The teaching knowlege test

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Potseluev Andrei Aleksandrovich

1. Grammar

Task 1

I compared 2 grammar books. Practical English Usage by Michael Swan &. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy shows the basic rules of grammar with using of visual methods, and lots of exercises, which trains the users of this book. The book is intended for students of intermediate level.
In contrast to English Grammar in Use, Practical English Usage is theoretical material. It contains hundreds of grammar rules with examples, focus reader’s attention on the most difficult points of English grammar for foreign learners and the most common mistakes. The book is intended for higher level students and for teachers.
They both are useful for studying language. I think that training is essential condition of success in learning, but good theory is on the basis of correct speech.
I would prefer Practical English Usage because it has helpful materials for studying and teaching, easy explanations of difficult grammar aspects, a great number of examples and “not to use examples”. It helps in all the forms of performance.

Task 2

*Active voice
In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g. The car hit the tree.
*Passive voice, progressive
In a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb, e.g. The tree was hit by the car.
* Clause
A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements, e.g. object. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence.
Main clause
When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
Subordinate clause
When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
Relative clause
The learners who were sitting near the front stood up.
*Modal verb
A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak French, but I should study even harder.
A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence, e.g. the green car, on Friday morning are phrases. Also a group of words that together have a particular meaning.
*Question tag
A phrase such as isn’t it? or doesn’t he? that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made, e.g. It’s very cold, isn’t it?
A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past, present or future.
Future forms
Future with going to I’m going to visit my aunt on Sunday. It’s going to rain.
Future with present continuous He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.
Future with present simple The plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday.
Future with will or shall I’ll help with the cleaning. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow.
Past continuous, progressive I was watching TV all evening.
Past perfect continuous, progressive I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired
Past perfect simple After I had phoned Mary, I went out.
Past simple I went on holiday to France last year.
Present continuous, progressive I am working in London now.
Present continuous, progressive for future He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.
Present perfect continuous, progressive I have been studying for three years.
Present perfect simple I have known him for a long time.

Task 3

Web dictionary www.vocabulary.comis less useful for learners than www.dictionary.cambrige.org because the second one, besides dictionary, contains various activities for studying language, as games, tests, texts and so on. Lexis is distributed to topics. It helps to remember any material better, while www.voabulary.com gives only lexicographic information

2. Lexis

Task 1

1) noun daybreak; sunrise.
2) noun the sky when light first appears in the morning
3) noun the beginning of something
4) verb to begin to grow light after the night
5) verb to begin to develop, appear, or expand
6) verb (usually foll by on or upon) to begin to become apparent (to)
Sunset, daybreak , day spring, sunrise(1)
start, commencing , origination, beginning(3)
End, termination , close , finish , finale , wind-up (2)
Lexical sets
natural phenomena
Prefixes+ base word
Base word+ suffixes
False dawn
from dawn to dusk
Figurative meaning
at the dawn of civilization
since the dawn of time
1) the action of directing something at an object
2) the direction in which something is pointed; line of sighting (esp in the phrase to take aim)
3) the object at which something is aimed; target
4) intention; purpose
intention , design , purpose(4)
sight , target (3)
Lexical sets
Prefixes+ base word
Base word+ suffixes
chief aim
Aim algorithm
Figurative meaning

Blue (adjective)
1) of the colour blue
2) (of the flesh) having a purple tinge, as from cold or contusion
3) depressed, moody, or unhappy
4) dismal or depressing a blue day
5) indecent, titillating, or pornographic blue films
sad (3)
pornographic (6)
cheerful , exhilarated , glad, joyful , lively, merry(3)
Lexical sets
Prefixes+ base word

Base word+ suffixes
bluer, bluest

Figurative meaning
blue water
blue collar
Task 2
Affix verb, affixation noun
A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word, which can be a different part of speech from the original word, e.g. interview, interviewer. Affixation is the process of adding a prefix or suffix to a word.
A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different meaning or spelling, e.g. I knew he had won;
I bought a new book.
Phrasal verb, multi-word verb/unit
A verb/any part of speech which is made up of more than one word (e.g. a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaning from each individual word, e.g. look after – A mother looks after her children.

The formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation. Formal register or language is used in serious or important situations, e.g. in a job application. Informal register or language is used in relaxed or friendly situations, e.g. with family or friends.

Idiom noun, idiomatic adjective
A group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the whole word group is different from the meaning of each individual word, e.g. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill.

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