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Теория и практика перевода

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Aii?in 1. I?aaeiao oai?ee ia?aaiaea

1. Ia?aaiae — eeiaaenoe/aneee i?ioeann, iaaeuycueiaia i?aia?aciaaiea eee
o?ainoi?iaoeey oaenoa ia iaeiii ycuea a oaeno ia ae?oaii ycuea;
n?aaenoai iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey (eiiioieeaoeee) iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, aiai?yueie ia ?aciuo ycueao. A nayce n yoei aeey oai?ee
ia?aaiaea iniaia cia/aiea eiatho aeaiiua eiiioieeaoeaiie eeiaaenoeee:

• ia iniaaiiinoyo i?ioeanna ?a/aaie eiiioieeaoeee; i niaoeeoeea i?yiuo e
einaaiiuo ?a/aauo aeoia;

• i niioiioaiee au?aaeaiiiai e iiae?acoiaaaaiiai niunea a auneacuaaiee e
oaenoa;

• i aeeyiee eiioaenoa e neooaoeee iauaiey ia iiieiaiea oaenoa;

• i ae?oaeo oaeoi?ao, ii?aaeaeythueo eiiioieeaoeaiia iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea.1

Iiiyoea “ia?aaiae” ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

• A.I. Eiienna?ia: “I?ioeannii ia?aaiaea iacuaathony aeaenoaey
ia?aaiae/eea ii nicaeaieth oaenoa”1;

Oai?ey ia?aaiaea – eiae/anee iainiiaaiiay iiaeaeue aeaoycu/iie
eiiioieeaoeee; oai?aoe/aneay /anoue eeiaaenoeee ia?aaiaea (?acaeaea
ycueiciaiey, eco/athuaai ia?aaiae eae eeiaaenoe/aneia yaeaiea).

Yoaiu ?acaeoey oai?ee ia?aaiaea:

? Ia?auie oai?aoeeaie ia?aaiaea auee naie ia?aaiae/eee no?aieaoeany
iaiaueoue naie nianoaaiiue iiuo, a eiiaaea e iiuo naie nia?aoueaa ii
i?ioannee. A ?aiieo ia?aaiaeao i?iecaaaeaiee, n/eoaaoeony nayuaiiuie eee
ia?acoeiauie, i?aiaeaaeaei no?aieaiea aoeaaeueiiai eiie?iaaiey
i?eaeiaea, i?eaiaeeaoaa ii?ie e iayniinoe ia?aaiaea. Iiyoiio iicaeiaa
iaeioi?ua ia?aaiae/eee iuoaeenue oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaoue i?aai
ia?aaiae/eea ia aieueooth naiaiaeo a ioiioaiee i?eaeiaea;

? a eiioea XIX a. ia?aaiae/eee ia/aee oi?ioee?iaaoue iaeioi?ia iiaeiaea
“ii?iaoeaiie oai?ee ia?aaiaea”, eceaaay ?yae o?aaiaaiee, eioi?ui
aeieaeai aue ioaa/aoue “oi?ioee” ia?aaiae eee “oi?ioee” ia?aaiae/ee;

iniiau iao/iie oai?ee ia?aaiaea noaee ?ac?aaaouaaoueny eeoue e na?aaeeia
XX a., eiaaea ia?aaiae/aneay i?iaeaiaoeea i?eaeaeea aieiaiea
ycueiaaaeia. Ioiioaiea ycueiaaaeia e ia?aaiaeo /aoei au?acee A.
Aoiaieueaeo. Yoe acaeyaeu iicaeiaa auee iacaaiu “oai?eae
iaia?aaiaeeiinoe”. Oai?ey iaia?aaiaeeiinoe ninoieo a oii, /oi anyeee
ia?aaiae i?aaenoaaeyaony iiiuoeie ?ac?aoeoue iaauiieieioth caaea/o. e
50-i aa. XX noieaoey ycueiaaaeai i?eoeinue ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieoue
naia ioiioaiea e ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?enooieoue e aa
nenoaiaoe/aneiio eco/aieth. Inouanoaeaiea ianniaie iiaeaioiaee
ia?aaiae/aneeo eaae?ia iaia?oaeeei iaaeinoaoi/iinoue o?aaeeoeeiiiie
oi?ioeu eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?aaiae/eea: “Aeey oiai /oiau ia?aaiaeeoue,
iaiaoiaeeii ciaiea aeaoo ycueia e i?aaeiaoa ?a/e”.

3. Ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiea ioaaouaaao ethaua eiioeaioeee, iieiaeaiey e
iaaethaeaiey, eanathueany ia?aaiae/aneie i?aeoeee, niiniaia e oneiaee aa
inouanoaeaiey, ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo ia iaa i?yiia eee
einaaiiia aicaeaenoaea.

A oe?ieii niunea oa?iei “oai?ey ia?aaiaea” i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony oa?ieio
“i?aeoeea ia?aaiaea” e i?e oaeii iiieiaiee niaiaaeaao n iiiyoeai
“ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiea”.

A aieaa oceii niunea “oai?ey ia?aaiaea” aeeth/aao eeoue nianoaaiii
oai?aoe/aneoth /anoue ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiey e i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony aai
i?eeeaaeiui aniaeoai. A oai?ee ia?aaiaea ?acee/athony neaaeothuea
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey.

? iauay oai?ey ia?aaiaea — ?acaeae eeiaaenoe/aneie oai?ee ia?aaiaea,
eco/athuee iaeaieaa iauea eeiaaenoe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aaiaea,
iacaaeneii io iniaaiiinoae eiie?aoiie ia?u ycueia, o/anoaothueo a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea, niiniaa inouanoaeaiey yoiai i?ioeanna e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae eiie?aoiiai aeoa ia?aaiaea. Iieiaeaiey
iauae oai?ee ia?aaiaea ioaaouaatho ethaua aeaeu ia?aaiaea ethauo
i?eaeiaeia n ethaiai enoiaeiiai ycuea ia ethaie ae?oaie ycue. Iauay
oai?ey ia?aaiaea aeaao oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea e ii?aaeaeyao iniiaiua
iiiyoey /anoiuo e niaoeeaeueiuo oai?ee ia?aaiaea. *anoiua e
niaoeeaeueiua oai?ee ia?aaiaea eiie?aoece?otho iieiaeaiey iauae oai?ee
ia?aaiaea i?eiaieoaeueii e ioaeaeueiui oeiai e aeaeai ia?aaiaea;

? /anoiua oai?ee ia?aaiaea — eco/atho eeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou ia?aaiaea
n iaeiiai aeaiiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie aeaiiue ycue;

? niaoeeaeueiua oai?ee ia?aaiaea — ?ane?uaatho iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna
ia?aaiaea oaenoia ?aciuo oeiia e aeai?ia, a oaeaea aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa?
yoiai i?ioeanna ?a/aauo oi?i e oneiaee aai inouanoaeaiey.

4. Oai?ey ia?aaiaea noaaeo ia?aae niaie neaaeothuea iniiaiua caaea/e:

? ?ane?uoue e iienaoue iauaeeiaaenoe/aneea iniiau ia?aaiaea, o. a.
oeacaoue, eaeea iniaaiiinoe ycueiauo nenoai e caeiiiia?iinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ycueia eaaeao a iniiaa ia?aaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna,
aeaeatho yoio i?ioeann aiciiaeiui e ii?aaeaeytho aai oa?aeoa? e
a?aieoeu;

? ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aaiae eae iauaeo eeiaaenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey,
oeacaoue aai ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeaeia ycueiaiai iin?aaeie/anoaa;

? ?ac?aaioaoue iniiau eeanneoeeaoeee aeaeia ia?aaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

? ?ane?uoue nouiinoue ia?aaiae/aneie yeaeaaeaioiinoe eae iniiau
eiiioieeaoeaiie ?aaiioeaiiinoe oaenoia i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea;

? ?ac?aaioaoue iauea i?eioeeiu e iniaaiiinoe iino?iaiey /anoiuo e
niaoeeaeueiuo oai?ee ia?aaiaea aeey ?acee/iuo eiiaeiaoeee ycueia;

? ?ac?aaioaoue iauea i?eioeeiu iao/iiai iienaiey i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea eae
aeaenoaee ia?aaiae/eea ii i?aia?aciaaieth oaenoa i?eaeiaea a oaeno
ia?aaiaea;

? ?ane?uoue aicaeaenoaea ia i?ioeann ia?aaiaea i?aaiaoe/aneeo e
nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia;

? ii?aaeaeeoue iiiyoea “ii?ia ia?aaiaea” e ?ac?aaioaoue i?eioeeiu
ioeaiee ea/anoaa ia?aaiaea.

Aaaeiaeoay caaea/a oai?ee ia?aaiaea caeeth/aaony a auyaeaiee ycueiauo e
yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeaeatho aiciiaeiui
ioiaeaeanoaeaiea niaea?aeaiey niiauaiee ia ?aciuo ycueao.

Eco/aiea ?aaeueiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo niaea?aeaieai i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea
iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue i?aaeaeu yoie iauiinoe, o. a. iaeneiaeueioth
aeecinoue e i?eaeiaeo, i?e eioi?ie aeaiiue oaeno iiaeao auoue i?eciai
yeaeaaeaioiui ia?aaiaeii: yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia?aaiaea i?eaeiaeo
ii?aaeaeyaony iauiinoueth niaea?aeaiey (niuneiaie aeecinoueth) oaenoia
i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea.

Aii?in 2. Aeaeu ia?aaiaea

1. Nenoaiiue aiaeec ia?aaiae/aneie i?aeoeee e iiiyoeeiie noa?u
nia?aiaiiiai ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiey iicaieyao iino?ieoue aaeeioth oeiieiaeth
ia?aaiaeia, eioi?ay iaiauaao ?acee/iua noi?iiu iiaeaioiaee, auiieiaiey,
i?acaioaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia?aaiaea e niioianaia n ae?oaeie
iniiaiuie eiiiiiaioaie ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. Oeiieiaecaoeey ia?aaiaeia inouanoaeyaony ii neaaeothuei ia?aiao?ai:

? niioiioaiea oeiia ycuea ia?aaiaea e ycuea i?eaeiaea;

? oi?ia i?acaioaoeee oaenoa ia?aaiaea e oaenoa i?eaeiaea;

? oa?aeoa? niioaaonoaey oaenoa ia?aaiaea oaenoo i?eaeiaea;

? aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoyi e aeai?iaay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
ia?aaiaeeiiai iaoa?eaea;

? iieiioa e oei ia?aaea/e niuneiaiai niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea;

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii niioiioaieth oeiia ycuea ia?aaiaea e ycuea
i?eaeiaea:

? aioo?eycueiaie ia?aaiae — enoieeiaaiea neiaaniuo ciaeia iin?aaenoaii
ciaeia oiai aea ycuea. Eiaao neaaeothuea ?aciiaeaeiinoe:

• aeeao?iie/aneee (enoi?e/aneee) ia?aaiae — ia?aaiae ia nia?aiaiiue ycue
enoi?e/aneiai oaenoa;

• o?ainiiceoeey — ia?aaiae oaenoa iaeiiai aeai?a a ae?oaie aeai?;

iaaeuycueiaie ia?aaiae — i?aia?aciaaiea niiauaiey, au?aaeaiiiai
n?aaenoaaie eaeie-eeai iaeiie ciaeiaie nenoaiu, a niiauaiea, au?aaeaiiia
n?aaenoaaie ae?oaie ciaeiaie nenoaiu.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii iauae oa?aeoa?enoeea noauaeoa ia?aaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ii aai ioiioaieth e aaoi?o ia?aaiaeeiiai oaenoa:

? o?aaeeoeeiiiue (/aeiaa/aneee, ?o/iie) ia?aaiae — ia?aaiae, auiieiyaiue
/aeiaaeii.

? iaoeiiue (aaoiiaoe/aneee) — auiieiaiiue eee auiieiyaiue eiiiuethoa?ii;

? niaoaiiue — n eniieueciaaieai cia/eoaeueiie aeiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie (eee
iaoeiiie) ia?a?aaioee oaenoa.

Ia?aaiaeu, auiieiyaiua ii oeio ia?aaiae/aneie naaiaioaoeee oaenoa e ii
eniieuecoaiui aaeeieoeai ia?aaiaea:

? iiii?oaiiue ia?aaiae.— ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo ii?oai aac o/aoa eo
no?oeoo?iuo naycae;

? iineiaiue — ioaeaeueiuo neia aac o/aoa niuneiauo, neioaene/aneeo e
noeeenoe/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo neiaaie;

? iio?aciaue — ioaeaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee eee o?ac, ia?aaiaeeiuo
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaeii ca ae?oaei;

? aacaoeii-o?aciaue — ioaeaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee eee aacaoeaa,
ia?aaiaeeiuo ioceeaeoaaoeeueio iaeii ca ae?oaei;

? oeaeueiioaenoiue — oeaeiai oaenoa, aac auaeaeaiey a ea/anoaa
ioaeaeueiuo aaeeieoe ia?aaiaea ioaeaeueiuo neia, i?aaeeiaeaiee eee
aacaoeaa.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii oi?ia i?acaioaoeee oaenoa ia?aaiaea e oaenoa
i?eaeiaea:

? ienueiaiiue — ia?aaiae, auiieiaiiue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia.

?aciiaeaeiinoe:

? ienueiaiiue ia?aaiae ienueiaiiiai oaenoa — ia?aaiae ienueiaiiiai
oaenoa, auiieiaiiue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia:

? ienueiaiiue ia?aaiae onoiiai oaenoa — ia?aaiae onoiiai oaenoa,
auiieiaiiue a ienueiaiiie oi?ia;

? onoiue — ia?aaiae, auiieiaiiue a onoiie oi?ia. ?aciiaeaeiinoe:

• onoiue ia?aaiae onoiiai oaenoa — ia?aaiae onoiiai oaenoa, auiieiaiiue
a onoiie oi?ia.

• onoiue ia?aaiae ienueiaiiiai oaenoa — ia?aaiae ienueiaiiiai oaenoa,
auiieiaiiue a onoiie oi?ia.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii i?eciaeo oa?aeoa?a e ea/anoaa niioaaonoaey
oaenoa ia?aaiaea oaenoo i?eaeiaea:

? aieueiue (naiaiaeiue) ia?aaiae — aini?iecaiaeyuee iniiaioth
eioi?iaoeeth i?eaeiaea aiciiaeiuie ioeeiiaieyie — aeiaaaeaieyie,
i?iioneaie e o. i.; inouanoaeyaony ia o?iaia oaenoa, iiyoiio aeey iaai
ieacuaathony ia?aeaaaioiuie eaoaai?ee yeaeaaeaioiinoe ycueiauo aaeeieoe.

? oi/iue (i?aaeeueiue) ia?aaiae — oa?aeoa?ecoaony naienoaii
naiaioe/aneie oi/iinoe, o. a. naiaioe/anee iieii e i?aaeeueii ia?aaeaao
ieai niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea;

? aooaioe/iue ia?aaiae — ia?aaiae ioeoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, eiathuee
iaeeiaeiaoth th?eaee/aneoth neeo n i?eaeiaeii; niaeanii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio i?aao oaeno aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue au?aaioai e i?eiyo
ia iaeiii ycuea, ii aai aooaioe/iinoue onoaiiaeaia ia aeaoo e aieaa
ycueao;

? caaa?aiiue ia?aaiae — ia?aaiae, niioaaonoaea eioi?iai i?eaeiaeo
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony th?eaee/anee.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneei iniaaiiinoyi e
aeai?iaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ia?aaiaeeiiai iaoa?eaea:

? iao/ii-oaoie/aneee — ia?aaiae iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo oaenoia e
aeieoiaioaoeee;

? iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee — ia?aaiae iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo oaenoia;

? ooaeiaeanoaaiiue — ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oaenoia;

? aiaiiue — oaenoia ii aiaiiie oaiaoeea;

? th?eaee/aneee — oaenoia th?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a;

? auoiaie — oaenoia ?acaiai?ii-auoiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii iieiioa e oeio ia?aaea/e niuneiaiai
niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea:

? iieiue (nieioiie) ia?aaiae — ia?aaeathuee niuneiaia niaea?aeaiea
i?eaeiaea aac i?iioneia e nie?auaiee;

? iaiieiue — ia?aaeathuee niuneiaia niaea?aeaiea i?eaeiaea n i?iioneaie
e nie?auaieyie.

• Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii i?eciaeo iniiaiie i?aaiaoe/aneie ooieoeee:

? i?aeoe/aneee ia?aaiae — i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey i?aeoe/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea eioi?iaoeee.

? o/aaiue — eniieuecoaiue a o/aaiii i?ioeanna aeey iiaeaioiaee
ia?aaiae/eeia eee eae iaeei ec i?eaiia iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo;

? iioaeeeiaaiiue — i?aeoe/aneee eee o/aaiue ia?aaiae, oe?aaee?iaaiiue
i?e iiiiue n?aaenoa ianniaiai ?aciiiaeaiey;

? yenia?eiaioaeueiue — auiieiaiiue n enneaaeiaaoaeueneie oeaeueth;

? yoaeiiiue — ia?acoeiaue, eniieuecoaiue aeey n?aaiaiey n
eaaeeoeoee?oaiui ia?aaiaeii.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii i?eciaeo ia?ae/iinoe/iaia?ae/iinoe oaenoa
i?eaeiaea:

? i?yiie (ia?ae/iue, iaiin?aaenoaaiiue) — auiieiaiiue iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
i?eaeiaea;

? einaaiiue (aoi?e/iue, iai?yiie) — inouanoaeaiiue ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
oaenoa i?eaeiaea, a n aai ia?aaiaea ia eaeie-eeai ae?oaie ycue;

? ia?aoiue — yenia?eiaioaeueiue eee o/aaiue ia?aaiae oaea ia?aaaaeaiiiai
oaenoa ia enoiaeiue ycue.

Ia?aaiaeu, auaeaeyaiua ii oeio aaeaeaaoiinoe:

? naiaioeei-noeeenoe/anee aaeaeaaoiue — naiaioe/anee iieiue e oi/iue e
noeeenoe/anee yeaeaaeaioiue, niioaaonoaothuee
ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneei ii?iai ycuea ia?aaiaea;

? i?aaiaoe/anee (ooieoeeiiaeueii) aaeaeaaoiue— i?aaeeueii ia?aaeathuee
iniiaioth (aeiieie?othuoth) eiiioieeaoeaioth ooieoeeth i?eaeiaea;

? aeace?aoeaii-aaeaeaaoiue — ia?aaiae, iieii e i?aaeeueii ioaa/athuee ia
eioi?iaoeeiiiue cai?in iio?aaeoaey, ii ia iaycaoaeueii ia?aaeathuee
iieiia niuneiaia niaea?aeaiea e aaaeouoth eiiioieeaoeaioth ooieoeeth
i?eaeiaea.

Aii?in 3. Ioeaiea ea/anoaa e ycueiaie neiaeiinoe ia?aaiaea

1. Ea/anoai ia?aaiaea — ?acoeueoaou i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeythony noaiaiueth aai niioaaonoaey ia?aaiae/aneie ii?ia e
oa?aeoa?ii iaaieueiuo eee niciaoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee io yoie ii?iu.

2. Ea/anoai ia?aaiaea iaoneaaeeaaaony:

? noaiaiueth niuneiaie aeecinoe ia?aaiaea i?eaeiaeo;

? aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth oaenoia i?eaeiaea e
ia?aaiaea;

? i?aaiaoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie, aeeythueie ia auai? aa?eaioa ia?aaiaea.

Yoe aniaeou ia?aaiaea:

? iinyo ii?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa?;

? ii?aaeaeytho no?aoaaeth ia?aaiae/eea e e?eoa?ee ioeaiee ia?aaiaea.

Ii?iaoeaiua o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao ia?aaiaea eiatho niune eeoue ii
ioiioaieth e ii?aaeaeaiiiio oeio oaenoia e ii?aaeaeaiiui oneiaeyi
ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Auei au i?eioeeieaeueii iaaa?iui
iieueciaaoueny iaeeiaeiauie e?eoa?eyie aeey ioeaiee ia?aaiaea
aoeueaa?iiai ?iiaia e aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, ia?aaiaea iia?iiai eea?aooi e iaoaioiiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iaeaieaa iauaeoeaiui e?eoa?eai oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aaiae/eea yaeyaony yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia?aaiaea
i?eaeiaeo.

I?aeoe/anee e?eoeea ia?aaiaeia iniiauaaaony ia eiooeoeaiii
i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneie ii?ia:

? ia?aaiae ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ii aai
eeoa?aoo?iui aeinoieinoaai;

? oaoie/aneee ia?aaiae — ii oa?ieiieiae/aneie i?aaeeueiinoe;

? ia?aaiae ?aeeaiu — ii aa aeaenoaaiiinoe.

3. Aeey ?yaea i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae iaiaoiaeeia oaeay nenoaia e?eoa?eaa,
eioi?ay enoiaeeea au ec a?aaeaoeee ioeaie, iniiaaiiie ia noaiaie
eneaaeaiey niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea i?e ia?aaiaea.

Iniiaiua aeaeu ioeaie:

? i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie a?oaia eneaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey; a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aaiae oeacuaaao ia nianai ae?oaoth neooaoeeth e oaeoe/anee
aeaceioi?ie?oao ?aoeaioi?a;

? i?eaiaeyuea e iaoi/iie ia?aaea/a niunea i?eaeiaea, ii «a eneaaeathuea
aai iieiinoueth — a ia?aaiaea iienuaaaony oa aea neooaoeey, /oi e a
i?eaeiaea, ii aa ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee oeacuaathony iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/ii;

Iai?eia?:

Ia was one of the best British football players in 1930’s. – A 1930 a.
ii aue iaeiei ec eo/oeo oooaieenoia a Aiaeee. Ia?aaiae/ee E ia ia?aoee
aieiaiey ia oi?iaio iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea i?e iaeiaiiaaiee aiaea a
i?eaeiaea – “o?eaeoeaoua aiaeu”.

? ia ia?ooathuea iauaai niunea i?eaeiaea, ii nieaeathuea ea/anoai oaenoa
ia?aaiaea aneaaenoaea ioeeiiaiey io noeeenoe/aneeo ii?i ia?aaiaeyuaai
ycuea, eniieueciaaiey iaeioiio?aaeoaeueiuo a aeaiiii oeia oaenoia
aaeeieoe, ceioiio?aaeaiey eiiycu/iuie caeinoaiaaieyie eee oaoie/aneeie
aea?aiieciaie e o. ae.;

? ia?ooaiey iaycaoaeueiuo ii?i ycuea ia?aaiaea, ia aeeythuea ia
yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia?aaiaea, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i iaaeinoaoi/iii
aeaaeaiee ia?aaiae/eeii aeaiiui ycueii eee aai iaoiaiee i?aiaeieaoue
aeeyiea ycuea i?eaeiaea. I?e ioeaiea ea/anoaa eiie?aoiiai ia?aaiaea ii
iau/iie iyoeaaeeueiie oeaea ioeaeai oeacaiiuo oeiia i?eienuaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiue “ioeaii/iue aan”.

Iai?eia?:

Eaaeaeay ioeaea ia?aiai oeia nieaeaao iauoth ioeaieo ia?aaiaea ia iaeei
aaee, aoi?iai – ia iieaaeea, a ioeaee o?aoueaai e /aoaa?oiai oeiia
aoaeoo aeeyoue ia ioeaieo eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie ia aaeeie/iu, a
oeie/iu, e oiaaea iie ii niaieoiiinoe nieaeatho ioeaieo aua ia iieaaeea.
Yoe ii?iaoeau niioiinyony n ii?aaeaeaiiui iauaiii (ia?aaiae/aneiai
iaoa?eaea – i?e aieueoii iauaia aeaeaaony niioaaonoaothuee ia?a?an/ao.

Iiaeiaiua e?eoa?ee yaeythony, ?acoiaaony, oneiaiuie. A ieo iiaoo
aaiaeeoueny aeiiieieoaeueiua eiyooeoeeaiou a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie
aaaeiinoe ia?aaiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeia e oeia ia?aaiaea:

? ioeoeeaeueiue;

? ?aai/ee;

? /a?iiaie.

Aii?in 4.Ii?ia ia?aaiaea

1. Ii?ia ia?aaiaea — niaieoiiinoue o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e ea/anoao
ia?aaiaea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth aai niioaaonoaey
ia?aaiae/aneie ii?ia e oa?aeoa?ii iaaieueiuo eee niciaoaeueiuo
ioeeiiaiee io yoie ii?iu.

Iiiyoea ii?iu ia?aaiaea aeeth/aao:

? o?aaiaaiea ii?iaoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ia?aaiae/eeii ycuea ia?aaiaea;

? iaiaoiaeeiinoue niioaaonoaey ?acoeueoaoia ia?aaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
iauai?eiyoui acaeyaeai ia oeaee e caaea/e ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ii?iaoeaiua o?aaiaaiey oi?ioee?othony a aeaea i?eioeeiia eee i?aaee
ia?aaiaea. Ii?iaoeaiua iieiaeaiey iiaoo oi?ioee?iaaoueny a aeaea
aaeeiiai i?aaeea eee nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oeacaieyie ia oneiaey, a eioi?uo
yoi i?aaeei i?eiaieii, eee ia aieueoaa eee iaiueoaa /enei neo/aaa aai
iai?eiaieiinoe.

A eaaeaeii neo/aa ii?iaoeaiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ?ani?ino?aiythony ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa yaeaiee e eiatho ?acioth noaiaiue iaiauaiiinoe,
iai?eia?:

? i?aaeea ia?aaea/e aacyeaeaaeaioiie eaeneee;

? i?aaeea ia?aaea/e eiai nianoaaiiuo;

? i?aaeea ia?aaea/e eiaeaeneeo eiai oeia “Oeo?ay eeneoea”, “Aaeeeee
ciae”;

? i?aaeei nio?aiaiey a ia?aaiaea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiai ei?ieae —
Ethaeiaee, Aai?eo, Ea?e.

2. Ii?ia ia?aaiaea neeaaeuaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey
neaaeothueo aeaeia ii?iaoeaiuo o?aaiaaiee.

? ii?ia yeaeaaeaioiinoe ia?aaiaea — iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiciiaeii aieueoae
iauiinoe niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea. Ia?ooaiea ii?iu
yeaeaaeaioiinoe iiaeao auoue aaniethoiui, eiaaea ia?aaiae i?eciaaony
iayeaeaaeaioiui, ia ia?aaeathuei niaea?aeaiea i?eaeiaea oioy au ia naiii
ieceii o?iaia, eee ioiineoaeueiui, anee onoaiiaeaii, /oi inoaeueiua
ii?iaoeaiua o?aaiaaiey iiaee auoue auiieiaiu ia iaeaieaa aunieii o?iaia
yeaeaaeaioiinoe, /ai oio, eioi?ue aue ?aaeueii aeinoeaioo a ia?aaiaea;

? aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneay ii?ia — o?aaiaaiea niioaaonoaey ia?aaiaea
aeiieiaioiie ooieoeee e noeeenoe/aneei iniaaiiinoyi oeia oaenoa, e
eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?aaiae. Ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao eae iaiaoiaeeiue
o?iaaiue yeaeaaeaioiinoe, oae e aeiieiaioioth ooieoeeth, iaania/aiea
eioi?ie ninoaaeyao iniiaioth caaea/o ia?aaiae/eea e aeaaiue e?eoa?ee
ioeaiee ea/anoaa aai ?aaiou;

? i?aaiaoe/aneay ii?ia — o?aaiaaiea iaania/aiey i?aaiaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe
ia?aaiaea. No?aiynue auiieieoue eiie?aoioth i?aaiaoe/aneoth caaea/o,
ia?aaiae/ee iiaeao ioeacaoueny io iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie
yeaeaaeaioiinoe, ia?aaanoe i?eaeiae eeoue /anoe/ii, eciaieoue i?e
ia?aaiaea aeai?iaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue oaenoa, aini?iecaanoe eaeea-oi
oi?iaeueiua iniaaiiinoe ia?aaiaea e o. i. I?aaiaoe/aneea oneiaey
ia?aaiae/aneiai aeoa iiaoo naeaeaoue auioaeaeaiiui iieiue eee /anoe/iue
ioeac io niaethaeaiey ii?iu ia?aaiaea; caiaieoue oaeoe/anee ia?aaiae
ia?aneacii, ?aoa?aoii eee eaeei-eeai eiui aeaeii ia?aaea/e niaea?aeaiey
i?eaeiaea;

? eiiaaioeeiiaeueiay ii?ia — o?aaiaaiea iaeneiaeueiie aeecinoe ia?aaiaea
e i?eaeiaeo; aai niiniaiinoue iieiioeaiii caiaiyo i?eaeiae eae a oeaeii,
oae e a aeaoaeyo, auiieiyy caaea/e, ?aaee eioi?uo ia?aaiae aue
inouanoaeai.

3. A i?aeoe/aneii ieaia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aniaeoaie ii?iu ia?aaiaea
nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay ea?a?oey:

? ia?aaiae/ee e iieuecothueany ia?aaiaeii i?aaeaea anaai ia?auatho
aieiaiea ia i?aaiaoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue ia?aaiaea, ia oniaoiinoue ?aoaiey
i?aaiaoe/aneie “naa?ocaaea/e”;

? aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneay ii?ia — oaeaea ieacuaaaony caaeaiiie
aieueoeinoaa auiieiyaiuo ia?aaiaeia e ia o?aaoao eaaeaeue ?ac caiiai
aiaeece?iaaoue noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe i?eaeiaea;

? eiiaaioeeiiaeueiay ii?ia — inoaaony iaeciaiiie ia i?ioyaeaiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie e ii?aaeaeyao iauee iiaeoiae ia?aaiae/eea
e naiae ?aaioa, noaiaiue aai no?aieaiey e aeinoeaeaieth iaeneiaeueiie
yeaeaaeaioiinoe;

? ii?ia yeaeaaeaioiinoe — i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiia/iia ii?iaoeaiia
o?aaiaaiea, eioi?ia aeieaeii auiieiyoueny i?e oneiaee niaethaeaiey anao
inoaeueiuo aniaeoia ia?aaiae/aneie ii?iu. Ianiiiaiii, iieiioa ia?aaea/e
niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea a ia?aaiaea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae — yoi iaeaieaa
“nianoaaiii ia?aaiae/aneia” ii?iaoeaiia o?aaiaaiea e ia?aaiaeo.
Yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia?aaiaea i?eaeiaeo yaeyaony e iaeaieaa iauaeoeaiui
E?eoa?eai aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe ia?aaiae/eea.

Aii?in 5. Ia?aaiae/aneay naaiaioaoeey oaenoa, aaeeieoeu e o?iaie
ia?aaiaea

1. Iaeii ec iniiaiuo oiaiee ia?aaiae/eea caeeth/aaony a naiaiaeiii
aeaaeaiee ?acee/iuie niiniaaie /eaiaiey enoiaeiiai oaenoa —
ia¬?aaiae/aneie naaiaioaoeeae.

*eaiaiea enoiaeiiai oaenoa ia aaeeieoeu. iiaeeaaeauea ia?aaiaeo.
caaeneo:

? io iauae onoaiiaee ia?aaiae/eea;

? oeiieiae/aneeo ?acee/ee a niiniaa au?aaeaiey ciaeiaiai ioiioaiey a
enoiaeiii e ia?aaiaeyuai ycueao.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ioeaeie ia/eiathueo ia?aaiae/eeia

yaeyaony no?aieaiea ia?aaiaeeoue iineiaii — iaeiiia?acii /ea¬ieoue
enoiaeiue oaeno eee auneacuaaiea ia ioaeaeueiua neiaa, iaoiaeeoue eo
niioaaonoaea ia ycuea ia?aaiaea. Nooue yoie ioeaee ninoieo a iiaeiaia
i?aaenoaaeaiee i oa?aeoa?a ia?aaiaeeiuo ciaeia: aianoi ?a/aauo aaeeieoe
ia?aaiaea ia?aaiae/ee iaoaie/anee iiaenoaaeyao ycueiaua aaeeieoeu, a oi
a?aiy eae a ?aciuo ycueao ycueiaie ninoaa oie eee eiie ?a/aaie aaeeieoeu
iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue. Aaeeieoea ia?aaiaea — oaeay aaeeieoea a enoiaeiii
oaenoa, eioi?ie iiaeao auoue iiaeuneaii niioaaonoaea a oaenoa ia?aaiaea,
ii ninoaaiua /anoe eioi?ie ii ioaeaeueiinoe ia eiatho niioaaonoaee a
oaenoa ia?aaiaea.

Iniiaiie aaeeieoeae ia?aaiaea iiaeao neoaeeoue ia oieueei neiai, ii e
ethaay ycueiaay aaeeieoea: io oiiaiu aei naa?oo?aciaiai aaeeinoaa.

Naii iiiyoea “aaeeieoeu ia?aaiaea” a ecaanoiie ia?a oneiaii. Aeaaiia
oneiaea i?aaeeueiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey enoiaeiie aaeeieoeu ia?aaiaea —
auyaeaiea oaenoiaie ooieoeee oie eee eiie oaenoiaie aaeeieoeu.
Iaaaeaeaaoiinoue iineiaiiai ia?aaiaea iaoneiaeaia eiaiii iaaa?iie
ioeaieie oaenoiauo ooieoeee ycueiauo aaeeieoe: iiiaaeay a oo eee eioth
neooaoeeth, neiai eae aaeeieoea ycuea iiiaaeaao a neooaoeaioth
caaeneiinoue eee ?yae caaeneiinoae io oneiaee oaenoa.

Iai?eia?:

Niiauaiea “Iia aeeaao a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa” i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeaao ii
ycueiaiio ninoaao n aiaeeeneie o?acie “She lives in St.Petersbourg”, a
oi a?aiy eae aiaeiae/iia, ia ia?aue acaeyae, niiauaiea “Iia aeeaao a
“Anoi?ee” niioaaonoaoao niaa?oaiii ae?oai¬io eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneiio
eiiieaeno “She is staying at the Astoria”. Iiiuoea neaaeiaaoue
iineiaiiio ia?aaiaeo n ?onneiai ycuea ia aiaeeeneee ai aoi?ii i?eia?a
i?eaiaeeo e eneaaeaieth niiauaiey, oae eae a aeaiiii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii
onoaiaaeeaaoue aaeeieoeo ia?aai¬aea ia ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo neia, a ia
o?iaia neiaini/aoaiee.

Iaeaieaa neiaeiua neo/ae a ii?aaeaeaiee .aaeeieoeu ia?aaiaea naycaiu n
a?oiiie iaeneiaeueiuo eiioaenooaeueiuo caaeneiinoae, eiaaea ciaeiaay
ooieoeey ioaeaeueiie ycueiaie aaeeieoeu ii?aaeaeyaony ca i?aaeaeaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiea aiana ia iaycaoaeueii ninoaaeyao naiinoiyoaeueioth
aaeeieoeo oaenoa, iii iiaeao aoiaeeoue a aieaa neiaeiua naa?oo?aciaua
aaeeinoaa.

3. ?aeiiaiaeoaiua i?aaeea naaiaioaoeee oaenoa aeey ia?aaiaea:

? onoaiaaeeaay noaoon e ia?aiao?u aaeeieoe (ia?aaiaea, iaiaoiaeeii
/eaieoue oaeno ia aieaa e?oiiua eiiiiiaiou — io ioaeaeueiiai neiaa aei
oeaeiai yieciaea. *ai aieueoa neiai nio?aiyao eiioaenooaeueioth
caaeneiinoue, oai aa?iaa iii yaeyaony ieieiaeueiui naaiaioii,
i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey ia?aaiaea. Anee aea a neiaa i?enoonoaotho aieaa
eee iaiaa yaiua i?eciaee caaeneiinoe io ieieiaeueiiai eee aieaa
iaoe?iiai eiioaenoa, oi ia?aaiae/ee aeieaeai auno?ieoue aioo?eoaenoiaoth
aaeeieoeo, aeeth/athuoth ana! eee oioy au naiua aeaaiua ec caaeneiuo
oeaii/ae;

? anee neiai caaeneo aeaaiui ia?acii io aeeaeaeoaai eiioaenoa, oi
iniiaaieai aeey iino?iaiey aaeeieoeu ia?aaiaea yaeyaony nei¬aini/aoaiea
eee i?inoia i?aaeeiaeaiea, a eioi?ia aoiaeeo aeaiiia neiai;

? anee neiai caaeneo io ianeieueeeo oaenoiauo eiiiiiaioia, a oii /enea e
auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu i?aaeeiaeaiey, oi iino?ia¬iea aaeeieoe ia?aaiaea
iniiauaaaony ia neiaeiii i?aaeeiaeaiee eee yieciaea;

? anee neiai caaeneo io iiiaeanoaa oaenoiauo eiiiiiaioia, oi a iniiaa
aaeeieoeu ia?aaiaea aeieaeai eaaeaoue aanue enoiaeiue oaeno;

? anee neiai caaeneo io oneiaee, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu oaenoa, j oi
ia?aaiae/ee aeieaeai i?aaeoniio?aoue aiciiaeiinoue eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai
eiiiaioa?ey eee nicaeaiey iiaie ycueiaie aaeeieoeu iooai
o?aineeoa?aoeee, eee eaeueee?iaaiey.

Aii?in 6. Nayciinoue oaenoa e ia?aaiae

1. Ioaeaeueiua ia?aaiae/eee iuoaeenue noi?ioee?iaaoue iaeioi?ia iiaeiaea
“ii?iaoeaiie oai?ee ia?aaiaea”, eceaaay ?yae o?aaiaa-iee, ‘eioi?ui
aeieaeai aue ioaa/aoue “oi?ioee” ia?aaiae eee “oi?ioee” ia?aaiae/ee.

Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e ia?aaiaeo auee noi?ioee?iaaiu neaaeoth-uei
ia?acii:

? ia?aaiae aeieaeai iieiinoueth ia?aaeaaaoue eaeae i?eaeiaea;

? noeeue e iaia?a eceiaeaiey ia?aaiaea aeieaeiu auoue oaeeie aea, eae a
i?eaeiaea;

? ia?aaiae aeieaeai /eoaoueny oae aea eaaei, eae e i?eaeiaeueiia
i?iecaaaeaiea.

2. Aeey iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee nayce i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea eniieuecotho
neaaeothuea oa?ieiu:

? aaeaeaaoiue ia?aaiae — iaania/eaaao i?aaiaoe/aneea caaea/e
ia?aaiae/aneiai aeoa ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiii aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie
oeaee o?iaia yeaeaaeaioiinoe, ia aeiioneay ia?ooaiey ii?i, niaethaeay
aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey e oaenoai aeaiiiai oeia. A iano?iaii
oiio?aaeaiee — “oi?ioee” ia?aaiae, ii?aaaeuaathuee iaeeaeaiey e
iaaeaaeaeu eiiioieeaioia eee eeoe, inouanoaeythueo ioeaieo ia?aaiaea;

? yeaeaaeaioiue — aini?iecaiaeeo niaea?aeaiea eiiycu/iiai i?eaeiaea ia
iaeiii ec o?iaiae yeaeaaeaioiinoe. Iiae niaea?aeaieai i?eaeiaea eiaaony
a aeaeo any ia?aaeaaaaiay eioi?iaoeey, a oaeaea i?aaiaoe/aneee
iioaioeeae oaenoa. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth ethaie aaeaeaaoiue ia?aaiae aeieaeai
auoue yeaeaaeaioiui, ii ia anyeee yeaeaaeaioiue ia?aaiae i?eciaaony
aaeaeaaoiui, a eeoue oio, eioi?ue ioaa/aao, iiieii ii?iu
yeaeaaeaioiinoe, e ae?oaei ii?iaoeaiui o?aaiaaieyi;

? oi/iue — yeaeaaeaioii aini?iecaiaeeo eeoue i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneoth
/anoue niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea i?e aiciiaeiuo ioeeiiaieyo io
noeeenoe/aneie ii?iu. Oi/iue ia?aaiae iiaeao auoue i?eciai aaeaeaaoiui,
anee caaea/a ia?aaiaea naiaeeony e ia?aaea/a oaeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee.
Yeaeaaeaioiue ia?aaiae anaaaea aeieaeai auoue oi/iui, a oi/iue ia?aaiae
ii ii?aaeaeaieth eeoue /anoe/ii yeaeaaeaioai;

? aoeaaeueiue — aini?iecaiaeeo eiiioieeaoeaii oi?iaeueiua yeaiaiou
i?eaeiaea, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eeai ia?ooathony ii?iu ia?aaiaeyuaai
ycuea, eeai ieacuaaaony eneaaeaiiui aeaenoaeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea
i?eaeiaea. Aoeaaeueiue ia?aaiae ii ii?aaeaeaieth iaaaeaeaaoai e
aeiioneaaony eeoue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iinoaaeaia i?aaiaoe/aneay
naa?ocaaea/a aini?iecaanoe a ia?aaiaea oi?iaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
iino?iaiey auneacuaaiey a i?eaeiaea. A oaeeo neo/ayo aoeaaeueiue
ia?aaiae iiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny iiyniaieyie eee aaeaeaaoiui
ia?aaiaeii, ?ane?uaathuei enoeiiia niaea?aeaiea i?eaeiaea;

? naiaiaeiue — auiieiyaony ia aieaa ieceii o?iaia yeaeaaeaioiinoe, /ai
oio, eioi?iai iiaeii aeinoe/ue i?e aeaiiuo oneiaey: ia?aaiae/aneiai
aeoa. Naiaiaeiue ia?aaiae iiaeao auoue i?ecia1 aaeaeaaoiui, anee ii
ioaa/aao ae?oaei ii?iaoeaiui o?aaiaaieyi ia?aaiaea e ia naycai n
nouanoaaiiuie iioa?yie a ia?aaea/» niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea. Aieaa
na?ueaciua ioeeiiaiey io niaea?¬aeaiey i?eaeiaea aeaeatho naiaiaeiue
ia?aaiae aaceeaeaaeaioiue e iaaaeaeaaoiui, i?aa?auay aai a
“ia?aeiaeaiea” eee naiinoiyoaeueiia auneacuaaiea ia oaio i?eaeiaea.

Iaeie ia?aaiae/eee i?aauoa anaai noaayo oi/iinoue, iaaeaeay ia naay
iiae/an ni?aaaaeeeaua iaaeiaiey a aoeaaeecia, a ia?ooa¬iee ii?i ycuea
ia?aaiaea; ae?oaea, ?aooy ca oai?/aneee, nai¬aiaeiue ia?aaiae, ooiaeyo
ii?ie i/aiue aeaeaei io i?eaeiaea iiaeaa?aathony e?eoeea ca
“ia?aaiae/aneee i?iecaie” e eneaaea¬iea i?eaeiaea.

Aii?in 7. Ia?aaiae/aneay o?aeoiaea ycuea

1. O?aaeeoeeiiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi aeaaioth ?ieue a ia?aaiaea
ea?atho ycuee, iieo/eei na?ueaciia iao/iia iainiiaaiea, e a nia?aiaiiii
ia?aaiaeiaaaeaiee aaaeouaa ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo eeiaaenoe/aneei oai?eyi
ia?aaiaea.

No?aiynue iaania/eoue iauaeoeaiia iienaiea ycuea, i?eaeeceoue
eeiaaenoeeo e “oi/iui” iaoeai, ycueiaaaeu ioioii i?eiyee i?ecua O. aea
Ninnth?a eco/aoue ycue “a naaa e aeey naay”, ia?aie/eaaynue iaeanoueth
“aioo?aiiae eeiaaenoeee”. Naie ia?aaiae/eee aanueia neaioe/anee
ioiineeenue e ?iee iaoee i ycuea a enneaaeiaaiee iniaaiiinoae
ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

2. ?aiaa auei oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii iiaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea ycueiaua oaeoi?u eiatho aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea. I?e
eco/aiee ?aciiia?aciuo noi?ii ia?aaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noaei
i/aaeaeii, /oi naiua aaaeiua aniaeou ia?aaiaea naycaiu n ycueii.

Ia?aaiae iaiaoiaeei iioiio, /oi ethaee aiai?yo ia ?aciuo ycueao.
Ia?aaiae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia n?aaenoai i?aiaeieaiey
ycueiauo aa?uea?ia.

Iniaaiiinoe nouanoaiaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ycuea ii?aaeaeytho e naio
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaiaea, e iniiaiua o?oaeiinoe, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaaony ia?aaiae/ee, e aiciiaeiinoe i?aiaeieaiey yoeo o?oaeiinoae.

sscueiaua oaeoi?u ia oieueei ii?iaeaeatho o?oaeiinoe aeey ia?aaiaea. ii
e nicaeatho oneiaey aeey eo i?aiaeieaiey:

? ana ycuee ninoiyo ec aeaoonoi?iiieo aaeeieoe, iaeaaeathueo cao/aieai e
cia/aieai;

? iaeaaeatho neiaa?iui ninoaaii e a?aiiaoe/aneei no?iai, neoaeao
n?aaenoaii oi?ie?iaaiey iuneae e ia?aaea/e eo a i?ioeanna iauaiey n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie;

? iiaoo ?acee/iuie niiniaaie au?aaeaoue iiiyoeeiua eaoaai?ee a?aiaie,
ianoa, /enea, iiaeaeueiinoe e iiiaea ae?oaea; iaicia/aoue eeannu
i?aaeiaoia e ioaeaeueiua iauaeou e eo i?eciaee i?ioeannu e ninoiyiey

sscuee iaeaaeatho iiiaeanoaii ae?oaeo oieaa?naeueiuo naienoa! eae naiuo
iaueo, oae e aieaa /anoiuo. Yoa oieaa?naeueiinoue io?aaeaao aaeeinoai
/aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey e ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Eiaiii iii ii?aaeaeyao a
eiia/iii n/aoa aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaiaea

3. Iniiaiua o?oaeiinoe, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony ia?aaiae/eoe,

naycaiu n iniaaiiinoyie ycueia e niiniaaie eo eniieueciaaiey aeey
iaeiaiiaaiey iauaeoia e iienaiey neooaoeee.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e oeia o?oaeiinoae

? niaoeeoe/iinoue naiaioeee ycueiauo aaeeieoe;

? ianiaiaaeaiea “ea?oei ie?a”, nicaeaaaaiuo ycueaie aeey io?aaeaiey
aiaycueiaie ?aaeueiinoe;

? ?acee/ey a naiie ?aaeueiinoe, iienuaaaiua a ia?aaiaeeiuo oaenoao.

O eaaeaeiai ycueiaiai ciaea eiaaony onoie/eaia cia/aiea e yoe cia/aiey o
aaeeieoe ?aciuo ycueia, eae i?aaeei, ia niaiaaeatho.. Iiyoiio ia?aaiae
ieeiaaea ia naiaeeony e i?inoie caiaia iaeiie oi?iu ia ae?oaoth, e
ia?aaiae/eeo i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii ?aoaoue, cia/aiey eaeeo aaeeieoe
ycuea ia?aaiaea iaeaieaa niioaaonoaotho niaea?aeaieth i?eaeiaea.
Eaaeaeue ycue ii-naiaio /eaieo aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, nicaeaaay
naiaia?acioth “ycueiaoth ea?oeio ie?a”. ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei /anoi
oiio?aaeyaiuo yecioe/aneeo i?eia?ao, a i iiiaeo iau/iuo iaeiaiiaaieyo.

Iai?eia?:

N?aaiei ?onne. neiai “?oea” n aiae. “hand” e “arm”, ?onne. “iaeaoe” n
aiae. “finger” e “toe”, ?onne. “niaaea” e “ian” n aiae.; l”dog”.
Iiiyoii, /oi ?aciia /eaiaiea noaaeo ia?aae ia?aaiae/eeii ^iniaua
i?iaeaiu i?e auai?a aa?eaioa ia?aaiaea.

O?oaeiinoe ia?aaiaea iiaoo aicieeaoue e a nayce n oai, /oi a i?eaeiaea
iacuaathony eaeea-oi yaeaiey, ionoonoaothuea a i?eieiathuae eoeueoo?a e
iaecaanoiua ?aoeaioi?ai ia?aaiaea.

Aii?in 8. Noeeenoe/aneea i?iaeaiu ia?aaiaea

1. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo aniaeoia oai?ee ia?aaiaea yaeyaony
i?iaeaia ia?aaea/e noeeenoe/aneeo i?eaiia ia aini?e-ieiathuai ycuea.

Aaaeiinoue eco/aiey ia?aaiaea ia?aciuo n?aaenoa iaoneiaeaia:

? iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aaeaeaaoiie ia?aaea/e ia?aciie eioi?iaoeee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia ia?aaiaeyuai ycuea;

? ainnicaeaieai noeeenoe/aneiai yooaeoa i?eaeiaea a ia?aaiaea.

Auaeaeythony neaaeothuea ia?aiao?u aaeaeaaoiinoe ia?aaiaea ia?aciuo
n?aaenoa a ieaia niaea?aeaiey:

? ia?aaea/a naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia?acii ia?aaiaeyuaai ycuea;

? ia?aaea/a yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee;

? aaeaeaaoiinoue ia?aaea/e yeni?anneaiie eioi?iaoeee;

? aaeaeaaoiinoue ia?aaea/e ynoaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee.

Anee naiaioe/aneay iniiaa iiaeeeiieea ia?aaeaia oi/ii, oi ?acoeueoaoii
yaeony aaeaeaaoiue ycueiaie ia?ac ia ia?aaiaeyuai ycuea e aai
aaeaeaaoiia niuneiaia niaea?aeaiea. Yoi iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue oaie
neo/ayie a ia?aaiaea, eiaaea ec-ca iaaiciiaeiinoe nio?aieoue
iaoaoi?e/aneee ia?aaiae eniieuecoaony oieueei niuneiaia aai niaea?aeaiea
n oeaeueth auiieiaiey oioy au iiieiaoeaiie ooieoeee.

Iai?eia?:

“…he was extravagantly ambitious” – “…ii aue aei e?aeiinoe
/anoiethaea”.

A aeaiiii neo/aa ia?aaiae/ee i?eaaaaao e caiaia iaoaoi?e/aneiai •yieoaoa
“extravagantly” au?aaeaieai “aei e?aeiinoe”, ia ianouei ia?aciinoe.

2. Annioeeaoeaiia iiea ~ annioeeaoeee, aucuaaaiua ii?iaoeaiu) cia/aieai
neiaa i?e iaiau/iie aai ni/aoaaiinoe.

Ia?aaiae iiaeii n/eoaoue ?aaiioeaiiui, anee neiai ia ia?aaiaeyuai ycuea
iaeaaeaao oai aea annioeeaoeaiui iieai, /oi 1 neiai ia enoiaeiii ycuea,
oae eae yoi aucuaaao o /eoaoaey ia?aaiaea oo aea aeoeaiinoue iunee e
aiia?aaeaiey, /oi e o /eoaoaey iiaeeeiieea.

I?e ?acaa?ouaaiee neiaeiuo iaoaoi? iaiaoiaeeii ?acaa?ouaaiea aeaoo
annioeeaoeaiuo ieaiia:

? iniiaaiiiai ia i?yiii cia/aiee;

? ?acaa?ouaaiey ia?acii-ia?aiiniiai niunea.

Ianiaethaeaiea /aoeiai ia?aeeaeueiiai ninouanoaiaaiey yoe aeaoo ieaiia
iiaeao i?eaanoe e ia?aaiae/aneei ia?ooaieyi iiaeao i?iecieoe ?ac?ua
iaoaoi?e/aneiai niaea?aeaiey. Oiaaea i?yiia cia/aiea aini?eieiaaony
?aiueoa iaoaoi?e/aneiai, iaoaoi?a ?ac?ooaaony.

?anniao?eaay i?iaeaio ia?aaea/e ia?acii ia?aaiaea yeni?anneaiie
eioi?iaoeee, ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eaeay-oi aeiey ia?aiiniiai
oiio?aaeaiey neia a aiaeeeneii e ?onneii ycueao niaiaaeaao ii neea
yeni?annee.

Iaeeiaeiaia eiee/anoai yeni?anneaiie Eioi?iaoeee iaaethaeaaony o
iauanoeeenoe/aneeo iaoaoi? iiaeeeiieea e ia?aaiaea eioi?ua yaeythony
neiaa?iuie niioaaonoaeyie. Ianiaiaaeaiea iauaia yeni?anneaiie
eioi?iaoeee aicieeaao ec-ca ?acee/e» a noaiaie yeni?annee a aeaoo ycueao
ia?aiiniuo cia/aiee ycueiauo yeaeaaeaioia.

Iai?eia?:

B iaeiii ec ia?aaiaeia ?iiaia O.N. Oeoeaeaea?aeueaea “Aaeeeee Ayonae! a
o?aca n yieoaoii “dimmed a little by many paintless days undei Msun and
rain” ia?aaeaia eae “aeaaii oaea ia iiaeiiaeyeanue”, aaea oa?yaony
iaoaoi?e/aneee yieoao “paintless”. Aieaa oaea/iui aoaeao ia?aaiae “…
oioy ca eiiai aanoeaaoiuo aeiae e?anea iiooneiaea nieioea e aeiaeaey…”
3. N?aaee o?ainoi?iaoeee naiui neiaeiui yaeyaony i?eai eiiiainaoeee —
ia?aaea/a niuneiaiai cia/aiey eee noeeenoe/aneiai iooaiea ia oai, aaea
ii au?aaeai a i?eaeiaea, eee ia oai n?aaenoaaie, eaeeie ii au?aaeai a
i?eaeiaea.

A ethaii ycuea anoue yeaiaiou, ia iiaeaeathueany ioaeaeueiie ia¬?aaea/a
n?aaenoaaie ae?oaiai ycuea, iiyoiio i/aaeaeia iaiaoiaee¬iinoue
eiiiaine?iaaoue yoo iioa?th i?e ia?aaiaea. ?a/ue eaeao i iioa?yo e
niuneiaiai, e noeeenoe/aneiai ii?yaeea. Anee ia?aaiae/ee auioaeaeai
aea?oaiaaoue eee noeeenoe/aneie ie?aneie, eee yeni?anneaiui ca?yaeii
neiaa i?e ia?aaiaea, oi, eiia/ii, ii aeieaeai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
nio?aieoue yeni?annea¬iia cia/aiea neiaa eee neiaini/aoaiey, a a neo/aa
iaaiciiaeiinoe iaeoe oaeia niioaaonoaea, aicianoeoue yoo iioa?th i?eaiii
eiiiainaoeee.

Aii?in 9. Iniiaiua oeiu eaene/aneeo o?ainoi?iaoeee, i?eiaiyaiuo a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea n o/anoeai ?acee/iuo Ess e Iss, aeeth/atho
neaaeothuea ia?aaiae/aneea i?eaiu:

– ia?aaiae/aneia o?aine?eae?iaaiea e o?aineeoa?aoeey;

– eaeueee?iaaiea e eaeneei-naiaioe/aneea caiaiu (eiie?aoecaoeey,
aaia?aeecaoeey, iiaeoeyoeey eee niuneiaia ?acaeoea).

O?aine?eioeey e o?aineeoa?aoeey – yoi niiniau ia?aaiaea eaene/aneie
aaeeieoeu i?eaeiaea iooai ainnicaeaiey aa oi?iu n iiiiuueth aoea Iss.

I?e o?aine?eioeee aini?iecaiaeeony caoeiaay oi?ia eiiycu/iiai neiaa, a
i?e o?aineeoa?aoeee aai a?aoe/aneay oi?ia (aoeaaiiue ninoaa).

Aaaeouei niiniaii a nia?aiaiiie ia?aaiae/aneie i?aeoeea yaeyaony
o?aine?eioeey n nio?aiaieai iaeioi?uo yeaiaioia o?aineeoa?aoeee.
Iineieueeo oiiaoe/aneea e a?aoe/aneea nenoaiu ycueia cia/eoaeueii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa, ia?aaea/a oi?iu neiaa Ess ia ycuea
ia?aaiaea anaaaea ianeieueei oneiaia e i?eaeeceoaeueia: absurdist –
aano?aeeno (aaoi? i?iecaaaeaiey aano?aea); kleptoctacy – eeaioie?aoey
(ai?ianeay yeeoa); skateboarding – neaeoai?aeeia (eaoaiea ia ?ieeeiaie
aeinea).

Aeey eaaeaeie ia?u ycueia ?ac?aaaouaathony i?aaeea ia?aaea/e caoeiaiai
ninoaaa neiaa Ess, oeacuaathony neo/ae nio?aiaiey yeaiaioia
o?aineeoa?aoeee e o?aaeeoeeiiiua eneeth/aiey ec i?aaee, i?eiyouo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

A aiaei-?onneeo ia?aaiaeao iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athueany i?e
o?aine?eae?iaaiee yeaiaiou o?aineeoa?aoeee caeeth/athony, a iniiaiii, a
o?aineeoa?aoeee iaeioi?uo iai?ieciineiuo niaeaniuo e ?aaeooee?iaaiiuo
aeaniuo Dorset – Aei?nao; Campbell – Eyiiaaee, ia?aaea/a aeaieiuo
niaeaniuo iaaeaeo aeaniuie e a eiioea neia iinea aeaniuo boss – ainn e
nio?aiaiee iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoae i?oia?aoee neiaa, iicaieythueo
i?eaeeceoue cao/aiea neiaa a ia?aaiaea e oaea ecaanoiui ia?acoeai
Hercules missile – ?aeaoa “Aa?eoean”; deescalation – aeayneaeaoeey;
Columbia – Eieoiaey.

O?aaeeoeeiiiua eneeth/aiey eanathony, aeaaiui ia?acii, inayuaiiuo
iau/aai ia?aaiaeia eiai enoi?e/aneeo ee/iinoae e iaeioi?uo
aaia?aoe/aneeo iacaaiee Charles I – Ea?e I; William III – Aeeueaaeuei
III; Edinborough – Yaeeiao?a).

Eaeueee?iaaiea – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea eaene/aneie aaeeieoeu i?eaeiaea
iooai caiaiu aa ninoaaiuo /anoae – ii?oai eee neia (a neo/aa onoie/eauo
neiaini/aoaiee) – eo eaene/aneeie niioaaonoaeyie a Iss.

Nouiinoue eaeueee?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee iiaiai neiaa eee
onoie/eaiai ni/aoaiey a Iss, eiie?othuaai no?oeoo?o enoiaeiie
eaene/aneie aaeeieoeu.

Eiaiii oae iinooiaao ia?aaiae/ee, ia?aaiaey superpower eae
naa?oaea?aeaaa; mass culture eae ianniaay eoeueoo?a; green revolution
eae caeaiay ?aaiethoeey. A ?yaea neo/aaa eniieueciaaiea i?eaia
eaeueee?iaaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony eciaiaieai ii?yaeea neaaeiaaiey
eaeueee?oaiuo yeaiaioia: land-based missile – ?aeaoa iacaiiiai
aace?iaaiey; Rapid Deployment Force – neeu auno?iai ?acaa?ouaaiey.
Ia?aaeei a i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea o?aine?eioeey e eaeueee?iaaiea
eniieuecothony iaeiia?aiaiii: transnational – o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue;
petrodollar – iaooaaeieea?; miniskirt – ieie-thaea.

Eaeneei-naiaioe/aneea caiaiu – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe
i?eaeiaea iooai eniieueciaaiey a ia?aaiaea aaeeieoe Iss, cia/aiea
eioi?uo ia niaiaaeaao ni cia/aieyie enoiaeiuo aaeeieoe, ii iiaeao auoue
auaaaeaii ec ieo n iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia eiae/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaiee.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie iiaeiaiuo caiai yaeythony eiie?aoecaoeey,
aaia?aeecaoeey e iiaeoeyoeey (niuneiaia ?acaeoea) cia/aiey enoiaeiie
aaeeieoeu.

Eiie?aoecaoeeae iacuaaaony caiaia neiaa eee neiaini/aoaiey Ess n aieaa
oe?ieei i?aaeiaoii-eiae/aneei cia/aieai neiaii e neiaini/aoaieai Iss n
aieaa oceei cia/aieai. A ?acoeueoaoa i?eiaiaiey yoie o?ainoi?iaoeee
nicaeaaaaiia niioaaonoaea e enoiaeiay eaene/aneay aaeeieoea ieacuaathony
a eiae/aneeo ioiioaieyo aeeth/aiey: aaeeieoea Ess au?aaeaao ?iaeiaia
iiiyoea, a aaeeieoea Iss – aoiaeyuaa a iaa aeaeiaia iiiyoea:

Dinny waited in a corridor which smelled of disinfectant. – Aeeiie
aeaeaea a ei?eaei?a, i?iiaooai ea?aieeie.

He was at the ceremony. – Ii i?enoonoaiaae ia oea?aiiiee.

A ?yaea neo/aaa i?eiaiaiea eiie?aoecaoeee naycaii n oai, /oi a Iss
ionoonoaoao neiai ni noieue oe?ieei cia/aieai. Oae, aiaeeeneia
nouanoaeoaeueiia thing eiaao i/aiue aano?aeoiia cia/aiea (“an entity of
any kind”) e ia ?onneee ycue anaaaea ia?aaiaeeony iooai eiie?aoecaoeee:
aauue, i?aaeiao, aeaei, oaeo, neo/ae, nouanoai e o.ae. Eiiaaea ?iaeiaia
iacaaiea ia ycuea ia?aaiaea ia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii ec-ca
?anoiaeaeaiey eiiiioaoeaiuo eiiiiiaioia cia/aiey. Aiaeeeneia meal oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony a ?acee/iuo noeeyo ?a/e, a ?onneia i?eai ieue ia
oiio?aaeoaeueii ca i?aaeaeaie niaoeeaeueiie eaeneee. Iiyoiio, eae
i?aaeei, i?e ia?aaiaea meal caiaiyaony aieaa eiie?aoiui caao?ae, iaaae,
oaeei e ae?.:

At seven o’clock an excellent meal was served in the dining-room. – A
naiue /ania a noieiaie aue iiaeai ioee/iue iaaae.

Iiiyoii, /oi auai? aieaa eiie?aoiiai iaeiaiiaaiey anaoeaei ii?aaeaeyaony
eiioaenoii e a ae?oaeo oneiaeyo a naiue /ania (aa/a?a) iia auoue iiaeai
e oaeei.

Eiie?aoecaoeey /anoi i?eiaiyaony e oiaaea, eiaaea a Iss anoue neiai ni
noieue aea oe?ieei cia/aieai e niioaaonoaothuae eiiiioaoeeae, iineieueeo
oaeea neiaa iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ?aciie noaiaiueth oiio?aaeoaeueiinoe a Ess
e Iss. Auoa oaea ioia/aeanue aieueoay oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue a aiaeeeneii
ycuea neia n oe?ieei cia/aieai. I?e ia?aaiaea oaeeo neia eiie?aoecaoeey
yaeyaony aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii ia?aaiaea. A ?iiaia *.
Aeeeeaina “Aeyaeae Eiiia?oeeae” neaaeothuei ia?acii iienuaaaony
iiaaaeaiea iaoa?e aa?iy, enioaaiiie aiacaiiui iiyaeaieai a?iciie ienn
Aaone:

My mother had left her chair in her agitation, and gone behind it in the
corner.

Aiaeeeneea aeaaieu n iauei cia/aieai to leave e to go ia iiaoo auoue
ia?aaaaeaiu caeanue n iiiiuueth niioaaonoaothueo ?onneeo aeaaieia
iieeiooue e iieoe. Iai?eaieaiinoue ia?aaiaea Iaoooea inoaaeea naia
e?anei e iioea ca iaai a oaie ia aucuaaao niiiaiee, ?onneee ycue ia
iienuaaao oaeoth eiie?aoioth yiioeeiiaeueioth neooaoeeth iiaeiaiui
ia?acii. Eo/oei niiniaii iaania/eoue yeaeaaeaioiinoue ?onneiai ia?aaiaea
yaeyaony eiie?aoecaoeey oeacaiiuo aeaaieia:

Acaieiiaaiiay iaoooea anei/eea ni naiaai e?anea e caaeeanue a oaie
iicaaee iaai.

Aiaeiae/iui niiniaii neaaeoao ia?aaanoe e ae?oaia i?aaeeiaeaiea ec oiai
aea ?iiaia:

My old dear bedroom was changed, and I was to lie a long way off.

I?eaoaa aeiiie iinea aeieaiai ionoonoaey, iaeue/ee aeaeeo, /oi ana a
aeiia eciaieeinue e noaei aio /oaeaeui. Eniieueciaaiea i?yiuo
niioaaonoaee naeaeaei au ia?aaiae yoiai aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey
iaeiiiiyoiui. Ii/aio eoi-oi aeieaeai eaaeaoue aaeaee io niaeueie?
Eiioaeno iieacuaaao, /oi eaaeaoue icia/aao caeanue niaoue, a aaeaee
oeacuaaao anaai eeoue ae?oaoth /anoue aeiia. Eiaiii oae e aeieaeii auoue
neacaii ii-?onnee:

Iiae ieeie noa?ie niaeueie oaea ia auei, e y aeieaeai aue niaoue a
ae?oaii eiioea aeiia.

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia eiie?aoecaoeey aiaeeeneeo aeaaieia “aiai?aiey” to
say e to tell, eioi?ua iiaoo ia?aaiaeeoueny ia ?onneee ycue ia oieueei
eae aiai?eoue eee neacaoue, ii e aieaa eiie?aoiuie i?iiieaeoue,
iiaoi?eoue, caiaoeoue, ooaa?aeaeaoue, niiauaoue, i?ineoue, aic?aceoue,
aaeaoue e o.i.:

“So what?” I said. – Io e /oi? – ni?inee y.

He told me I should always obey my father. – Ii iiniaaoiaae iia anaaaea
neooaoueny iiaai iooea.

The boss told me to come at once. – Oicyei aaeae iia i?eeoe nae/an aea.

Aaia?aeecaoeeae iacuaaaony caiaia aaeeieoeu Ess, eiathuae aieaa oceia
cia/aiea, aaeeieoeae Iss n aieaa oe?ieei cia/aieai, o.a. i?aia?aciaaiea,
ia?aoiia eiie?aoecaoeee. Nicaeaaaaiia niioaaonoaea au?aaeaao ?iaeiaia
iiiyoea, aeeth/athuaa enoiaeiia aeaeiaia:

He visits me practically every week-end. – Ii acaeeo ei iia ii/oe
eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth.

Eniieueciaaiea neiaa n aieaa iauei cia/aieai ecaaaeyao ia?aaiae/eea io
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ooi/iyoue, noaaioo eee aine?anaiuea eiaao a aeaeo aaoi?,
aiai?y i “oee-yiaea”.

Eiiaaea eiie?aoiia iaeiaiiaaiea eaeiai-eeai i?aaeiaoa ie/aai ia aiai?eo
?aoeaioi?o ia?aaiaea eee ia?aeaaaioii a oneiaeyo aeaiiiai eiioaenoa:

Jane used to drive to market with her mother in their La Sane
convertible. – Aeaeaei acaeeea ni naiae iaoa?ueth ia ?uiie a eo iaoeia.

He showed us his old beat-up Navaho blanket. – Ii iai iieacae naia
iio?aiaiiia eiaeaeneia iaeayei.

Aieaa iauaa iaicia/aiea iiaeao auoue i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui e ii
noeeenoe/aneei i?e/eiai. A ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo ia ?onneii
ycuea ia i?eiyoi n ioieooaeueiie oi/iinoueth oeacuaaoue ?ino e aan
ia?niiaaeae, anee yoi ia naycaii ni nii?oeaiuie niia?aaeaieyie, e
ni/aoaiea a young man of 6 feet 2 inches a aiaeeeneii i?eaeiaea aoaeao
caiaiaii a ?onneii ia?aaiaea ia iieiaeie /aeiaae aunieiai ?inoa.

Ii?ie ia?aaiae/ee eiaao aiciiaeiinoue auae?aoue iaaeaeo aieaa eiie?aoiui
e aieaa iauei aa?eaioii ia?aaiaea e ieacuaaao i?aaeii/oaiea iineaaeiaio:

Then this girl gets killed, because she’s always speeding. – A iioii yoa
aeaaooea aeaiao, iioiio /oi iia aa/ii ia?ooaao i?aaeea. (N?. aieaa
“oaoie/aneee” aa?eaio: iia aa/ii i?aauoaao nei?inoue.)

“Who won the game?” I said. “It’s only the half.” – A eoi auea?ae? –
ni?aoeaath. – Aua ia eii/eeinue. (N?. “aieaa nii?oeaiia”: Yoi aea
oieueei ia?aue oaei.)

Iaoiaeii aaia?aeecaoeee iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny e ?aaoey?iua niioaaonoaey
aaeeieoeai Ess: foot – iiaa; wrist watch – ia?o/iua /anu e o.ae.

Iiaeoeyoeeae eee niuneiaui ?acaeoeai iacuaaaony caiaia neiaa eee
neiaini/aoaiey Ess aaeeieoeae Iss, cia/aiea eioi?ie eiae/anee auaiaeeony
ec cia/aiey enoiaeiie aaeeieoeu. Iaeaieaa /anoi cia/aiey niioianaiiuo
neia a i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea ieacuaathony i?e yoii naycaiiuie
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie: I don’t blame them. – ss eo
iiieiath. (I?e/eia caiaiaia neaaenoaeai: y eo ia aeith iioiio, /oi y eo
iiieiath). He’s dead now. – Ii oia?. (Ii oia?, noaei auoue, ii nae/an
ia?oa.) He always made you say everything twice. – Ii anaaaea
ia?ani?aoeaae. (Au auee auioaeaeaiu iiaoi?youe neacaiiia, iioiio /oi ii
aan ia?ani?aoeaae.)

I?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea iiaeoeyoeee i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey
/anoi eiatho aieaa oe?ieee oa?aeoa?, ii eiae/aneay naycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy
iaeiaiiaaieyie anaaaea nio?aiyaony:

Manson slung his bag up and climbed into the battered gig behind a tall,
angular black horse. (A. Cronin) – Iyinii iinoaaee naie /aiiaeai e aeac
a ?anoeyaaiioth aeaoeieeo, cai?yaeaiioth e?oiiie einoeyaie /a?iie
eioaaeueth.

Eiioaenooaeueiay caiaia caeanue yaii iaiaoiaeeia, iniaaiii i?e ia?aaiaea
ni/aoaiey behind a horse, iineieueeo ii-?onnee iaeuecy neacaoue: Ii nae
a oaeaao iicaaee eioaaee. Ia?aaiae slung his bag up /a?ac iinoaaee naie
/aiiaeai, behind a horse /a?ac cai?yaeaiioth eioaaeueth e angular /a?ac
einoeyaay inouanoaeai n iiiiuueth iiaeoeyoeee, oioy o?oaeii oi/ii
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeiaa naycue iaaeaeo niioaaonoaothueie iiiyoeyie a
i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea.

A neaaeothuai i?eia?a yoa naycue aieaa yaiay, ii e caeanue yoi nei?aa ia
“iioiio /oi”, a “iineieueeo, iinoieueeo”:

He would cheer up somehow, begin to laugh again and draw skeletons all
over his slate, before his eyes were dry. – Ii niiaa i?eiaiae?yeny,
ia/eiae niayoueny e ?eniaae ia naiae a?eoaeueiie aeinea ?aciua oeao?ee,
oioy aeaca aai aua auee iieiu neac.

Aii?in 10. Iienaiea yeaeaaeaioiinoe i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea ia ?aciuo
o?iaiyo niaea?aeaiey

1. Ia?aaiae i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey iieiii?aaiie caiaiu i?eaeiaea, e
?aoeaioi?u ia?aaiaea n/eoatho aai iieiinoueth oiaeaeanoaaiiui enoiaeiiio
oaenoo. Ia naiii aeaea aaniethoiay oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ia?aaiaea
i?eaeiaeo ia aeinoeaeeia e aeaaea iaaeaeaoaeueia.

Iai?eia?:

Iaeue/ee eaoaaony ia eiiueeao.

eaoaoueny = eaoaoue naay = to roll oneself

eiiueee = eiiue (i. p.) + ee = little he-horses

The boy is rolling himself on little he-horses – iai?aaeeueii =>

The boy is skating.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe neaaeoao caiaieoue iiiyoeai
yeaeaaeaioiinoe: iauiinoue niaea?aeaiey (niuneiaay aeecinoue) i?eaeiaea
e ia?aaiaeo.

2. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue oeaee eiiioieeaoeee — aeecinoue ia?aaiaea e
i?eaeiaea ieieiaeueia, ii ?a/aaay ooieoeey nio?aiaia. ?iiai sseianii
auaeaeee iyoue ?a/aauo ooieoeee:

? yiioeaiay — au?aaeaao /oanoaa e yiioeee aiai?yuaai;

? ?aoa?aioiay — i?eaioaoeey ia niaea?aeaiea niiauaiey;

? oaoe/aneay — eiaao oeaeueth i?iaa?eoue iaee/ea eiioaeoa;

? iaoaeeiaaenoe/aneay — ?a/ue eaeao ia ono?ienoaa naiiai ycuea;

? iiyoe/aneay — onoaiiaea ia ynoaoe/aneee yooaeo niiauaiey.

Iai?eia?:

Maybe there is some chemistry between us does’t mix. – Auaaao, /oi
ethaee ia noiaeyony oa?aeoa?aie. – nio?aiaia ?aoa?aioiay ooieoeey.

That’s a pretty thing to say! – Iinouaeeeny au! – yiioeaiay ooieoeey.

3. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia o?iaia iienaiey neooaoeee — iao niioaao-noaey
eaeneea e a?aiiaoeea i?eaeiaea, ii iienuaaaony iaeia e oa aea neooaoeey.
Iienuaay neooaoeeth, iu ieeiaaea ia iacuaaai ana aa i?eciaee, a iacuaaai
eeoue iaeioi?ua ec ieo => neooa¬oeeth iiaeii iienuaaoue ii-?aciiio,
auae?ay ?aciua i?eciaee.

Iai?eia?:

The telephone rang and he answered it. – Cacaiiee oaeaoii, e ii niye
o?oaeo.

Nouanoaotho neooaoeee, eioi?ua anaaaea iienuaathony iaeiei e oai aea
niiniaii a aeaiiii ycuea: noaiaea?oiua ?a/aaua oi?io¬eu,
i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiua iaaeiene, iauai?eiyoua iiaeaeaiey.Iai?eia?:Push –
Pull. – Io naay – e naaa.

Fragile. – Inoi?iaeii, noaeei.Wet point. – Inoi?iaeii, ie?aoaii.

Nouanoaotho e neooaoeeiiiua eaeoiu, eiaaea neooaoeey iienuaa¬aony a
iaeiii ycuea, a a ae?oaii eae au ia nouanoaoao e ia oii¬ieiaaony ai
a?aiy ?a/e.

4. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia o?iaia niiauaiey icia/aao, /oi nio?aiy-thony ia
oieueei iienaiea neooaoeee, ii e niinia aa iienaiey, oioy eiatho ianoi
?acee/iua aeaeu naiaioe/aneiai aa?uee?iaa¬iey, i?e eioi?uo ?acee/iuie
yaeythony:

? noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee iienaiey — aiaeeeneea auneacuaaiey /an¬oi
ieacuaathony aieaa eiieeoeeoiuie, /ai ?onneea;

? niinia iauaaeeiaiey a auneacuaaiee iienuaaaiuo i?eciaeia, ne¬ooaoeee —
yoi naycaii n iaiaeeiaeiauie aiciiaeiinoyie ni/a¬oaaiinoe i?eciaeia a
?aciuo ycueao;

Ia i?eia?:

He climbed into the gig behind the horse. – Ii nae a eieyneo iicaaee
eo/a?a, oae eae anee neacaoue ii-?onnee “iicaaee eioaaee”, oi iieo/eony,
/oi eioaaeue oiaea neaeaea a eieynea.

? eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?eciaeaie — neooaoeey iiaeao
iienuaaoueny n ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey.

Iai?eia?:

They had their backs to the sunshine now – Oaia?ue nieioea naaoeei ei a
nieio, oae eae “Oaia?ue eo nieiu auee ia?auaiu e nieioeo” neeoeii
iaiuuaiii.

5. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia o?iaia auneacuaaiey — no?aieaiea nio?a-ieoue
/anoue cia/aiee neioaene/aneeo no?oeoo? enoiaeiiai oaenoa ia?yaeo n
?a/aaie ooieoeeae eee oeaeueth eiiioieeaoeee, oeacaieai ia oo aea
neooaoeeth e niiniaii aa iienaiey.

Iai?eia?:

The house was sold for eighty thousand dollars. – Aeii aue i?iaeai ca 80
ouny/ aeieea?ia.

Iieiue ia?aeeaeeci ia anaaaea aeinoeaeei, aeiionoeii neiiieie/aneia
aa?uee?iaaiea.

Iai?eia?:

«The’ boy entered the room. – Iaeue/ee aioae a eiiiaoo. Ii: A boy
entered the room. – a eiiiaoo aioae iaeue/ee. – A aiaeeeneii ycuea
ii?yaeie neia oeene?iaai, a a ?onneii – iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
oaia-?aiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee.

6. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia o?iaia ycueiauo ciaeia — aeecinoue e i?e-aeiaeo
aoaeao iaeaieueoae, oae eae ia?aaiae/ee no?aieony eae iiaeii iieiaa
aini?iecaanoe cia/aiea neia i?eaeiaea n iiiiuueth aeineiaiiai ia?aaiaea.

Iai?eia?:

I saw him at the theatre. – ss aeaeae aai a oaao?a.

Aeinoeaeaiea yeaeaaeaioiinoe ia o?iaia naiaioeee neiaa ia?a-ie/eaaaony
ianiaiaaeaieai cia/aiee neia ia ?aciuo ycueao.

1) ianiaiaaeaiea aeaiioaoeaiuo cia/aiee:

• ?acee/ea a iiiaieeaoo?a eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe;

Iai?eia?:

to tinker – iaoiaei /eieoue, iaeaaeeaaoue – a ?onneii iaeiineiaeiiai ss
niioaaonoaey iao.

• ?acee/ea a iauaia cia/aiee;

Iai?eia?:

ieaaaoue – swim, sail, float, drift;

meal – caao?ae, iaaae, oaeei.

• ?acee/ea a ni/aoaaiinoe neia;

Iai?eia?:

to slam the door into one’s face – caoeiiiooue aeaa?ue ia?aae iinii, a
ia “eeoeii”.

2) ianiaiaaeaiea eiiiioaoeaiuo cia/aiee:

• ?acieoea yiioeeiiaeueiuo cia/aiee;

Iai?eia?:

neiai “aecianiai” ?aiueoa eiaei a ?onneii io?eoeaoaeueioth eiiiioaoeeth
e iiyoiio “businessman” ia?aaiaeeeinue eae “i?aaenoaaeoaeue aeaeiauo
e?oaia”.

• ?acieoea noeeenoe/aneeo cia/aiee:

Iai?eia?:

sleep (iaeo?.), slumber (iiyoe/.) iaa aoaeoo ia?aaaaeaiu eae “nii” =>
noeeenoe/aneia cia/aiea aoaeao oo?a/aii; i?aaaea, yoi cia/aiea iiaeii
eiiiaine?iaaoue a ae?oaii neiaa;

iaa?aiioiia “them slippers” iiaeii ia?aaanoe eae “yoeo oooeae”, naeaeaa
ioeaeo a ae?oaii neiaa.

• ?acieoea ia?aciuo cia/aiee;

Iai?eia?:

?onneay “aaiy” – i/aiue aea?eia ianoi, aiae. “bath” – iao; aiae. “rake”
– i/aiue oiieee i?aaeiao, ?onne. “a?aaee” – ia iaycaoaeueii.

3) ianiaiaaeaiea aioo?eycueiauo cia/aiee:

Iai?eia?:

Ia said he was a page. – Go long, you ain’t more than a paragraph. –
ea?a no?ieony ia aeaoo cia/aieyo neiaa “page”: no?aieoea e iaae. Auei
ia?aaaaeaii oae: Ii neacae, /oi ii aeaaa iaaeae. Eaeay aea ou aeaaa, ou
iaeia no?i/ea!

No sweethearts, I believe? – Sweetmeats, do you say, Mr Barkins? –
iaua?uaaaony aioo?aiiyy oi?ia neiaa; ia?aaiae: A iao ee o iaa
ae?oaei/ea? – Ie?iaei/ea, ienoa? Aa?eein?

Aii?in 11. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue e aaeaeaaoiinoue

1. Oa?ieiu “yeaeaaeaioiinoue” e “aaeaeaaoiinoue” ecaeaaia
eniieue¬cothony a ia?aaiaeiaaae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a. Ii?ie a ieo
aeeaaeu¬aaaony ?aciia niaea?aeaiea, a eiiaaea iie ?anniao?eaathony eae
neiiieiu.

Oa?iei “aaeaeaaoiinoue” a ?yaea neo/aaa ieacuaaaony acaeiica¬iaiyaiui n
oa?ieiii “yeaeaaeaioiinoue”. Iai?eia?, auaeae¬aaaiia Aeae. Eyooi?aeii
iiiyoea ia?aaiae/aneie yeaeaaeaioii¬noe — translation equivalence —
o?aeooaony eae “aaeaeaaoiinoue ia?aaiaea”.

A oi aea a?aiy o ae?oaeo aaoi?ia iiiyoey “yeaeaaeaioiinoue” e
“aaeaeaaoiinoue” i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ae?oa ae?oao, e i?e yoii ia
?acee/iie iniiaa.

Oae, A.I. Eiienna?ia ?anniao?eaaao “yeaeaa¬eaioiue ia?aaiae” e
“aaeaeaaoiue ia?aaiae” eae iiiyoey iaeaeai-oe/iua, oioy e oanii
nii?eeanathueany ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ii aai iiaieth, aaeaeaaoiue ia?aaiae —
yoi iiiyoea, eioi?ia eiaao ai¬eaa oe?ieee niune e eniieuecoaony eae
neiiiei “oi?ioaai”ia¬?aaiaea, o.a. ia?aaiaea, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao
iaiaoiaeeioth iie¬iioo iaaeuycueiaie eiiioieeaoeee, a eiie?aoiuo
oneiaeyo; a yeaeaaeaioiinoue — niuneiaay iauiinoue i?e?aaieaaaiuo ae?oa
e ae?oao aaeeieoe ycuea e ?a/e.

A eiii eeth/a ?aoatho i?iaeaio niioiioaiey yeaeaaeaioii¬noe e
aaeaeaaoiinoe E. ?aen e A. Aa?iaa?: iie n/eoatho, /oi ye¬aeaaeaioiinoue
– yoi iniaue neo/ae aaeaeaaoiinoe. Yeaeaaeaioiinoue (a eo iiieiaiee)
ioaaouaaao ioiioaiey eae iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ciaeaie, oae e iaaeaeo
oeaeuie oaenoaie. Ye¬aeaaeaioiinoue ciaeia aua ia icia/aao
yeaeaaeaioiinoe oae¬noia, e, iaiai?io, yeaeaaeaioiinoue oaenoia aiana ia
iiae?aco¬iaaaao yeaeaaeaioiinoe anao eo naaiaioia.

Aaeaeaaoiinoue — niioaaonoaea auai?a ycueiauo ciaeia ia ycu¬ea ia?aaiaea
oiio ecia?aieth enoiaeiiai oaenoa, eioi?ia ecae¬?aaony a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiai i?eaioe?a i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea. Yoi oaeia niioiioaiea
enoiaeiiai e eiia/iiai oaenoia, i?e eioi¬?ii iineaaeiaaoaeueii
o/eouaaaony oeaeue ia?aaiaea: “eeiaaenoe/a¬neee ia?aaiae”, “o/aaiue
ia?aaiae” e ae?.

2. Iaa eaoaai?ee — yeaeaaeaioiinoue e aaeaeaaoiinoue — iinyo
ioea¬ii/ii-ii?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

?acee/ey yoeo aeaoo iiiyoee caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai:

1) yeaeaaeaioiinoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia ?acoeueoaou ia?aaiaea, ia
niioaaonoaea nicaeaaaaiiai a eoiaa iaaeuycueiaie eiiioieea¬oeee oaenoa
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?aiao?ai i?eaeiaea;

2) aaeaeaaoiinoue naycaia n oneiaeyie i?ioaeaiey iaaeuycueiaiai
eiiioieeaoeaiiai aeoa, n aai aeaoa?ieiaioaie e oeeueo?aie, n auai?ii
no?aoaaee ia?aaiaea, ioaa/athuae eiiioieeaoeaiie neooaoeee.

Eiuie neiaaie, anee yeaeaaeaioiinoue ioaa/aao ia aii?in i oii,
niioaaonoaoao ee eiia/iue oaeno enoiaeiiio, oi aaeaeaao¬iinoue ioaa/aao
ia aii?in i oii, niioaaonoaoao ee ia?aaiae eae i?ioeann aeaiiui
eiiioieeaoeaiui oneiaeyi.

Aii?in 13. Iniiaiua oeiu eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneeo o?ainoi?iaoeee
aeeth/atho:

– aioiieie/aneee ia?aaiae;

– yenieeeaoeey (iienaoaeueiue ia?aaiae);

– eiiiainaoeey.

Aioiieie/aneee ia?aaiae – yoi eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneay o?ainoi?iaoeey, i?e
eioi?ie caiaia ooaa?aeeoaeueiie oi?iu a i?eaeiaea ia io?eoeaoaeueioth
oi?io a ia?aaiaea eee, iaiai?io, io?eoeaoaeueiie ia ooaa?aeeoaeueioth
nii?iaiaeaeaaony caiaiie eaene/aneie aaeeieoeu Ess ia aaeeieoeo Iss n
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui cia/aieai:

Nothing changed in my home town. – Ana inoaeinue i?aaeiei a iiai ?iaeiii
ai?iaea.

A aiaei-?onneeo ia?aaiaeao yoa o?ainoi?iaoeey i?eiaiyaony iniaaiii
/anoi, eiaaea a i?eaeiaea io?eoeaoaeueiay oi?ia oiio?aaeaia ni neiaii,
eiathuei io?eoeaoaeueiue i?aoeen:

She is not unworthy of your attention. – Iia aiieia caneoaeeaaao aaoaai
aieiaiey.

Nthaea ioiineony e oiio?aaeaiea io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?iu n io?eoeaoaeueiuie
nithcaie until e unless:

The United States did not enter the war until April 1917. – Niaaeeiaiiua
Ooaou anooieee a aieio oieueei a ai?aea 1917 a.

Additional expenditures shall not be made unless authorized. –
Aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny eeoue n iniaiai
?ac?aoaiey.

A ?aieao aioiieie/aneiai ia?aaiaea aaeeieoea Ess iiaeao caiaiyoueny ia
oieueei i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiie aaeeieoeae Iss, ii e ae?oaeie neiaaie e
ni/aoaieyie, au?aaeathueie i?ioeaiiieiaeioth iuneue:

The railroad unions excluded negroes from their membership. – I?ionithcu
aeaeaciiaei?iaeieeia ia i?eieiaee a naie ?yaeu iaa?ia.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi io?eoeaiea iiaeao au?aaeaoueny e ae?oaeie
n?aaenoaaie, iai?eia?, i?e iiiiue nithca without:

He never came home without bringing something for the kids. – I?eoiaey
aeiiie, ii anaaaea i?eiinee /oi-ieaoaeue aeaoyi.

I?eiaiaiea aioiieie/aneiai ia?aaiaea ia?aaeei ni/aoaaony n
eniieueciaaieai eiuo o?ainoi?iaoeee (eaene/aneeo eee a?aiiaoe/aneeo):

Their house had no screen doors. – Aeaa?e o ieo auee nieioiua. (Caiaia
io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?iu ia ooaa?aeeoaeueioth nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiaeoeyoeeae
cia/aiey ni/aoaiey screen doors.)

The people are not slow in learning the truth. – Ethaee auno?i ociatho
i?aaaeo. (Aioiieie/aneee ia?aaiae nii?iaiaeaeaaony caiaiie /anoe ?a/e –
i?eeaaaoaeueiiai ia ia?a/ea.)

Yenieeeaoeey eee iienaoaeueiue ia?aaiae – yoi eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneay
o?ainoi?iaoeey, i?e eioi?ie eaene/aneay aaeeieoea Ess caiaiyaony
neiaini/aoaieai, yenieeoee?othuei aa cia/aiea, o.a. aeathuei aieaa eee
iaiaa iieiia iauyniaiea eee ii?aaeaeaiea yoiai cia/aiey ia Iss.

N iiiiuueth yenieeeaoeee iiaeii ia?aaeaoue cia/aiea ethaiai
aacyeaeaaeaioiiai neiaa a i?eaeiaea: conservationist – noi?iiiee io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu; whistle-stop speech – aunooieaiey eaiaeeaeaoa a
oiaea i?aaeauai?iie aaeoaoeeiiiie iiacaeee.

Iaaeinoaoeii iienaoaeueiiai ia?aaiaea yaeyaony aai a?iiicaeeinoue e
iiiaineiaiinoue.

Iiyoiio iaeaieaa oniaoii yoio niinia ia?aaiaea i?eiaiyaony a oao
neo/ayo, aaea iiaeii iaieoenue n?aaieoaeueii e?aoeei iauyniaieai:

Car owners from the midway towns ran a shuttle service for parents
visiting the children injured in the accident. – Aeaaeaeueoeu aaoiiaoei
ec ai?iaeia, eaaeaueo iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy ioieoaie, iai?a?uaii
i?eaiceee e ioaiceee ?iaeeoaeae, eioi?ua iaaauaee naieo aeaoae,
iino?aaeaaoeo ai a?aiy e?ooaiey.

Eiiiainaoeey – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea, i?e eioi?ii yeaiaiou niunea,
oo?a/aiiua i?e ia?aaiaea aaeeieoeu Ess a i?eaeiaea, ia?aaeathony a
oaenoa ia?aaiaea eaeei-eeai ae?oaei n?aaenoaii, i?e/ai iaiaycaoaeueii a
oii aea naiii ianoa oaenoa, /oi e a i?eaeiaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
ainiieiyaony (“eiiiaine?oaony”) oo?a/aiiue niune, e, a oeaeii,
niaea?aeaiea i?eaeiaea aini?iecaiaeeony n aieueoae iieiioie. I?e yoii
ia?aaeei a?aiiaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa i?eaeiaea caiaiythony eaene/aneeie e
iaiai?io. Aa?ieiy ?iiaia O. Oaeea?ay “ss?ia?ea ouaneaaey” neaaeothuei
ia?acii iienuaaao iaaaaeanoai naiaai oicyeia, ny?a Ieooa E?ioee:

“Serve him right,” said Sir Pitt; “him and his family has been cheating
me on that farm these hundred and fifty years”. Sir Pitt might have
said, he and his family to be sure; but rich baronets do not need to be
careful about grammar as poor governesses must be.

Iai?aaeeueiia oiio?aaeaiea oi?iu ianoieiaiey o?aoueaai eeoea a i?eaeiaea
ea?aao aaaeioth eiiioieeaoeaioth ?ieue e aeieaeii auoue eae-oi io?aaeaii
a ia?aaiaea. Ii iiiuoea aini?iecaanoe oaeoth iai?aaeeueiinoue a ?onneii
ycuea yaii iaaiciiaeia. A oi aea a?aiy oo?a/aiiue yeaiaio niunea iiaeao
auoue oniaoii eiiiaine?iaai, anee iaeeoa?aoo?iay ?a/ue ny?a Ieooa aoaeao
aini?iecaaaeaia n iiiiuueth eiuo (eaene/aneeo) n?aaenoa ?onneiai ycuea:

“Ii ni naiae naiaeeie iaeaiioeaae iaiy ia yoie oa?ia oeaeuo iieoi?anoa
eao!”… Ny? Ieoo iia au, eiia/ii, au?aaeaoueny iiaeaeeeaoiaa, ii
aiaaoui aa?iiaoai ia i?eoiaeeony iniaaiii noaniyoueny a au?aaeaieyo, ia
oi /oi iai, aaaeiui aoaa?iaioeai.

Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe aiaeeeneiai i?inoi?a/ey iaeuecy ia?aaeaoue ia
?onneee ycue ieeaeeie eiuie n?aaenoaaie, e?iia eiiiainaoeee, iai?eia?,
aeiaaaeaiea eee iiouaiea aeaniuo eee niaeaniuo caoeia (a-singing,
a-going, hit aianoi ‘it, ‘appen e i?.), ionoonoaea niaeaniaaiey iaaeaeo
iiaeeaaeauei e neacoaiui (I was, you was e i?.) eee eaeia-eeai eiia
ia?ooaiea a?aiiaoe/aneeo i?aaee. Eiiaaea oaeay eiiiainaoeey aeinoeaaaony
ioiineoaeueii i?inoui niiniaii. A iueana A. Oio “Ieaiaeeii” Yeeca
aiai?eo: I’m nothing to you – not so much as them slippers. Oeaaein
iii?aaeyao aa: those slippers. ?acieoeo iaaeaeo them e those o?oaeii
aini?iecaanoe a ia?aaiaea. Ii yoo “oo?aoo” eaaei eiiiaine?iaaoue,
iaua?aa iai?aaeeueioth oi?io ?iaeeoaeueiiai iaaeaaea oooee. A ia?aaiaea
Yeeca neaaeao: ss aeey aan ie/oi, ooaea aio yoeo oooeae, a Oeaaein
iii?aaeo aa: oooaeue.

A ae?oaeo neo/ayo aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e i?eaeaony eniieueciaaoue
aaeeieoeu Iss, ia eiathuea niioaaonoaee a i?eaeiaea:

You could tell he was very ashamed of his parents and all, because they
said “he don’t” and “she don’t” and stuff like that. – Auei aeaeii, /oi
ii noaniyaony naieo ?iaeeoaeae, iioiio /oi iie aiai?eee “oi/oo” e
“oi/aoa” e ana a oaeii ?iaea.

Ai anao neo/ayo a ycuea ia?aaiaea iiaeuneeaaaony eaeia-eeai n?aaenoai,
ia?aaeathuaa oo?a/aiiue yeaiaio niaea?aeaiey i?eaeiaea.

Aii?in 12. Iniiaiua oeiu a?aiiaoe/aneeo o?ainoi?iaoeee aeeth/atho:

– neioaene/aneia oiiaeiaeaiea (aeineiaiue ia?aaiae);

– /eaiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey;

– iauaaeeiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee;

– a?aiiaoe/aneea caiaiu (oi?iu neiaa, /anoe ?a/e eee /eaia
i?aaeeiaeaiey).

Neioaene/aneia oiiaeiaeaiea (aeineiaiue ia?aaiae) – niinia ia?aaiaea,
i?e eioi?ii neioaene/aneay no?oeoo?a i?eaeiaea i?aia?acoaony a
aiaeiae/ioth no?oeoo?o Iss. Yoio oei “ioeaaie” o?ainoi?iaoeee
i?eiaiyaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a Ess e Iss nouanoaotho ia?aeeaeueiua
neioaene/aneea no?oeoo?u. Neioaene/aneia oiiaeiaeaiea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue
e iieiiio niioaaonoaeth eiee/anoaa ycueiauo aaeeieoe e ii?yaeea eo
?aniieiaeaiey a i?eaeiaea e ia?aaiaea:

I always remember his words. – ss anaaaea iiiith aai neiaa.

Eae i?aaeei, iaeiaei, i?eiaiaiea neioaene/aneiai oiiaeiaeaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie no?oeoo?iuo eiiiiiaioia. I?e
ia?aaiaea n aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia ?onneee, iai?eia?, iiaoo iioneaoueny
a?oeeee, aeaaieu-naycee, eiua neoaeaaiua yeaiaiou, a oaeaea
i?ienoiaeeoue eciaiaiey ii?oieiae/aneeo oi?i e iaeioi?uo eaene/aneeo
aaeeieoe:

One of the greatest events in the period following World War and the
Russian Revolution, and closely connected with them both was the growth
of the world Communist movement. – Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo niauoee
ia?eiaea, iineaaeiaaaoaai ia?aie ie?iaie aieiie e nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeeae ?innee, niauoeai, oanii naycaiiui n aieiie e ?aaiethoeeae
aue ?ino eiiioienoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey ai anai ie?a.

I?e ia?aaiaea yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iiouaiu a?oeeee, iiouaiu eee
aeiaaaeaiu iaeioi?ua i?aaeeiae, eciaiaiu ii?oieiae/aneea oi?iu neia,
eniieueciaaiu iaeioi?ua neiaa, ia eiathuea i?yiiai niioaaonoaey a
aiaeeeneii oaenoa. Ia?aaiae/ee iiaoi?ee neiai niauoea, aeiaaaee neiai
nioeeaeenoe/aneay, caiaiee neiaini/aoaiea n ieie iaaeie aieaa
aeaaicao/iui n aieiie e ?aaiethoeeae. Ana yoe eciaiaiey ia cao?aaeaatho
iniiaiie no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay ia?aaeaaony n iiiiuueth
aiaeiae/iie ?onneie no?oeoo?u, nio?aiyy iaeeiaeiaue iaai? /eaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiey e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eo ?aniieiaeaiey a oaenoa.
Neioaene/aneia oiiaeiaeaiea oe?iei eniieuecoaony a aiaei-?onneeo
ia?aaiaeao. Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e ia?aaiaea iauyniyaony,
eae i?aaeei, iaaiciiaeiinoueth iaania/eoue yeaeaaeaioiinoue ia?aaiaea
iooai aeineiaiiai ia?aaiaea.

*eaiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea, i?e eioi?ii
neioaene/aneay no?oeoo?a i?aaeeiaeaiey a i?eaeiaea i?aia?acoaony a aeaa
eee aieaa i?aaeeeaoeaiua no?oeoo?u Iss.

O?ainoi?iaoeey /eaiaiey i?eaiaeeo eeai e i?aia?aciaaieth i?inoiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey Ess a neiaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea Iss, eeai e i?aia?aciaaieth
i?inoiai eee neiaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey Ess a aeaa eee aieaa
naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiey a Iss:

The annual surveys of the Labour Government were not discussed with the
workers at any stage, but only with the employers. – Aaeaaiaeiua iaci?u
eaeai?enoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia ianoaeaeaeenue n?aaee ?aai/eo ie ia
eaeii yoaia. Iie ianoaeaeaeenue oieueei n i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie.

Both engine crews leaped to safety from a collision between a parcels
tram and a freight train near Morris Cowley, Oxfordshire. – Aaeece
noaioeee Ii?en Eioee a a?aonoaa Ienoi?aeoe? i?iecioei noieeiiaaiea
ii/oiaiai e oiaa?iiai iiacaeia. *eaiu iaaeo iiacaeiuo a?eaaae inoaeenue
iaa?aaeeiu, ni?uaioa ia oiaeo n iiacaea.

A ia?aii i?eia?a auaeaeaiea iineaaeiae /anoe aiaeeeneiai auneacuaaiey a
ioaeaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea a ia?aaiaea iicaieyao /aoei au?aceoue
eiathuaany a i?eaeiaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea. Ai aoi?ii i?eia?a
o?ainoi?iaoeey /eaiaiey aeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaoue cia/aiea
o?oaeiiai aeey ia?aaiaea aiaeeeneiai ni/aoaiey leaped to safety e
iaania/eoue aieaa anoanoaaiioth aeey ?onneiai ycuea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iienaiey niauoee (nia/aea i?iecioei noieeiiaaiea,
a iioii oaeaeinue nianoenue /eaiai a?eaaaeu).

Iauaaeeiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea, i?e eioi?ii
neioaene/aneay no?oeoo?a a i?eaeiaea i?aia?acoaony iooai niaaeeiaiey
aeaoo i?inouo i?aaeeiaeaiee a iaeii neiaeiia. Yoa o?ainoi?iaoeey –
ia?aoiay ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouae:

That was a long time ago. It seemed like fifty years ago. – Yoi auei
aeaaii – eacaeinue, /oi i?ioei eao iyoueaeanyo.

The only thing that worried me was our front door. It creak like a
bastard. – Iaeii iaiy aaniieieei – iaoa ia?aaeiay aeaa?ue ne?eieo eae
iaieoaeay.

A?aiiaoe/aneea caiaiu – yoi niinia ia?aaiaea, i?e eioi?ii a?aiiaoe/aneay
aaeeieoea a i?eaeiaea i?aia?acoaony a aaeeieoeo Iss n eiui
a?aiiaoe/aneei cia/aieai. Caiaia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny a?aiiaoe/aneay
aaeeieoea Ess ethaith o?iaiy: neiaioi?ia, /anoue ?a/e, /eai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e
ia?aaiaea anaaaea i?ienoiaeeo caiaia oi?i Ess ia oi?iu Iss.

A?aiiaoe/aneay caiaia eae iniaue niinia ia?aaiaea iiae?acoiaaaao ia
i?inoi oiio?aaeaiea a ia?aaiaea oi?i Ess, a ioeac io eniieueciaaiey oi?i
Ess, aiaeiae/iuo enoiaeiui, caiaio oaeeo oi?i ia eiua, ioee/athueany io
ieo ii au?aaeaaiiio niaea?aeaieth (a?aiiaoe/aneiio cia/aieth). Oae, a
aiaeeeneii e ?onneii ycuea nouanoaotho oi?iu aaeeinoaaiiiai e
iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea, e, eae i?aaeei, niioianaiiua nouanoaeoaeueiua a
i?eaeiaea e a ia?aaiaea oiio?aaeaiu a oii aea naiii /enea, ca
eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea oi?ia aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea a aiaeeeneii
niioaaonoaoao oi?ia iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea a ?onneii (money – aeaiueae;
ink – /a?ieea e o.i.) eee iaiai?io aiaeeeneiio iiiaeanoaaiiiio
niioaaonoaoao ?onneia aaeeinoaaiiia (struggles – ai?ueaa; outskirts –
ie?aeia e o.i.). Ii a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo caiaia oi?iu /enea a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny eae n?aaenoai nicaeaiey
ieeaceiiaeueiiai niioaaonoaey:

We are searching for talent everywhere. – Iu iianthaeo euai oaeaiou.

The invaders resorted to violence and atrocity to crush the resistance
of the native population. – Caoaao/eee i?eaaaee e ianeeeth e caa?noaai,
/oiau iiaeaaeoue nii?ioeaeaiea ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey.

They left the room with their heads held high. – Iie auoee ec eiiiaou n
auniei iiaeiyoie aieiaie.

Aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii a?aiiaoe/aneie caiaiu a i?ioeanna
ia?aaiaea yaeyaony caiaia /anoe ?a/e. Aeey aiaei-?onneeo ia?aaiaeia
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iu caiaiu nouanoaeoaeueiiai aeaaieii e i?eeaaaoaeueiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiui. A aiaeeeneii ycuea eiaia aeayoaeae (iau/ii n noooeenii
-er) oe?iei oiio?aaeythony ia oieueei aeey iaicia/aiey eeoe
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioannee (n?. ?onneea eiaia ienaoaeue, ooaeiaeiee,
iaaaoe, oaioei? e ae?.), ii e aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaenoaee
“iai?ioanneiiaeia”. Cia/aiey oaeeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo ?aaoey?ii
ia?aaeathony a ia?aaiaea n iiiiuueth ?onneeo aeaaieia:

He is a poor swimmer. – Ii ieioi ieaaaao.

She is no good as a letter-writer. – Iia ia oiaao ienaoue ienueia. I am
a very rapid packer. – ss i/aiue auno?i oeeaaeuaathnue.

Eae aeaeii ec i?eia?ia, caiaia nouanoaeoaeueiiai aeaaieii /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony caiaiie i?eeaaaoaeueiiai i?e yoii nouanoaeoaeueiii ia
?onneia ia?a/ea. Aeaaieii /anoi caiaiythony e ioaeaaieueiua
nouanoaeoaeueiua ae?oaiai oeia:

It is our hope, that an agreement will be reached by Friday. – Iu
iaaeaainy, /oi e iyoieoea aoaeao aeinoeaiooi niaeaoaiea.

Aiaeeeneea i?eeaaaoaeueiua, caiaiyaiua ?onneeie nouanoaeoaeueiuie,
iaeaieaa /anoi ia?aciaaiu io aaia?aoe/aneeo iacaaiee:

Australian prosperity was followed by a slump. – Ca yeiiiie/aneei
i?ioeaaoaieai Aano?aeee iineaaeiaae e?ecen.

N?. oaeaea the British Government – i?aaeoaeuenoai Aaeeeia?eoaiee; the
American decision – ?aoaiea NOA; the Congolese Embassy – iinieuenoai
Eiiai e i?. Ia?aaeei oaeaea iiaeiaiay caiaia i?eiaiyaony a ioiioaiee
aiaeeeneeo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo a n?aaieoaeueiie noaiaie ni cia/aieai
oaaee/aiey eee oiaiueoaiey iauaia, ?acia?a eee noaiaie:

The stoppage which is in support of higher pay and shorter working
hours, began on Monday. – Caaanoiaea a iiaeaea?aeeo o?aaiaaiee i
iiauoaiee ca?aaioiie ieaou e nie?auaiee ?aai/aai aeiy ia/aeanue a
iiiaaeaeueiee.

Caiaia /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e ia?ano?ieea aai neioaene/aneie
no?oeoo?u. Oaeiai ?iaea ia?ano?ieea i?ienoiaeeo e a ?yaea neo/aaa i?e
caiaia /anoe ?a/e. Iai?eia?, a i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa i?eia?ao caiaia
nouanoaeoaeueiiai aeaaieii nii?iaiaeaeaeanue caiaiie ii?aaeaeaiey
ianoiyoaeuenoaii.

Aieaa nouanoaaiiay ia?ano?ieea neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?u naycaia n
caiaiie aeaaiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iniaaiii iiaeeaaeauaai. A
aiaei-?onneeo ia?aaiaeao eniieueciaaiea iiaeiaiuo caiai a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a aiaeeeneii ycuea /aua, /ai a ?onneii,
iiaeeaaeauaa auiieiyao eiua ooieoeee, iaaeaee iaicia/aiey noauaeoa
aeaenoaey, iai?eia?,

iauaeoa aeaenoaey (iiaeeaaeauaa caiaiyaony aeiiieiaieai):

Visitors are requested to leave their coats in the cloak-room. –
Iinaoeoaeae i?inyo inoaaeyoue aa?oithth iaeaaeaeo a aa?aea?iaa.

iaicia/aiey a?aiaie (iiaeeaaeauaa caiaiyaony ianoiyoaeuenoaii a?aiaie):

The last week saw an intensification of diplomatic activity. – Ia
i?ioeie iaaeaea iaaethaeaeanue aeoeaecaoeey aeeieiiaoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

iaicia/aiey i?ino?ainoaa (iiaeeaaeauaa caiaiyaony ianoiyoaeuenoaii
ianoa):

The little town of Clay Cross today witnessed a massive demonstration. –
Naaiaeiy a iaaieueoii ai?iaeea Eeae-E?inn ninoiyeanue ianniaay
aeaiiino?aoeey iaicia/aiey i?e/eiu (iiaeeaaeauaa caiaiyaony
ianoiyoaeuenoaii i?e/eiu):

The crash killed 20 people. – A ?acoeueoaoa eaoano?iou iiaeaei 20
/aeiaae.

Caiaia oeia i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaiaeeo e neioaene/aneie ia?ano?ieea,
noiaeiie n i?aia?aciaaieyie i?e eniieueciaaiee o?ainoi?iaoeee /eaiaiey
eee iauaaeeiaiey. A i?ioeanna ia?aaiaea neiaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeao
caiaiyoueny i?inoui (It was so dark that I could not see her. – ss aa ia
iia aeaeaoue a oaeie oaiiioa.); aeaaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeao caiaiyoueny
i?eaeaoi/iui e iaiai?io (While I was eating my eggs, these two nuns with
suitcases came in. – ss ae ye/ieoeo, eiaaea aioee yoe aeaa iiiaoeie n
/aiiaeaiaie.); neiaeiiiiae/eiaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeao caiaiyoueny
neiaeiini/eiaiiui e iaiai?io (I didn’t sleep too long, because I think
it was only around ten o’clock when I woke up. I felt pretty hungry as
soon as I had a cigarette. – Niae y iaaeieai, auei /ania aeanyoue,
eiaaea y i?inioeny. Aueo?ee neaa?aoo e n?aco ii/oanoaiaae, eae y
i?iaieiaeaeny.); neiaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea n nithciie naycueth iiaeao
caiaiyoueny i?aaeeiaeaieai n aannithciui niiniaii nayce e iaiai?io (It
was as hot as hell and the windows were all steamy. – AEa?a auea
aaeneay, ana ieia caiioaee. Had the decision been taken in time, this
would never have happened. – Anee au ?aoaiea auei i?eiyoi naiaa?aiaiii,
yoi ieeiaaea au ia i?iecioei.).

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