Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 864
Скачать документ



Review of Spain

Tourist industry in Spain




In first half of the 1900’s Spain was one of the most underdeveloped
countries in Europe. But Spain has made a remarkable industrial and
economic recovery especially over the past twenty years. Today’s Spanish
economy is vibrant and quite diversified off its original agricultural
base. It is now the seventh largest economy in the world. Motor vehicles
& car parts are now the biggest export earners for Spain, although the
food industry is still very important.

As official per capita income is still bellow the EU average, the
economy benefits from very large EU “convergence funding”. This is
basically a transfer of EU funds to enable Spain to grow faster than
other EU countries, and therefore gradually reach the EU average. Much
convergence funding has gone into infrastructure developments. Over 2500
Kms of motorways have been opened in the last three years, a new high
speed train line built to Seville, new airports built at Barcelona and
all the major tourist centres and new ports constructed.

Extremadura too seeks to improve its economy and increase her trade and
tourist industry.

Spain is the second tourism destination in the World after France. They
welcome 52 million tourists per year.

Tourism in Spain includes The two largest cities of Madrid and
Barcelona. Very interesting places are Cordoba, Sevilla, Granada
(cultural places) and Malaga, Huelva, Cadiz, Almeria (beaches) in
Andalusia. Santiago de Compostela, Salamanca, Toledo, Segovia are
beautiful places in the rest of the country. Important touristics places
(with incredibles beaches) are Salou, Benidorm, Mallorca, Ibiza
(Balearic islands), Canary Islands, Valencia, Catalonia and The
Cantabrico (north of Spain).

Review of Spain

The familiar images of Spain is flamenco dancing, bullfighting, tapas
bars, and solemn Easter processions. However these do no more than hint
at the diversity of this country. Spain has four official languages, two
major cities of almost equal importance, and a greater range of
landscapes than any other European country.

These contrasts make Spain an endlessly fascinating place to visit.

Separated from the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees, Spain reaches south
to the coast of North Africa, and has both Atlantic and Mediterranean
coastlines. The country’s climate and ,scenery vary dramatically, from
the snowcapped peaks of the Pyrenees, through the green meadows of
Galicia and the orange groves of Valencia, to the dry, barren regions in
the south.

Madrid, Spain’s capital, lies geographically in the center of the
country. The city’s inhabitants have an individualistic spirit and a
sardonic sense of humor that set them apart from other Spaniards. Madrid
may be the nominal capital, but it is rivaled in commerce, sport, and
the arts by Barcelona, the main city of Catalonia.

After the death of the dictator General Franco in 1975, Spain became a
constitutional monarchy under King Juan Carlos I. Spain’s entry to the
European Community in 1986 triggered a spectacular increase in the
country’s prosperity.

The Spanish are known for their natural sociability and zest for living.
They commonly put as much energy into enjoying life as they do into
their work. Many people fit their work around the demands of their
social life, rather than be ruled by the clock. Eating out is an
important social activity, with friends and family often meeting up in a
pavement cafe or restaurant for a chat and a meal.

ALTHOUGH MANY VISITORS to Spain come for the beaches alone, increasingly
tourists are drawn by the country’s rich cultural heritage. The most
popular destinations are Madrid and Barcelona, which boast world-class
museums and a wealth of medieval and modern architecture For those with
time to travel further afield, Seville, Granada, and Cordoba in the far
south are the best places to see relics of Spain’s Moorish past. Spain
is Europe’s third largest country, so getting around can be
time-consuming. However, there is a reliable network of trains, as well
as good highways and bus services.

Central Spain

Much of Spain’s vast central plateau, is covered with wheat fields or
dry, dusty plains, but there are many attractive places to explore.
Spain’s largest region, Castilla y Leon, has a rich history. It boasts
some of the country’s most splendid architecture, from Segovia’s famous
Roman aqueduct, to the Gothic cathedrals of Burgos and Leon and the
Renaissance grandeur of Salamanca’s monuments.

Avila’s medieval city walls are a legacy of the long struggles between
the Christians and the Moors. Dotted with windmills and medieval
castles, Castilla-La Mancha is home to the historic town of Toledo,
another popular destination.


Madrid is Spain’s capital, a city of over three million people, is
situated close to the geographical center of the country, at the hub of
both road and rail networks. The origins of the city date back to AD
852, when the Moors built a fortress near the Manzanares river and a
small community grew up around it. It was not until 1561, however, that
the city became the capital of a newly formed nation state. In the
following centuries, under the Habsburgs and then the Bourbons, the city
acquired some of its most notable landmarks, including the splendid
Plaza Mayor and the Palacio Real. At the same time, the blossoming city
attracted some of Spain’s most outstanding artists, such as court
painters Velizquez and Goya, whose works can be admired in the
world-famous Museo del Prado.

Northern Spain

Northern Spain encompasses a variety of landscapes and cultures. In the
far northwest of the peninsula, the Galicians are fiercely proud of
their customs and language.

Spain’s greenest region, Galicia boasts some of the most attractive
stretches of Atlantic coast, as well as the beautiful city of Santiago
de Compostela. Popular with hikers and naturalists, the spectacular
Picos de Europa massif sits astride the border between Asturias and

The Basque Country is a unique part of Spain whose main attractions
include superb cuisine, fashionable seaside resorts, and the cultural
center of Bilbao, with its famous Guggenheim Museum.

Basque culture

Basque culture is possibly Europe’s oldest race, the Basque’s are
thought to be descended from Cro-Magnon people, who lived in the
Pyrenees 40,000 years ago. Long isolated in their mountain villages, the
Basques preserved their unique language (Euskera), myths, and art for
millennia, almost untouched by other influences. Many families still
live in the stone buildings or farmhouses built by their forefathers.
The fueros, or ancient Basque laws, were suppressed under General
Franco, but since 1975 the Basque region (Euskadi) has had its own
parliament. Nevertheless there is still a strong separatist movement
seeking to sever links with the government in Madrid.


Bilbao is the center of Basque industry and Spain’s leading commercial
port, yet it has many cultural attractions worth visiting. In the city s
medieval quarter the Casco Viejo, the Museo Arqueologico, Etnografico e
Historico Vasco displays Basque art and folk artifacts.

In the newer town, the Museo de Bellas Artes is one of Spain’s best art
museums. The jewel in Bilbao’s cultural crown, however, is the Museo
Guggenheim Bilbao, which has a superb collection of Modern and
contemporary art. The building that houses the museum is just one of the
city’s many pieces of modern architecture, which also includes the
striking Palacio de la Musica y Congresos Euskalduna.


A nation within a nation, Catalonia has its own semi autonomous regional
government. It has its own language spoken by more than eight million
people. Catalan has supplanted Castilian Spanish as the first language
of the region, and is used on road signs and in place names everywhere.

Barcelona is the regions, capital, rivaling Madrid in economic and
cultural importance Catalonia offers a variety of attractions. The
flower-filled valley, of the Pyrenees offer a paradise for naturalist,
and walkers, while inland are medieval towns, Roman ruins and
spectacular monasteries, such as Montserrat .


Barcelona, one of the Mediterranean’s busiest ports, is more than the
capital of Catalonia. In culture, commerce, and sport, it rivals not
only Madrid, but also many of Europe’s greatest cities. The success of
the 1992 Olympic Games, staged in the Parc de Montjuic, confirmed this
to the world.

Although there are many historical monuments in the Old Town, the city
is best known for the scores of superb buildings left behind by the
artistic explosion of Modernism in the decades around 1900.

Today, Barcelona still sizzles with creativity, its bars and public
parks speak more of bold contemporary design than of tradition.

Eastern Spain and the Balearic Islands

ҐEastern Spain covers an extraordinary range of climates and landscapes,
from the snowbound peaks of the Pyrenees in Aragon to the beaches of the
Costa Blanca. The region has many historical sights, including the
striking Mudejar churches of Zaragoza and the great cathedral of

The coastal resorts of Eastern Spain are a popular destination, as are
the Balearic Islands. Mallorca is the most culturally rich of the
islands, while Menorca is dotted with prehistoric sites. Ibiza is
chiefly known for its exuberant nightlife. Formentera remains largely
unspoiled. A dialect of the Catalan language, brought by 13th-century
settlers, is still widely spoken on the islands.

Mallorca and the Balearic Islands


The largest of the Balearic Islands is Mallorca. Mallorca has a varied
landscape and a rich cultural heritage A massive Gothic cathedral is
poised high on the sea wall of Palma, its capital. Completed in 1587 and
known locally as Sa Seu, the cathedral is one of Spain’s most
breathtaking buildings. The interior was remodeled by Antoni Gaudi and a
highlight is the Baldachino, his bizarre wrought-iron canopy above the

Also worth visiting in Palma are the Basilica de Sant Francesc, the
Moorish Palau de l’Almudaina, and the Fundacio Pilar I loan Miro. Which
is a stunning modern building housing Miro’s, studio and a collection of
the artist’s work.

Around the island, Andratx is a chic and affluent town with yachts
moored along it’s harbor, while Pollenta is a popular tourist resort
which has remained relatively unspoiled.

The Monasteri de Uluc, in the remote mountain village of the same name,
incorporates a guesthouse, a museum, and a church.


Menorca’s capital, Mao, has one of the finest harbors in the
Mediterranean, an l8th century Carmelite church, and a museum, the
Collection of Henandez Mora, housing Menorcan art and antiques.

The town of Ciutadella boasts an impressive main square and a delightful
Art Nouveau market.

Ibiza and Formentera

Ibiza and Formentera are popular package-tour destinations.

Ibiza has some of the wildest nightclubs in Europe.

An hour’s boat ride from Ibisa harbour are the tranquil shores of
Formentera. The capital, Sant Francesc, has a pretty l8th-century church
and a folk museum.

Costa Blanca

The Costa Blanca occupies a prime stretch of Spain’s Mediterranean
coastline. The main city, Alicante has an 18th-century Baroque town hall
and a 16th-century castle, the Castillo de Santa Barbara. The nearest
beach to the city center is the popular Postiguet, slightly farther a
field are the vast beaches of Alhufereta and Sant Joan.

The massive, rocky outcrop of the Penyal d’Ifach towers over Calp
harbor, and is one of the Costa Blanca’s most dramatic sights. Its
summit offers spectacular views.

A short drive inland, Guadalest is a pretty mountain village with castle
ruins and a distinctive belfry perched precariously on top of a rock.

Also worth visiting are the whitewashed hilltop town of Altea, Denia,
which has good snorkeling, and the cliffs and coves around Xabia South
of Alicante.

Guardamar del Segura has a quiet beach bordered by aromatic pine woods,
while Torrevieja is a highly developed resort wid sweeping sandy shores.

Southern Spain

One large region called (Andalusia) extends across the south of Spain.
It was here that the Moors lingered longest and left their greatest
monuments in the cities of Granada, Cordoba, Malaga, and Seville.

The eight southern provinces span a wide range of landscapes, with
deserts in the east, sandy beaches along the Costa del Sol, and
sherry-producing vineyards around Jerez.

From flamingoes in the wetland Dofiana National Park to flamenco, this
uniquely Andalusian art form. The region has something to interest every

Costa del Sol

With its all year-round sunshine and varied coastline, the Costa del Sol
attracts crowds of tourists every year and has half a million foreign
residents. Its most stylish resort is Marbella, frequented by royalty
and film stars, who spend their summers here in the smart villas or
luxury hotels overlooking the area’s 28 beaches. Puerto Banus is its
ostentatious marina.

In winter the major attraction is golf. 30 of Europe’s finest golf
courses lie just inland.


The ancient city of Granada, founded by the Iberians and was for 250
years the capital of a Moorish kingdom The Nasrid dynasty, who ruled
from 1238 until 1492 when Granada fell to the Catholic Monarchs. They
left some outstanding examples of Moorish architecture here. The
greatest legacy of their rule is the spectacular palace complex of the
Alhambra. Under the Nasrids the city enjoyed a golden age, acquiring an
international reputation as a major cultural center. Later, under
Christian rule, the city became a focus for the Renaissance.


Malaga is the second largest city in Andalusia. Malaga was a thriving
port under Phoenician, Roman, and Moorish rule. It also flourished
during the 19th century, when sweet Malaga wine was one of Europe’s most
popular drinks, and this was one of Europe’s most popular seaside
resorts, that continues today.


Cordoba with its glorious mosque and pretty Moorish patios, Cordoba is
northern Andalusia’s star attraction. Its name may derive from Kartuba,
Phoenician for “rich and precious city”. In the 10th century the city
enjoyed a golden age as the western capital of the Islamic empire.

Cordoba’s most impressive Moorish monument is the mighty Mezquita.

Spain the land of sun, sand and sangria, is much more than a beach.
Experience the rich diversity of Spanish culture and the majestic sites
that Spain has to offer the adventurous Tourist.

Tourist industry in Spain

Tourism is Spain’s largest industry. It accounts for 10.1% of employment
and 12.1% of GDP according to the Tourism Satellite Account.This is the
result of the huge numbers of tourists that visit Spain every year,
which totalled 52 million in 2002, 3.3% more than a year earlier,
despite the global climate of political and economic instability and

Spain is one of the most important tourist destinations in the world and
undoubtedly the leading country for beach holidays. It is the second
largest destination after France in terms of the number of visitors and
the second in terms of revenue generated after the USA. Both revenue and
visitors have increased significantly over the last few years. Spanish
tourism today is a solid, well-founded sector which has learnt to grow,
consolidate and undertake large investments to improve quality at the
right stage of the global economic cycle.

The sector has also known how to perform better than the competition in
difficult situations such as the period following 9/11, demonstrating
its capacity in terms of quality and competitiveness.

In the words of World Tourism Organisation General Secretary Francesco
Frangialli: «Spanish tourism stands out for both the variety of
activities it has to offer, which are no longer centred around beach
holidays, and its regional diversity, which means that demand is not
centred on the same locations any more».

Since demand for beach holidays in Spain has been consolidated, a policy
of diversification in the tourist sector is being undertaken. This
combines with new tendencies for more frequent, shorter holidays and
different modes of transport to lead people to discover other
itineraries and seasons in which to enjoy their leisure time and
contribute to easing the seasonal effects of the tourist industry.

The Comprehensive Plan for Quality in Spanish Tourism The leadership of
the Spanish tourist sector is based on quality. The Comprehensive Plan
for Quality in Spanish Tourism (PICTE 2000) is the result of the many
efforts made by both private and public sectors. The plan consists in
the creation of demand for new products ranging from complementary
activities to complete holidays, as well as renovating existing offers
and generating public investment in infrastructure. The aim is to ensure
that the concept of the «quality holiday» is a factor that makes Spain
stand out from other destinations on the international markets.

The plan intends to give a response to the challenges facing tourism in
Spain from 2000 to 2006. The time schedule of the plan has been designed
to coincide with other EU programmes and initiatives so that some of the
tasks of PICTE can benefit from EU community funds.

PICTE focuses on ten clear programmes:

—The Programme for quality in tourist destinations

—The Programme for quality in tourist products

—The Programme for quality in business sectors

—The Programme for quality training

—The Programme for R&D

—The Programme for the internationalisation of Spain’s tourist industry

—The Programme for international co-operation

—The Programme for statistic and economic analysis

—The Programme for promotion

—The Programme for support in marketing

The «Programme for quality in tourist destinations» gives the clearest
view of the initiatives taken at various tourist destinations. It
includes the «Plans for Excellence in Tourism», which deal with the
recovery and regeneration of developed resorts, as well as the «Plans
for the Activation of Tourism», which economically stimulate and boost
emerging tourist destinations. The Programme also includes
«Comprehensive management models for tourist destinations», which
co-ordinate efforts in the various commercial sub-sectors so as to
achieve a homogeneous standard of quality throughout a particular
tourist destination. This year, 22 Plans for Excellence and Activation
have been approved, reflecting investments of 53.1 million euros and
bringing the total number of plans approved since 2000 to 88, in a
campaign which has cost 172.2 million euros.

«The Programme for quality in tourist products», works on the provision
of products for the tourist sector, with the aim of diversifying Spanish
tourism and reducing seasonality.

Sports holidays: Spain’s climate, its nearly 5,000 kilometres of
coastline and its mountainous topography make it a privileged
destination for the practice of sporting activities. Water sports such
as sailing (mostly in the Mediterranean Sea), sport fishing, diving and
windsurfing have been practiced fanatically for many years in Spain. The
great contrasts of its rural areas are conducive to sports such as
trekking, rock climbing, descending rivers, and air sports.

Mention should be made of golf and skiing, due to the size of the
infrastructure catering for them. Golf can be played all year round
thanks to over 200 courses, most of which with 18 holes, offering in
total over half a million hours of playing time. From the Pyrenees to
the Sierra Nevada in Andalucнa, ski resorts around Spain boast great
technical quality and perfect hotel and leisure infrastructures.

Cultural tourism: Spain is made up of a combination of cultures. This
diversity is reflected in its distinct artistic currents. Spain houses
some of the best museums in the world such as the Prado, the
Thyssen-Bornemisza, the Picasso Museum and the Guggenheim Bilbao.

This diversity and contrast which makes up the character of Spain is
also seen in its cities. In Spain, one can find both major metropolis
such as Barcelona and Madrid, as well as numerous smaller cities which
have been declared World Heritage Sites. In order to encourage this sort
of tourism, the «Plan for the Promotion of Cultural and Linguistic
Tourism» was put into practice in 2002, involving an investment of 70
million euros in 2002-2004. The objective of this plan has been to
strengthen the cultural attractions and convert them into a tourist

Business tourism in Spain generated revenue of over 2,350 million euros
in 2002 from the 12,653 business meetings which over 2,500,000 visitors
attended. The country is the fifth most popular destination in the world
for congresses and meetings, while Barcelona is the city in the world
which has hosted the most congresses, totalling 1,363 in 2002.

Health tourism is on the rise, with a seemingly unstoppable increase in
demand for beauty treatment and relaxation. In 2002 the combination of
centres dedicated to tourism focusing on health and beauty generated a
business worth 606 million euros, 18% more than a year earlier.

Currently, Spain boasts 130 health resorts, 22 thalassotherapy centres,
24 health and beauty complexes and 50 hotels with their own Spas, most
of which are operated by large multinationals. Spahotels provide a good
way to combat the seasonality of Spanish tourism. Furthermore, some of
the hotels have started to compete with health resorts and
thalassotherapy centres by mixing business tourism with health tourism
to generate more added valued and distinguish themselves from the

Rural tourism began in the nineties and is growing year by year. In 2002
the number of stays in establishments of this sector grew 12.2%. Rural
tourism facilities are largely used by Spanish tourists but 2002 has
seen a considerable growth in foreign visitors.

The clear increase in holiday homes is having a notable effect on the
economy. They are an example of trends in tourism which obviously
contribute to easing seasonality, developing population centres and
attending to new tendencies related to the different work habits and
ways of enjoying one’s leisure time. According to the World Tourism
Organisation, in the next five years, between 800,000 and 1.7 million
European families will buy their second home in Spain, looking for
optimum conditions for tourism, a good climate, security, political
stability, modern infrastructure and an unbeatable quality of life.

Development of tourist accommodation

In 2002, hotel accommodation grew 4.4% in number of available rooms but
less rapidly in terms of establishments, which grew at 2.3 %. This was
due to a slight increase in the average size of hotels. Growth has been
especially accentuated in the Autonomous Community of Valencia, where
the number of rooms available increased 9.5% in 2002, while the number
of hotels rose 4%. Five Autonomous Communities provide the bulk of hotel
accommodation.They are the Balearic Islands with 22.1%, Catalonia with
18.8%, Andalucнa with 15.1%, the Canary Islands with 10.9% and Valencia
with 7.8% of the total. Hotel accommodation in the Balearic Islands and
the Canaries is characteristically centred on larger establishments,
with the average hotel offering 321 and 318 rooms respectively. The
hotel industry is currently undergoing a very active phase. Not only is
it consolidating through mergers and acquisitions but is also growing
via the rapid construction of new hotels. In the proximities of Madrid’s
airport, five large hotels have been built in just seven months. Hotel
Chain Vincci plans to open eight new establishments by 2005. Sol Meliб
has formed a joint venture with Rank Group, the owner of the Hard Rock
brand, to open hotels under the same name. The first hotel is planned
for Chicago, but further ones are expected to be opened in Madrid and
Barcelona. Tourist apartments are mostly used by foreign tourists. This
style of holiday is centred on the Canaries, where 58% of nights at
apartments were spent, as well as the Balearic Islands, which host 14%
of stays in this type of accommodation. The average length of stay is
9.15 days, much more than the average 3.8 days spent at hotels.

Foreign demand for housing in Spain has been increasing continuously
over the last few years, although it has been in the first quarter of
2003 when it has really taken off. Accumulated foreign investment in the
Spanish property market has seen outstanding growth, rising 107% in the
last four years to over 6,000 million euros in 2002, from 2,908 million
in 1999. Holiday homes represent 34.8% of all housing under
construction. Alicante and Malaga are the zones with the most
concentration of holiday homes, cornering 44% of the market.

Stays at campsites in Spain grew 1.9% in 2002. Users of campsites are
almost equally divided between nationals and foreigners, with 52% of
Spaniards and 48% of foreigners staying at domestic campsites, which are
mainly concentrated around Catalonia and the rest of the Mediterranean

Rural tourism accommodation is distributed around the country in a very
different way to hotels or apartments. Most of it is located not on the
coast but inland and to a large extent in the north, particularly in the
autonomous communities on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and in the


Spain’s number one industry is tourism. 46 million tourists visited last
year more than the 40 million total population. Spain’s goal: to
increase tourism to 100 million visitors by the year 2005. This would
mean more than 2 visitors for every citizen each year. Think of the
cultural impact this will have on the Spaniards. Many Spaniards believe
they are up to the task. Aznar’s government has formed a national
tourism council to market Spain overseas, along with an inter-ministry
commission that coordinates development efforts, and another national
agency that links central and regional governments. The regional tourism
boards form the vanguard of the new campaign.

Of all the countries in the world, Spain is second only to the United
States of America in tourism and competes each year with France for
coveted second place global tourist destination. Spain’s gross tourist
income (11% of GNP) is more half of the dollar income of all the 50
United States (Florida, Hawaii, New York, California, Texas etc.) This
is a significant accomplishment for a country which is just bigger than
the state of California. Tourism has turned the entire Spanish economy

As recently as 25 years ago, the Balearic Islands were among the poorest
regions in Europe, their people eking out a living from subsistence
farming and the small pottery industry. But now the people of the
archipelago have one of the nation’s highest per-capita income. While
Spain has always attracted visitors to its shores, the Balearics helped
usher in the era of “sun and sand” tourism. The Balearic Islands’
Minister of Tourism Josй Marнa Gonzбlez credits the islands’
entrepreneurs with the success. “The birth of the tourism industry was
inevitable, because there is an established base of businesspeople here
who are willing to start enterprises,” he says. The Islands, especially
the largest -Mallorca- are home to Spain’s largest hotel chains, which
have expanded to other regions within Spain and abroad.

Spain’s “sun and sand” golden formula draws millions to her beaches and
islands. But unfortunately landlocked Extremadura only receives 1% of
the nations tourist income inspite of the fact that Badajoz is Spain’s
largest boarder town with Portugal located on recently completed
Madrid-Lisbon highway. The worst tourism problem is that Extremadura is
unheard of internationally. The land which sent out daring discoverers
to the New World is today undiscovered by the rest of the world.

The forgotten “Land of the Conquistadors” has been largely unsuccessful
in drawing visitors to her world-class tourist attractions such as the
Roman archeological treasures in Mйrida, the medieval city of Cбceres,
one of the world’s finest wildlife refuges at Montfrague, not to mention
all the colorful local traditions, festivals, Holy Week celebrations and
Badajoz carnival. The greatest economic impediment Extremadura faces is
that it is virtually unheard of outside of Spain.

Extremadura’s traditional sluggish agrarian culture had been one of the
most impoverished in Spain. A Spanish documentary film of the Hurdes
mountains villages in northern Cбceres entitled “A Land without Bread”
captured the desperate plight of the region. Remote villages were
isolated and could only be reached on horseback as late as in the 1970’s

Spain’s general economic boon and European Union’s convergence funding
has brought needed economic relief to Extremadura. Today with a much
improved network of national roads, with the large scale construction of
modern apartments building, and with nationally funded public and
university education. Extremadurans now enjoy technological and social
benefits on a par with the rest of western Europe. Nevertheless
Extremadurans still suffer from almost one-third unemployment and are
just learning how to market their cultural and historic treasures to the
rest of the world.


1. A Short History of Spain – Conquistador Magazine, 2000.

2. Spain Magazine, 2000, №2.

3. The World Factbook – Spain, NY, 2007.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы


Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020