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The history of Germany and tourism

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31

Contents

Introduction 2

1. Germany: general information 3

1.1 The history of Germany 3

1.2 Germany land 5

1.3 Culture & population 7

1.4 Germany’s economics & government 9

1.5 German’s Money & Costs 11

1.6 German’s communications & education 12

2. Tourism in Germany 14

2.1 Germany by car 14

2.2 Discover Germany by Bus 15

2.3 Air travel 15

2.4 Travel by train 16

2.5 Castles & Palaces 17

2.6 Metropolises 18

Conclusion 31

Literature 33

Introduction

Germany wears its riches well: elegant big-city charm, picture-postcard
small towns, pagan-inspired harvest festivals, a wealth of art and
culture and the perennial pleasures of huge tracts of forest, delightful
castles and fine wine and beer are all there for the enjoying.

Germany’s reunification in 1990 was the beginning of yet another chapter
in Germany’s complex history. No visitor will remain untouched by this
country’s past and the way it affects the nation today.

The full country name is Federal Republic of Germany, it’s total area –
357,030 sq km. The major industries in Germany: motor vehicles,
engineering, chemicals, iron, steel, coal, electronics, environmental
technology, food, clothing.

Germany is popular among the tourists. The German climate is variable so
it’s best to be prepared for all types of weather throughout the year.
That said, the most reliable weather is from May to October. This
coincides, naturally enough, with the standard tourist season (except
for skiing). The shoulder periods can bring fewer tourists and
surprisingly pleasant weather. There is no special rainy season.

1. Germany: general information

1.1 The history of Germany

Germany’s hill-and-trough history kicked in early: from the time that
everyone’s favourite fossils, the Neanderthals, left their jaw-jutting
remains in the Neander Valley near Duesseldorf, this joint has been in
the thick of it. All of Europe’s great empires got their paws into
Germany, but none was ever able to count all its inhabitants as faithful
subjects. Different pockets of fierce resistance met the Roman legions
(50 BC to the 5th century AD), the Frankish conqueror, Charlemagne (up
to the early 9th century), and Otto the Great’s Holy Roman Empire (from
late in the 10th century). By the time the house of Habsburg, ruling
from Vienna, took control in the 13th century it was little more than a
conglomerate of German-speaking states run by parochial princes.

The Habsburgs muddled on until the devastating Thirty Years War
(1618-48), sparked by ongoing religious and nationalist conflicts.
Europe had been simmering ever since 1517 when Martin Luther tacked 95
suggestions for improved service to his local church door in Wittenburg.
It took a bloody good stoush to settle everyone down and secure the
rights of both Protestants and Catholics. Germany lost a third of its
population in the process. Local princes assumed complete sovereignty
over a patchwork of some 300 states, which made it all too easy for
Napoleon to come along in the early 19th century and start adding them
to his scrapbook. The French never quite managed to subdue Prussia,
which became the centre of German resistance. It was Prussia that led
the 1813 war that put an end to Napoleon’s German aspirations in a
decisive battle at Leipzig. In 1866 Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of
Prussia, annexed most of Germany, consolidating his position as biggest
wig in Europe with a resounding victory over France in 1871. The
Prussian king, Wilhelm I, was instated as Kaiser and a united Germany
hit the world stage for the first time.

Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck in 1890, lingered long enough to lead
Germany into WWI, then snuck off to Holland in 1918 when he realised war
wasn’t going to end in a ticker-tape parade. Germany struggled with
civil unrest and a disastrous peace, uniting only in dislike of the
reigning Weimar Republic. Then came Adolf Hitler, an Austrian drifter
and German army veteran who was able to turn general disaffection into a
focussed lunacy. In 1933 his National Socialist German Worker’s (or
Nazi) Party assumed ultimate authority over Germany. Extravagant
military spending and blasee border bending gave way to outright
aggression, WWII, and the unrivalled horror of the Holocaust. Even the
Germans were surprised by the success of their initial invasions, but by
1943 a litany of heavy losses set the tone for the sluggish march to
1945’s unconditional surrender.

Postwar Germany was divided up between the Allies, with Britain, France
and the USA consolidating the western portion into the Federal Republic
of Germany, and the Soviet zone transmogrifying into the communist
German Democratic Republic. This formula for division was repeated in
Berlin. West Germany received massive injections of US capital,
attracting many workers from the miserable economic conditions in the
East until some bright spark had the idea of building a wall around West
Berlin and sealing the rest of the border. The Cold War’s icy eye
focussed on Berlin. Over the next 25 years West Germany became one of
the world’s most prosperous nations while its communist Siamese sibling
suffered. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has no more
poignant symbol than the opening of the Berlin frontier. That was one of
world history’s better parties at the Berlin Wall in late 1989.

As a result of the reunification of Germany, the Helmut Kohl era was
recorded as one of the most dramatic periods in the country’s history.
After 16 years, however, it came to an end when a coalition of Social
Democrats and Greens took office in 1998. Two years later, an
investigation was launched which uncovered that Kohl and his
conservative Christian Democratic Union party had operated a slush-fund
in defiance of the German constitution.

Today’s united Germany has its problems, but the social dislocation
which was widely forecast has been minimal. Although the euphoria of
reunification has subsided, and there is some resentment and
disaffection from both sides, Germany is working towards true unity in
typically sedulous fashion. The extreme right wing, although insidious
and occasionally violent, is politically weak. Germany has absorbed the
majority of refugees from the former Yugoslavia, and these and other
immigrants are targets of renewed racist attacks.

1.2 Germany land

The Habsburgs muddled on until the devastating Thirty Years War
(1618-48), sparked by ongoing religious and nationalist conflicts.
Europe had been simmering ever since 1517 when Martin Luther tacked 95
suggestions for improved service to his local church door in Wittenburg.
It took a bloody good stoush to settle everyone down and secure the
rights of both Protestants and Catholics. Germany lost a third of its
population in the process. Local princes assumed complete sovereignty
over a patchwork of some 300 states, which made it all too easy for
Napoleon to come along in the early 19th century and start adding them
to his scrapbook. The French never quite managed to subdue Prussia,
which became the centre of German resistance. It was Prussia that led
the 1813 war that put an end to Napoleon’s German aspirations in a
decisive battle at Leipzig. In 1866 Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of
Prussia, annexed most of Germany, consolidating his position as biggest
wig in Europe with a resounding victory over France in 1871. The
Prussian king, Wilhelm I, was instated as Kaiser and a united Germany
hit the world stage for the first time.

Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck in 1890, lingered long enough to lead
Germany into WWI, then snuck off to Holland in 1918 when he realised war
wasn’t going to end in a ticker-tape parade. Germany struggled with
civil unrest and a disastrous peace, uniting only in dislike of the
reigning Weimar Republic. Then came Adolf Hitler, an Austrian drifter
and German army veteran who was able to turn general disaffection into a
focussed lunacy. In 1933 his National Socialist German Worker’s (or
Nazi) Party assumed ultimate authority over Germany. Extravagant
military spending and blasee border bending gave way to outright
aggression, WWII, and the unrivalled horror of the Holocaust. Even the
Germans were surprised by the success of their initial invasions, but by
1943 a litany of heavy losses set the tone for the sluggish march to
1945’s unconditional surrender.

Postwar Germany was divided up between the Allies, with Britain, France
and the USA consolidating the western portion into the Federal Republic
of Germany, and the Soviet zone transmogrifying into the communist
German Democratic Republic. This formula for division was repeated in
Berlin. West Germany received massive injections of US capital,
attracting many workers from the miserable economic conditions in the
East until some bright spark had the idea of building a wall around West
Berlin and sealing the rest of the border. The Cold War’s icy eye
focussed on Berlin. Over the next 25 years West Germany became one of
the world’s most prosperous nations while its communist Siamese sibling
suffered. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has no more
poignant symbol than the opening of the Berlin frontier. That was one of
world history’s better parties at the Berlin Wall in late 1989.

As a result of the reunification of Germany, the Helmut Kohl era was
recorded as one of the most dramatic periods in the country’s history.
After 16 years, however, it came to an end when a coalition of Social
Democrats and Greens took office in 1998. Two years later, an
investigation was launched which uncovered that Kohl and his
conservative Christian Democratic Union party had operated a slush-fund
in defiance of the German constitution.

Today’s united Germany has its problems, but the social dislocation
which was widely forecast has been minimal. Although the euphoria of
reunification has subsided, and there is some resentment and
disaffection from both sides, Germany is working towards true unity in
typically sedulous fashion. The extreme right wing, although insidious
and occasionally violent, is politically weak. Germany has absorbed the
majority of refugees from the former Yugoslavia, and these and other
immigrants are targets of renewed racist attacks.

1.3 Culture and population

Unsurprisingly for a country whose land has so often been at history’s
crux, the moods and preoccupations of Germany’s people are reflected in
a rich artistic heritage: from the claustrophobic beauty of its
cathedrals to classical films from the silent era of cinema, from the
most influential philosophers (try Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche and Marx for
starters) to some of the world’s great physicists (Einstein and Planck),
from the cream of classical composers (Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Handel
and Wagner) to contemporary industrial-grunge music and Krautrock, from
the genius of Goethe to the revolutionary theatre of Brecht, Germany has
it all. The scope of German art is such that it could be the focus of an
entire visit.

Arguably the finest artist Germany has produced, Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe (1749-1832) was a poet, dramatist, painter, scientist and
philosopher. His greatest work, the drama Faust, is a masterful epic of
all that went before him, as the archetypal human strives for meaning.
The ghost of Goethe inhabits the soul of Germany. Germany has also been
endowed with many exceptional visual artists. The gothic sculpture of
Peter Vischer and his sons, the renaissance portraiture of Albrecht
Duerer and the baroque architecture of Balthasar Neumann are all
magnificent examples in their fields. A steadfast commitment to
excellence in artistry persists in more recent forms, with Germany a
notable producer of excellent and challenging cinema from Rainer Werner
Fassbinder and Werner Herzog, among others.

Germany’s artistic diet, rich though it is, has nothing on its food.
This is traditionally a meat-and-potatoes kind of country. Though
vegetarian and health-conscious restaurants are starting to sprout, it’s
best to stop counting calories and cholesterol levels while in Germany.
The assault begins with a good German breakfast: rolls, jam, cheese,
cold meats, hard-boiled egg and coffee or tea. To be fair, many Germans
have switched to lighter breakfasts like cornflakes or muesli, but
visitors can still be served the traditional cut meat and jam. Lunch is
the main meal of the day, but breakfast is so big you’d be forgiven for
just picking up a midday bratwurst from the ubiquitous Imbiss
(takeaway-food stand). Dinner is allegedly a lighter meal, but this can
still mean a plate full of sausages and dumplings. (Light eaters may
want to opt for international cuisine from Germany’s immigrant
communities.) Beer is the national beverage and it’s one cultural
phenomenon that must be adequately explored. The beer is excellent and
relatively cheap. Each region and brewery produces beer with a
distinctive taste and body. Impromptu visits to small breweries are
better than adding your bulk to the already crowded festivals like
Munich’s Oktoberfest. In winter, you can experience the glorious haze
induced by Gluehwein, a hot, spicy mulled wine guaranteed to take the
chill away.

Despite their penchant for continual improvement and modernisation,
upholding cultural traditions is dear to the German heart. Many hunters
still wear green, master chimney sweeps get around in pitch-black suits
and top hats, some Bavarian women don the Dirndl (skirt and blouse),
while their menfolk occasionally find suitable occasions to wear typical
Bavarian Lederhosen (leather shorts), a Loden (short jacket) and felt
hat. In everyday life, Germans are fairly formal, although more so in
the Protestant-dominated north than the beer-swilling south. In eastern
Germany many older people are relatively unused to tourists, so it’s
best to err towards deference. Except with very close friends, older
Germans still use Herr and Frau in daily discussion. The transition from
the formal Sie address to the informal du is generally mutually agreed
and sealed with a toast and a handshake. You don’t have to worry so much
with people under about 40; in fact, exaggerated politeness will
probably be laughed off as beginner’s Deutsch.

The German population is overwhelmingly urban. In 1994 Germany had 39
cities with more than 200,000 residents, and 12 metropolises with more
than 500,000 residents. Three of Germany’s federal states are
city-states: Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg. Berlin is the capital and
largest city. Germany’s population density is highest in the northwest,
especially in North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen), which
includes Germany’s old industrial heartland, the Ruhr Valley, and a
number of large cities. Population density is lower in the former East
Germany and in the more rural states of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony
(Niedersachsen), and Bavaria.

Characteristic of Germany, throughout its history, has been the lack of
clearly defined geographic boundaries, particularly on the great lowland
of northern Europe; both the area occupied by the German peoples and the
boundaries of the German state (at such times as it existed) have
fluctuated constantly. The German people appear to have originated on
the coastal region of the Baltic Sea and in the Baltic islands in the
Bronze and early Iron ages. From about 500 BC they began to move
southward, crushing and absorbing the existing Celtic kingdoms; from 58
BC onward they clashed along the line of the Rhine and Danube rivers
with the power of Rome. With the fall of the Roman Empire, German
peoples, predominantly under Frankish tribal leadership, closely settled
a large area west of the Rhine River in what is still German territory;
they also penetrated deeply into Belgium and areas that later became
France. The Merovingian and Carolingian empires knew no distinction
between what are now France and western Germany; it is understandable
that Charlemagne is recognized as an important figure in the history of
both countries.

1.4 Germany’s economics and government

Germany’s economic development was based on an alliance of industrial
business people with the Prussian aristocracy who controlled much of the
land. It emphasized the production of coal and steel, machines and
machine tools, chemicals, electronic equipment, ships, and, later, motor
vehicles. Well-organized business, labor, and farm associations in
league with the government produced a distinctive “organized
capitalism,” different from the less regulated capitalism of Britain and
the United States. This strong economy carried the country into two
world wars and, despite Allied bombing from 1942 to 1945, survived
largely intact. After World War II ended in 1945, the Western powers saw
the need to build up European economies in order to resist the
threatened encroachment of the Soviet Union and Communism. To this end,
the U.S. government in 1947 initiated the European Recovery Program,
commonly called the Marshall Plan, which offered generous investment
loans to all European countries that had been devastated by the war.
Under the stewardship of economics minister Ludwig Erhard, the Marshall
Plan helped launch a 20-year economic expansion in West Germany that
raised living standards and industrial production far above prewar
levels.

West Germany’s economic achievement was impressive; the gross national
product (GNP) rose by 8 percent per year from 1951 to 1961, or at a per
capita rate double that of Britain or the United States and nearly
double that of France. At the same time exports trebled. This period of
exceptional growth was undoubtedly an outstanding event in the economic
history of both West Germany and Europe. Yet the postwar advance of the
West German economy did not follow an unbroken line; there were
occasional checks, as, for example, the one following the oil crisis of
1973–74. However, the upward trend was always resumed. At the moment of
economic unification on July 1, 1990, the economy was riding high on a
cycle of business expansion that had lasted since the early 1980s. West
Germany’s gross domestic product (GDP) had increased at current prices
by more than 70 percent since 1983; it was by far the highest of all the
12 EC countries, constituting one-quarter of the community’s total. The
country ranked fourth in the world for GDP, following the United States,
Japan, and the U.S.S.R., and it was a leader in world trade. All this
was achieved while maintaining the customarily low rate of inflation.
West Germany was thus well prepared to sustain the economic shocks of
unification with the much weaker economy of former East Germany, even
though these proved to be considerably more severe than anticipated.

Germany possesses the world’s third most technologically powerful
economy after the US and Japan, but structural market rigidities –
including the substantial non-wage costs of hiring new workers – have
made unemployment a long-term, not just a cyclical, problem. Germany’s
aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social
security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. The
modernization and integration of the eastern German economy remains a
costly long-term problem, with annual transfers from western Germany
amounting to roughly $70 billion. Growth picked up to 3% in 2000,
largely due to recovering global demand; newly passed business and
income tax cuts are expected to keep growth strong in 2001. Corporate
restructuring and growing capital markets are transforming the German
economy to meet the challenges of European economic integration and
globalization in general.

The Basic Law has many affinities with the constitutions in the
Anglo-American democracies and its predecessor, the Weimar Constitution
(upon which it drew heavily). The parliamentary form of government
incorporated many features of the British system, but, since West
Germany, unlike Great Britain, was to be a federation, many political
structures were drawn from the models of the United States and other
federative governments. In reaction to the unitary state of the Nazi
era, the Basic Law gave the states considerable autonomy, much of which
has been eroded by constitutional amendments, fiscal developments, and a
political insistence on uniform living conditions throughout the Federal
Republic. In addition to federalism, the Basic Law has two other
features similar to the Constitution of the United States: (1) its
formal declaration of the principles of human rights and of bases for
the government of the people and (2) the strongly independent position
of the courts, especially in the right of the Federal Constitutional
Court to declare a law unconstitutional and void.

1.5 German’s money and costs

Currency: euro (EUR), formerly Deutschmark (DM)

Budget: US$5-9

Mid-range: US$10-20

Top-end: US$25+

Lodging

Budget: US$20-50

Mid-range: US$50-100

Top-end: US$100

It’s easy to spend lots of money in Germany. If you’ve got some sort of
rail pass and restrict yourself to cheap takeaways or prepare your own
food, it’s possible to get by on less than US$50 a day. Those with more
capacious wallets, wishing to eat at mid-range restaurants most days, to
travel freely by public transport and to stay in mid-range hotels with
fluffy duvets should count on dropping at least US$100 a day.

All the major international brands of plastic – MasterCard, Visa and
American Express – are becoming more widely accepted, especially at
major hotels, petrol stations and department stores. Don’t assume that
you’ll be able to use your card to pay for meals; inquire first. ATMs
are ubiquitous throughout Germany and you should have no problem
accessing your credit or debit account back home. Foreign currency,
including travellers cheques, can be exchanged at banks and special
exchange shops in large towns.

At restaurants, the service charge is always included in bills and
tipping isn’t compulsory, though it is appreciated. Germans are used to
rounding up prices as tips, but rounding up in euros can be too
generous. Taxi drivers expect a small tip of around 10%.

1.6 German’s communications and education

Germany has one of the world’s most technologically advanced
telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital
expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the
eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated with that
of the western part domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system
of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of
fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic
satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and
includes roaming service to many foreign countries international:
satellite earth stations – 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian
Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik
(1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 7 submarine cable
connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric
scatter links.

German school attendance in Germany is free and mandatory from age 6 to
age 14, after which most children either continue in secondary schools
or participate in vocational education until the age of 18. Kindergarten
is not part of the public school system, although before unification
East Germany had a nearly universal system of childcare facilities.
Under the treaty of unification, the East German public education system
was required to conform to the model in use in West Germany. Education
in Germany is under the jurisdiction of the individual state
governments, which results in a great deal of variety. Most states in
the former West Germany have a three-track system that begins with four
years of Grundschule (primary school), attended by all children between
the ages of 6 and 9.

2. Tourism in Germany

All German cities have developed an excellent network of surface and
underground transportation. With buses, subways and rapid-transit
railways, destinations can be reached quickly and easily at a reasonable
price.

2.1 Germany by car

If you are traveling by car, an ultra-modern and efficient freeway
network awaits you. Over 700 restaurants, gas stations, motels and
kiosks are open day and night to travelers driving across the
approximately 11,000 km freeway network of the Federal Republic.

Maximum Speeds:

For cars without trailers traveling outside city limits, a maximum speed
of 100 km/hr applies. Within city limits, the speed is 50 km/hr. City
limits are clearly marked by signs. On freeways, a speed of 130 km/hr is
recommended. Cars with trailers (i.e. campers) may drive at a maximum of
80 km/hr on roads and freeways.

Important rules:

According to the law, seat belts must be worn by all passengers in the
car. For children under 4 years of age, child seats are required, and
children under 12 years of age must use child seat cushions.
Motorcyclists must drive with a helmet. The blood alcohol limit is.05.
Before beginning their journey, it is a good idea for tourists to
purchase information about traveling by car in Germany from the
automobile clubs.

Like arteries, Germany’s autobahns link its pulsating economic centres.
Day and night you can drive on 11,000 kilometres of open road – with no
tolls and often with no official speed limit – unlike anywhere else in
the world. But it is better, really, to take your time – and keep to the
guideline of 130 kilometres per hour (approx. 80 mph). Enjoy the clean
environment; take advantage of the perfect road transport connections
and of the individual products and services on offer at the more than
700 filling stations and service areas along the way.

2.2 Discover Germany by Bus

Touring Germany by bus: a comfortable way of travelling. Enjoy your trip
in comfortable seats without having to care about the traffic.
Conscientious and well trained drivers will do the driving for you.
Whether you choose a package tour, a long distance tour on a public
service bus or an intercity trip by public transportation: a journey by
bus will guarantee comfortable travelling. Enjoy and experience towns
and landscapes in a relaxing way. Lean back and enjoy the view of
diverse landscapes from large bus windows or visit one of Germany?s
famous towns.

Get on and relax – once you are comfortably seated, your well-earned
holidays will begin. Besides, you have chosen an environmentally
friendly way of travelling.

Internationaler Bustouristik Verband e.V. (RDA), the international
federation of bus tour operators, has set up a list of operators
offering bus journeys. The list is set up according to the Lands of the
Federal Republik of Germany and is available here. Here you will find
numerous journeys based on particular themes, sightseeing tours and club
tours. It is also possible to set up your own journey in cooperation
with the operator. Deutsche Touring GmbH offers attractive journeys on
public service buses along Germany?s touristic holiday routes.

Regional and urban public transportation operators and associations
offer a rich network of short distance bus trips.

2.3 Air travel

Over 100 international airlines offer flights into Germany. Deutsche
Lufthansa offers the most frequent and most versatile flights together
with their Star Alliance partners. They have coordinated a global route
network and flight plans which connect Germany with 700 destinations
worldwide.

International travel

Lufthansa is one of the world’s leading airlines and provides
connections to Germany from more than 300 airports in 100 countries.
Thanks to the Star Alliance, the world’s first multilateral airline
cooperation, passengers can travel to Germany from more than 800
airports worldwide. Coordinated flight schedules guarantee your comfort
and help keep waiting times short. In Germany, Lufthansa flies to 28
airports: Cologne Cathedral is just 40 minutes by air from the Frankfurt
Messeturm, and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is 65 minutes away. As
well as eighteen international airports, Germany also has numerous
domestic airports, such as Muenster and Augsburg. This means you can
travel quickly between any of Germany’s larger towns – from Westerland
on the North Sea island of Sylt to Munich in the South, and from Cologne
in the West to Dresden in the East.

2.4 Travel by train

The railway system enables everyone to travel comfortably to their
destination. There are good connections to both distant and local areas.
Airports (Berlin Schoenefeld, Duesseldorf, Munich and Stuttgart) are
also merged into this system. There are 60 different connections to the
neighboring European countries that originate daily in Germany. The
customs clearance usually takes place on the train once it has left the
station. Information regarding the Deutsche Bahn AG can be obtained in
all travel agencies as well as by calling the federal German phone
number: +49 (0) 18 05-99 66 33. A European bus service completes the
railway system. It offers special connections on particularly
interesting routes to tourists. Information regarding the bus system is
also available in each travel agency.

2.5 Castles & Palaces

Although the walls of Germany?s castles are centuries old, they are
nowhere near to being withdrawn from the public gaze. Set high above
adjacent towns dating back to the Middle Ages and often in romantic
landscapes, they make an extremely dynamic impression as tourist
attractions. Sustained by the enormous interest shown in their mostly
turbulent histories, colourful festivities and feasts are re-enacted
within their ruins, which stunningly and authentically revive and
recreate the Middle Ages. You can experience the spectacle of jousting,
minerals and real banquets. Country markets with traditional skills and
crafts, fancy-dress pursuits and street theatre are popular, and form a
link to the myths and legends which every castle accumulates.

Castles and palaces in Germany stage these festivities all year round.
In spring you can choose between Spring festivals, May markets,
Pentecost markets and historic pastoral dances. Or you can visit a
traditional cake and waters festival of the salt workers, enjoy a
Kaiserburg (imperial castle) concert in the knights? hall and then
plunge into a mediaeval spectacle with the small traders? market. After
the midsummer night festival you can welcome in the new season at a
“Musical summer ” in the “Serenadenhof”. The long days become even
longer with castles illuminated with brilliant fireworks, and blues
nights in the palace courtyard, and if your ears are still not ringing
after the wine festival, we can recommend the open air concerts in the
castle courtyard or serenades at the “gunpowder” tower. However, there
are also alternatives in the ruins, e.g. a samba festival, rock in the
castle moat, a Dracula piece or real Baroque fireworks. Autumn is varied
with harvest festivities, wine festivals, oven festivals, garland
festivals and many music and theater festivals. In November and December
there is only the one widespread event, and that is the unforgettable
Christmas Markets with centuries old traditions.

A single mediaeval banquet is a fantastic time-travel experience to a
different world. Fresh bread, for example, is baked in the castle
courtyard, and home-made cream cheese and butter is produced. Gourmets
expect delicacies like a Burgundy roast, grilled Camembert and excellent
wines and new wines. In addition they expect home-made fare, which has
been baked and brewed according to old recipes. Minstrels and jugglers,
knights, noblemen and women, monks and quacks in original costumes,
colorful flags and big colorful coat-of-arms provide the historic
atmosphere.

In the evening when the firework display is in progress, the entire
castle mound is illuminated like a volcano, and the Catherine-wheels let
the Middle Ages culminate with a festive finale.

2.6 Metropolises

Become fascinated by Germany?s big cities pulsating with life. Besides
Berlin, the capital, Germany offers many regional metropolises. The
unique character of each of these cities bear the imprint of German
history and culture. The cosmopolitain flair of these cities make every
visitor feel welcome.

However, you cannot only experience most modern architecture and art
treasures in Germany?s towns but also different ways of living. Various
traditions and mentalities have left an imprint on each town?s cultural
life and night life, variety of events, shopping and gastronomy.

Enchanting Towns in Germany

For many centuries, Germany?s small historic towns have been genuine
jewels with various facets. Here, you can find a variety of architecture
and styles which is worldwide unique and each town itself is a
fascinating experience.

Middle Ages and Modern Age – Germany?s small towns derive their dynamics
from this contrasting mixture. They are as individual as human visages –
each town having its distinct identity.

These towns, however, also attract visitors with the modern and vital
facets of Germany: enjoy shopping tours, events, excursions or the
culinary delgihts of Germany?s regional specialities.

Berlin, the Capital

In Berlin one can feel the pulsating liveliness. A variety of art- and
flea markets, museums, bars, pubs, restaurants, opera houses, concert
halls, theatres, vaudevilles and revues is awaiting the visitor.

Hosting the whole world – Berlin is ready. Berlin, Germany’s capital, is
nowadays more exciting than ever. Evolutions and changes are to be
witnessed everywhere in the city.

Museums

Berlin’s museums present art works of international appreciation. More
than 170 museums invite to see collections of the world culture such as
the Pergamonaltar or the bust of Nofretete, painting works from Giotto
and Breughel over Caspar David Friedrich and Picasso to contemporary
artists. Spectacular new buildings like the Filmmuseum or the Jewish
Museum and the reopening of great museums like the Old National Gallery
enhance the fascinating range of Berlin’s museums.

Jewish Berlin

After the reunification the Jewish community has grown continuously.
Several restaurants, theaters and music performances represent Jewish
life especially in the area around Oranienburger Strasse. The New
Synagogue Berlin – Centrum Judaicum and the Jewish Museum Berlin trace
the German-Jewish history. Reminding of the destruction of Jewish life
during the National Socialism, there are locations such as the House of
the Wannsee-Conference, the foundation “Topography of Terrorism” and the
planned memorial for the murdered Jewish in Europe.

Palaces and Gardens

In Berlin and Brandenburg a splendid cultural landscape of Palaces and
Gardens became established over the course of several centuries of
Brandenburg and Prussian monarchy. The harmonic ensembles of
architecture and garden art in the cultural landscape enchants the
visitors in Berlin and Potsdam. Discover the charm of past times in the
beautiful Schloss Charlottenburg with its marvellous baroque garden.

Schloss Charlottenburg, the largest and most beautiful palace in Berlin,
is a shining example of baroque architecture.

It was built from 1695–99 as a summer residence for Sophie Charlotte,
the consort of Elector Friedrich III., to plans by Johann Arnold Nering
and Martin Gruenberg, though at first only the central part was actually
built. In 1701, after the coronation of the Elector as King Friedrich I.
of Prussia, the palace was extended by Eosander von Goethe in the style
of the palace at Versailles: the main building was extended and side
axes were created around the courtyard. In addition, the Great Orangery
was constructed on the western wing, while a domed tower with tambour
crowned the main building. Knobelsdorff constructed the eastern wing
from 1740–46. From1787–91, Carl Langhans constructed the palace theatre
as an extension to the orangery wing.

The palace was badly damaged during the Second World War, and rebuilding
work began in the Fifties. The splendor of the Berlin Baroque is
particularly apparent in the Great Oak Gallery, a banqueting hall with
magnificent carvings which was completed in 1713, and the Porcelain
Room, with its valuable collection of Chinese and Japanese porcelain.
Other impressive rooms include the banqueting halls designed by
Knobelsdorff from 1740–47, the White Room and the Golden Gallery, a
rococo room in soft pastel tones with rich golden ornamentation. The
former theatre is now the home of the Museum fuer Vor- und
Fruehgeschichte (Museum for Pre- and Early History), whose most famous
exhibits come from Heinrich Schliemann’s excavations at Troy.

The palace park grounds, one of the most idyllic oases in the city, is a
favored spot for both tourists and Berliners. The park features a
mausoleum constructed by Schinkel in the style of a temple, which
contains amongst other the sarcophagi of Queen Luise and Friedrich
Wilhelm II., designed by Christian Daniel Rauch. The belvedere, formerly
a teahouse and built by Langhans at the same time as the theatre, now
displays an exhibition on the history of royal porcelain manufacture.
The pavilion constructed by Schinkel in the classical style, formerly a
summer house, is the perfect setting for the furniture, pictures and
sculptures on display there, conjuring up the life and style of the
early 19th century.

A paradisiacal place for lovers is the Peacock Island (Pfaueninsel) and
its romantic little manor-house. Pfaueninsel and its palace is without a
doubt one of the most lovely excursions in the city. Here, in an
undisturbed, idyllic Prussian Arcadia, the visitor can experience one of
Berlin’s most magical faces.

The romantic palace lies on the idyllic Pfaueninsel, part of the
extensive landscape laid out by Peter Joseph Lenne. Until his death,
Lenne transformed the area around the Havel Lake between Berlin and
Potsdam into a unique ensemble of cultivated nature and architecture.
The Pfaueninsel, which can only be reached by ferry, became a work of
art consisting of landscaped gardens and park with a rosebush maze, a
Biedermeier garden and around 60 peacocks. A stroll around is rewarded
with constantly changing views and picture-postcard buildings, such as
the old dairy and the cavalier’s house redesigned by Schinkel.

Pfaueninsel Palace was constructed from 1794–97 as a love nest for
Friedrich Wilhelm III. and his then sweetheart Graefin Lichtenau.
Following the current fashion the architect Johann Gottlieb Brendel
created artificial ruins which give the illusion of being a medieval
castle. The white wooden cladding and the trompe d’oeil paintings are
intended to accentuate this illusion. The palace’s interior is furnished
in a romantic-exotic style, and is maintained in such a good condition
that the taste of the time can be experienced first-hand.

Eat, Drink, Nightlife

Berlin offers a wide range of possibilities to go out. Restaurants, Pubs
and clubs of all kind and for every gusto invite you. Many places and
streets are perfect night walks because one restaurant is here next to
the other.

Night owls with stamina can also give their undivided attention to the
interesting range of pubs around Savignyplatz in Charlottenburg. The
area consist of a great number of restaurants and bars where everyone
can meet the stars of television or Berlin’s culture and political
scene. Here is the melting pot that combines symbolically the former
west and the new centre to a harmonic construction.

Especially the younger crowd is attracted to the Pariser Strasse. At
this location you will find taverns, bars, American diners, Mexican
restaurants and very modern and stylish discos. During the summer life
concentrates on the street in form of many chairs and tables that invite
us to rest. In the middle of this street the well-maintained
Ludwigkirchplatz with its rich areas of green providing a relaxing
shadow is located.

The Winterfeldtplatz forms a location for a frequently visited market
where plenty of customers, tourists and locals meet each other in one of
Schoeneberg’s numerous taverns and bars. The scene is considered as
uncomplicated and various-faced, also due to the presence of Berlin’s
gay population.

In Goltzstrasse the Schoenebergers meet in places such as the Cafe M,
Lux or one of the numerous Indian snack bars. Between Schoeneberg and
Tiergarten the 90? is still an up-to-date party location. But the
Latinamerican Clubs El Barrio or the Caracas Bar invite for a visit as
well.

For starting your tour through Berlin’s nightlife you shouldn’t miss the
Hackesche Hoefe. Here you will find a huge variety of famous
restaurants, bars and clubs. Additionally, Mitte offers numerous facets
to enjoy its culture in form of theatres, cinemas, art galleries and a
variete.

For night owls there are, for example, options for the following night
walks: Along Oranienburger Strasse (Mitte) between Oranienburger Tor and
Monbijouplatz there is one bar after the other, such as the Zapata
(Tacheles), Zosch, Oren, Silberstein or Hackbarth’s.

Representatives of Berlin’s legendary club scene, such as the
Kalkscheune, are also just around the corner. Thus the famous Tresor is
not too far away (Potsdamer/Leipziger Platz).

The Heckmannhoefe and further courtyards worth to see with galleries and
cafes are on the way to the legendary Hackescher Markt, which is a hive
of activity, not only in the Hackesche Hoefe (courtyards) in front of
the station. Clubs such as the Oxymoron, Delicious Doughnuts, Lime Club,
Bergwerk or Delis attract their public from all over the place. The
selection of bars and restaurants is just about the limit.

The Prenzlauer Berg definitely also forms one of the most visited areas
at night. Russian and Jewish restaurants are enriching the offer of food
styles. Around the Kollwitz-Platz one can almost experience a world trip
considering the variety of existing restaurants.

Beginning your tour at Wasserturm and Kollwitzplatz the area around
Schoenhauser Allee and Greifswalder Strasse is one single nightwalk.
Whether Torpedokaefer or Cafe Soda in the Kulturbrauerei, (a vast
complex, Knaackstrasse), Pasternak or Luna-Bar, the number of Cafes and
Pubs is a legend.

Clubs such as Duncker, Knaack or Magnet offer live music, nightlocations
such as the Dolmenclub, the Icon, H2O Bar, Prater or Coffy invite you to
night dances.

At this location the dishes of truly exclusive restaurants are very
delicious. After a special dining experience you can stroll for nobly
bars enjoying the unique sight. If you are lucky you even might meet a
famous star or politician that is appreciating the Gendarmenmarkt just
as well.

Gendarmenmarkt is one of the most beautiful squares in Europe – a must
for every tourist. Here the Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral), the
Franzoesischer Dom (French Cathedral) and the Konzerthaus create a
beautiful architectural ensemble.

The square was laid out from 1688 to the plans of J.A. Nering; it was
originally known as Linden Markt, then Friedrichstaedtischer Markt or
Neuer Markt. Because the square was used by a curassier regiment “gens
d?arms,” from 1736–82, complete with sentry boxes and stables, the name
Gendarmenmarkt arose. From 1777, the square was developed according to
unified plans drawn up by Georg Christian Unger. It was badly damaged in
the Second World War; on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the
Prussian Academy of the Sciences (Akademie der Wissenschaften), it was
renamed “Platz der Akademie,” but its previous name was restored in
1991.

Franzoesischer Dom (French Cathedral)

The French Cathedral was built from 1701–05 to the designs of Cayart, as
a church for Berlin’s Huguenot community, thus the reason for its name.
The narrow side of the rectangular main building has semicircular
extension wings. From 1780–85, the imposing tower was added to plans by
Gontard and Unger as part of the redesigning of Gendarmenmarkt. The
cathedral, which was badly damaged in the war, was rebuilt from 1977.

Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral)

From 1701–08, the German Cathedral – also known as the New Church – was
built by Giovanni Simonetti to plans to M. Gruenberg. From 1780–85, Carl
von Gontard extended the building with the addition of the domed tower,
during the redesigning of the Gendarmenmarkt. The cathedral was
destroyed in the Second World War and reopened on October 2, 1996
following complete restoration.

Konzerthaus/Schauspielhaus

The Konzerthaus is the new building designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel
to replace the Nationaltheater built from 1800–02 by Karl Gotthard
Langhans, which was burnt to the ground in 1817. The conception of the
Konzerthaus integrates the remains of Langhan’s rectangular building and
adds a higher, wider, gabled solidium in the center, complete with an
ionic columned hall projecting at the front. Following its destruction
in the Second World War, the building was initially only made safe, and
the systematic restoration of the original design only began in 1979.
Since its reopening in 1984 it has served not as a theatre, but as a
concert hall.

In the small lanes of the historical Nikolaiviertel (Nikolai quarter)
the traditional Berlin returns to life. Mitte’s taverns and bars are
waking local traditions due to their old-fashioned atmosphere and the
typical homemade dishes served. Especially tourists are appreciating
this part of Berlin for its direct position beside the Spree River and
for its numerous souvenir shops. The pictured Nikolai-church with its
roots form the 13th century is one of Berlin’s oldest maintained
religious buildings.

Gendarmenmarkt is one of the most beautiful squares in Europe – a must
for every tourist. Here the Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral), the
Franzoesischer Dom (French Cathedral) and the Konzerthaus create a
beautiful architectural ensemble.

The square was laid out from 1688 to the plans of J.A. Nering; it was
originally known as Linden Markt, then Friedrichstaedtischer Markt or
Neuer Markt. Because the square was used by a curassier regiment “gens
d?arms,” from 1736–82, complete with sentry boxes and stables, the name
Gendarmenmarkt arose. From 1777, the square was developed according to
unified plans drawn up by Georg Christian Unger. It was badly damaged in
the Second World War; on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the
Prussian Academy of the Sciences (Akademie der Wissenschaften), it was
renamed “Platz der Akademie,” but its previous name was restored in
1991.

Franzoesischer Dom (French Cathedral)

The French Cathedral was built from 1701–05 to the designs of Cayart, as
a church for Berlin’s Huguenot community, thus the reason for its name.
The narrow side of the rectangular main building has semicircular
extension wings. From 1780–85, the imposing tower was added to plans by
Gontard and Unger as part of the redesigning of Gendarmenmarkt. The
cathedral, which was badly damaged in the war, was rebuilt from 1977.

Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral)

From 1701–08, the German Cathedral – also known as the New Church – was
built by Giovanni Simonetti to plans to M. Gruenberg. From 1780–85, Carl
von Gontard extended the building with the addition of the domed tower,
during the redesigning of the Gendarmenmarkt. The cathedral was
destroyed in the Second World War and reopened on October 2, 1996
following complete restoration.

Konzerthaus/Schauspielhaus

The Konzerthaus is the new building designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel
to replace the Nationaltheater built from 1800–02 by Karl Gotthard
Langhans, which was burnt to the ground in 1817. The conception of the
Konzerthaus integrates the remains of Langhan’s rectangular building and
adds a higher, wider, gabled solidium in the center, complete with an
ionic columned hall projecting at the front. Following its destruction
in the Second World War, the building was initially only made safe, and
the systematic restoration of the original design only began in 1979.
Since its reopening in 1984 it has served not as a theatre, but as a
concert hall.

In the meantime the Simon–Dach–Strasse has proved to be ‘the’ place to
be in Friedrichshain. The avant-garde is meeting in bars, taverns and
clubs that attract visitors for their different life style.

Between Ostbahnhof and Ostkreuz, you will find something of everything:
on the one hand “scene” clubs, such as the well-known Casino (you will
find some of the most well-known DJ’s there, e.g. Paul van Dyk) or
Matrix, on the other hand Die Tagung – a small place on a nostalgia trip
that is stuffed full of weird and wonderful memorabilia of bygone East
German days.

Kreuzberg with its Oranienstrasse is offering a variety of multicultural
cuisine styles. Besides restaurants from all over the world such as the
Amrit and the Kafka, bars, cafes and taverns like Alibi and Franziskaner
attract the young and trendy population. Altes Kaufhaus (former Trash)
and Roses, Schnabelbar and SO36 are buzzing with young people until the
early hours of the morning. In the Wiener Strasse and at Goerlitzer Park
is plenty of action as well, proved by numerous Cafes and pubs (Morena,
Madonna, Wiener Blut and as a new location the Privat Club).

Shopping in Berlin

In Berlin everyone likes to go shopping in his own district. Therefore
in nearly every district shopping malls and centers reflect the
character of their inhabitants.

Besides the well known shopping boulevards like Kurfuerstendamm or
Friedrichstrasse many more destinations tempt to stroll, shop and linger
at the numerous cafes. Every part of the city has its own center which
might be worth a visit.

The upper part of Kurfuerstendamm and the following Tauentzienstrasse
form a shopping paradise especially referring to the younger crowd for
the existence of famous international labels like H&M, Bennetton and
Zara which may be found right next to each other.

Walking from the Adenauerplatz the boulevard is converting into a more
exclusive and tranquil zone. Big trademarks just like Jil Sander or Yves
Saint Laurent have their fashion shops at that area.

The byroads of Kurfuerstendamm form a perfect detour for their rich
offer of small shops with extraordinary products. The streets with their
splendid architecture of the turn of the century on Uhlandstrasse and
Ludwig-Kirch-Platz not only invite to quarry in the numerous stylish
shops that offer posh design and fashion but tempt to relax at the many
picturesque cafes and restaurants just as well.

Friedrichstrasse is spreading a flair of the twenties. With its newly
decorated buildings, exclusive offices and coffee shops one can
experience a breeze of New York life spirit in the heart of Berlin.

Friedrichstrasse is the most legendary street in the whole city and
combines the tradition of the “Golden Twenties” with the architecture of
the New Berlin. In the Twenties, the 3.5 km long street was the location
for pleasure palaces, cafes, theatres and variety theatres such as the
famous “Wintergarten”.

After the division of the city, the Wall also cut through
Friedrichstrasse, where the famous »Checkpoint Charlie was located at
the border of the districts of Kreuzberg and Mitte and thus at the
border of East and West Berlin. The train station at Friedrichstrasse,
which has recently undergone complete renovation, remains rather more
tragically in the minds of many East and West Berliners as the border
crossing point between the two Germanys. The former customs hall, known
as the “Traenenpalast” or “Palace of Tears”, now hosts arts and
entertainment events. Further north, the Friedrichstadtpalast offers
revue theatre of international standing.

On the southern half of Friedrichstrasse there are countless new
buildings, including the Friedrichstadtpassagen, with boutiques, offices
and restaurants featuring the latest in architectural design. Shopping
and window-shopping in the French fashion is the attraction of the
Galeries Lafayette, located in the Quartier 207: on offer are a range of
French specialties, particularly in the delicatessen. The impressive
design created by the architect Jean Nouvel boasts a transparent glass
facade and an atrium which tapers towards the bottom. The connecting
Quartier 206, which is home to the boutiques of countless top designers,
boasts an extravagant Art Deco style. Not only visitors but also the
employees from the new, chic offices, agencies and media centers all
enjoy the urban spirit and New York flair of the new Friedrichstrasse.

The centre of Spandau with its charming old-fashioned buildings is
tempting to stroll from shop to shop. Neat boutiques with an unique
atmosphere are turning a shopping tour in Spandau into a special
personal event.

This traditional shopping boulevard consists of a huge number of shops
and department stores. All kinds of shops are found right next to each
other. Therefore a little shopping stroll can become an exhilarating
pleasure.

A visit of the Nikolaiviertel, a middle aged reconstructed district,
forms a special experience. Besides many museums well worth seeing and
the Nikolai church, numerous small shops of souvenirs, applied arts and
antiques can be discovered. You can perfectly walk through the little
alleys of the district and find yourself transferred into a different
era.

The popular shopping zone in Steglitz that consists of two shopping
malls, a shopping forum and the huge Galeria offers a diversified
selection of shops. Besides the subsidiaries of the big shopping centers
and well known labels one can find numerous smaller boutiques which
extend the ample offer. Since one store is situated right beside the
next one, Schlossstrasse truly invites to stroll from one display window
to the other.

Exploring a foreign city – there is no better way for doing this than by
foot. You will not only get to know the sights and the (hi-)story but
also the lifestyle and the atmosphere as well which characterize many
special places. A wide offer of tourist guides would like to help you on
your way so that you won’t get lost in the 900 km? large Berlin. The
selection of guided walks with topical emphasis regards all interests.

Day Trips

Berlin offers a wide range of possibilities and activities for
sightseeing: historical buildings and modern architecture, a various
theatre and opera scene and open air events just like the Love Parade,
boulevards with excellent shopping possibilities and green oasis with
silent lakes.

Anyone wanting to see more might take a stop on the journey to Berlin.
Brandenburg offers a lot of places which are worth to visit.

In the south of Berlin lies Potsdam, the summer residence of the
Prussian kings. The palaces Sanssouci, Neues Palais, Charlottenhof and
the spacious parks with the pavilions charm with the feeling of ancient
times.

The Potsdam city center with the picturesque Hollaendisches Viertel
(Dutch quarter) and the traditional Russian colony Alexandrowa call up
the past.

In the north of Berlin at the idyllic Ruppiner Land the beautiful
Schloss Rheinsberg invites you to concerts regularly taking place in
romantic settings.

The imposing watergate Niederfinow still impresses every visitor caused
by its technique and architecture dating from the 1920s.

The Spreewald may be called unique in Europe as it is a cultivated water
landscape with a widespread labyrinth of small rivers that meander. One
shouldn’t miss a boat trip on the water ways which is a quite
fascinating experience in Brandenburg.

Since long Dresden has been called the Florence of the North due to its
splendid baroque buildings. The magnificent buildings still remind of
the golden times of August the Strong. The Zwinger,one of the most
important baroque building of its time offers a wonderful painting
collection, the Gemaeldegalerie. The Frauenkirche, the largest
protestant dome building, was destroyed in World war II and is now under
restoration. A visit to the Semperoper promises real pleasure and
enjoyment to all music lovers.

A consumption of another kind offers the Radeberger brewery which is
more than 100 years old. You are invited to a very interesting guided
tour followed by a special beer tasting. The brewery process of one of
the leading beers in Germany is presented in a sapid way.

The Radeberger brewery is located near Dresden, about 2 1/2 hours car
ride from Berlin.

Conclusion

Germany, Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany,
republic (1995 est. pop. 81,338,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km).
Located in the center of Europe, it borders the Netherlands, Belgium,
Luxembourg, and France on the west; Switzerland and Austria on the
south; the Czech Republic and Poland on the east; Denmark on the north;
and the Baltic Sea on the northeast. The official capital and largest
city is Berlin, but many administrative functions are still carried on
in Bonn, the former capital of West Germany.

Germany as a whole can be divided into three major geographic regions:
the low-lying N German plain, the central German uplands, and, in the
south, the ranges of the Central Alps and other uplands. The climate is
temperate although there is considerable variation. Almost two thirds of
the country’s extensive forests are coniferous; among the broadleafs,
beech predominates.

The importance of tourism for the economy and society cannot be
questioned. No other single branch of the economy employs so many
people, in both the main and the supporting services, as does the
tourist industry, because tourism includes many auxilary services:
travel, eating, sleeping, relaxation and enjoyment. Whilst it is true
that in recent years expenditure by German households has been
restrained, recent surveys reveal they would still rather go on holiday
than buy a new car. But this has not always benefited the German tourist
industry: arrivals and overnights have stagnated, albeit at a very high
level, but there are at least more overseas guests coming to Germany.

Tourism is neither a one-way street, nor is it a monoculture: it is a
colourful mosaic with a wide range of services on offer. If just one
part of the mosaic is missing, then all the others will suffer as a
result. Travel agencies, transport, hotel and guest houses, cultural,
sporting and health organisations, are the heart of the tourist economy,
a heart which needs vessels to maintain its circulation. Transport
officials, natural and environmental protection officers, enterprise and
communications consultants, the preservation and protection of buildings
and monuments, to name but a few, all must work harmoniusly together.

Tourism offers young people a wide range of opportunities in attractive
professions, offering progress and encouraging enterprise thinking and
independence.The Federal Economics Ministry is highly active in the
industry, not just for the industry itself, but also because tourism
benefits the economy and workforce as a whole. Travel promotes and forms
tolerant attitudes, and mutual understanding. For those who want to
develop and expand their business, the attractiveness of a particular
area is as important as anything else.

The tourist industry is proud of its contribution to wealth and job
creation, promoting the service mentality with the motto, “think global,
act global”, and it is with good reason that former employees in the
tourist industry are so highly regarded in other sectors of the economy
as flexible and willing to adapt to different kinds of work.

Literature

1. Rosenbaum R. Explaining Hitler:The Search for the Origins of his
Evil/R. Rosenbaum. – London etc.: Papermac, 1998.

2. Лебедев В.Б. Знакомьтесь: Германия! Пособие по страноведению: Учеб.
пособие для вузов/ В.Б. Лебедев. – 2-е изд., стер. – М.: Высш. шк.,
2006.

3. Тимошина Т.М. Экономическая история зарубежных стран: Учеб. пособие
для вузов по экон. специальностям/Т.М. Тимошина; Под ред. М.Н. Чепурина;
Моск. гос. ин-т междунар. отношений (ун-т) МИД РФ.- 3-е изд., стер. –
М.: Юстицинформ, 2005.

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