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Iaiauaiea ia oaia:

Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino

Aueaa?ey, 2009

Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino

Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino: Auaeauaoi ia oo?aoiey aeai Aui?aee /a iyeie na
nuiiyaao a iioaioeeaea ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, ?aaeiinooa a iaoaoi
oaoiieiae/ii caaeneie eoeoo?a i?aae ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino na /ano io
aaeaaeiaaiey aeeaio. Iiioey?ie aua aeaeai ea?e, ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino
iicaieyaa ia iio?aaeoaey aea eiio?iee?a ecoeyei eiiithou?ece?aia
oa?aeoa?. Anyei aeaenoaea, eiaoi iio?aaeoaeyo iai?aae a eieoe?ai io
oa?aeoa?a e iieacaao aaaeiaaa ca iio?aaeoaey. Aui?aee oiaa, io ia/aeioi
ia 90-oa, eciiecaaiaoi ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a ?ac?aaioeea e acaoe
naaoeeiaoa ia i?iaeaeoi?eoa ieiaeioi ?acaeaa aeaeai ea?e. Ae?ooaeiaoa
?aaeiino aa/a a iai?aaeea naiy ioia/aoue au?oo iaeanoe eaoi aaeaoeey,
iaaeeoeeiaoa, a aei?e e iaoai?ieiaey. Euaea a oace iiaa oaoiieiaey
iiceoeey a auaeaua? Nii?aae ecaeaieaoi ia oeeyaeieaoeaoi ia Wall Street
Journal “, aei?e eiina?aaoeaieoa i?iaiice ni/ao, ia?aciaaiea,
?acaea/aiey, ia ?aaioiioi iynoi e a?aieoeeoa ia /iaaoeioi ec?acyaaia ua
auaea cia/eoaeii i?iiaiaia io ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino” (Cox 40). Ana
ii-iai?aaeiaee oaoiieiaee ae iiaei aea iinoaae ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a
naaeaeeaoa ia aiaea/a ia iiiai eiaeono?ee. I?ac iineaaeieoa aiaeeie
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino aa/a o/anoaa a iyeieei oaoiieiae/ie iaeanoe. Aei?e e
oace, eieoi eiao iaeei iiciaiey ca i?iecaiaenoaioi ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino
iae-aa?iyoii na iaynii n oiio?aaaoa io aua aeaeai ea?e. Aui?aee oiaa,
iiiai oi?a ia iiaao aea auaeao iaynii n iiiai ae?oae iaeanoe, euaeaoi a
aeei i?eeiaeaii. Ca i?eia?, ano?iiaao noaaeaioe ianei?i ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino ca neioee?aia ia iuooaaia aei einiina. Nooaeaioe ii iaaeeoeeia
na caiaiyo aaeei o?oi ca noueeiieano ieanai ia oyeioi e neooaeeeoa ne,
eiaaoi iao/aiea ca ecau?oaaia ia iia?aoeeyoa. Iiioey?ieyo iieaei /ao na
?acaeaa a aaeii iauanoai ia eioa?aeoeaie, aieie?aie iio?aaeoaee.
Auaaaeaeaia ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a ?aaeiey nayo a aa/a aeieacaii, /a
aea auaea io iieca ca anyea eiaeono?ey ai n?auia. Aeia?a aeioee a iiaey
nayo ia ae?ooaeieoa oaoiieiaee, i?aaeeinoaaoa aaeaa naaa caii/aao.
Ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino (VR), eaeoi na aeaoeie?aie io Ithau?e Euua ?a/iee ia
aia?eeainee aiaeeenee, ecieoaa nuaeoey, eieoi ecaeaaeaeao eaoi enoeinee
aeeaio /?ac auaaaeaeaia ia niaoeeaeie i/eea ia i/eoa, neooa ono?ienoaa
?aeeaia ?ueaaeoee, nau?caie n eiiithou?. N iiiiuoa ia oace oa?aeoa?ie
ono?ienoaa, aeaenoaeyoa ia iio?aaeoaey VR’s ecoeyei eiio?ie a ?acoeoao
ia aeaenoaeyoa ia eiiithou?a. Oice eiio?ie ii?aaeaey ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino
inaai i?aaeaa?eoaeii ?ac?aaioaie oaoiieiaee. Ii?aaee iaaa?iyoii au?ca
nei?ino ia ia?aaioea ia eiiithou?a, VR i?eaia ia iio?aaeoaey anaee oiae
e iieacaa ?acee/eyoa aua ae?ooaeiioi i?ino?ainoai. I?e eciiecaaia ia
aeaeo?iiie iaaeee i?iecoiae, oi?aoa ia naii na ecoiaie, ii nuui aa/a a
eanii aea aeeya e oaaaeee io ?acaea/aiey. Ca i?eia?, ia 30 Ieoiia?e
1938, I?nui Oaen ?aaeeioi aeecaiaoi a neea ia “Aieia ia naaoiaaoa, eiaoa
iyeie oi?a na niyoa, /a ?aaeii ecauicaiia eiaacey nuaeoeyoa. A i?eeeea,
oaeaaecey e oeeie io aeian na a nunoiyiea aea i?iieaaia ia iicuea oi?a
ecaui?aaeii. Neaaeaaua aeieaea eiiithou? iieieaiea n aaca?ie ia/eie aea
na oaeaay oi?a a ?acaeaeaoaeiey eiiitho?e i?aaeinoaayo. Aeaeo?iiie ea?e,
caaaeii n eioa?iao, aa?iyoii na iae-aieaieoa o/anoieoee ca eioi?ie?aia
ia oi?a a caoai?aie iiiauaiey, e oiaa, eiaoi iyeie niyoao ca iu?oua.
Iae-aieaieyo eioa?i?aoaoi? ia ?aaeiey nayo a ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino.
Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino iiaea aea iinoaae ia iio?aaeoaey iaanyeuaea i?aayo
ieui aea ne i?aaenoaaeoa. Eneao ee aea ieney aei Eoiaoa? Iiaeaoa aea n
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. Ia ay?aaoa ee? N ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, oi?aoa na aa/a
ii iuoy ne iaai?a. Iiaea ae naii aniaeo ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, eiyoi ia
a ii iuoy ne iaai?a a oeaiaoa. Jaron Eaiea a eiiithou?ai o/ai, eieoi a
onoaiiaee oa?ieiuo “ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino” a ia/aeioi ia 1980. Nii?aae Wall
Street Journal, Eaiea cayae, /a: … aeia?i iai?oaeaaia ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino i?iaeueaeaaa aea auaea iiiai neuii e /a nioooa?ie eino?oiaioe,
iaiaoiaeeie ca nucaeaaaia ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino n?aaea inoaaao no?iae e
o?oaeie ca oiio?aaa. Eaeoi e i?e ane/ee aeaeiaa ia eioi?iaoeeiiieoa
oaoiieiaee, ?acoiaeeoa na ioiaaeaia au?ci e caiacaa ea/anoaioi na
iiaeia?yaa. Ii ca naaa, naii ecaa?aoa iyeieei eiaee oiaa, eiaoi aaeei
aeai ua na i?aau?ia a iae/aeia oiio?aaa ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. (Cox 40)
Oue eaoi oeaiaoa ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino i?iaeueaeaaa aea na ioeaaea,
iiaea ae a auaeaua ua iaeoaaao ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a ii/oe ane/ee
oaoiieiae/ie neooaoeey. Iacaaeneii, aaeii iaui a neao?ii: ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino na i?iiaiy ia/eia, ii eieoi iea aeaeaeaia iauaoa. Oace, eieoi
aeaaeao ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a iieca ia iauanoaioi ie, aaca oyoiioi
iiaiea ca oniaoa ne i?ac iiiaeanoai iaeanoe ia ciaieaoi. Aui?aee oiaa,
aui?inuo a ia aeaee ?aaioe eee ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, ii aei oiaa a
iaenoeia io iieca. Ia naii ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino iiaea aea na i?aau?ia a
aieyii i?aaeeinoai, eiaaoi na aeeth/aie a oaoie/anee iaeanoe, ii nuui
oaea e i?e aianyiaoi ei a aaeaaeiaaiey aeeaio. Eiiaeie?aiaoi ia
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino n anaee aeai aeaeiino iiaea aea na ieaaea
iae-iieaciey oaoiieiae/iioi ?acaeoea aua a?aiaoi. N oa/aiea ia a?aiaoi
aaaine oaea na ciaiey iaoaoi iauanoai a iaeanooa ia iaaeeoeeiaoa.
Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino iiaea aoaeoeaii aea neioee?a iaaeeoeeinee eaaeiaoe
e niaoie neo/ae, ca aea i?iaeoeoeaii aeae o/aueoa iaeanooa ia
iaaeeoeeiaoa. A ieiaeioi oe?o?ae/ie iao/aiea, noaaeaioeoa, eciiecaaie
i?aaieoa ia aea?aiaoa o?oiiaa ia i?aeoeea oe?o?ae/ie oaoieee e
i?aoeeciino. Iaioaeaaia, eiaaceaia oe?o?aey, iicu/ia oe?o?aey, a
“oe?o?aey TelePresence” na ii/oe ane/ee na i?anucaeaaeaie n iai?aaeiaea
oaoiieiaey. Oe?o?aey TelePresence eciiecaa nenoaia, eiyoi iicaieyaa ia
aaeei eaea? aea ?aaioe ia iaoeeaioa, ia anyei iynoi. Nii?aae 23-oe ai?ee
1994 aiae. ecaeaaaia ia British Medical Journal, TelePresence iia?aoeey
iiaea aea “aeaaea auciiaeiino … niaoeeaeece?aie eaea?e aea ?aaioyo
au?oo iaoeeaioe [io] io ?acnoiyiea” (McGovern 2). Oiaa ae aeei iiiai
iieacii aeiiueiaiea eui oe?o?ae/iaoa iaeano. Iai?eia?, aeaaeai iaoeeaio
iiaea aea iienea eiie?aoai eaea? ca ecau?oaaia ia iia?aoeey ia oyo io
anyea oi/ea ia naaoa. Oiaa ua auaea iaiaoiaeei, aei iia?aoeeyoa a aeea
iaiae/aeii e eaea? niaoeeaeeno ia a ia ?aciieiaeaiea a aeecino.
E?eoe/iaoa iao/aieaoi ia ano?iiaaoeoa nuui na ei?eae?a. N ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino, ano?iiaao noaaeaioeoa iiaao aea ecieoao onauaiaoi ca
i?ino?ainoai aac iianiino io enoeineioi iaui. Aieaie eoiiee aaeooi, eee
caoai?aie ciie aac eenei?iae, na iiioey?ie ca ?acae?aoaenoai n onauaiaoi
ca iaaeiioneaia ia a?aaeoaoeeiiiioi i?ino?ainoai. Aui?aee, /a oace
i?aeoeea a aoaeoeaia, eciiecaaiaoi ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino aeieaca, /a a
ii-aeaaii?eyoii a?aia ca iao/aiea ia iynoi. Aeaeei Ithiai iao?oiae 779
/ana ca iuooaaia a einiina e 28 /ana oiaeaia i?ino?ainoai i?ac oeaeey ne
ienee ia ai?aea ia einie/anee niaaeee. Ithiai, nau?caie n ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino, eaoi iineoa eanea, naici?ie ?ueaaeoee, eieaie e ?aiioi, /a
ecia?aa e ioaiai?e ia anyei iaaiai aeaeaeaiea. “A no?aiii, ianoie
a?aaeoaoeeiiiioi aucaeaenoaea ia au?oyue na a i?ino?ainoaioi, [Ithiai
eacaa], iai?aae ane/ei auciiaeii, ii aea i?aeoeeoaao oace iaiaa?e, inaai
n iiiiuoa ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino” (Cox 40). Ca ae?ooaeii iao/aiea oi/ii
eieoe?a aieyi no?ao aea noaia eceeth/ai io ianaa ia ciaiey, eiaaoi na
?acoiaeaeao a einiina. N oeae aoaeoeaii aeaea ca Einiina, einiiiaao,
o?yaaa aea iieo/ao aaeia e nuua n?aaea, eiyoi i?aaeaeaeaea i?ino?ainoai.
Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino a io iieca ca einie/anee iao/aiea aua anyeaeaa
n?aaea, cauioi eanii iiaea aea auaea nucaeaaeai e i?io/aie io
iio?aaeoaey. IANA a caiyia, a acaiaia ia VR-aeinouiie e ca ioe?eaaia ia
iai?oaeaaia ca aieyi a?ie oi?a. Iiaa/aoi oi?a aeoa eneaee aea eiao
ii-oi/ia i?iaiica a?aia, iniaaii eiaaoi a?aiaoi a iianii, o/anoaaue.
Ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino iicaieyaa ia o/aieoa aea iieo/eoa a iiaeaaeiaoa
iianie iaoai?ieiae/ie oneiaey e aea iieo/ao ii-aeia?i ?acae?aia ia
nunoaaee, iaiaoiaeeie ca aaia?e?aia ia ao?y. N oiaa ciaiea, o/aieoa
iiaao aea ia?aciaao i?iaiiceoa ei iicaiee aea acaiao ii-aeia?e i?iaiice
ca aucieeaaiaoi ia iianiino ao?e. Oace oi/ie i?iaiice ua iicaiee ia
oi?aoa aea na iiaeaioayo ii-aeia?a ca caieaoa ca a?aiaoi e na a
aaciianiino io iai/aeaaie eaoano?ioe. Nii?aae noaoey, iaia?aie a
aeaeaia?e 1997 aiaeeia a?ie ia nienaiea Caiyoa, aeaeai oaaou?, na
eciiecaa ca iieacaaia ia ae?ooaeie neioeaoeee aeaenoaeoaeiino nuuanoaoaa
a eaiiona ia oieaa?neoaoa a Eeeiien, O?aaia-Oaiiaei. Oice oaaou?
(“Iaua?a”) ua na iiaeoe ?acae?aiaoi ia o/aieoa ia oaaeea ao?y io
i?aeoeea ae iinoaay a n?aaeaoa ia iaai. Auo?a a ae?ooaeie neioeaoeee,
iio?aaeoaeyo noie a ouiia noay, iaa?aaeai io o?e no?aie io aaee ae?aie
ieao. Iiiaia?ieie aeaeai i?iaeoi?e, ecaui iaua?aoa, iynoi nieiee ia
ae?aie, ca aea na aeaee io iio?aaeoaey. A niaoeeaeie i/eea, iinaie io
iio?aaeoae i?aayo oace i?iaiice ecaeaaeaea ?aaeii ia /iaaoeey iicue. Io
n?aaeaoa ia ae?ooaeia ao?y, iaua?aoa ua iicaiee ia o/ai aea i?iiaiy
i?iiaieeaeoa, iaiaoiaeeie ca ao?y. Iai?eia?, ?iau?o Wilhelmson,
aoiinoa?ii o/ai a oieaa?neoaoa a Eeeiien e caau?oee nooaeaio Vijendra
Jaswal aa/a na eciiecaaee oice IAUA?A ca ecneaaeaaiey “neeieoa
a?uiioaae/ie ao?e, oi?iaaei-supercell oaeaa?, a iaiineaaeue o?iie/anee
?aaa eeiey” (Pen oeaico?e?aie * * 9). Iaua?aoa a aa/a aeieacaii, aea
auaeao iieacie a iaeanooa ia iaoai?ieiaeyoa. N ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino,
o/aieoa iiaao eanii aea na oueeoaa oaeoi?e iianai ao?y o?yaaa aea
i?iaiiceoa. N iiaa/a eioi?iaoeey ca oiaa eaeai i?e/eiyaa iianii a?aia,
naaouo iiaea aea na i?aau?ia a oaaaeeua io ao?yoa. Ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino
i/aaeaeii ?aaioe, ii ia iiaao aea auaeao iaenoeia iieacie. A
aeaenoaeoaeiino, iiiai oi?a ay?aao, ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a anuuiino a?aaee
ia iaoaoi iauanoai. Oa ia ay?aao, /a i?iaiice?a auciiaeiinoeoa ca
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, a nuui e i?ioeaiiinoaayo ai eciiecaaoa. Oace oi?a
eiao iniiaaoaeia i?e/eia ca oyoiaoa neeia ay?a. Oace, eieoi ianuaeaeao
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, iaeeiiaaii na nun?aaeioi/e naii au?oo naieoa neeie
no?aie; ?yaeei na aeieaaea, /a oi a io iieca ca iauanoaioi ie.
Iaaaeeiyaaue ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino aua anaee aeai aeaeiino iiaea aea na
ieaaea iau iaaeinoaoue ca ane/ee o/anoaaue no?aie. Ca nuaeaeaiea,
iiaa/aoi io oa?aeoa?a, o/anoaaue aua ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a ana iua aeinoa
iaiiaeaioaaie ca naieoa i/aeaaiey. I?aaee aiaeeie a?eaaee ayoa iueie n
i?inoe, a?aoe/ii eeinaa ea?e, eaoi Pac-Man, eee Frogger. Aui?aee oiaa,
aeian oy noaaa iau ca thiioanoaioi aea na ?acaaee n iiaaoa ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino ea?e a ia?iiia noay nun naiaeiaa. I?iaeaiuo a a oace neioeaoeee
ia?aie/aaao iio?aaeoaey aei aeaaeaiaoi ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino io
auo?aoiinooa ia eanea eee /eoo i/eea. Neio?iiece?aie n ii-neaai
aeaeaeaiea, i?iecaaaeaie io oace ono?ienoaa /anoi inoaay iio?aaeoaeeoa
caiayie eee aaaee. *iaae n iaaaeaine?aii ?aaiiaanea iiaea aea eia iua
ii-oneiaeiaiey, eiaaoi ecieoaao ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. Oiaa a i?eia? ca
oiaa eae ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino a aeieacaii, /a na a?aaeie ca iiace, eieoi
ai eciiecaao. Ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino eia niiniaiinooa aea na aeii?eiana ca
ii/oe ane/ee oaoiieiae/ie aaeaaeiaaieoa ne aeaeiinoe. Ii iia iiaiea,
/iaaoeaoa ?ana aa/a a iinaaoaia aieyia /ano io oaoieoa ecauieeanie
aeaeiinoe ca oaoiieiaey. Aoi caui, ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino eia iioaioeeae ca
caeeth/aaia ia i?aeoeea oi?a a caoai?aie iiiauaiey e aea ae i?iieaaia ia
iicuea ia ?aaeiinoeoa. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo oi?aoa, eaeoi e oaoieoa
nioeeaeie oiaiey, aea iaiaee ae?anoe/ii. A Eioa?iao aa/a na i?aau?ia a
iniiaai oaeoi? a iiaa/aoi oaeeaa anaee aeeaio. *ao noae e iacaaaaie
nuiauaiey a iiiaioa a eceeth/eoaeii iiioey?ia a oeaeey World Wide Web.
I?ac 1995 a. iiaa eaoaai?ey ia /ao aaoa auaaaeaia a Eioa?iao. Naaoiaa
*ao nu/aoaaa o?eecia?iaoa a?aoeea n iieaei /ao. *aouo aeaaa auciiaeiino
ia iio?aaeoaey aea ecaa?a aieie?aie i?aai ca naaa ne e ne
acaeiiaeaenoaao n ae?oa iio?aaeoae ?aciieiaeaie iaanyeuaea ii naaoa.
Aui?aee /a oice i?eia? ia na aeeth/aao oeie/ieoa oeai VR, oy ia
aeaiiino?e?a ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. Oice i?eia? iieacaa, /a Eioa?iao na
i?aa?uua a aieyia /ano io /iaaoeioi iauoaaia. Aui?aee, /a oace aeaeiino
a caaaaii, /a a iau iaaeinoaoue ia iauanoaioi. Iae-aeia?eyo ia/ei aea
iao/eo iaui a aea auaeaoa naeaeaoaee ia oiaa io iu?aa ?uea. Aoi caui,
eaoi na eciiecaa ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino ca aea iao/eoa-o?oaeieoa caaea/e, ia
a iae-aeia?eyo ia/ei aea ae iao/ao. Iai?eia?, ano?iiaao noaaeaioe
eciiecaa ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino ia aeaea ca i?ino?ainoai, ia ciaai
?acoeoaoeoa io a?aoeeoa ne. Oa iiaao aei?e aea auaeao i?iieoe iicuoee
aea ay?aa, oa iiaao aea i?aayo a?aoee. Aoi caui, eaoi na eciiecaa
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino ia aeaea a a?aaea ca iyeie oaoie/anee iaeanoe.
Ay?aai, ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino ua auaea io iieca ia iaoaoi auaeaua aua anyea
iaeano ai n?auia. Oace oaoiieiaey aa/a a iiiiaiaea ia oi?aoa aea iao/ao
oieeiaa iiiai iaua. Iai?eia?, aei iyeie io uaoa Oei?eaea enea aea na
iao/e eae aea ea?aoa nee, oa iiaao n ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. Oa iiaao aea
?aiuea ia oeaia, nouiea eui iyeie aeoeaie nee e iieo aeaenoaeoaeiino
aeaea/ io anyei niya. Aei iyeie enea aea na iao/e eae aea na aieo aac
oiaeaia oeaeey eo?n, ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino iiaea aea na nu?aaiiaaaao ia
ea?aoa. Ac aaaeiuae iieo oace einoaioeey ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino. Aieo
ea?e na nucaeaaeaie, ca eieoi iio?aaeoaeyo iiaea aea etheea e
aeaenoaeoaeiioi eeoa e oaea? aeaenoaeoaeii oiiea a ae?aia i?aae oyo.
Ae?aiuo a nu?aaiiaaiea ia ane/ee ?acae?a na, a naaoa. Neaae eaoi oiieaoa
na oaea?e ia ae?aia, oie i?iaeueaeaaa iuoy ne a ea?aoa. Oace ea?a a
iiiai ?aaeenoe/ai, oue eaoi ea?aoa /aoa oiiee o?aaeoi?ey, neea, iiniea e
aei?e niei, eiaaoi oiaa a oeo. Ac aaaeiuae ea?aa n 18 aeoiee a Aoaonoa,
aaeei io iae-i?aiea? eo?niaa a naaoa, a ac aei?e ia inoaaeoa Ioaei. Oace
i?eia?e na naii iyeie io auciiaeiinoeoa ca ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino ua
aeiaaaea aei iaoaoi auaeaua. Auaaaeaeaia ia ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a auaeaua
ua na ieaaea iieca ca iaoaoi iauanoai. Iyeieei aaaeie aui?ine, nau?caie
n ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino i?aaee oiaa na aeee ianuaeaie. Oe?o?aey e
oe?o?ae/ie iao/aiea na eceeth/eoaeii cia/aiea i?ioeane, a eieoi
ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino a iieacae, /a aea auaea io iieca. Einiiiaao iao/aiea
a ae?oa ?aoaaau i?ioeaaeo?a. Aeaeei Ithiai, niaoeeaeenoe a
i?ino?ainoaioi, na iini/aa, /a aac ae?ooaeia ?aaeiino, /a a
“iaauciiaeii” aea na iao/aaao ca iyeie nuaeoey (Cox 40). Oi/ie i?iaiice
ia a?aiaoi ia aeiaae a eanii. Aui?aee oiaa, ae?ooaeiaoa ?aaeiino a aee
aeeth/ai a i?io/aaiaoi ia oaaeee iaoai?ieiae/ie oneiaey, eaoi i?iaiiceoa
na iiaa/a ciaiey e iauanoaioi ii-aieyia caueoa. Auaeauaoi a ae?ooaeia
?aaeiino, a iieceoa ua inoaiao iaecia?eia.

Iaoiaoa, ea?aeai oeei io Sony Pictures, iiae?iaiinoe ia oae-oae ae?aiaoa
ia Aiaeaeaea Aaiao (?ieyoa na eciueiyaa io Naiae?a Aueie), eieoi a
aiaeecaoi? eiiithou?ie nenoaie. Eiaaoi oy neo/aeii iieo/aaa aeinoui aei
eeaneoeoee?aia i?ia?aiaoa, oy na i?aa?uua a eaiai a i?aaeaoa ia
ienoa?eyoa e eiinie?aoeey. Aui?aee oiaa, oeeiuo ia oniy aea nia/aee iaae
oeeia aoaeeoi?ey e aaeia io i?e/eieoa iiaea aea a, /a iiaa/aoi oi?a aua
oeeia ua iauanoaaiinooa ana iua ia ciaa ca eaeai oi/ii eiiithou?ie
nenoaie aiaeecaoi? i?aae. Nii?aae Webster’s New World Dictionary
(1359-1360), aaeei eiiithou?ie nenoaie aiaeecaoi? a iyeie, eiaoi
i?iaeoe?a aoaeoeaia eiiithou?ia nenoaia ca eiie?aoia noiiainea aeaeiino,
i?iaeo e o.i., a a i?ioeana ia aiaeec ia nenoaieoa na ii?aaeaey eaoi
eiaeaia?ia oaoieea, eieoi ?aca?aaeaea eiiieaen oaoie/anee, nioeeaeie e
ae? i?iaeaie a iniiaieoa aeaiaioe, /eeoi acaeiiioiioaiey na ioeaiyaao e
i?ia?aie?aie, n iiiiuoa ia iaoaiaoeeaoa, a eiieo?e?ao e eioaa?e?aia
nenoaia. Iaea? aea a ay?ii, /a aeiaoieoa aeniei naaoa oaoiieiaey eceneaa
eiieo?aioia i?aaiecaoeey eciiecaa eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?e, n
oeae aea eioaa?e?a naiyoa eioi?iaoeey, oi?aaeaiea, n/aoiaiaenoai,
i?iecaiaenoai e ?aci?aaeaeaiea ia i?iaeaaeaeoa nenoaie. Oice aiaeec ua
iieoa oeie/ieoa ioaiai?iinoeoa ia eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?,
aeeth/eoaeii e ia iaca?a ia o?oaea e ia?niaeoeaeoa ca ea?ea?a, eiyoi
iiaea aea auaea aaeei io iae-ia?aca?aie i?ioanee a aeiaoii a?aia.
Eiiithou?ieoa nenoaie aiaeecaoi?eoa /anoi ia?aca?ai, cauioi oa aiai?yo
ia oaoai acee, eiaoi cao/e iiaa/a io a?uoeee a?uoeee, n iaue aeoie eaoi
Sun, FoxPro, VB-4, C + + Himmelberg (8G), /anoi iaioneaia aac
aiaeecaoi?e iaae?aneaaia aeaaeoa ei. Aui?aee oiaa, ?acaeoeaoi ia
aoaeoeaie nioooa?ie e oa?aeoa?ie nenoaie a io nuuanoaaii cia/aiea e ana
ii-aaaeia ooieoeey ia aecian iia?aoeee e oniao. Aui?aee iaeeiiaaii
iaciaeie iaoiaee e oiaiey ia eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?, oa ia na
aaeeinoaai ea?a/ a i?aaiecaoeeyoa, ii nei?i eioaa?e?ai /eai ia aeeia. A
oneeeyoa ne ca ?ac?aaioaaia ia aoaeoeaie nenoaie ca eiiithou?, /eeoi
oa?aeoa? e nioooa? iicaieyaa ia i?aaiecaoeeyoa aea ?aaioe aeaaeei e
eiieo?aioeeyoa, aiaeecaoi?eoa /anoi o?yaaa aea ?aaioyo n ane/ee eeoea,
o/anoaaue a iioiea ia eioi?iaoeey a ?aieeoa ia eiiiaieyoa. Oa na
caieiaaao n i?ia?aienoe, eeeaioe, iaieaeaeu?e e ae?oae aea ?ac?aaioaao e
i?eeaaao ?acee/ie nioooa?, ca aea aeaaea auciiaeiino ia eiiiaieyoa aea
na auciiecaao iaeneiaeii io oi?aaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeeyoa e iinoeaaia ia
eiieo?aioii i?aaeeinoai n oaoiieiaeeoa. Oeie/ieyo oeeeue ia ?acaeoea ia
nenoaieoa ca aeeaio a eaeoi neaaeaa: 1) Eieoeee?aia, 2) ieaie?aia ia
i?iaeoa, 3) Aiaeec, 4) Eiae/anee aeecaei, 5) Oece/anee aeecaei, 6)
I?eeaaaia, 7) Iiaeaeu?aeaia (Eaeai 3). Nenoaieoa aiaeecaoi?e o?yaaa aea
?acaa?ao, /a eioi?iaoeeiiieoa nenoaie na eiiaeiaoeey io i?ioeane e
aeaiie. Oai na iniiaieoa ?aceeee iaaeaeo i?ioeana ia i?eaioaoeey e
i?eaioaoeeyoa ia aeaiie, ii iae-nenoaiaoa na ioaeaeaa aea eia
eiiaeiaoeey ia aeaiaioe io aeaaoa eee aea eciiecaaoa e aeaaoa ianiee aei
ecaanoia noaiai. Iniiaieoa ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo i?ioean-i?eaioe?aia
nenoaia e aeaiie, i?eaioe?aia nenoaia, na eca?iaie a oaaeeoeaoa
ii-aeieo: i?ioean I?EAIOAOeEss IA AeAIIE I?EAIOAOeEss na oieone?a au?oo
oiaa, eiaoi nenoaiaoa a o?yaaaei aea iai?aayo aeaiieoa ia nenoaiaoa
o?yaaa aea ooieoeeiie?ao Oaeeiaa n aeaiie na i?aaeiacia/aie ca anaee
ioaeaeai Application Data ioaeaee ia na i?iiaiyo oieeiaa au?ci, eieeioi
ia?aaioaao iiiai eiio?iee?aie aeoaee?aia ia aeaiieoa oaeeiaa,
i?aaeiacia/aie ca Enterprise Limited, eiio?iee?aie aeoaee?aiaoi (Eaeai
5) Ii a?aia ia ioaee/iey e /anoiey naeoi?, eiiithou?ie nenoaie na
iaiaoiaeeie ca ?acee/ie oeaee e aea eciueiyaao ?acee/ie ooieoeee. Io
eoea ianoie iaeano Frag i?aaee (LAN) eee oe?iee i?aaee (WANs) ca
ii?u/ee, eciueiaieaoi eee aei?e i?iaeoe?aia ia iio?aaeoaenee nioooa?.
Neaaeieoa caaeueaeaiey eee oneoae, na aaeie io iae-/anoi n?auaieoa,
ecau?oaaie io oace /anoi caaaaeu/ia ?aaioieoee. Aiaeec ia eiiithou?a e
aea iaia?yo ?aoaiey ia eeeaioe ca ia?aaioea ia eioi?iaoeey, aaca aeaiie
eee na ioaeaeaa io ec/eneaiey; Iaieoe eceneaaia niaoeeoeeaoeee ca
eiiithou?ie i?ia?aie, ii?aaeaeyia ia ia?ee a i?ia?aiaoa e na eceneaa
aeai?eoie; ecieoaaia e i?eeaaaia ia eiiithou?ie i?ia?aie e i?aaeinoaay
iao/aiea ia iio?aaeoaeeoa; ieai e eciueiaiea ia nenoaie ca neao?iino
eiiithou?ia aaca aeaiie ca eiio?ie ia aeinouia; Aiaeec ia aace aeaiie,
?acaeoea ia aaca aeaiie, aee?aeoi?ee e aaia?e?ao e iiaeaeu?aeao aace
aeaiie; e eiio?iee?ao eiiithou?ieoa i?ia?aienoe eee ae?oae nenoaie eee
aiaeecaoi?e neoaee eaoi ?ueiaiaeeoaee ia i?iaeoe (Computer 1). Ii?aaee
oau?aea oaoie/aneioi anoanoai ia naiyoa iaeano, eiiithou?ie nenoaie,
aiaeecaoi?e na aaeie io iae-ou?naieoa i?ioanee e aeian, eaeoi io oace,
eieoi ou?nyo aea ne iaia?yo ?aaioa e oace, ou?naue aea ae iaaiao. A
aeaenoaeoaeiino, eia ee oaeiaa ou?naia ia eiiithou?ie nenoaie,
aiaeecaoi?e, a iiiaioa, /a oa /anoi i?aayo no?aoioai caieaoa aaca e na
wooed io oe?ie. Oace eiiiaieyoa ei i?aaeeiaee iiiai i?aaeeinoaa, eieoi
eceecao caaaeii n oiaa aea ne eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?e, eaoi
aeia?e caieaoe, aeia?e iaacuaoaiey e i?eyoie oneiaey ia o?oae.
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/ie ?aaioie ianoa na ioneaia ia iaca?a ia
?aaioieoeeoa e neoaeeoaeeoa a iaoe aeie, eaeoi ca eioi?iaoeeiiieoa
oaoiieiaee anioeeaoeey ia Aia?eea nuiaue, /a eieeioi 190000 io oace
iiceoeee, eieoi /aeao aea auaeao acaoe io oace n iiaeoiaeyuaoa
eaaeeoeeaoeey, caaaeii n oaeoa, /a aia?eeaineioi ieienoa?noai ia o?oaea
noaoenoeea iieacaao aeaeaiea ou?naiaoi ia eiiithou?a oaeaio i?ac 2005.
NAU ?aaioiaeaoaeeoa ua o?yaaa 650000 nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?e, 900000 e
300000 eiiithou?ie i?ia?aienoe, eioi?iaoeeiiie nenoaie, iaieaeaeu?e
(Himmelberg 8G). A caieauaiaoi ca oace aeeuaeiino e aieyii ou?naia ca
iay na iiae?aaeaie aiaeecaoi?, eiiithou?ia nenoaia, eaoi iae-aeia?aoa
?aaioa a Aia?eea, nii?aae ia?eoa iineaaeiaoa eeanaoeey ia 100 ?aaioie
ianoa … aenieiceaie i/aeaa ?uno io 37% iiiiaia nenoaie ca caaeaeaeaaia
aiaeecaoi? ia au?oa ia oaaeeoeaoa io ? 31 a i?aaeeoiey ?aiaeenoa
(Aeeau?o 70). N?aaeiaoa ?aaioia caieaoa ca nenoaie aiaeecaoi? a
i?eaeeceoaeii $ 44,800, ii aenieioi ou?naia e iaaeinoea ia oi?a n oaeeaa
oiaiey /anoi i?aae ia/aeia caieaoa iiiaaeao iyeuaea iaaeaeo $ 45,000 – $
65,000 aiaeeoii (Computer 2). Aei iao/aieaoi e ia?aciaaieaoi na ioiany
ca anaee, eieoi aeaeaa aea auaea aiaeecaoi? nenoaie o?yaaa iaeeiiaaii
iueai aaeaeaau?nea noaiai ii eiiithou?ie iaoee, iaoaiaoeea eee iyeie
aecian aaeieieno?aoeey, nau?caie n iaeanooa. Neaae eaoi ?aaioe e iaae?a
iieo eaoi eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi? iiiai ua na ecea/e a
ei?ii?aoeaiaoa noueaa aea noaia eioi?iaoeeiiie nenoaie, iaieaeaeu?e.
Oneiaeyoa ia o?oae na iaeeiiaaii aeinoa oaeiaie ca eiiithou?ie nenoaie,
aiaeecaoi?e, eieoi ?aaioyo a ioene, eaai?aoi?ee eee ae?oae iiaeiaie
oneiaey ia ?aaioa. Oa n?aaeii /aoe?anao /ana ia naaeieoea, ii aa/a? e
?aaioa i?ac ii/eaieoa aeie na oeie/ie a oace iaeano. No?anuo, nau?caie n
?aaioaoa a ieieiaeii e na aeueaee aeaaii ia oaaeee ?acia? ia /an
aiaeecaoi?uo i?aea?aa i?aae iiieoi?a ia eiiithou?a ne, oa na iiaeaoeeae
ia ieioi iai?aaeaiea e ia?aoii aeeneiioi?o e ?uea e i?iaeaie eeoeaoa
(Ath?i 2). Eia aieyii auaeaua ou?naiaoi ia aiaeecaoi?eoa eiiithou?ie
nenoaie i/aeaaiioi, ii eia e iyeie i?aaeecaeeaoaenoaa ia oace, eieoi
aeecao a noa?aoa o?yaaa aea ciaaoa. Iai?eia?, iiiai i?e?iaeaoa
oaoiieiaey a ianoaaeeia, eaoi eiiaaoeeeoa a eiaoi ia ea?aoa eiieo?aioii
aiai?aia. I?ia?aiie aceoee e oaoieee, ua i?iaeueaee aea na ?acaeaa e
eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?, ia naii o?yaaa aea auaeao aeia?a
caiiciaoe n iaaiaeoa oaoie/anee acee, ii oa nuui o?yaaa aea eiao aeia?e
eiioieeaoeaie oiaiey. Oa o?yaaa aea auaeao a nunoiyiea aea iayniyo ia
aeniei oaoiieiae/ie eiioeaioeee e i?ioeane ca eeeaioe e ?acae?ao ioaeaee
ia anaee eeeaio ia nenoaiaoa. Nii?aae aia?eeaineioi ieienoa?noai ia
o?oaea aiaeecaoi?e nenoaie ua auaea aaeei io iae-au?ci ?acaeaauey na
i?ioanee i?ac 2005 aiaeeia. Eia iiiai i?e/eie ca oiaa. Iu?ai, ca
ioaeaeeoa ia oace eaaeeoeoee?aie ?aaioieoee ia au?ae a e?ae n ou?naiaoi
ia oaoieoa oneoae. Io ae?oaa no?aia, iaaeaeoia?iaeie e auo?aoie
oaaee/aaa eiieo?aioeeyoa io aeiaaeecaoeeyoa ia iaca?eoa ii naaoa na na
nu/aoaee ca iaeyaaia aeciana e i?aaeoaenoaaoa a ou?naia ia eiieo?aioii
i?aaeeinoai. Ia o?aoi iynoi, ii-ienee ?acoiaee ca oaoiieiaee, na
iai?aaaie ii-aecian iiaao aea ai eciiecaao a aaeaaeiaaiaoa ei aeaeiino
aecian. Ia /aoau?oi iynoi, iiiai eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?e na
ianu?/aaaie aea iiceoeee ca oi?aaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeeyoa aiaeeoii.
E?iieyoa ia oace i?ioaney a, /a a a?aoa ia eioi?iaoeeyoa, eiyoi a oace,
eieoi na iae-eioi?ie?aie, eieoi na iae-aa?iyoii aea oniaa. Oiaa na
ioiany e ca aiaeecaoi?eoa ia eiiithou?ie nenoaie, iai?eia?, eaoi oace,
eieoi na iai?aaeiaee eiiithou? eee noaiaie iaoeaoa, eee oace, eieoi na
caiiciaoe n iae-iieacieoa i?ia?aie ua eiao iae-aieaie oainiaa ca oniao a
oace iaeano, oace, eieoi na caiiciaoe n aeaei e ae?oae eino?oiaioe ca
i?ia?aie?aia, ua eiao aei?e iua ii-aieyii i?aaeeinoai. ?aaioiaeaoaeeoa
ua auaeao ii-neeiiie aea iaaiao /iaae, eieoi iiaea aea eiiaeie?aoa
i?ia?aie?aia n o?aaeeoeeiiie oiaiey nenoaie ca aiaeec (Ath?i 5).
EIIITHOU?IE NENOAIE aiaeecaoi?e Oaia: “Oice aiaeec ua iieoa oeie/ieoa
ioaiai?iinoeoa ia eiiithou?ie nenoaie, aiaeecaoi?, aeeth/eoaeii e ia
iaca?a ia o?oaea e ia?niaeoeaeoa ca ea?ea?a, eiyoi iiaea aea auaea aaeei
io iae-ia?aca?aie i?ioanee a aeiaoii a?aia. E. ia?acae?aia ia
aiaeecaoi?eoa, eiiithou?ie nenoaie, A. aiaeecaoi?e nenoaie ia na
aaeeinoaaieoa o/anoieoee a aaeia i?aaiecaoeey. A. Eioaa?e?aia /eaiiaa ia
aeeia II. ?aceeeaoa ia i?ioeana e aeaiie III. Caaeueaeaieyoa ia nenoaie
aiaeecaoi?e a. Eciueiaiea e i?iaeoe?aia IV. Ou?naiaoi ia nenoaiie
aiaeecaoi?e A. iieceoa io eceeth/eoaeia oaoie/anea e niaoeeaeece?aia
iaeano A. ou?naia Noaoenoeea ca nenoaie aiaeecaoi?e V. Ia/aeia caieaoa
ca nenoaie aiaeecaoi?e VI. Ia?aciaaiea e iao/aiea A. Aaeaeaau? “e noaiai
ii I?iaeueaeaaauioi ia?aciaaiea A. e iai?aaeue.

Aeaeeia?aoey

1. Bibliography Works Cited Ballard, M. E., & Wiest, J.R. (1996)

2. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Computer Scientists & Systems Analysts,
USA

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