eoa i?aaeeueiue aa?eaio ia?aaiaea

1. Designers have long used computers for their calculations.

a) I?iaeoe?iaueee aeaaii eniieuecotho eiiiuethoa?u aeey au/eneaiee.

b) I?iaeoe?iaueee aeieai eniieuecotho eiiiuethoa?u aeey au/eneaiee.

c) I?iaeoe?iaueee aeaaii eniieueciaaee eiiiuethoa?u aeey au/eneaiee.

2. The design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor
with a light pen.

a) Ia/a?oea i?iaeo ia ye?aia iiieoi?a naaoiaui ea?aiaeaoii, iiaeii
aaanoe aai a eiiiuethoa?.

b) I?iaeo iiaeii aaanoe a eiiiuethoa?, ia/a?oea aai naaoiaui ea?aiaeaoii
ia ye?aia iiieoi?a.

c) *a?oaae iiaeii aianoe a eiiiuethoa?, ia/a?oea aai eaaeei ia?ea?ii ia
ye?aia iiieoi?a.

3. The development of CAD software for personal desk-top computers was
the impetus for almost universal application.

a) ?acaeoea i?ia?aii eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeey ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia yaeeinue oie/eii aeey ii/oe anaie?iiai i?eiaiaiey.

b) Nicaeaiea i?ia?aii eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiiay aeey aeaneoiiia
iiaeoieeioei eo oieaa?naeueiia i?eiaiaiea.

c) ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii eiiiuethoa?iiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeey ia?niiaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?ia iineoaeeei ia/aeii eo ii/oe oieaa?naeueiiai i?eiaiaiey.

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