The history of Moscow

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“The history of Moscow”


Leonova Nastya, 8 “B”

Moscow was fist mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was
a small frontier post. It is the official date of the foundation of
Moscow; Thought the settlement had been there for some time before. It
was fortified and became a market town in the late 12th century. The
town was almost to tally destroyed in 1237 and 1293 during the Tatar
invasion. It was again captured by the Tatars in 1382. And it was Moscow
Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory
over the invader in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.

By the 15th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan
Ш that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. At that time
the Kremlin

Was rebuilt and the Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.

By the 15th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan
Ш that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy at the time the
Kremlin was rebuilt and the Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.

During the time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders
but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky.

By the end of the 15th century Moscow extended its rule over most of
central and northern Russia. Its rulers continued to build
fortifications around it.

The transfer of the capital by Peter the Great to St.Petersburg in 1712
brought a period of decline to Moscow.

Moscow is known for its beautiful old Cathedrals, churches and
monasteries. Some of them date from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The
oldest part of Moscow is the Kremlin. This is the main tourist
attraction in Moscow the Kremlin stands at the heart of the city. The
word “Kremlin” means “fortress”, and the Moscow Kremlin use to be a
fortress. In the 15th century, by order of grand duke Ivan Ш the Kremlin
was surrounded by a new red-brick wall.

I have a special liking for the Kremlin and St. Basil’s Cathedral. They
are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin
tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the
territory of the Kremlin you can see old Cathedrals. The Bell Tower of
Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the Tsar-Cannon and the
Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil’s
Cathedral was built in the mid – 16th century in memory of the victory
over Kazan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the
architects Burma and Postnik, because he didn’t want them to create
another masterpiece.

The Moscow Kremlin is the ancient centre of Moscow. It is located on
Borovitsky Hill on the left lank the Moskva river and considered one of
the most beautiful architectural ensembles in the world.

In 1156 the Kremlin was fortified with ramparts and in 1367 white stone
towers and walls were erected. Brick buildings were added between 1485
and 1495.

The Moscow Kremlin contains fine examples of Russian architecture of the
15th to 17th centuries the Cathedrals of the Domination, the
Annunciation and the Archangel. Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower, the Faceted
Palace, the Terem Palace, the Senate Building, the Nikolskaya, the
Trinity and the Boroviskaya Towers. The Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell
are remarkable achievements of Russian cost ironwork.

Cathedral Square is the ancient centre of the Kremlin Architectural
ensemble. The main Kremlin cathedrals are located here. The Tsars were
crowned in the Cathedral of the Domination and buried in the Archangel

The Tsar would leave the Facetted Palace from the Red Porch. After
services in the Cathedral of the Domination a procession would cross
Cathedral Square.

The Cathedral of the Domination was built by Halian architect Aristotle
Fioravanti from 1475-1479 in the style of the Russian 12th century The
Cathedral of the Domination at Vladimir. Unique examples of ancient art
are preserved here; the Byzantine icon of the Virgin of

Vladimir and the icons of St. George and the Holy Trinity. The Cathedral
of the Domination was the most important in Ancient Rus. The first
Russian Tsar Ivan the Great was crowned here.

The Archangel Cathedral , built by Halian architect Alevisio Nove in
1505-1509 served as the burial place of Russian Tsars and grand princes.
Here you can see the ancient head-stone of Ivan Kalita.

The cathedral contains the priceless 15th-century icon of the Archangel
Michael, assumed to be the work of Andrei Rublyov.

The Cathedral of the Annunciation was built in the Late 14th and early
15th centuries. In the 1480s, during the reign of Ivan Ш, Pskov master
craftsmen constructed a new three domed brick church on the foundations
of on older structure. The church was rebuilt in 1562-1564 after

A fire, and another two domes and four corner side-chapels with cupolas
were added. The Cathedral walls were pointed by Feodosii and his
followers in 1508. The second and third tier of icons were pointed in
1405 by Andrei Rublyov, Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor of Gorodets.

Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower is regarded as a marvel of early
16th-century architecture. It was built in 1505-08 by Bon Friazin, and
two additional tiers were added in 1600 by order of Boris Godunov. This
was the Kremlin’s main watch tower. The Faceted Palace is the oldest
secular building in Moscow, erected by architects Marco Ruffo and Pietro
Antonio Solari in 1487-91. The faceted stone facade after which named
overlooks Cathedral Palace.

The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the oldest historical and
architectural centre of Moscow.

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