THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCES OF UKRAINE
CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Discipline: “The English language”
“The basic features of translation informal lexicon”
Kyiv – 2009
1. Translation, as a specific kind of human activity
2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while
translating informal lexicon
2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation
2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations
2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon
The list of the used literature
During last decades especially intensive development in area translation
is observed. Principal causes of this phenomenon are the certain
gravitation of the world community to integration. Constantly there is
an exchange of the got information (not at all levels, it is usual),
cultural properties. The international conferences both with scientific,
and on social questions are carried out. There is a vigorous exchange in
the field of the film-industry. Though, probably, it would be more
expedient to tell, that there is an intensive inflow of the western
film-industry on our market. All this appreciably predetermines
development translation, in fact any area whether sciences, whether
cultures, whether a social life the understanding, adequacy demands the
certain approach, on the part of speaking another language partners.
Very much frequently while translating the scientific, technical whether
economic literature the translator encounters the certain realities
which not to clear our reader and at all have no conformity in our
language. In such cases of a task of the translator consists in that is
whenever possible more exact, понятнее and more shortly to recreate them
in our language. Certainly, not always it is possible to reach all at
once – sometimes it is necessary to endow conciseness, managing in a
descriptive explanation of this or that lexeme; sometimes it is
necessary to replace simply their reality on such, that the certain
measure перекликается with ours, has the common with ours of an
attribute, thus deforming the certain measure the maintenance of the
Nevertheless, not beginning from all this the certain sides of
translation remain poorly investigated. So, one of such problems is
translation so-called «informal (not literary) lexicon» – oral
colloquial lexicon which if it is used outside of sphere of informal
dialogue of people, creates comic or ironical effect. The colloquial
lexicon, as well as book, in informal dialogue can be common, reduced
(popular speech) and to exist as social dialects.
Social dialects as L. Stavitska rebukes, it is the version of language
used as means of dialogue between people, the connected close social or
professional generality, i.e. it is language of the certain social
group. Considerable the factor which causes occurrence of social
dialects is social heterogeneity of a society which has various
professional, and also century groups. The reason of occurrence of
social dialects can be and social-class heterogeneity of a society [L.
Stavitska, 2005: 20].
The most convenient in opinion Stavitska, there is such terminological –
conceptual paradigm «social dialects»: jargon, professional jargon,
slang, not normative lexicon [53, With 22]. And authors of the
illustrated dictionary American slang M. Moskovtsev and S. Shevchenko in
the definition of informal lexicon, except for slang and not normative
lexicon, including the most rough and vulgar words and expressions,
allocate also euphemisms [34, C.25]. Popular speech, or the reduced (not
normative) lexicon, characteristic for informal conversation, includes
insulting, humiliating or swear words, and is mainly used in informal
dialogue. It be rather relative covers for slang and slangs, and the
greater attention concentrates on vulgarisms and depreciate to lexicon.
The use such gives a layer of lexicon speech of ironicalness and
expressiveness, and recently starts to penetrate more and more to
publicist, though and not to a semi-official organ.
Without knowledge of it to a layer of lexicon, on an idea of Century.
Devkin’s, at investigated foreign language to do without very hardly.
This lexicon represents powerful enough, absolute integral part of a
lexicon [15, With 5]. Acquaintance to it necessary – to understand daily
language to seize the important part regional geography to be able to
decipher implied sense, witty expressions, the associative plan of
statements what the good translator who aspires to pull together the
reader to the author maximum cannot do without.
Therefore, very much frequently during translation of any literary work,
a film, etc., having faced such foreign analogues, before the translator
there is a question: how to transfer this or that word? How to recreate
that or other expression? In fact, in most cases, the literal
translation does not find exact display in language on which translation
is carried out. And usual omission or unjustified mitigation vulgarisms,
slangy words, or their replacement euphemisms very much frequently
damages translation through discrepancy of transfer of mood, emotions of
the hero, to style of the author. Therefore, we adhere to idea which it
is possible and sometimes it is necessary to shift the author’s uses of
such lexemes adequately.
The linguist – translator who deals with language in all its real
variety, cannot shut eyes to that objectively exists. Which unadopted
this lexicon would not be, it is and demands to itself attention. Any
there ten words which cannot be used in the cultural society, known to
everyone and their ignorance can lead to to serious funny things.
To receive the answer to the questions, the translator should be guided
by the certain positions; there should be the certain scientific works
devoted to a theme of translation slangy and informal lexicon
(including), the certain parallel between such lexicon in language of
the original and in language on which translation is carried out should
be abusive. Insufficient amount of the works devoted to this theme,
absence of the information in modern bilingual dictionaries about
situations of the use of corresponding lexicon which in any measure
complicates work of professional translators, and натолкнула us on an
idea to investigate this of a layer of lexicon, hisits adequate
reproduction in translation into the Ukrainian language.
If to base on classical literary works, it is possible to tell, that in
the Ukrainian language there is no, so to say, «dirty a swear word». To
tell the truth, in a program fragment from «Eneida» we read I.
Kotljarevskogo: «…but malicious Yunona, the daughter of bitch…» [I.
Kotljarevsky, t.1, an item 65]. The designated lexeme fixes «the
Dictionary of the Ukrainian language» with a mark «abusive». It gives us
the basis to not consider similar words «dirty a swear word» though in
such context they have strong emotional painting.
As to the present the slangy and not normative lexicon, even more often
appears in literary works of young Ukrainian writers, such as Oksana
Zabuzhko, Jury Andruhovich, Irena Karpa where we can find rather
realistic reproduction of an alive spoken language. Probably, in them
there are those words and expressions which are perceived as «dirty a
swear word», but there is no yet a unequivocal estimation of critics and
public idea in this occasion.
The given lexicon can serve for emotional discharge. Expansion of sphere
of action of a slang, a slang and not normative lexicon, their
aggressive universal distribution should not only cause anxiety
apologist morals but also as the phenomenon mass, it should predispose
to itself attention of linguists, culturologists, sociologists. That is
in language, should be collected and described. It is impossible to
object objectively available! The task – to explain it.
In English there are linguistic works which shine this theme in
different aspects. So, known works of such leading linguists, as Richard
A. Spiers «The Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as
a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder «Additional Russian-English
the Dictionary», Harold Uentuort and Stuard Fleksner «Dictionary of
American Slang», etc.
On a material of the Ukrainian language linguists of Institute of the
Ukrainian language were engaged in it this theme. O. Potebni. This
lexicon on lexicographic a level G. Sagach in work «investigated
Emotional suffixes of nouns in modern Ukrainian language». Lesya
Stavitska in the monography of changes the Ukrainian language «the
Slang, a slang. «Social differentiation the Ukrainian language» treats
the basic jargon (criminal, youth, professional slangs) as phenomena,
which structure language pictures of the world. In work is showen
functioning of the Ukrainian colloquial lexicon and national – language
aspects modern using of slang, and also a role of slang in a language
life of the Ukrainian city.
Thus, the theme of slang lexicon, and especially not normative, abusive
lexicon and type, in English and the more so in the Ukrainian language
at present poorly investigated, and in translational aspect also was not
analyzed at all.
In the given work as us research of expressively-emotional lexicon of
oral informal conversation – informal lexicon which presently is one of
the most interesting for research of language systems of modern
linguistics is offered: argo, jargon, professional jargonand slang.
Proceeding from this, the purpose of the given work is:
· Upholding?the assumption, that informal (colloquial, nonliterary)
lexicon – the phenomenon?in?language?independent?and such lexicon should
consider in?modern knowing language precisely a separate category.
· Illumination?of some?the problems connected to existence of such
phenomenon as informal lexicon.
· Research?of classification and feature of translation of such lexicon.
· The analysis of features of
translation?slang??lexicon?which?meets?in?products?of the modern English
literature and publicistic texts.
For achievement of this purpose we put before themselves the following
problems of the suggested work:
· ?Definition?of sphere of existence of informal lexicon.
· Research?of functioning of such lexicon as systems.
· Tracking?sources of its occurrence.
· Research?of its?division?into versions and?investigation?of features
and problems?which?arise during translation of such lexicon.
In research work the following methods have been used:
describably-analytical and statistical methods, the descriptive,
comparative analysis, a method of continuous sample.
Theoretical value of the given work consists that:
· ?Comparative research of the above-stated lexical subsystems in
English and Ukrainian languages is carried out.
· Attempt to develop?uniform?criteria of classification of the English
and Ukrainian informal lexicon behind?different?aspects and features of
its translation?is carried out.
· Different?methods and approaches while translating informal lexicon
from the English language on Ukrainian are considered.
Practical value of work:
· ?The offered?materials on slang
(youth,?office,?professional,?political, mass-media, computer).
· Definition?of the most expedient methods and receptions while
translating informal lexicon from the English language on Ukrainian.
· The conclusion?anglo-ukrainian?the dictionary?of the most popular
words and expressions of English slang.
The given works allow to expand knowledge of stylistic and grammatic
features of translation of informal lexicon.
The basic sources which were used for a spelling of our work, were
lexicographic editions (sensible and bilingual dictionaries,
dictionaries of terms) and materials from the Internet. We used also
works of above-stated linguists Richard of A.L. Spersa «the Dictionary
American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking
Language», Stefan Marder» Additional Russian-english the Dictionary»,
Harold Uentuorta and Steward Flacksner «Dictionary of American Slang»,
M. Moskovtseva and S. Shevchenko «Is illustrated the dictionary American
slangs», Lesya Stavytska» the Ukrainian slang. The dictionary» and the
monography «the Slang, a slang. Social differentiation of the Ukrainian
language», T. Kondratyuk «the Dictionary of modern Ukrainian slang», L.
Zharkovo’s scientific work «Emotional – estimated lexicon of modern
Ukrainian language the/general names of persons /», etc. We were the
used works from the theory of translation of such linguists as Z.
Lvovska, Century. Komisarov, O. Schweitzer, I. Galper_n, V. Zhirmunsky,
V. Homjakov, V. Krupnov, etc. Addressed to fiction of mainly modern
English and Ukrainian writers and to periodicals.
In work the general theoretical problems of translation are considered,
in particular, translation as a specific kind of human activity, is
considered translational aspect of informal lexicon: methods, approaches
and receptions which can be applied while translating emotionally
painted expressions of colloquial lexicon.
As addition serves english-ukrainian the dictionary of the most popular
words and expressions American slang which of dictionaries of modern
Ukrainian slang found similar Ukrainian slangimisms, that include
approximately same expressivity. The dictionary also contains the
information on situations of the use corresponding slangimism in modern
products of the English literature.
1. Translation as a specific kind of human activity
As the theme elected by us rather specific and to us was not possible to
find the scientific researches devoted especially of translation of
informal lexicon, we have addressed to the generalcommon theories of
There are some approaches to a technique of translation.
So, A. Fedorov in the linguistic sketch «Bases of the general theory of
translation» considerstwo basic directions in the decision of problems
of translating, such as grammatic questions of translation. Also it
considers features of translation of different styles of language where
rather in details submits the linguistic questions connected to
interpretation of texts of fiction.
Interesting to us there was that idea which while translating of slang
and popular speech (and all these concern to informal lexicon above the
specified categories) the translator should recreate them on same
stylistic equal, not managing not going right to replacement by
literarier, book words and expressions. The author marks: «…if in
translation which recreates dialecticisms, some elements of the
original, at infringement of an author’s plan are supposed especially
literary words or word-combinations the last brings to nothing all
efforts on reproduction of stylistic painting the original, destroys
impression about integrity» [A. Fedorov: C.318]. Also A. Fedorov
considers, that though both in practice, and in the theory while
translating special attention it is given lexicon, not smaller value can
get grammatical means that are capable to recreate stylistic painting of
informal lexicon, in particular suffixes of value judgment, syntactic
shifts and т.п.
V. Komisarov in work «the Word about translation» offers other approach
to problems I shall translate and results some theories which, in our
opinion, cover a number of problems which arise while translating more
full. Advantage is that the author considers a question of translating
not only in language aspect, and puts forward the theories connected to
communicative function. Useful there is that last approach can be
applied and in relation to informal lexicon as it frequently appears in
direct language and carries out directly communicative function.
Pragmatically aspects of translation are shined also with O. Schweitzer
in the book «the Theory of translation: the status, problems, aspects».
Interesting its research concerning equivalence and adequacy of
translation which explain translation process and possible criteria of
its estimation as result.
Rather successful approach to classification of models of translation,
in our opinion, offers Z. Lvovska in work «Theoretical problems of
translation». Being guided by a principle of communication between
language values and the maintenance of activity, the author divides all
existing theories of translation on two basic types: language and
communicative, thus an accessory of some theories to so-called
transitive cases [30, C.43].
As the informal, colloquial lexicon represents that layer of lexicon
which is directly connected to human dialogue, we would like to stop
more in details first of all on communicative models of translation. To
Z. Lvovska’s this category carries the theory of dynamic equivalence and
the theory of levels of equivalence.
The author counts main principle of the theory of equivalence idea of
the functional contents of the initial message which is defined by
communicative installation of the author of the original [30, With 66].
On the basis of this idea the author makes a line of conclusions,
namely, necessity to take into account «person» of the author of the
original as its communicative installation is a category subjective. So,
the problem of the translator will be to understand and keep in the text
of translation this communicative installation, and it is possible only
under condition of a parity of value of the text or the statement with
language a situation. Also this idea provides functional equivalence of
the text of translation to the text of the original which is defined not
on the basis of formal conformity of texts, and on the basis of reaction
of the speaking another language addressee. I.e., in the text of
translation reaction of the addressee has as to answer communicative
installation of the sender, as well as in the text of the original (30,
Taking into account that not normative lexicon carries on itself precise
expressively-emotional mark, the theory of dynamic equivalence is given
out to us rather successful for application of it while translating
texts which contain words and expressions of lexicon of informal
dialogue. In fact, as marks Z. Lvovska, the dynamic model of translation
includes a line of structural, semantic and stylistic –
functionally-stylistic restrictions which narrow a choice and define a
direction of translational transformations. And among these restrictions
first of all it is necessary to note expressive characteristics of the
text of the original, its stylistic features, rate of the use of this or
that lexical unit in language of translation within the limits of
corresponding style and etc.
Other theory of communicative models of translation is the theory of
levels of the equivalence, for the first time the offered V. Komisarov,
Z. Lvovska, having processed this theory on a material of the Spanish
language, gives its more brief description. We shall result substantive
provisions and we shall try to determine expediency of application of
the specified theory for text translation in English where not normative
lexicon is used.
The theory of levels of equivalence is based on idea that the plan of
the maintenance language products has the «multilayered» structure. In
it is possible to allocate the certain levels and to establish between
them hierarchical communications. The top level – the purpose of the
communications, which is put by the author in language product. The
trace go four equal, that submit each other and the purposes of the
· ?A level of the description of a situation (the information on
material and ideal objects of the validity and communication between
· A level (structures)?the message?(a choice of one of possible
synonymic ways of the description of a situation of the validity);
· A level of the statement (a linear numberline?in?a special way of the
selected signs?which?are united by any rules and settle down?in?the
certain order) and
· A level?of language?signs (words).
Process of translational activity according to the given theory occurs
the following grade. At an analysis stage of the statement of the
original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up
to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all
levels of the maintenance). At a stage of synthesis of the statement
language of translation «the translator passes all hierarchy of levels
in the returnable order, consistently checking, whether defines
unequivocally each level of the maintenancea final variant of
translation» [30, With 69]. If it appears, that any level demands the
obligatory use of the certain forms, the translator selects a variant
language of translation, so to say, irrespective of the original.
Nevertheless we count, that in some cases this theory can be not
absolutely expedient. The purpose of the use of the reduced lexicon, as
usual, is statements of the negative attitude of the sender to the
addressee or its prompting to any actions which in itself does not
represent a problem for judgement. All we need is only as much as
possible adequately to choose the lexical form of transfer of this
purpose in the text of translation. Taking into account that in that
case this problem has semantic character more likely, we count what to
achieve it is possible, having executed not such difficult translational
transformations. For example, application of translational lexical
changes of the general type can be effective enough in that case.
So, as it is seen, while translating informal lexicon it is possible to
apply both linguistic, and communicative methods of translation, but it
is necessary to use the most rational methods. If on equal judgments of
the purpose of the statement there are no problems, we count not
obligatory application of such difficult methods, as a method of levels
of equivalence. It is enough to apply simple translational receptions,
for example, such, as the deputy.
2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while
translating informal lexicon
2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation
Fast development of information technologies and means of the
communications allow to speak today about processes of globalization in
the world community. It, on the one hand, results in unification and
standardization of world cultures, and on the other hand, raises
consciousness of some representatives of national cultures, deduces on
the first place desire to keep specificity and features of the culture
at respect for representatives of other cultures and clever acceptance
of most these cultures.
The role of the translator of fiction – as link in amongcultural
communications grows. On shoulders of the translator ложится the
responsibility for adequate transfer of the art text. Art «to inform the
author» to the reader consists now not only in skill to transfer the
text without infringement of usual norms of language on which
translation is carried out, but also at the maximal reflection of
cultural (mental) features of language of the original.
Translators on the experience know, how it is hard to recreate precisely
other time the semantic contents as separate word-combination and all
Not casually, K. Chukovsky rebukes, which before to undertake
translation of any foreign author, the translator should establish
precisely for itself style of this author, system of his images [61,
C.146]. Only in case of a correct choice of a way of translation, being
based on the detailed analysis of stylistic receptions of the author in
comparison to possible receptions in language of translation, the
translator can more all exact transfer that degree of influence which
feels the native speaker at reading the original text. Only in this case
it is possible to speak about qualitative translation.
The estimation of translation quality can conduct with the greater or
smaller degree of detailed elaboration, emphasizes V. Komysarov,
speaking about types of translation in the work «The Theory of
translation». In hisits opinion, for a general characteristic of results
of translational process it is necessary to use such terms as «adequate
translation», «equivalent translation», «exact translation», «literal
translation» and «free translation» [25, C.233].
Adequate translation, into V. Komysarova’s idea, translation which
provides pragmatically problems of the translational certificate on
greatest possible for achievement of this purpose equal equivalence
refers to, not supposing infringement of norms of the use of words and
their forms which was fixed in language of translation, adhering to
tasks – stylistic requirements to texts of the given type and answering
socially – the recognized conventional norm of translation. In not
strict use «adequate translation» is a «beautiful» translation which
justifies expectation and hopes of the person which carries out an
estimation of translation quality.
V. Komysarov’s equivalent translation names translation which recreates
the contents of the speaking another language original on one levels of
equivalence. Under the contents of the original there is an information
which is transferred, switching as subject – logic, and simple value of
language units which make the text of the original, and also
pragmatically potential of the text. By definition any adequate
translation, counts V. Komysarov, should be equivalent (on this or that
equal equivalence), but not any equivalent translation admits adequate,
and what answers, except for norm of equivalence, and to other normative
requirements which have been mentioned above.
The following kind of translation of V. Komysarov names exact
translation, i.e. translation in which it is equivalent reproduced only
subject – logic part of the maintenancecontents of the original at
possibleprobable deviationsrejections from janr-stylistic norm and usual
(usual) rules of the use of language of translation. Exact translation
can be recognized adequate if the problem of translation is reduced to
transfer of the actual information on the surrounding world. Equivalent
translation always should be exact, and exact translation by definition
only in part equivalent.
For exact transfer of informal lexicon of a subject – logic part of the
text of the original some translators useslang and ephymysms, but thus
reduce expressivety and abusiveness of phraseology. However doubtless
plus of a similar way of translation is «adaptation» of the text for
reading by different century groups or people which essentially do not
read the literature which contains the reduced lexicon. At the same time
a question on similar «advantage» of exact translation disputable. Among
researchers there is an idea which through similar translational
transformations the reader judges any more the product, and about its
translation. So, K. Chukovsky wrote:» the Translator on the author gives
out a self-made mask and this mask for its alive person ” [61, C.19].
In some cases incompetence of the translator results in a literal
translation of the reduced phraseology. V. Komisarov’s literal
translation names translation which recreates comunicative – formal
elements of the original therefore or norms of language of the original
text rise, or there is deformed (not handed) a valid contents of the
original. «More often amusing examples of a literal translation meet at
attempt to translate the text the help of electronic programs –
translators» [25, C.235].
Bookwritter, as V. Krupnov rebukes, considers, that accuracy in
translation is reachedachieved due to literal transfer of all lexical
and grammatic details of the text, it is frequent is declined before
language of the original, forgetting about such psycholinguistic
concepts, as norms of the use in language of these or those lexical
units, idiomatic character of language (especially oral), language
traditions which have developed during a history of development of any
language [V. Krupnov http: // www.].
V. Komysarov names a principal cause of use of a literal translation
desire to recreate semantic elements of higher level of equivalence, not
having provided transfer of the contents at the previous levels. In such
cases the literal translation can be accompanied by explanations or
adequate translation which opens the sincere contents of the original.
But concerning informal lexicon to which a plenty slangs concerns,
received by reconsideration of value of neutral lexicon, «literal»
translation is caused to ignorances by the translator of slang word
meaning more often:
Translation which is executed on lower equal equivalence refers to as
free translation. Free translation can be recognized adequate if it
meets other normative requirements of translation and not connected with
the important losses in transfer of the contents of the original [25,
C.235]. But here V. Komyarov, rebukes, which more serious deviations
from the contents of the original make free translation nonequivalent
and inadequate, transforming it in «retelling» or the independent
statement on a theme of the original. And, as V. Krupnov in the work «In
creative laboratory of the translator» rebukes, some separate
translators who stand on positions of adherents of free translation,
show attempts to ignore a gain of the translational theory and practice
which, by V. Koptyova’s entirely fair words, «all this V. Krupnov http:
// www.] should result the translator in language negligence and
slovenliness of style» [.
«Free translation, – writes V. Koptyov, – becomes the extremely
aggressive and in the theory. Anything strange in it is not present.
Theoretical reasons and requirements seem to new people which came in
translation, any «sophistications crafty», attempts to throw лассо on a
unrestrained mustang named Talent» .
2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations
V. Komysarov’s translational transformation names transformation with
which help it is possible to carry out transition from units of the
original to units of translation in the specified contents. As
translational transformations are carried out with language units which
have both the plan of the contents, and the plan of expression, they
have formal – semantic character, transforming both the form, and value
of initial units [25, C.172].
Within the framework of the description of translation process, on V.
Komysarova’s idea, translational transformations are considered not in
the static plan as means of the analysis of relations between units of
the source language and their dictionary conformity, and in the plan
dynamic as ways of translation which the translator while translating
different originals can use when dictionary conformity absent or cannot
be used on conditions of a context.
The basic types of lexical transformations on V. Komysarov is:
· Translational transcription and a transliteration,
· Tracing, lexic-semantic replacements (a concrete definition,
To V. Komysarov’s the most widespread grammatic transformations carries:
· Syntactic likening?(literal translation),
· Partitioning?the offer,?association?of offers,
· Grammatic replacements (forms of a word, a part of speech or?a
As the object of our research is in the greater measure the lexical side
of a spoken language in the work we do not consider grammatical kinds of
2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon
Frankness is capable to force to feel the person confusion, and
sometimes and to shock, even if in it there is no also a hint on
roughness, a swear word or a sneer.
«Simplicity – is worse than larceny» – is told about it!» [G. Moskovtsev
That similar to avoid, that all felt like comfortably, use euphemism.
These are softened, protected by a shade politeness words and
expressions which give to express, tell the truth, having avoided
undesirable expression or a word.
The word «euphemism» is familiarly far from being to everyone, but use
euphemism all is universal.
«Euphemism is softened, more polite form which replaces a direct word
which not always and not everywhere comprehensible and pleasant. In the
English language euphemism – very much frequently simple reduction from
strong expression. It is always perceived as less obvious, less rough
hint, but usual value hisits standard and it is known to all» [34,
To tell the truth, under «everyone» to whom value euphemism known, here
toil on attention only really knowing language, i.e. its carriers. Those
foreigners who have taught formal and daily language, in polite speaking
another language expressions, not so confident. Having heard unfamiliar
term, they are inclined to ask again: «Excuse, what means?» The
situation comic, in fact also means that do not want to name directly.
These foreigners (in particular – we in America) [M. Moskovtsev 2005:
25] rough and obtuse also look.
Euphemism are usually used in situations when it is necessary to be
especially delicate: with people unfamiliar, old age (they frequently
conservative), at women, children, the heads, etc. With the (on a floor,
age, the social status) and adherents to communicate always it is
easier. Especially freely we feel like in a circle of old friends or
close relatives, therefore them and we love (or on the contrary). Strong
expressions should be used only then in the another’s country when of it
you will grow fond, you will feel there yourself, clear and
In general euphemism there is a set and they are used from time
Especially widely euphemism are used in language of advertising, in
slang and in a professional slang (shop talk – conversation on
professional, business, service themes (in a time off)).
For the translator it is very important to know about features of the
use euphemism in language correctly to estimate a role of implied sense,
it is especial while translating publicist materials or fiction.
As a result of distribution and influences of mass media and different
psychological levers on language presently construckting type euphemism
will intensively penetrate into all spheres colloquial and a literary
language. Were especially strongly distributed tendencies in the English
language in the USA where advertising and business really without any
restriction «break» language on the order. Not surprisingly because some
American linguists even suggest to distinguish two languages: «language
of the facts» (fact language) and «language of ideas» (іdea language).
For example, pawn shops – (pawnshops) today in advertisements in the USA
refer to any more as shops, and the companies of jewels and on
presentation of loans – (loan and jewelry companіes). The guitarist –
(guіtarіst) prefers to name itself not the guitarist, and the artist on
a sound recording – (recordіng artіst; entertaіner); the singer –
(sіnger), known only on performancesstatements in a number of local or
private clubs, offeringsuggesting the ” services, for example, to
theatre, speaks about itself as about the performer (showman,
Before motor vehicles which many years used, in the USA simply referred
to used cars or second-hand cars, however now businessmans which are
engaged in resale of motor vehicles, even more often advertise old motor
vehicles not as such, that were used earlier (used cars), and as motor
vehicles which were in possession (pre-owned cars) earlier.
According to such sort of advertising special language will penetrate
literally into all areas of a life. So that to not call things by their
proper names, mentioning the market at the American stock exchanges,
already do not speak recession – (fall), and a cosiness in business
operations – (easіng) or as brokers of Wall-Street express, there is a
correcting of share price – (correctіon іs made) or recustomizing –
(adjustment, technіcal correctіon).
It is surprising, that the technical correcting – (technіcal adjustment,
correctіon) by all means occurs when at a stock exchange recession of
share price, instead of increase takes place. In order to prevent words,
which draw aggravating picture of a pledge of capitalist economy to not
use such, say, concept as, ‘ chronic inflation ‘ – (chronіc іnflatіon),
some economists «correct» the pledge economic has put simply by
application of a euphemism – synonym for a word inflation – gradual
іncrease іn prіces and wages – a gradual rise in prices and salaries.
The exchange boom, as is known, is frequently accompanied by sharp
depression – (depressіon, bust); to not use so «unpleasant» words, has
been invented euphemism busіness cycle – a business cycle which,
certainly, can fall down or amplify «a little». Even the traditional,
century economic concept a supply and demand – (supply and demand) now
is even more often changed by such abstractly sonorous term as the
regulated prices and wages (admіnіstered prіces and wages). By language
euphemisms, in many western firms now it is impossible to spend too much
of the budget (budget overrun), the budget always in itself grows or
increases – (budget growth, budget іncrease) that directors of concerns
have not surrendered inept heads.
Proceeding from this «logic», the director – embezzler of firm appears
already at all the embezzler, and only negatіve saver the negative store
(!) of money. Poor – (the poor) in a modern capitalist society, by
euphemism’s to lexicon, already completely not poor: in an economic seal
they have at first turned in very much requiring – (the needіest), then
is simple in requiring – (the needy, the іll-provіded), then at people,
the deprived blessings – (the deprіved), then in socially destitute –
(the socіally deprіved), then in the underprіvіleged, and have got in
less favorable vital circumstances – (the dіsadvantaged) and,
eventually, in needy – (low-і ncome people) later.
There are stable euphemism, and are depending on situations. If constant
is a constant synonym of the certain concept situational depends on the
contents which at it is put or a context in which it is used.
It is possible to allocate also types euphemism behind features of
construction. Is one-worded – synonyms – «features – crafty», is
two-worded and an adjective – «evil spirit». So…it is possible to
· euphemism ??the edition?(and here and there i?spesialise)
?understand??is rather narrow
· euphemism ??are as?stable, so i?situative
Not always? euphemism ??it is unequivocally defined without further
explanations on the part of the author?(speaking)
· ?Be expressed? euphemism ???can as in a word, so is? the offer
· ?Unfairly bypass at?language??about? euphemism
· ?At?wanting, it is possible to build?whole? euphemism lines behind an
· tabo lose the value i frequently them?changers – euphemism ??are
· Any?work of art?practically impossible?without use? euphemism
because??they became a part?literary and traditionally without them as
without?synonyms, metaphors, allegories it is impossible. That more,
that? euphemism can be as?synonym, so a metaphor and allegory.
It is possible to tell, that put in the beginning of our research the
purpose is achieved.
In modern English language there is an aspiration to democratization or
to reduction in literary norm of language which finds the reflection in
all spheres of a public life and is direct in modern English-speaking
fiction and publicist.
We can come to the conclusion which the most complex and had
investigated in a context of the theory of translation by a layer of
lexicon of the English language there is a stylistic layer slang and not
normative (reduced) lexicon which, in our opinion, speaks both
heterogeneity and many-sided nature of such lexicon, and absence of
tradition of literary translation slang and the reduced lexicon in the
Ukrainian translational practice in spite of the fact that during last
decades especially intensive development in area translation which
principal causes are the certain gravitation of the world community to
integration is observed.
Incontestable there is that fact which significant amount of lexemes
which transfer an emotional pledge of the person under the certain
circumstances, the attituderelation of the subject to object or to other
subject practically in each language, both in oral, and in written
speech, exists. They beat off rude – familiar, sometimes the comic
attitude to a subject of speech and can transfer as positive emotions,
such as love, tenderness, surprise, hobby, etc., and negative, as, say,
hatred, at once, a rage, contempt, etc. Such layer of lexicon is
considered informal and it is used mainly in conditions of easy
As we did not manage to find scientific works in which the theme of
translation of especially informal lexicon would full and deeply be
considered, we addressed to dictionaries of linguistic terms, to an
explanatory dictionary of the Ukrainian language and to modern
dictionaries of Ukrainian slang and the Ukrainian slang, to dictionaries
American and English slang, to Russian-English and English-Russian
dictionaries which cover slangy and slang lexicon.
In modern ukrainistyk the theme of slang and informal lexicon
investigated very much had. So, to us not luck to find any modern
scientific works devoted to these plast languages, and it pushed us on
an idea to carry out this translational research.
On the terminationending it would be desirable to tell, that the given
work in any measure does not apply for completeness through some
limitation of the time factor, and also in connection with variety of
aspects of research of informal lexicon, to capture which in one work it
is not obviously possible. To one of prospects of the further research
could become more detailed analysis of features of translation of
The list of the used literature
1. Английско-русский словарь. М., «Русский язык», 1988.
2. Аракин В.Д., Выгодская З.С., Ильина Н.Н. Англо-русский словарь: Ок.
36000 слов – 13е изд., стереотип., М.: Рус. яз., 1991.
3. Ахманова О.С. «Словарь лингвистических терминов». М.: Советская
4. Ахманова О.С., Уилсон Е.А.М. Англо-русский словарь: 20000 слов – 30е
изд., стереотип., М.: Рус. яз., 1985.
5. БАРС 1972: Гальперин И. Р. «Большой англо-русский словарь» под ред. в
2х т. М., «Сов. Энциклопедия», 1972.
6. Берков. В. О словарных переводах. «Мастерство перевода», М., «Сов.
7. БСРЖ 2000: Мокренко В. М., Микитина Т. Г. «Большой словар руського
жаргона». СПб., «Норинт», 2000.
8. В. Крупнов http: Крупнов В. Н. «В творческой лаборатории переводчика»
9. Галь Нора. «Слово живое и мертвое. Из опыта переводчика и редактора».
М., «Книга», 1987
10. Гальперин И. Р. «Очерки по стилистике английского языка». М.,
«Издательство литературы на иностранных языках», 1958
11. Гальперин И.Р. «Стилистика английского язика». М., «Высшая школа»,
12. Ганич Д. І., Олійник І. С. Словник лінгвістичних термінів. К., «Вища
13. Ганич Д. І., Олійник І. С. Русско-украинский и украинско-русский
словарь. К., «Радянська школа», 1984.
14. Горбач О. Зібрані статті 1. Арґо на Україні. – Мюнхен, 1993. – 327
Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter