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The comparative typology of English, Ruinsssian and Uzbek languages

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The ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the republic
of Uzbekistan

«The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages»

Gulistan 2007

Introduction

A silence would be a lonely world. To listen, to answer, to share our
thought and ideas through speech and hearing this is one of the most
exciting ports of being human.

It is no doubt true that students grow toward maturity and independence
of thought as they progress through the grades; but this growth is not
as a rule a sharp and sudden one, nor does the psychology of the
students undergo any great change during the various levels of the
fundamental principles that underlie the work of the University remain
the same from year to year. The need in every level is to bring about
academic growth by providing near and broader experiences.

While working at school found out how difficult for the students of the
secondary school, definite the national groups, to learn English,
because there are no prepositions in Uzbek, but in English we have. If
we talk about gender we have, of course some similarities. And when, I
tried them to explain some examples in comparison they learned those
words better than I thought.

Thus, the goal of the research is to investigate grammar of the English
language in comparison with the Uzbek, to investigate phonetics, in
comparison English with Uzbek.

The enabling objectives are as follows:

To review literature of comparative languages (English and Uzbek) in
order to make theoretically we-motivated discussions on the choice of
comparison.

To analyze the parts of speech of the English language and the Uzbek
language.

The novelty is that this work contains the comparative analyses of the
English grammar, phonetics and construction of the sentence. The student
made her own investigation finding many examples of comparison not only
in English, and in Uzbek.

Materials and literature which she used were «The comparative typology
of English and Turkic languages», the lectures on «Comparative typology»
and «Theory of phonetics» by A. Abduazizov.

The qualification work consists of several parts where she opened and
analyzed the theme.

1. Main part

1.1 Comparative typology of English and Uzbek

The word typology consists of two Greek morphemes: a) typos means type
and b) logos means science or word. Typology is a branch of science
which is typical to all sciences without any exception. In this respect
their typological method is not limited with the sphere of one science.
It has a universal rise. So typology may be divided into:

1. Non-linguistic and

2. Linguistic typology

Non-linguistic typology is the subject matter of the sciences except
linguistics.

Linguistic typology is a new branch of general linguistic which studies
the systems of languages comparatively, also finds common laws of
languages and establishes differences and similarities between them.

Typological classification of languages.

In linguistics we may come across many terms as to the terminological
nature of linguistic typology.

The are: 1. Comparative methods, 2. Comparative – historical method, 3.
Comparative (or contrastive) linguistics, 4. Comparative typology, 5.
Comparative grammar, 6. Connotation grammar, 7. Descriptive –
comparative linguistics and on the terms used in Russian and Uzbek are
not exact either. They are: сравнительная грамматика, сопоставительная
грамматика, сравнительно-историческое языкознание, контрастивная
лингвистика, сравнительная типология in Russian and ?иёсий типология,
?иёсий тарихий тилшунослик, ?иёсий грамматика, ?иёсий тилшунослик and so
on in Uzbek.

Classification of linguistic typology.

According to the notion of comparison of linguistics phenomenon and the
aim directed on we may classify linguistic typology into the following
parts a) genetic of genealogical typology, b) structural typology, c)
areal typology and d) comparative typology.

Genealogical typology is a branch of linguistic typology which studies
the similarities and the relationship between the related languages. It
is applicated to the systems of genetically related languages.
Genealogical typology developed from the comparative – historical
linguistics dominated during the 19th century in Europe. It’s origin was
stimulated by the discovery of Sanskrit, the ancient classical language
of India. The discovery of Sanskrit disclosed the possibility of a
comparative study of languages. The concept of relative languages was
confirmed by the existence in India of a sister of the familiar
languages of Europe e.g. Sanskrit «mata» means «mother», in the accuse
case «matarum»

Dvau-two

Trayah – three

As ti-he is etc.

Before the discovery of Sanskrit European linguistics possessed very
vague similarities for the current grammars built on the Greek model.
They didn’t set clearly the features of each languages. It is worth to
mention that at the same time Sanskrit discovery gave rise to confuse
notions of linguistic relation which lived for a brief time that
European languages were derived from Sanskrit. But this opinion gave way
to a correct explanation, namely Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, and other were
later forms of one prehistorically language.

Comparatives gave two kinds of classification of languages –
genealogical and morphological.

Genealogical classification deals with the family relationship of
languages which descend from one common ancestor. It distributes
languages into different families.

Morphological classification deals with the classification of languages
according to their structural features instead of a genealogical origin.

According to the morphological classification the languages are divided
into:

Isolating (Chinese; Vietnamese; Japan; etc.)

Analytic (Russian; English; German; etc.)

Agglutinative (Turkish languages) and other.

Genetic Typology compares the systems of languages in two ways:
diachronically and synchronically. But in the second case genetic
relationship is not taken into consideration.

Structural linguistic typology can be understood as a systematization of
linguistic phenomenon from different languages according to their
specific structural features.

Structural typology research makes it possible to establish some traits
are universal, unique, and special.

Language Universals.

The notion of language universals is closely connected with the process
of unification of linguistic facts with a process of establishing common
features between the systems of different languages.

With the process of generalization of linguistic phenomenon the
investigations or language universals began at the end of 1950s. The
main event in this field is the international conference held in April,
1961 in New-York.

At this conference a report called «Memorandum» concerning the language
universals was presented by the American linguists J. Greenburg, Ch.
Ostgood and J. Genkings. In the former Soviet Union B.A. Uspensky
published his monographic research «Структурная типология языка» (1965).

In 1966 there appeared J. Greenberg’s book «Language universals with
special references to feature hierarchies.»

These works were followed by a number of other research works published
as articles and special volumes.

According to the «Memorandum» languages universals are by their nature
summary statements about characteristics or tendencies shared by all
human speakers. As such they constitute the most general laws of science
of linguistics.

Language universals study the universal features in the systems of
different languages of the world. They find similarities which are
typical of the absolute or overwhelming majority of languages.

Types of universals are as follows: 1. Definitional universals, 2.
Empirical universals.

Definitional universals are connected with the fact which the speaker
possesses and uses his extrapolation. It means that linguistic
phenomenon exists in the system of these languages which the scholar
does not know.

E.g. Indo-European languages have the opposition of the vowels and
consonants. This phenomenon may be considered to be systems of other
languages of the world.

Empirical universals are connected with the mental or imaginary
experience that is a definite linguistic feature may exist in all
languages, secondly he or she does not know if this or that feature
exist in all languages. E.g. composition may exist in all languages in
spite of their morphological structure.

Unrestricted universals. According to this type of universals linguistic
supposition of hypotheses is not restricted. E.g. all languages have
vowels or for all languages the number of phonemes is not fewer that 10
or more that 70 or every language has at least 2 vowels.

Universal implication. These universals involve the relationship between
two characteristics. If a language has a certain characteristics, it has
also some particular characteristics but not vise-versa i.e. the
presence of the second doesn’t empty the presence of the firs.

E.g. If a language has a category of dual number it has also a category
of plural but not vise-versa. Such implications are numerous
particularly in the phonological aspect of languages.

Comparative typology is a branch of general linguistic typology. It
deals with a comparison of languages.

Comparative typology compares the systems of two or more concrete
languages and creates common typological laws. The comparison of the
system of two languages are compared first of all.

E.g. the category of mood in English is considered to be a small system.
Having completed the comparison of languages investigators takes the
third language to compare and so on. Comparative typology is sometimes
characterized by some scholars as characterology which deals with the
comparison of the systems only.

1.2 Comparative – typological analysis of the phonological systems of
English and Uzbek

In the linguistic literature phoneme is defined as the smallest
distinctive unit. Unlike the other bigger units of language as morpheme
and word it doesn’t have its meaning but helps us to distinct the
meanings of words and morphemes. Comp. boy-toy,
better-letter-latter-litter-later; бола-тола-хола-ола, нон-?он-сон-он,
ун-ун(товуш)-ўн-ўнг(мо?), бўз(ўзлаштирилмаган) – бўз(материал),
бўл-бўл(та?сима) etc. From the acoustic and articulatory points of view
the phonemic system of any language may be divided into vowels and
consonants.

The systems of vowel phonemes

From the acoustic point of the view vowels are speech sounds of pure
musical tone. Their oscillagraphic melody tracing are characterized by
periodically.

From the point of view of articulation vowels are speech sound in the
production of which there are no noise producing obstructions. The
obstructions by means of which vowels are formed may be of two kinds:

1) The fourth obstruction without which neither vowels nor voiced
consonants are formed.

2) The third obstruction characteristic of both: English and Uzbek
vowels.

The channels formed in the mouth cavity for vowel production by moving a
certain part of the tongue and keeping the lips in a certain position
cannot be regarded as obstructions. They change the shape and volume of
the resonance chamber, and in this way, help to achieve the timbre (or
quality) of voice, characteristic of the vowel in question.

In modern English we distinguish 21 vowel phonemes:

10. monophthongs [e, i, u, ae ?:, c, c:, ?,]?, ?:]

9. Diphthongs [ei, ai, au, ae i, ?i,]

In modern Uzbek we find 6 vowel letters and corresponding vowel phonemes
[a, o, y, (e, э) i(и)]

The main principles of classifying the vowel phonemes are as-follows: a)
according to the part (place of – articulation or horizontal movement)
of the tongue; b) according to the height (vertical movement) of the
long; c) according to the position of lips; d) according to quality
(length) of vowels.

1. according to the part (horizontal movement) of the tongue vowel may
be divided into;

central [?: ?], front [i:, i, e, ae,] and back [a, u, ae, u, ?:, ae:]
vowels.

2. according to the height of the tongue into: close (high) [i:], [u:]
medial [e, ?: ?, ] and open [ae, ?:, ae:, ae] vowels

In the languages, in which hot only the quality but also quantity of
vowels is of certain phonemic or positional value, one more subdivision
appears.

3. according to vowel length th vowels may be divided into short; [i, ?,
u, ae, ,] and long [i: ?: u: ae: ?:] vowels. (In this case it belongs
only to the English vowels as far as in Uzbek the length of the vowel is
of no importance).

4. according to the position of lips vowels may be; rounded (or
labilialized)

[u:, u: ?, c c,] and unrrounded (non-labialized) [e, ?: ?, ae] vowels.

5. we may also subdivide vowels according to their tensely or laxity
into: lax

[i, c, e, ?, ?, ?, ae] and tense [i: u: ?: ae: ?:] vowels.

Vowel quality, vowel length and the position of the lips are denoted in
the classification by transcription symbols of the phoneme itself. For
instance [?:] is a long diphthongized vowel phoneme, pronounced with
lips unrounded and [ae:] is a rounded long diphthongized vowel, while
[?] and [e] are an unrounded monophthongs. The first and the second
principles constitute the basis of any vowel classification. They were
firs suggested by H. Sweet (1898).

1.3 Comparative vowel table

The first comparative vowel tables appeared in the 19th-century. Their
aim was to prove the common origin of some two modern languages
belonging to the same family. In the 1920s of the XX century Prof. D.
Jones suggested a classification based on the principle of the so called
«cardinal vowels». But these cardinal vowels are abstract notion and
have nothing to do with the comparison of two language from the
typological viewpoint.

The aim of our comparison is pedagogical. Every phoneme of the English
language should be compared with the’ Uzbek vowels as comparison of an
unknown language phoneme with that of one’s mother tongue is of great
use. The aim of our comparison (does not need any universal principle)
and is to underline the specific features of vowel formation in the two
languages in question. The tables of English vowels (accepted in our
country) are based on the principles of acad. L.V. Sherba’s vowel
classification, later on prof. G.P. Torsueva’s and prof. V.AVasiljev’s
classification.

1. According to the position of the tongue in the horizontal plane
English vowels are divided into 3 groups: close, medial, and open. Each
of them is subdivided into: narrow and broad.

2. According to the part of the tongue: front, – front – retracted,
mixed, back advanced and back.

In comparing the English and Uzbek vowel systems one more principle
should be accepted – central vowels must be divided into: l) central
proper and central retracted.

Comparison shows, that:

1. the Uzbek [a] should be classified as broad open central retracted
vowel

2. the neutral vowel [?] in English was pronounced by – the English
speakers examined as a broad medial, central retracted vowel.

3. the English [?] was pronounced as an open narrow, central retracted
vowel (evidently thanks to the new tendency to make it less back).

As there is ho subdivision of Uzbek vowels according to their

quantity into long and short ones there is no perceptible,

difference in their tensely or laxity. So the Uzbek Vo – .veil

phonemes are differentiated by their qualitative features.

The main philological relevant features of the Uzbek vowels phonemes
are: front–central–back, according to which they may form phonological
opposition: close-mid-open (сил-сел-сал – кўр–кир, кўл – кел, тор – тер
etc.)

It should be kept in mind that there is a difference between the
phonetic and phonological classification of phonemes. In the phonetic
classification articulation arid acoustic features ane, taken into
consideration. Every point of its cliJference is of-pedagogical use.

But philological classification is based on the abstract differential
features of phonemes. They serve the purpose of their differentiating,
and are called philolbgically relevant attributes of phonemes. They may
be defined with the help of, philological opposition in some pairs of
words.

Comparative analysis of the English and Uzbek vowels systems

As has been mentioned above the system of English vowel phonemes
consists of monophtongs, diphthongized vowels and diphthongs. There are
21 vowel phonemes in English. They are: [i:, I, e, ae, ?, c, c, u, u, ?,
?, ?, ei, ou, au, ci, i?, ei, u?,] There are 6 vowel phonemes in Uzbek.
They are: [i, u, ?ie, a, o, y, y]

The main point of difference: similarly between the English monophtongs,
diphthongizes vowel and Uzbek may be summed up as follows:

1. The English and Uzbek Vowel phonemes are characterized by the oral
formation. There are no nasal nasalized vowels in the languages
compared.

2. According to the part of the tongue in the formation of vowel
phonemes there are no front–retracted, central proper for mixed) vowels
in Uzbek. Resembles may be found in the pronunciation of the back vowels
in English and Uzbek. The Uzbek [y] and the English [o] are
back-advanced vowels. The Uzbek [o] and the English [c], also (c) are
back retracted vowels. Therefore, it is comparatively easy to teach the
Uzbeks pronunciation of back English vowels.

3. According to the height of the tongue in English there are vowels of
ail the 6 levels. Uzbek vowels belong to the narrow varieties of the 3
levels. In Uzbek there are no vowel phonemes like the English ae, ?i, ?,
[ae, ?:, ?]

These vowels are difficult for the student to master; especially the
neutral vowel. But never the less the neutral [?] can be compared with
Uzbek unstressed in the words like. Кетди, келди, китоб etc.

4. According to the position of the lips in the formation of vowels
English vowels are rounded without protractions. Uzbek vowels [a], [?]
[a] I are more closely rounded and protruded, where as the English [ae,
?, ?, ?, ?], are. slightly rounded and. [a], [u:] are closely rounded
without protrusion.

All the front and central vowels in English and Uzbek are ungrounded. In
articulating the English vowels [i:, i, e] and the Uzbek vowels [u, e
(?)], [y], the lips are neutral. In articulating the Uzbek [?, (e)] the
lips may be either neutral or spread. In teaching the Uzbeks to
pronounce the rounded English vowels care should be taken not to
protrude the lips.

5. Besides considerable qualitative difference there is a quantitative
difference between vowel phonemes of English and Uzbek. Traditionally
all English vowels are divided into slier-and long. Short – [?, c, ae,
?, i], long [i:, ?, c: u: ?].

But at present the quantitative features of the English vowel) phonemes
have become their main property and quality musty be regarded as
additional. The Uzbek vowel phonemes. may only – be differentiated their
quality. Philologically there. Is quantities difference in the Uzbek
vowel phonemes. They typical «middle sounds», neither long nor shorter
Some-Hines English vowels, [u:] may sound like the Uzbek [o] «and when
they are pronounced short. This acoustic resemblance makes it possible
to compare the vowels in question v

6. The English Vowels are usually neutralized and may be substituted by
[] in unstressed position. The Uzbek vowels may be used either in
stressed or unstressed position. Thus there is little difference between
stressed and unstressed vowels in Uzbek. It is better to pronounce the
correct pronunciation of the English without trying to find any
parallels in the native tongue.

The Vowels Criteria for Classification

The chapter before has examined the consonant phonemes of English from
an articulator perspective. After trying to establish a general
borderline between the two major classes of sounds – consonants and
vowels respectively – by postulating some major articulator distinctions
between them, an attempt was made to analyze English consonants in
detail, discussing the distinctions among them as well as contrasting
them with the corresponding sounds of Romanian.

We will remember then that if consonants are distinguished from vowels
precisely on the basis of an articulator feature that all of them
arguably share – a place along the speech tract where the air stream
meets a major obstacle or constriction – it would be very difficult to
describe vowels in the same terms as it will no longer be possible to
identify a «place of articulation». Articulator criteria can be, indeed,
used to classify vowels but they will be less relevant or, in any case,
of a different type than in the case of consonants.

Acoustic and even auditory features on the other hand will play a much
more important role in accurately describing vowels as vowels are
sonorous sounds, displaying the highest levels of resonance of all
speech sounds.

Vowels, like consonants, will differ in terms of quality ~ the acoustic
features will differ from one vowel to another depending on the position
of the articulators, but in a way which is distinct from what we have
seen in the case of consonants where there is another type of
interaction between the various speech organs – and in terms of quantity
or duration – again in a way distinct from consonants as vowels are all
sonorous, continuant sounds.

The quality of a vowel is given by the way in which the tongue – the
main articulator, as in the case of consonants – is positioned in the
mouth and by the activity of the lips. This position of the tongue
modifies the shape of the resonating cavities above the larynx and
decisively influences the quality of the resulting sound. The great
mobility of the tongue and the absence of any definite place of
obstruction – as in the case of consonants – accounts for the great
variety of vowels that can be found in any language and for the fact
that vowels rather than consonants are more intimately linked to the
peculiar nature of each and every language. It will be therefore much
more difficult for a student of a foreign language to acquire the
correct features of the vowel system than those of the consonant system
of the respective language.

Three will be then the criteria that can be used to distinguish among
vowels on an Articulator’s basis: imposition of the tongue in the mouth
– high or low on the vertical axis and fronted or retracted on the
horizontal axis – and fast position of the lips. Many languages will
also recognize a functional distinction between vowels produced by
letting the air out either through the nasal cavity or through the oral
one.

Tongue height. If we consider the position of the tongue in the mouth we
can identify two extreme situations: one in which the body of the tongue
is raised, almost touching the roof of the oral cavity and in this case
we will be dealing with high or close vowels – the name clearly refers
to the position of the tongue high in the mouth or close to the palate –
and the opposite position when the body of the tongue is very low in the
mouth leaving the cavity wide open as in the case when the doctor wants
to examine our tonsils and asks us to say «ah». The vowels thus produced
will be called open or low vowels since the tongue is lowered in the
mouth and the oral cavity is open. If the tongue is placed in an
intermediate position, raised only halfway against the palate, we shall
call the vowels mid vowels. A further, more refined distinction will
differentiate between two groups of mid vowels: close-mid/mid close or
half-close or high-mid/mid high vowels and open-mid/ mid open or
half-open or low-mid/mid low vowels.

If we consider the position of the tongue along the horizontal axis we
can identify three classes of vowels: front vowels – uttered with the
front part of the tongue highest, central vowels – if it is’ rather the
central part of the tongue that is highest, modifying the shape of the
articulator and back vowels – the rear part of the tongue is involved in
articulation.

The position of the lips. As I have mentioned earlier, the position of
the lips is another major criterion that is used o distinguish among
vowels. When we pronounce a vowel, our lips can be rounded, and then the
resulting sound will be rounded, or they can be spread and then we shall
say that the vowel that we have articulated is ungrounded. As we are
going to see later, roundness may be more or less relevant, depending on
the particular language we are talking about. The cavity through which
the air is released – oral or nasal establishes an important distinction
between oral and nasal vowels. There are nasal or nasalized vowels in
all languages, but again this distinction will be more important in
languages like, say, ‘• French, where it has a functional, contrastive,
phonemic value, than in English or in Romanian where the feature is just
contextual. More will be said about that later. As mentioned above,
quantity is an important feature that we have to take into account when
we discuss not only consonantal sounds, but vocalic ones as well. In
fact, this is a feature that is much more important for vowels, because
when we talk about duration in consonants we can contrast, for instance,
non-durative sounds of the plosive type to continuant sounds of the kind
fricatives are or simple to geminate consonants, while in the case of
vowels much more refined distinctions can be established among various
sounds. The fact that vowels vary in length is something we can
intuitively become aware of if we contrast the vowel of peel [pi:l] for
instance, to that of pill [pyl]. As we are going to see later, however,
the contrast between the two vowels is not limited simply to duration
and, moreover, vowel length is very much a contextual feature. Thus,
what we consider to be members of one and the same phoneme, the long
vowel [i:] will vary considerably in length in words like sea, seed and
seat. It is obvious even for a phonetically less trained ear that the
vowel is longer in case it occurs in syllable-final position and it
becomes shorter and shorter depending on the voiced or the voice lessens
of the following consonant. The picture becomes even more complex if we
compare the preceding contexts to seal, seen or seem. On the other hand
all the occurrences of [i:] mentioned above will be kept apart from the
variants of the short vowel [y] in words like Sid, sit, sill or sin
which differ in their turn in length depending on the nature of the
following consonant. We shall then say that vowel length is not always a
reliable distinctive feature when we try to contrast vowels – since it
is so much influenced by the context. Other features will be added to
obtain a more refined and closer to reality representation. The next
features we are going to examine will then be the degree of muscular
tension involved in articulation and deposition of the root of the
tongue.

Muscular tension can vary considerably when we produce different vocalic
sounds and this is something we can easily become aware of when we
contrast the long vowel [i:] in seat and the short one [y] in sit, the
examples analyzed above. Long vowels – conventionally marked in the ERA
alphabet by a colon – are always associated with a higher degree of
muscular tension in the speech organs involved in then* articulation. We
will say that these vowels are tense, since the articulators are so when
we utter them. Conversely, when we examine the way the vowel of sit is
produced, the articulator organs are less strained, laxer than in the
previous case. We will consequently describe these vowels as being lax.
As we shall see later, unlike in Romanian, vowel duration, associated
with tenseness, has a phonemic, contrastive value in English. The
position of the tongue root. The more advanced or retracted position of
the root of the tongue differentiates between vowels having different
degrees of openness. The vowels pronounced with the root of the tongue
pushed forward of its normal position will be specified as advanced
tongue root (ATK) vowels. Conversely, non-advanced tongue root vowels
will be articulated with the root of the tongue in its common, resting
position. The first group of vowels will be comparatively tenser and
higher than the vowels in the second group. Vowel quantity – duration,
length – combines with stability of articulation to make the distinction
between simple or «pure» vowels or monophthongs on the one hand and
diphthongs on the other. Monophthongs are comparatively shorter vowels
that preserve the same quality throughout the entire duration of their
articulation. A diphthong combines two different vocalic elements joined
together in a unique articulator effort and consequently being part of
the same syllabic unit. In any diphthong one of the vocalic elements
will be stronger than the other, from which or towards which the
pronunciation glides. If the weaker element comes first and we have a
glide towards the dominant vocalic element, the diphthong is a rising
one: it is the kind of diphthong we have in Romanian words like iatac,
iubire, iepure, iobag, meandre, boal a etc. This is a type of diphthong
that does not exist in English, a language that only has falling
diphthongs, that is diphthongs in which the glide is from the dominant
vocalic element to the weaker one. (e.g. boy, buy in English or boi, bai
in Romanian – N.B. these examples do not suggest that the diphthongs in
the two languages are identical!). It is often difficult to decide when
we deal with a genuine diphthong (that is a sequence of two vowels
pronounced together) and when we deal with a sequence of a vowel and a
glide for instance. In other words, shall we describe the vocalic
element in buy as the diphthong ay or shall we rather interpret it as
the vowel a followed by the glide j? Many linguists opt for the second
variant and some will go as far as interpreting long vowels like i: in
beat for instance as a succession of. The duration of the glide can
constitute the basis for a differentiation, since glides will arguably
take shorter to pronounce than the second vocalic element in a falling
diphthong. If the vowel is very short, however, it is often difficult do
distinguish it from the glide. The scope of this study will not allow us
to go into further detail, so for, the sake of simplicity we will adopt
the widely embraced approach that considers long vowels monophthongs and
vocalic sequences as that of buy genuine diphthongs.

The English diphthongs

Diphthongs have already been described as sequences of two vowels
pronounced together, the two vocalic elements being members of the same
syllable. We have shown that it is often difficult to distinguish a
genuine diphthong from a sequence of a vowel and a semivowel, that we
can often pronounce diphthongs and even long vowels as such sequences
and it is often the shorter duration of the less prominent vowel in the
diphthong that transforms it into a semi vocalic element. There is, for
instance, a difference, both in quantity and quality between the second
vocalic element in the English diphthong [ay] – that occurs, say, in the
word buy, and the semivowel [j] in the Spanish interjection ayl [aj].

According to the position of the more prominent element in the diphthong
we have already divided diphthongs into falling diphthongs – if the
prominant element comes first – and rising diphthongs – if the less
prominent element comes first. All English diphthongs belong to the
first category, as it has already been pointed out.

Diphthongs can then be opening diphthongs if the degree of aperture
increases with the glide or closing diphthongs if the less prominent
vowel is closer than the first. We can also differentiate between wide
diphthongs – those in which the glide implies a more radical movement of
the speech organs (e.g. [a 2]) and narrow diphthongs – if the two
vocalic elements occupy neighboring positions (e.g. [e] on the vowel
chart. There are also cent ring diphthongs – if the glide is from a
marginal vowel in the vowel chart – either back or front – to a central
vowel. (See the three English diphthongs gliding towards schwa; [c] in
dear, [e?] in chair and in moor – to which we should add [], no longer
met in present-day standard English). A. The centering diphthongs is a
centric &falling, narrow, opening diphthong that starts at about the
position of the short, lax and glides towards schwa. The diphthong is
distributed in all three basic positions: ear, deer, tier. If the first
element of the diphthong does not have the normal prominence and length,
it can be reduced to a glide and the diphthong is changed into [j:].
There are several possible spellings for the diphthong: eer as in deer,
peer or career; ea(r) as in ear, weary, idea, tear (n. «lacrim»), beard,
eir as in weird, ier as in fierce or pierce, ere as in here or mere.
Exceptionally we can have ia as in media(l), labia(l), genial, eu as in
museum, iu as in delirium-, eo as in theory and theology; e as in hero
or in the diphthongized version of [i:]: serious, serial, b. [ec] is a
centring falling, narrow, in most cases opening diphthong. The degree of
openness of the first element varies, in some dialects of English the
sound being quite close to [ae]. In the more conservative
pronunciations, closer to RP, the articulation of the diphthong starts
somewhere in the vicinity of cardinal vowel 2 [e]. Then follows a glide
towards a variant of the schwa. There are dialects where the glide to
[c] is very short and sometimes the diphthong is changed into a
monophthong, a long, tense vowel [e:]. The diphthong is distributed in
all three basic positions: air, scarce, fare. It can be spelt air: air,
fair, chair, dairy, fairy; wee: fare, mare, care, care; ear: bear, wear,
tear; acr: aerial, aero plane; ere: there; eir: their, heir. In words
like prayer, layer, mayor, the spelling is ay followed by either or, or
er. The vowel of Mary and derived words such as Maryland or Mary port is
normally diphthongized to [ec]. c. [c] is a centering, falling, narrow,
opening diphthong. If in the case of the two diphthongs analyzed before
the glide was from a front vowel towards the centre of the imaginary
vowel chart, in the case of [6 c] the articulation starts with a fairly
back, close vowel [5]. [6 c] is distributed only hi word-medial: jewel
or word-final position: sure. The most common spellings of the diphthong
are: ure and oor – endure, mature, cure, pure (words where the semivowel
[j] is inserted before the diphthong), sure, poor, moor, or ur followed
by other vowels than e: curious, duration. In a number of cases we can
have the spelling ou: our, gourd, bourse. The diphthong can also occur
in words where the suffix er is attached to a base ending in (0) 8]
fewer, newer, chewer, doer, pursuer.

d. [] c] is a diphthong that has not survived in present-day RP. It used
to render the vowel of words like floor, door, pore, score, snore,
coarse, hoarse, oar, course now pronounced []:]. It still does that in
various dialects of English, though the general tendency seems to be to
monophthong such diphthongs. This has been the fate of [5 c] as well,
which in many variants of English is pronounced []:] in words like poor,
sure etc.

B. The diphthongs to [y]: [jy], [ey]

a. [ay] is a falling, wide, closing diphthong. It is the diphthong that
actually implies the amplest articulator movement of the speech organs
that shift from the position of an open vowel which is fairly central
(the position varies between cardinal vowels 5 and 4) to a front, close,
lax vowel (not far from the position of cardinal vowel 1. Historically,
the vowel originates in [i:], that subsequently lowered to [ey], than
centered and lowered again to finally become [ay]. The diphthong is
distributed in all three basic positions: isle [aisl]; bite [bayt], cry
[kray]. It can be spelt i as in ice, dime, loci, or y a in dyke, fly, or
ie as in die, lie, pie, or in inflected forms: spies, spied; ye as in
dye, ye; ei as in height, either, neither, and, exceptionally uy in buy,
guy. Note also the pronunciation of ay(e) [ay], eye [ay] and aisle is y
falling, wide, closing diphthong. It starts from a back, mid vowel,
situated between cardinal vowels 6 an 7 and ends in a front, close, lax
vowel, somewhere in the vicinity of cardinal vowel 1. Like the preceding
diphthong, it also involves an ample articulator movement from a back
vowel to the front part of the imaginary vowel chart. It is distributed
in all three basic positions: ointment, boil, toy. It can be spelt
either oi: oil, toil or oy: oyster, Boyle, is SL falling, narrow,
closing diphthong. It starts with a front, mid vowel – between cardinal
vowels [e] and [e] – and glides to a higher vowel value, closing. Often
the second element is very short, sometimes even dropped, the diphthong
being reduced to a long vowel monophthong [e:]. In Cockney the diphthong
starts with a lower and central vowel, being pronounced. The diphthong
is distributed in all three basic positions: eight; plate, play. It can
be spelt a: ace, lace; ai: aid, maid; ay: aye, clay; ei: eight, reign,
ey: they, grey, ea: break, steak. Exceptionally, there are spellings
like goal [goal], bass [bess], gauge [geuge], halfpenny [helfpeni]. The
diphthong also occurs in a small number of French loan words ending in
et or 6: ballet, bouquet, chalet, cafe, fiance, attache, resume. The
diphthong starts with a central mid vowel and glides to a back close
one. It is a falling, narrow, closing diphthong. It is distributed in
all three basic positions: old, gold, flow. It has various spellings: o:
old, sold, wo; oa: oak, roast, oe: toe, ow: own, known, row; ou:
poultry, dough; eau: beau, bureau, and, exceptionally, au: gauche; oo:
brooch; ew: sew; oh: oh. b. [a] is a falling, wide, closing diphthong.
It starts as an open, fairly front vowel (in the vicinity of cardinal
vowel 4) and glides towards. It is distributed in all three basic
positions: ouch, loud, cougar. It can be spelt by ou: oust, doubt,
plough, or ow: owl, howl, how and, exceptionally eo in MacLeod.

English Diphthongs

The lax and tense vowels we have looked at so far are monophthongs,
sometimes called pure vowels. This is because the tongue and lips are
relatively stationary while these vowels are being pronounced – the
vowels do not move around in the vowel chart. Diphthongs, on the other
hand, move through the chart as they are pronounced: they start at one
vowel-position, and move towards another. The word diphthong is from
Greek: it means «two vowels», and we write them as two vowels.

Diphthongs are tense vowels; they can be unchecked, and are subject to
clipping like the «pure» tense vowels – they can be long or short.

The centering diphthongs occur only in the nonrhotic accents. In the
rhotic accents, words such as NEAR SQUARE and CURE are pronounced with a
single vowel (monophthong) followed by r.

This is by far the rarest vowel in RP (with a frequency of 0.06% – see
Vowel Frequencies) – and is getting rapidly rarer, since words in the
CURE set are moving over to THOUGHT,
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01040c00000040092900aa000000000000000900050000000000040000002701ffff0300
00000000, and in newer RP and Estuary English all of the old CURE set
have gone over to THOUGHT.

Difference between SQUARE and NEAR

You’ll hear different pronunciations of these two vowels (for instance,
in some accents the
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0900040000000000040000002701ffff030000000000disappears and the remaining
vowel lengthens) but most accents of English keep them clearly
distinguished. On the other hand speakers of English as a foreign
language sometimes confuse these vowels, and Icelanders often do.

The Diphthongs

There are 9 diphthongs in English. [?i, ei, ou, au, i?, u?, ci, e?, ?i]

The English diphthongs are stable combination, no syllable division is
possible in them. They may form phonological opposition either with
monophtongs, diphthongized vowels or with each other.

E.g. bed – bid–bade–beard–bowed; letter – latter – later – litter [•33]
is not an English phoneme, but a version of the vowel [c ?]. The first
element of the diphthongs, which is called the nucleus, is pronounced
distinctly arid clearly. The second element is glide. There are no
diphthongs in Uzbek. According to the phonological approach combination
of «vowel -+ – j» and vice versa, such as the Uzbek u-u, u–y, u – o, u-+
a, are considered to be these sequences of a vowel and consonant [y+c]
They are not stable combinations but sometimes may be destroyed by the
syllable division: cуй-унчи, тий-улиш.

The first element of the diphthongs [?i, ai, au, ?i, u?], to a certain
degree acoustically resemble the Uzbek vowels [?i u, a] and [y].
Therefore it is not difficult to leach the Uzbeks to pronounce the
nucleus of these diphthongs into [j] which is the most usual mistake in
the pronunciation of the Uzbeks. There are also two combinations often
used which consists of three vowels in English. There are: [?i, au?]
them may be regarded as diphthongs and tile third consists of the vowel.
Usually they are called trip tongs. But there is no trip tongs in Uzbek.

1.4 Consonants

Consonants are speech sounds in the pronunciation of which noise is
heard. The degrees of noise are different There are consonants’ in the
production of which only noise is heard, there are consonants in the
production of which noise and voice are heard and there are consonants
in the production of which voice prevails over noise, but the fact is
that noise in different degrees and forms is always present, Consonants
do not give periodic voice waves.

The consonants should be classified on the following 3

Principles;

1. The manner of production

2. The active organs employed in the production

3. The place of production

The last division is very important, due to it the parricidal difference
in the formation of consonants in English and of consonants in Uzbek may
be clearly shown. The system of English consonants consists of 24
consonants. They are: [p, t, k, b, d, g, mf n, 1, n, f, v, s, z, w, j,
?, ?, s, з, ts, w, j] and the problematic phoneme [ju].

The system of Uzbek consonant phonemes consists of 25 phonemes. They
are: [п, т, к, б, д, г, м, н, л, нг, в, р, с, й, ш, з, х, ?, ф, р, ж, ч,
с, ?, ?]

Some of the English consonants like [?, ?] have no counterparts ill
Uzbek. There are also seine Uzbek consonants which do not exist in the
system of the English consonant phonemes. They: are [x, тc,].

Many consonants have their counterparts in the languages compared, but
they differ inn their articulation. The difference in the articulation
and acoustics» of English arid Uzbek consonants phonemes may be summed
up as follows:

1. The English [f, v] are labio – dental fricatives, whereas the Uzbek
[4>, B] are bilabial fricatives. They have labio–dental versions in
dialects. So Uzbek [B] pronounced in the same way as the English [в],
especially in the – middle of words. Pg. ?овун, совун, шавла, далат,
шакат, ?увват. Uzbek students often substitute [w] for [v]: wine – vine.

2. [t, d, n, s, z] also [1] are alveolar in English. The corresponding
consonants in Uzbek are dentals. The English [t, d, n] require apical
articulation, while their Uzbek counter – parts are dorsal (dental). The
dorsal articulation does riot exists in English.

3. The English [r] is a post – alveolar fricative, while the Uzbek [p]
is a post–alveolar rolled (thrilled) consonant.

4. The English [1] phoneme consists of the main member; the clear
alveolar [1], used before the vowels a ad semi – vowel and its
positional, also dialectal, versions dark [1] which besides, being
alveolar is also velar. The latter is used before” consonants and in
word final position. The Uzbek [A] is dental consonants.

5. The English [h] is pharyngeal. Uzbek has: a) the velar fricative [x],
b) the pharyngeal fricative [х]. The replacement of [h] by •[x] is a
phonemic mistake. The English [h] is weak and there is loss friction
than in the production of the Uzbek [x].

6. The English affricates [tS, dз] and fricatives [S, з] are
polato–alveolar, while Uzbek [ш, ж] are post–alveolar fricatives and [ж]
may be palatalized.

7. The English voiceless [p.h, k, s, S, ts] are more energetic

Than the corresponding Uzbek voiceless consonants. In the Uzbek [n, t,
k] there is less aspiration than in the corresponding English voiceless
plosives. While the English voiced [b, d, g, z, j;] are less energetic
than the corresponding Uzbek voiced consonants.

8. We regard the jota combination [ju:] as u separate phoneme in
English. It is not a chance combination, it is very often used and there
is a letter in the alphabet to denote R In spelling. According to its
first element it may be regarded as a consonants phoneme [c+v] may-form
phonological opposition

9. The English [j] is a palatal semi–vowel. The Uzbek [й] is a palatal
fricative» Gоmp, yet= ет [йт]

10. The English [??] are interdentally. The interdentally articulation
is unknown in Uzbek. They are extremely difficult for me Uzbek to
master.

11. The English sonant [m, 1, n] in word – final position are very
sonorous and somewhat prolonged before a pause, especially when they are
preceded by a short vowel, whereas the corresponding Uzbek sonant are
les& sonorous in Use same position. Comp. Bell, Toni, on; Uzbek: бел,
том, он.

12. The English voiced consonants remain voiced in word final position
and before voiceless consonants, while the Uzbek voiceless consonants
become devoiced in the.-same position. The Uzbek students of English are
apt – to make phonologic mistakes: bed–bet, course-cause.

Word is usually characterized as the smallest naming unit consisting of
a definite number of sounds and denoting a definite lexical meaning and
expressing definite grammatical categories. It usually is a
subject–matter of-morphology, which system the form and structure of the
word. Iris well known that the neurological system of the language
reveals it properties through the! morphemic structure of words. As a
part of the grammatical theory morphology faces two set) mental units
yogh the language: the morpheme and the word.

Morpheme is known ashe smallest meaningful unit of the language into
which a word may be divided. E.g. in the word writ-err-s the root
morpheme write expresses the lexical meaning of the word, lexical
morpheme – er shows the doer of the action denoted by the root morpheme,
and the grammatical suffix-s indicates the number of the doers, more
than one person is meant, Similar opinion can be sad regarding the
following units of the language, such as Finish – ed, courageous,
un-prepared – ness: тугал лан ма ган лик дан дир, бедаволардан.

Being a meaningful segmental component of the word a morpheme is formed
by phonemes but unlike word it is elementary, i.e. is indivisible into
signaller components. There may be zero morphemes, i.e. the absence of
morpheme may indicate a certain lexical or grammatical meaning: Cf: –
book-s, hope-hope ??б-??б-?р, ?-??– In cases of «students come children
come, geese come» the morphs – s, en, and [i:] (of goose) are allomorphs
of the morpheme of plurality «-?р» In Uzbek.

Like a word a morpheme is two-facet language unit, an association of a
certain sound-pattern. But unlike the word a morpheme is not an
autonomous body (unit) and can occur in speech only as a constituent
part of the word. It cannot be segmented into smaller units without
losing constitutive essence.

The morphemes can be divided into root (free0) morphemes and affixal
(bound) morphemes (affixes). A form is said to be free if it may stand
without changing its meaning; if not it is a bound form, as it always
doubt to something else.

E.g: In the words sportive, elegant morphemes sport, elegant may occur
alone as utterances, but the forms-ive, – ant, eleg cannot be used alone
without the root morphemes.

The morphemes may be classified in two ways: a) from the semantic point
of view, and b) from the structural point of view.

Semantically morphemes fall into two classes: the root morphemes and
non-root (affixational) morpheme.

The root morphemes is the lexical nucleus of the word and it they
usually express mainly the lexical meaning i.e. material part of the
meaning of the word, while the affixes morphemes can express both
lexical and grammatical meanings, this they can be characterized as
lexical affixes (-er) and grammatical suffixes (-s) in «writ-er-s». The
lexical suffixes are usually used mainly in word building process to
form words (e.g. help-less, black-ness, teach-er, speak-er, ??т-?з,
??а-?к, ў??-?-?, ?з-?в-?) where grammatical suffixes serve to express
the grammatical meaning of the word by changing its form (paradigm)
(e.g. speaker) John’ – s, (case ending denoting possession) come a
(person, number, tense, aspect, mood, active, voice) 3rd person singular
present simple, indicative mood, active voice. Thus we can say that the
grammatical significance of affixes (derivational) morphemes is always
combined with their lexical meaning.

e.g. verb-to writeё?о?

noun – writer – ё??и

The derivative morpheme «-er» has a grammatical meaning as it serves to
distinguish a-noun from a verb and it has a lexical meaning i.e. the
doer of the action. The root of the notional words is classical lexical
morphemes.

The affixes (derivational) morphemes include prefixes, suffixes and
inflexions (grammatical suffixes). Prefixes and lexical suffixes have
word building functions. Together with the root they form the stem of
the word. Prefixes precede the root morpheme (im-personal, un-known,
re-write), suffixes follow it (e.g: friend-ship, active-ize, readi-ness,
??-?к, ???ш-?р-??, ??р-?к).

Inflexions word-forming suffixes express different morphological
categories.

Structurally morphemes fall under three types: a) free morphemes, b)
bound morphemes, c) send-bound morphemes.

A free morpheme is the stem of the word, a great many free morphemes are
root morphemes. (e.g. London-er, sports-man-ship). A bound morphemes for
they are alwaysmake a part of the word. (e.g. – ness, – ship, – dom, –
dis, – pre, un-, ?, ?з, – д?, ?-, с?, ?,) some root morphemes also
belong to the class of bound morphemes.

1.5 The problem of Parts of speech

A word is known as the smallest naming unit of the language. According
to L. Bloomfield, word is a minimum free form. Close observation and
comparison of words clearly shows that a great number of words have a
composite nature and are made up of smaller units, each possessing
sound-form and meaning. In other words, the term word denotes the basic
unit of a given language resulting from the association of a particular
meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a grammatical
employment is a word is therefore simultaneously a semantic, grammatical
and phonological unit.

The words of every language fall into classes which are called parts of
speech. The problem of parts of speech is one of the controversial
problems of modern linguistics. The theoretical side of this problem is
the subject matter of the theoretical grammar. therefore we should base
our comparison of system of parts of speech on the generally recognized
(acknowledged) opinions of grammarians.

In order to make easier to learn the language the grammarians usually
divide the word-stock of the language into some subclasses called in
linguists the parts of speech.

The main principles of classifying words into parts of speech are: their
meaning, form and function, that is to say the words of any language
differ from each other in meaning in form and in function. different
parts of speech have different lexical meanings.

e.g. verbs denote process or state; nouns express the names of objects,
adjectives their properties…

Some parts of speech have different grammatical categories. Verbs have
the category of mood, tense, aspect, voice, person, number etc., noun –
case, number, adjective – comparison, etc. The parts of speech also
differ from each other in their syntactic function; e.g. verbs are used
in the sentence structure as predicates, nouns-as subjects,
adjectives-as attributes etc.

All words of the comparing languages may be divided into three main
groups:

1. Notional words

2. Structural words

3. Independent elements

Notional words have distinct lexical meanings and perform independent
syntactic functions in the sentence structure, they serve as primary or
secondary parts of the sentence. To this group belong the following
parts of speech: Noun, verb, adjective, pronouns, numerals, statives and
adverbs. It should be kept in mind that statives in Uzbek are otter
interchanged with adjectives and not treated as an independent part of
speech.

Structural words differ from the notional words semantically their
lexical meaning is of a more general character than that of the notional
words. Moreover they sometimes altogether avid it that they are
independent syntactic function in the sentence structure but serve
either to express various relations between the words in a sentence
(e.g. trees in the garden, Tom and Joe, etc.) or to specify the meaning
of the words (e.g. there is a book on the table, the book on the table
is mine, etc.)

The following parts of speech are to be treated as structural words:
articles, particles (only, solely, exclusively mainly) prepositions and
conjunctions. Articles and prepositions are individual character of
English differentiating it from Uzbek as the functions of these parts of
speech in Uzbek are performed by other elements of the language.

Independent elements are words which are characterized by their peculiar
meanings of various kind. They usually have no grammatical connections
with the sentence in which they occur, i.e. they do not perform any
syntactic function in the sentence. e.g. They certainly will come to the
party.

Sometimes independent elements can even serve as sentences themselves;
e.g. Yes, No, Alas.

Independent class of words include modal words, interjections, words of
affirmation and negation.

It is noteworthy that the decision of words into parts of speech can be
accepted only with certain reservation there are words which cannot be
classed among any of the above motioned parts of speech such as a
please, anyway ?ар ?алай.

Typological categories of English and Uzbek words

The words of any language are characterized by their ability to express
definite notions existing in this society, thus changing their forms.
Most of the notions existing in the society have common peculiarities,
i.e. they have universal character.

Among the linguistic categories which can be traced in most of the
languages of the world we can see the categories which display
typologically general character but can be expressed in different
languages in different ways. Studying these linguistic facts figuring
out their similarities and differences is much of importance for the man
of letters, especially for the graduates of the language faculties of
universities who are going to become English teachers and interpreters
in near future.

For instance, such linguistic notions as case, gender person, tense,
voice, possession, etc. are of general character for the comparing
languages, but they may be expressed by typological different means of
the language. In this chapter we try to generalize the main means of
expressing the notions which are of peculiar type of the comparing
languages.

1.6 Typological category of case

The system of grammatical forms indicating the syntactic relations of
nouns (or pronouns) is usually treated as the category of case, in other
words, case is a grammatical form which takes part in the formation of
the paradigm of nouns (or pronouns). Grammarians seem to be divided in
their opinions as to the case system of the English nouns. The most
common view is that they have only two case: common (subject) and
possessive (genitive) cases. The common case is characterized by a zero
morpheme (suffix) e.g. child, boy, student, ir. and the possessive case
by the indexing is and its phonetic variants as [s] and [z].

The Uzbek бош келишиги (common or subject case) corresponds in meaning
and function to the English common case both of them are unmarked member
of the case opposition and perform similar syntactic function in the
sentence structure.

English common case and other five cases of Uzbek are marked members of
the case opposition in both languages. The English possessive case is
marked by the stiffly is which can sometimes be substituted by the
preposition of (e.g. my father’s room, the room of may father) and
therefore is sometimes called of – genitive – case. This case denotes
possession of a thing or a person and in Uzbek it has its correspondence
in the Uzbek караткич келишиги which is expressed by the case ending
suffix num.

Dealing with notion of possession one should keep in mind that in Uzbek
this category may be expressed not only by the nouns but also their
antecedents in the pleonastic phrase such as менинг опамб сизнинг
паспортингизю. In this case we have to face the problem of redundancy
and often try to avoid it using the modified noun only which contains
the possessive suffix. e.g. опам кeлди. In this case the suffix of
possession can be rendered in English and in Russian by means of special
possessive pronouns. e.g. My sister came. Моя сестра пришла.

Meaning and functions of the other Uzbek cases may be denoted in Uzbek
either by means of prepositions or by word order. For instance the
meaning and function of the Uzbek тушум келиши is expressed in Uzbek by
means of the case ending – ши which denotes the object acted upon and it
may be expressed in English by means of word order which is
characterized in this language to be very strict in comparison with
Russian or Uzbek (e.g. курдим кузингни колдим балога, кайга борайин энди
давога? – Видел я твои очи черные (и заболел) куда мне теперь идти на
лечение?) Some English grammarians O. Curme, M. Doutschbein recognize
word order in English as dative case.

Dealing with this case one has to keep in mind the structure of the
sentence i.e. the word order in the sentences of the comparing languages
– sov (in Uzbek e.g. мен укамни курдим) and svo (in English I saw my
brother»)

The Uzbek урин пайт келишиги denotes he place of the thing or a person
in the space and it can be rendered in English by means of prepositions
at, in, an, by, over, above, among, between, behind etc. (e.g.У:китоб
жавонда. The book is in the bookcase.) It should be kept in mind that
most of the English preposition may contain (more) additional meaning
denoting the place of the thing or a person. (сu in –
мчи-behindор?асида, betweenорасида, underостида, etc).

The Uzbek жуналиш келишиги denotes the direction of an action performed
by means of the case endingга. It can be rendered in English also by
means of prepositions to, at, into, etc. e.g. V(йигит) мактаб – га
кетди. He went to school. У ?из менга ?аради. She looked at me.

Чи?иш келишиги of Uzbek nouns denotes the beginning point of the action
denoted by the verb. It can be rendered in English by means of
preposition from, out of, from under, etc. e.g.:У(?из) Лондон-дан келди.
She came from London.У(йигит) сумкаси-дан ?ул?опларини олди. He took his
gloves out of his bag.

1.7 Typological category of gender

The typological category of gender consists of the notions of natural
(biological sex and the grammatical (formal) gender. The connection of
this category with the natural sex is in the animals and birds. It is
displayed by the nouns and pronouns in English. (But in Russian it can
also expressed by the adjectives and the past simple tense forms of the
verbs.) Most of the Uzbek grammar books do not contain any information
about the category of gender of Uzbek nouns, because the authors
consider Uzbek nouns not to have this category at all.

In accordance with their lexical meanings the nouns of the comparing
nouns may be classed as belonging to the masculine, feminine and neuter
genders. Names of male beings are usually masculine (e.g.: man, husband,
boy, son, nephew, bull, ox, ram(whether), cock, stallion – ота, у?ил,
эркак, ?укиз, бу?а, новвос, ?уч?ор, хуроз, ай?ир) and names of female
beings are feminine (e.g.: woman, lady, girl, daughter, wife, niece, cow
heifer(?унажин), ewe [ju:] (совли?), hen, mareауол, хоним, ?из(бола),
?из (фарзанд), хотин, сигир, ?унажин, собли?, макиуон, байтал).All other
nouns are said to be neuter gender (e.g.:pencil, flower, rain, bird,
sky-?алам, гул, уом?ир, парранда, ?уш, осмон).

Gender finds its formal expression in the replacement of nouns by the
personal pronouns in the mind person singular, i.e., she, it.

However there some nouns in English which may be treated as either makes
or females. e.g: friend, cousin, doctor, neighbor, worker, etc. The same
can be said about the Uzbek terms of kinship e.g.: жиян, ?ариндош,
холавачча, ?уда, ?ушни, табиб, ишчи. They are said to be of common
(neuter) gender. When there is no need to make distinction of sex the
masculine pronoun is used for these nouns.

There are three ways of expressing the category of gender in the
comparing languages: morphological, syntactical and lexical.
Morphological way of expressing the category of gender is realized by
adding suffixes of gender to the stem of the word. It is a highly
developed way of expressing gender in Russian by means of suffixes
ending in: a) consonants to be masculine, e.g.: дом, стол, праздник; b)
vowels as – a, – я to be feminine. e.g.: мама, старуха, тетя; c)
vowels-o, – e to be neuter. e.g.: ружъуо, море, окно и т.п.

English has the only suffix – ess which is used to denote feminine
gender.e.g.: host-ess, actr-ess, waitr-ess, princ-ess, lion-ess, and
tiger-ess. Feminine gender in Uzbek may often be expressed by means of
the suffix- a which is supposed to be of Arabic origin e.g.: – раиса,
вазира, шоира, муаллима, котиба etc.

In order denote the gender syntactic way is also possible. In this case
different kinds of combinations of words are formed in which adjunct
word (modifier) usually denotes the sex of the head word. e.g.: man
servant – ?арол, amid servantоксоч, boy friend-ў?ил бола урто?, girl
friend-?из бола ўрто?, tom catеркак мушук, tabby catур?очи мушук,
he-wolfеркак бўри, she wolfур?очи бўри, he goatтака, she goatона ечки,
etc. As is seen from these examples English gender denoted by a
syntactic combination (man servant she goat can be expressed in Uzbek
both by syntactically and lexically, (?арол, она ечки).

In most cases gender can be expressed lexically, i.e. by the stem of the
noun only. e.g.: fatherота, uncleамаки, niece – (?из) жиян,
sister-in-lawкелин, lordжаноб, also names of animals, such as mareбия,
tiger – (арка) йўлбарс, ram-?ўч?ор, etc. Names of people can also denote
the gender of the person who owns this name. e.g.: Arthur, Christopher,
John – А?маджон, Ба?одир, Ша?обиддин denoting male being and Mary,
Christine, Nelly, – Сайера, Мехринисо, Гулоим, etc.

Nouns denoting various kinds of vessels (ship, boat, yacht, life-raft),
the noun `car`, as well as the names of countries are sometimes referred
to as feminine gender, i.e. by means of `she`. This fact is usually
called personification. e.g.:

a. Sam joined the famous whaler `Globe`. She was a ship on which any
young man would be proud to sail.

b. England prides herself with her greenness and tidiness.

Such nouns as masculine gender. Nouns like `nature, country, mercy,
faith, hope, modesty` are used as feminine gender.

1.8 Typological category of plurality

The system of grammatical forms expressing grammatical degree (number)
is termed (called) the category of plurality. This category. In
comparing languages the formants indicating this category are usually
added to the stem of nouns (or pronouns). WE should distinguish the
logical number (degree) and grammatical number. From the logical point
of view proper nouns usually denote a single thing or a person. e.g.:
John, Собир, London, Тўйтепа, etc. The common nouns are used to denote
common type of things, of course, logically more than one.

As we know that the category of plurality denotes more than oneness of
things, people or phenomena. Grammatically it can be based in English on
the opposition of `zero morpheme and the suffix – s, – en, and root
changing abilities of some nouns: i.e. – s, – en, in Uzbek it is based
on the opposition of zero morpheme and suffix – лар, i.e. – лар. Among
the parts of speech this category is distinguished grammatically by
nouns, pronouns and verbs. In comparing languages this category may also
be denoted lexically by numerals. (i.e. two, fifteen, thirty,
thousandиккт, ўн беш, ўттиз, минг) Numerals are not used in the
grammatical plural forms because in the plural form they became
substantive zed i.e. they become nouns (икктлар, олтичилар).

It should be kept in mind that there are languages having `dual` and
`trial` numbers pronouns – ic-wif-we where wit denoted a dual number)

Plurality of nouns. Uzbek nouns and pronouns usually denote this number
by means of suffix – лар (eg: одам – лар, мутта?ам-лар) Which can
sometimes be used also to denote respect to a person who is spoken
about. e.g.: Дадамлар келдилар. (But you have to keep in mind that you
can’t have mote than one father).

English nouns can express the notion of plurality in the following ways:

a) by means of suffixes:

– s, – es (wife-wives, head-heads)

– en (ox-oxen, child-children, brother-brotheren);

– a datum-data, sanatorium-sanatoria, phenomenon-phenomena) etc.

b) by changing the root vowel (man-men, goose-geese)

Plurality of verbs The English verbs can denote the notion of plurality
in the following ways:

a) by opposing the finite verbs in the third person singular to the
other forms with zero morpheme: live-s live#

b) by means of suppletive forms of auxiliary verbs:

am, is-are; was-were; have-has-had;

The Uzbek verbs usually express plurality by means of the following
suffixes:

a) – лар (келди) лар;

б) – миз, – сиз, – гниз, дилар (бора-миз, келадилар);

с) – ш, – иш (кел-ишди);

This category can be expressed by means of personal pronouns in both
languages; Cl.: I-we; me-us; he/she/ it-they; In Uzbek:мен-бизж
сен-сизлар; у-улар.

Lexically this category may be expressed in both languages with the help
of numerals. e.g.: anmy-?зниш, dualиккилик, majorityкўпчилик,
familyоила, pairжуфт, doubleикки (лантирилган), etc.

Plurality can sometimes be expressed by means of prepositions (between,
amongорасида, ўртасида)_adverbs (arm-in-armйўлланилиб), indefinite
pronouns (someбир неча, анча, бироз), verbs (join-?ўшилмо? бирлашмо?,
gatheтўпламо?), get together – йи?или? unite – бирлашмо?) also by
quantitative markers (two-seater, many staged, two-storeyed): and in
Uzbek (кўпхад, ?ўшари?, учкўприк).

2.9. Typological category of person

The category of person should be dealt with in close connection with the
category of number (plurality). Because in the languages of
Indo-European family these categories are expressed by one and the same
morpheme simultaneously i.e. a morpheme denoting number at the same time
expresses person as well. For instance, in Latin the morpheme-n+ in such
forms as amant, habent, Legunt, amabant, habebunt, etc. expresses
simultaneously the third person and the plural number.

In the comparing languages the category of person is a characteristic
feature of pronouns and verbs. They (languages) make distinction between
the three classes of personal pronouns denoting respectively the
person(s) spoken to (the second person) and the person(s) (or things)
spoken about (the third person).

singular plural

1person-the speaker the speaker and same other people

2person-a person spoken to more than one people spoken to

3person-a person of a thing spoken about some people or things spoken
about

The category of person in verbs is represented by the 1st, 2nd, 3rd
person and it expresses the relations between the speaker, the person or
people spoken to and other person or people spoken about. However this
system doesn’t hold good for the modern English verb and this is for two
reasons:

1) there is no distinction of persons in the plural number. Thus the
form live may within the plural number be connected with a subject of
any person e.g.

you live

we

they

2) there is no distinction of numbers in the 1and 2 – person. Thus the
form «live» in these person may refer to both one and more than one
subject. Thus the opposition all other persons expresses relation of the
3rd with any person of both numbers i.e. stem-s stem – i. The marked
member of the position differs greatly from that of imparked in form and
in meaning, It should be kept in mind that in the Subjunctive mood that
form «live» denotes any person of both numbers.

The ending ‘s’ having four meanings to express simultaneously is of
course a synthetic feature standing rather by itself in the general
structure of Modern English.

There a special subclass of the English verbs which do not fit into the
system of person and number described above and they must be treated
separately both in a practical study of the language and in theoretical
analysis. They are called modal verbs ‘can, may, must’ etc. Being
delective verbs they do not admit any suffix to their stem and do not
denote any person or number and usually accompany the notional verbs in
speech giving them additional meanings of notions as ability permission,
necessity or obligation etc.

The verb «be» has a system of its own both in the present indicative and
in the past

IAmWasHeIsWasSheIsWasItIsWasYouAreWereTheyAreWere

There is own more special class of the English verbs called impersonal
verbs. Having the suffix – s in the third person singular of the present
simple they do not denote any person or thing as the doer of the action.
Such verbs usually denote natural phenomena such as to rain, to hail to
snow to drizzle, to thunder, to lighten, to warm up, e.g. it often rains
in autumn. It is thundering and lightening.

The personal system of the Uzbek verbs is as follows

Indic
moodPersonSingularPluralPastIBordimbordikIIBordingBordinrizlarIIIBordiBo
rdilar borishdiPresentIboramanBoramizIIBoras
anBorasiz(lar)IIIBoradiBoradilarFutureIBoraman bormoqchimanBoramiz
bormoqchimizIIBorasan bormpqchisanBoramiz bormoqchimizIIIBoradi
bormoqchiBoradilar borishmoqchiImperative
moodIBorayBoraylikIIBorginBoringlar, boringizIIIBorishsinBoringizlar

In Uzbek we have no the so called modal verbs and impersonal verbs as it
is understood in English or Russian (???, ????ся, ???т, ?????). The
functions of the modal verbs are performed in Uzbek by means of the
adjectives such as ??р, ??к, ???, ??м etc. As to the impersonal verbs in
Uzbek we use the so called impersonal verbs which are combined only with
one and the nouns denoting the names of natural phenomena, such as ?р,
ё??, ?л, etc. e.g.: Ё?? ё??, ??? ??и.

Dealing with the category of person attention must be to the use of the
pronominal forms in transposition. The value of such ‘metaphors’ may be
traced in many modern languages. The first to be mentioned in English is
the use of the personal pronouns ‘we, you, they’ in patterns where they
are synonymous with the formal generic ‘one’ which denotes anyone who
occurs in a definite situation. Semantically it corresponds to the Uzbek
generic words as ‘??, ??, ??н. e.g.:

You (we) don ‘ (know what to do in such a situation.

One doesn’t know what to do in such a situation.

Б??й ???а ?? ????? ????н ??

И?? ?? ??и я???и ??? ??а?и ??н ????.

The so called ‘editorial ‘we’ (Lat. plural is modestial) is well for
instance, as used in many modern languages by authors of scientific
papers, monographs or articles in newspapers, etc. The pronoun ‘we’ is
commonly used in proverbs, e.g.:

We shall see what we shall see.

We never know the value of the water till the well is dry,

Kuduq qurimaguncha (ariqdan oqqan) suvni qadrini bilmaymiz

Compare the Uzbek proverbs which are also addressed to anyone who
appears in a situation, e.g.

Nima eksang shuni o’rasan.

Sar qdrini zargar biladi.

Bilib turib bilmaslikka olamiz.

Expressive affect of great subtlety will be found in the use of the
pronoun ‘we’ in such examples;

‘I say’ said Hurstwood, as they came up the theatre lobby, we are
exceedingly charming this evening.

‘How do we feel today?’ said the doctor facing the patient.

2.10. Typological categories of tense and aspect

Tense is the form of the verb which indicates time of the action from
the point of view of the moment of speech, hi English we distinguish
three tenses; past, present and past.

Past tense denotes an action which has taken place at a definite time
before the moment of speech.

Present tense denotes a regular or recurrent action happening around the
moment of speech.

Future tense denotes an action which will or going to happen after the
moment of speech.

The English verbs also distinguish the category of aspect continuous
process. The notion of aspect can also be described as a form of the
verb that shows habituality, continuance or completion of the action or
state expressed by the root of the verb. In Uzbek grammars aspect is not
studied as a separate category of the verb as it not always expressed
distinctly as it seems because of the lack, of the analytical forms.

In the comparing languages the categories of tense and aspect are so
closely merged together that it is impossible to treat them separately.
One and the same form of the verb serves to express tense and aspect at
the same time and therefore they should be regarded as a ‘tense – aspect
forms ‘of the verb.

In the comparing languages we distinguish three aspects of the verb
forms; Simple (Common or Indefinite), Continuous and Perfect aspects.
Combining with all the tense forms of the verb they form the so called
‘tense aspect forms of the verb.

Present simple expresses a usual, recurrent or habitual action that
takes place in our everyday life, e.g.

The sun.rises in (lie East.

We love our mothers.

Children go to school at the age of 6.

‘They call me Nancy’ r said the girl.

I know him well (Stative action)

The verbs in the present simple may often be accompanied by adverbs of
frequency such as often, sometimes, usually, seldom, never, etc.
indicating habitual action. The main indicator of the English verb forms
in the present simple is the opposite ‘live | live – s’. (See the
preceding chapter.)

As has been mentioned above Past simple denotes an action which happened
at a definite time before the moment of speech. Definite time of the
action may be clarified by means of such time expressions as ‘yesterday,
last week, two years ago, when I was a child, etc. The main indicator of
the verb form in the past simple of the English verbs is the formant
‘–ed’ (for the regular verbs) and the change of the root vowels (or
consonants) for the irregular verbs, e.g.; live – d, help – ed, give –
gave, send – sent.

(As to the verb forms in Uzbek see the table in the chapter dealing with
the category of person.)

The verbs in the Future Simple, as has been mentioned above, indicate
the action which will or going to happen after the moment of speech. The
main indicators of the future action is the auxiliaries – will (shall),
and going to’ which usually precede the infinitive,

e.g.: Give me your suitcase, please, I will carry it for you.

I’m going to visit my grandfather on Sunday.

Present Continuous denotes an action happening now, i.e. at the moment
of speech. In English the predicate verb is formed by means of the
auxiliary verb

(be – Participle I.) of the notional verb which correspond to the Uzbek
verb forms in the example of the verb ‘bor’:

I personSingularАя??

М???нPluralАя??

М???зII personSingularАя??

М???нPluralАя??

М???зIII personSingularАя?и

М??PluralАя???

М???р

И???

The Present Continuous expresses three ideas;

1) an activity happening now, i.e. at the moment of speech.

Cf.I It is raining. The child is crying. They are looking at you.

2) an activity happening around now, but perhaps not at the moment of
speech.

Cf.; I’m reading a very interesting book on astrology these days.

3) a planned future arrangement.

Cf. I’m leaving for London next week,

Past Continuous of the English verb is formed by means of the
combination of ‘was (were) ~P1 of the notional verb and denotes an
action happening (in progress) at a definite time in the past. Definite
time may be expressed by means of time expressions or by a. clause of
time connected to the principle one with the; conjunctions while and
when. In Uzbek in the past continuous the verbs may take the suffixes.

e.g.: I was having a shower when you rang me up (at seven o’clock/.

Compare: I was doing my homework at 7.00 last night. /Past Continuous –
I was in the middle of the action.)

b) I did my homework last night. /Past Simple – I started and finished)

Future Continuous is formed by means of the auxiliary ‘will (or shall)
be – PI f of the notional verb and expresses an action taking place in
progress at a definite time after the moment of speech.

Cf.: I shall be waiting for you at the arrival hall at J o’clock (when
you plane arrive at the airport).

As is seen from this example Uzbek future continuous is expressed with
the help of the suffix ‘-ё??’ and auxiliary verb ??-?к.

Perfect aspect denotes an action that as happened before now. Present
Perfect relates past actions and states to the present. In a sense
Present Perfect is a present tense. It looks back from the present into
tрe past and expresses a completed action up to the present moment,

I’ve travelled a lot in Africa.

It can also express an action or state which began in the past and
continues to the present.

Present Perfect Continuous is used to express a) an activity which
continues to the present.

Conclusion

Now let me sum up my qualification work. My qualification work consists
of for parts. The tasks and objectives are given in introduction. The
idea of my work is given in the main part, where showed the novelty of
the work, which contains the comparative analyses of the English
language with the Uzbek language. The similarities in gender in the
English language and in the Uzbek language are given in the
qualification work, compared the tenses which exist in the English
language with Uzbek language. The Present Continuous Tense expresses the
prolongation of the action.

Example: I am sitting in Uzbek language to express this tense is used
only simple tense Мен утираман.

Different examples are given in the work which shows the comparative
analyses of both languages.

In conclusion summed up my qualification work, and suggest to use the
material in the lyceums and universities.

Bibliography

1. Modern English in Action, Henry I. Christ, DC Heath and company,
Boston 2001.

2. Mountains are climbing, study book, Boston 2003y.

3. English phonetic, A.A. Abduazizov издательство «Укитувчи» Т. 1972 г.

4. Reference guide to English, Alice Maclin, USA Washington 1994

5. Improve your sentence, Ann M. Sala, McCraw-Hill, USA. 1999y

6. Language for daily use Mildred A Dawson New York, 2001y

7. New English voyages in English, Francis B. Connors, Loyola
University. Press, Chicago 1991y

8. Writing skills, Suzanne Chance, Clencoe, McCraw-Hill. New York

9. Reading and writing, Natasha Haugnes

10. Contemporary English, Mechella Perrott, contemporary publisher
group, Illinois USA.

11. Beginning English writing skills, Mone Scherago, National textbook
company, Illinois USA.

12. Lectures of comparative typology, C. Satimov, M. Просвещениею
1991 г.

13. Comparative typology V.D. Arakin, M. «Prosveshenie» 1991

14. Comparative grammar, J.I.

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