Chapter 1. The resolve of the understanding and the term of
Till now doesn’t exist an unique decision of the question. From what it
can be fastening the understanding of neologism, which are the
criteria’s concerning this or that dictionary of neologism.
The resolving of understanding ‘’neologism’’ by the different
investigators becomes clear two points of view, concluding in that, that
the term of ‘’neologism’’ using in new style, as a creating on a new
material of language in full corresponding with existing in language
kinds of words or word combinations, meaning new, beforehand unknown,
unexciting understanding, subject, branch of knowledge, profession and
so on, f. e. reaction- ядерный реактор, biocide-биологическая война and
so on, in such way as neologism, and exactly in new created synonyms
already existing in a word language for the meaning of well known
understanding almost semantic and stylistic colours of word, which are
based on its general meanings, and already to words in new meaning: for
example the word boffin (scientist) presented the synonyms of the word
scientist, but it already has another semantic colour and so on. Almost
marked some difference in contents of that lexical innovations by the
cause of its result, of its stability in language, of its clearness of
using, of its future destiny when few of them will fast enter into the
language, anothers will be less stabile and can be thrown out of using
after some short time.
‘’Also the presenting of new words connected with resulting of new
associations, but the understanding is the same as the language in
general, lexical appropriations doing their special actions as the
method of connections, rebuilding, differences and clearing with what,
that more correctly to show, present and fasten new comprehensions
corresponding words and combinations.’’
The new-foundation, if it results in periphery, as it gets more fasten
demands and unchangeable in word fond. New-foundations, as a rule,
presented in the language of science, techniques, art, politic, and in
the same time as a neologism in speaking language.
As for the time of criteria for seclusion of new-foundation and
neologism exactly to decide it is impossible, it has a sense to use
subjective criteria: if it receive the collective language consciousness
this or that lexical unit as a new.
For the sequent we will name it with the term ‘’neologism’’, any word
for their comfort have the statue of lexical new-foundation, as the
quality of own neologism.
Chapter 2: The explaining of the meaning of neologism
The basic complications during the translation of neologisms, it is the
explaining of the meaning of the new word.
Particularly the translation of neologism, which meaning has already
known to translator, the mission is more easy and it solves by the way
of using means, being suspended for the type of the word which belongs
to that neologism.
If the new word absents in English-Russian dictionary, as it is need to
try to find it in English-English dictionary.
There are ‘’New words Sections’’ in many famous dictionaries. In that
time recommends to use dictionaries of the last issue. Many neologisms
we can find in dictionaries and sections about slangs. It must remind,
that more operative prepared and published dictionaries in little and
middle thickness, but they can’t satisfy the demands of professionals.
However, the dictionaries in objective causes can’t wholly show in their
all new-founded words, as for that lexis avoid to include in
dictionaries such called ‘’occasional’’ neologisms, individual
new-founded, brought by the individual authors, such words also turns
‘’unlivable words’’ and disappear as fast as they appear.
The explaining of the meaning of neologism from the context
Coming out from the term ‘’neologism’’ we can assume, that the
translator first meet with his own neologism, naturally he has no
imagination, about that which is explained by him.
For that the meaning of neologism we often forced to understand it from
the contexts. During the written translation the context as a rule
rather informed. During the translation of the word usually secludes two
1. The explaining of the meaning of the word in context;
2. Giving that meaning by the medium of WP.
By the translating of neologism, how it says, the first period plays an
important role, and the second is only just a technique question and it
must solve with the methods of more usable for the WP.
In general understanding of the context differences to micro context and
macro context: under the micro context means the context of the
sentence, as linguistic unit, without going out from the circle of the
sentence; macro context it is compactness of linguistic unit,
surrounding that unit out of the sentence, saying another word-in mixing
with them sentences.
Stable type of the macro context is impossible to show- it can be
context from group of sentences, chapters or the whole creation, f. e.
story, tales, articles or drama.
It is very important that during the using of neologism we must pay
attention to macro context, because exactly in it can be ‘’the prompt
Micro context we can separate into syntactic and lexical. Syntactic
context it is the syntactic construction in which used this word,
combinations or sentence. Lexical context it is completeness of clear
lexical units, words and stable word combinations, as surrounding them
we meet this unit.
New words as a rule appeared on base of already existing words and
morphs in language. The analyze of that words and morphs can give to the
translator real help in clearing the meaning of neologism. For that is
necessary to know well the mediums of word shaping in English language,
Giving one more meaning to already existing word Combinations
f. e. the word call in English it means ‘’named’’, ‘’to call to
somebody’’ ‘’telephone ring’’ and so on.
One of the most ancient, universal and propagated mediums combinations,
which doesn’t lose their activeness and now days. One from three of
new-founded words in modern English are complicated words.
F. e. carry-back –‘’to replace the harm payment to a news period’’,
Citiplus- ‘’City bank (USA)’’ and so on.
As the norms of modern English language lets co-ordination of words,
carrying the same lexical-grammatical characterizes which connects
during the word-foundation of the base, it is explaining that in what
reasons the translator works with hard words of neologism, and there are
combinations in which:
f. e. closing bank-‘’bank, which had already finished its deal, in which
took part several banks’’;
closing bank-‘’bank which has already closed’’ and so on.
Now recultivated a row of criteria’s for limiting complicated words and
word combinations. During the translation of neologisms in English an
unique attention has autographical criteria, it’s sense is in to review
any complex, written together or by dash, as the complicated words and
complexes, which components written lone, like combinations.
Dividend-right certificate-‘’a certificate which gives you a right to
get the certificate’’,
Dear-money policy-‘’limited credit by the way of rising the percents’’,
Fill-or-kill order-‘’the order of client to the dealer, which must be
done immediately or be annulated.’’
In reasons when the word is connected, finishing and beginning in the
same sound or consonant, one of them being low:
net + etiquette=netiquette-‘’unwritten wholly rule of relations or an
information placed in Internet’’.
However we must mark that it is not a rule:
Some sections of the American press are upping the case still further by
using an even more emotive term ‘’cyberrape’’, to describe the actions
of Jake Baker, a 20-year-old American student. (The Independent, 1998).
However, it is necessary to mark, that in many variants viewed
incompleteness in writing even the same complex. For example, in reason
of man-made ‘’artificial, made by a man’’ 6%- written in lone, 82%-by
dash, 12%- together.
The analyze of components numbered in the contents of complicated word,
gives to the translator a possibility, knowing its lexical meaning, to
clear out the meaning of the whole complex:
Graphite bombing caused power lines destruction turning off
life-supports in Belgrade hospitals (Fox News Direct, 1999). How we see
the neologism life-supports composed from two pieces life (‘’жизнь’’)
and support (‘’поддерживать’’), it means that allowed to keep life or be
livable, so paying attention on context this neologism we can translate
as ‘’an instrument of life supporting’’.
The forming by analogue already existing in language by the way of
adding in it different productive affixes
For the right understanding of the meaning formed by that way of
neologism, translator is needed to know the productive affixes in modern
English language and be able to member the word right in components:
Kiteflyer- ‘’money receiver under the fixed checks.
Very often in such method of forming neologisms has theatrical colour,
particularly in press:
…that they taste the same in Peking as they do in London or New York,
and so it was that world burgernomics was born by McDonald’s. (The
Here the author of the article want to pay attention of the reader on
essential developing the net of restaurants ‘’McDonalds’’, the industry
of fast food, where take place their own rules and didn’t act like
another economic rules do in different countries.
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