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Eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii

a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey

a aiaeeeneii ycuea

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………… 2-5

Aeaaa 1. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneea iniaaiiinoe neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo
ooieoeeyo………………………………………………………
…………………….. 5-33

Aeaaa 2. Noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii……………………………………….. 34-48

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
……48-49

Aeaeeia?aoey……………………………………………………
..49-50.

Aaaaeaiea.

Nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea a aiaeeeneii ycuea i?aaenoaaeaia o?aiy
eaoaai?eaeueiuie oi?iaie – eioeieoeaii (the Infinitive), eiaiaie oi?iie
(the Ing) e i?e/anoeai II (Participle II). Nenoaia eioeieoeaa a
aiaeeeneii ycuea o?aaeeoeeiiii oa?aeoa?ecoaony a?aiiaoe/aneeie
eaoaai?eyie caeiaa, aeaea e a?aiaiiie ioianaiiinoe. Oi?ia eioeieoeaa
i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoiy aa?eaioaie – ia?ee?iaaiiui (marked Infinitive ) e
iaia?ee?iaaiiui (unmarked Infinitive). ?acieoea iaaeaeo ia?ee?iaaiiie e
iaia?ee?iaaiiie oi?iie eioeieoeaa caeeth/aaony a oneiaeyo eo
neioaene/aneiai oiio?aaeaiey.

Oi?iu eioeieoeaa ii niiniao ia?aciaaiey ie/ai ia ioee/athony io oi?i
ee/iiai aeaaiea: eaaeaeay oi?ia eioeieoeaa yaeyaony eae au iaiauaieai
niioaaonoaothueo ee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea, iaeiaei iie ?acei ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa ii ooieoeeyi a i?aaeeiaeaiee.

A i?aaeeiaeaiee eioeieoea iiaeao neoaeeoue: iiaeeaaeauei, eiaiiie
/anoueth neacoaiiai, /anoueth ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai,
aeiiieiaieai, ii?aaeaeaieai, ianoiyoaeuenoaii.

Eioeieoea – ia oeaio? aeaaieueiie nenoaiu, a aa ie?aeia. Ia neo/aeii
aii?in ia eioeieoeaa iniaaiii aieiiaae a?aiiaoenoia. *anoue eo
(oi?ooiianeay oeiea, e?iia A.I.Iaoeianeiai) ?aoeoaeueii ioaeaeyea
eioeieoea io aeaaiea, nnueaynue ia oi, /oi ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth
eioeieoea yaeyaony eiaiai n aeaaieueiie iniiaie, /oi eioeieoea ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo ie i?aaeeeaoeaiuo, ie aoo?eaooeaiuo oi?i aeaaiea.
Eioeieoea aue iauyaeai iniaie /anoueth ?a/e e ?anniao?eaaeny eae neiai,
ia i?e/anoiia e ni?yaeaieth. Oae, eioeieoea iiae eiaiai “ioaeaaieey”
auaeaeye ec aeaaiea a naiinoiyoaeueioth eaoaai?eth E.O.Ea-eaeaeiae/.
Eeoue aeaaeaieee Ae.I.Ianyieei-Eoeeeianeee e A.A.Oaoia-oia e eeiaaenou
aiaeoyiianeie oeieu ianoie/eai iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi eioeieoea a
nia?aiaiiii ?onneii ycuea – yoi “ioaeaaieueiue iiieiaoea”, o.a.
iniiaiay, enoiaeiay oi?ia aeaaiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi e A.A.Iioaaiy, n/eoay eioeieoea iniaie /anoueth ?a/e, ana
aea i?eienuaae aio ioiioaiea e iaii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo. Eioeieoea, ii
Iioaaia, “ia caeeth/aao a naaa naiaai noauaeoa, ii o?aaoao aai eae
i?eeaaaoaeueiia e aeaaie… Ioee/ea iaii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeeiiaiey io
ee/iiai aeaaiea (verbum finitum) ninoieo a oii, /oi yoio iineaaeiee
caeeth/aao a naaa ii?aaeaeaiea naiaai eeoea (1-ai, 2-ai eee 3-ai),
oiaaea eae a iaii?aaeaeaiiii iaeeiiaiee, au?aaiiii ec nayce, eeoei
inoaaony iaii?aaeaeaiiui. A aeeaie ?a/e eeoei iaii?aaeaeaiiia anaaaea
ii?aaeaeyaony oai eee ae?oaei niiniaii” [6, n.243].

Oi/ii oaeaea aeaaeaiee A.A.Oaoiaoia aneaae ca A.A.Iioaaiae ianoaeaae ia
oii, /oi “Iaaiciiaeii – aac ianeeey iaae ycueii e iaae naiei niciaieai –
oaeaeaoue a oi?ia aeeoue ioaeaeueiia neiai, ia naycaiiia n oi?iaie
aeeao, y aeee e o.ae. Iaeuecy oaeaea aaciaiai?i/ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue
eioeieoea anai ae?oaei “i?aaeeeaoeaiui oi?iai” aeaaiea” [6, n.343].

Aaoi?u oai?aoe/aneiai eo?na a?aiiaoeee “Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea”
[10] n/eoatho, /oi a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea oi?iu eioeieoeaa, eae
e oi?iu i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey, ioiinyony e iaee/iui oi?iai aeaaiea.
Aiaeec yoeo oi?i i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an n oi/ee c?aiey iauae
oa?aeoa?enoeee no?iy aiaeeeneiai ycuea, iaeiie ec niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o
eioi?iai yaeyaony ?acaeoay nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i e iniaaiiinoe eo
oiio?aaeaiey. Ioee/ea iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea io ee/iuo caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi eioeieoea, i?e/anoea e aa?oiaeee ia eiatho a?aiiaoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee eeoea, /enea e iaeeiiaiey e iioiio ia iiaoo auiieiyoue
naienoaaiiie ee/iui oi?iai neioaene/aneie ooieoeee neacoaiiai.
Ionoonoaea iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiie aeey eo neioaene/aneie ooieoeee
eaoaai?ee eeoea io?aaeaaony a naiii oa?ieia “iaee/iua oi?iu”.

A ioiioaiee eiaiiuo /a?o iaee/iua oi?iu nio?aiytho naienoaaiiua ei
enoi?e/aneea nayce n nouanoaeoaeueiui (eioeieoea e aa?oiaeee) e n
i?eeaaaoaeueiui (i?e/anoea), oiaaea eae aeaaieueiua /a?ou yaeythony,
aeaaiui ia?acii, ?acoeueoaoii eo iinoaiaiiiai e aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea anoue enoi?ey eo iinoaiaiiiai
aeeth/aiey a aeaaieueioth nenoaio, aneaaenoaea /aai aeey auyaeaiey eo
niaoeeoeee a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea eo aeaaieueiua naienoaa eiatho
aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai eneiiii i?enouea ei eiaiiua /a?ou.

Auai? oaiu eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou iauyniyaony naiae aeooaeueiinoueth e
ioiineoaeueiie iiaeciie. Ciaeiinoai n iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie ii
aeaiiie oaia iieacuaaao, /oi iia iaei ?ac?aaioaia, iniaaiii niaaoneeie,
?inneeneeie aiaeenoaie, /aio iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yaeyaony ionoonoaea a
oiiaeao nieeaeiuo aeaeeioae ai?iaea, a /anoiinoe, Ciiaeueiie iao/iie
aeaeeioaee ?inoianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, aeenna?oaoeee e iaoa?eaeia
eiioa?aioeee aeaaea ii /anoiui aii?inai aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Oeaeue ianoiyuae ?aaiou – eco/aiea eiino?oeoeee neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii e iniaaiiinoae oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo, /oi
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa, eae iaee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo
noeeyo ?a/e, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “aieaa aeeaia” ia?aciaaiea, /ai
aa?oiaeee eee i?e/anoea, iaeaaeaao aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai oi?i, /oi
aeaeaao aai aieaa aeaeei e ieanoe/iui” [1, n.3].

A caaea/e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou aoiaeeei eco/aiea eiathuaainy
iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ii oaia enneaaeiaaiey, iiaiee ?aciuo
o/aiuo, ?anniao?eaathueo eioeieoea a enoi?e/aneii ieaia; auyaeaiea
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii a
?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo; eco/aiea noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii; aeaiiino?aoeey i?aeoe/aneeo
iaaueia ia?aaiaea aiaeeeneiai eioeieoeaa ia ?onneee ycue.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey auei i?iaiaeece?iaaii aieaa 1500 no?aieoe oaenoa
ca?oaaaeiie eeanne/aneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u ia aiaeeeneii
ycuea, ioia/aii aieaa noa iyoeaeanyoe i?eia?ia oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a
?acee/iuo ooieoeeyo, ii?aaeaeaiu eiino?oeoeee neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii e naiaioe/aneea a?oiiu aeaaieia, eioi?uie au?aaeai eioeieoea
a aiaeeeneii e ?onneii ycueao.

Oaeoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeee iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneea
?aaiou ?onneeo e ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeenoia, a oaeaea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey aiaeeeneie e aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?u XIX – XX aaeia.
?aaioa eeethno?e?oaony i?eia?aie eaaeaeiai neo/ay oiio?aaeaiey
eioeieoeaa a oie eee eiie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee, aua?aiiuie ec
iienaoaeueiie e aeeaeiae/aneie ?a/e ia?niiaaeae ieaea ia?a/eneaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee: “Iinia?oiua caienee Ieeaeeneiai eeoaa” *.Aeeeeaina,
“Aia?eeaineay o?aaaaeey” e “Nano?a Ea??e” O.Ae?aeca?a, “Naaa i
Oi?naeoao (o.1: Nianoaaiiee)” Ae.Aienoi?ne, “Ia?oei Eaeai” Ae.Eiiaeiia,
“Eoia e a?io” e ae?oaea.

Eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, aeaoo aeaa, caeeth/aiey e
aeaeeia?aoee.

Oeeoaou a ?aaioa ioi?ieaiu eaaae?aoiuie neiaeaie, iai?eia?, [5, n.16]: 5
– ii?yaeeiaue iiia? oeeoe?oaiiai enoi/ieea (iiiia?aoee eee noaouee) a
?acaeaea “Aeaeeia?aoey”, “n.16” – no?aieoea enoi/ieea, n eioi?iai
i?eaaaeaia oeeoaoa.

Aeaaa 1. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneea iniaaiiinoe neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo.

Eae ooaa?aeaeaao E.A.A?iieueae, aei ia/aea XX aaea eeiaaenou
caieiaeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii, aii?inii i oii, “eae e ii/aio iaiyaony
cia/aiea neia, o.a. nin?aaeioi/eee naia aieiaiea ia i?iaeaia
aeeao?iie/aneie, e oieueei ia ?oaaaea aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey ia?aoeeenue
e naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a” [20, n.26]. Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eea
oai?ey “naiaioe/aneiai iiey”, naycaiiay n eiaiaie E.O?ea?a, Iaea?a,
Einaia e Ii?oeeaa, eioi?ua enneaaeiaaee oceea a?oiiu neia, iauaaeeiaiiua
iauiinoueth au?aaeaaiuo eie iiiyoee. Oeueiai ?anniao?eaae neiai eae
eeiaaenoe/aneee ciae e n/eoae, /oi iaoea i ciaeao aiiaua aeieaeia
onoaiiaeoue naiaioe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe aiaa?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe naiaioe/aneiai no?iy
eiie?aoiuo ycueia, n ae?oaie.

Iiiyoea no?oeoo?u yaeyaony aeey no?oeoo?aeenoia iniiaiui iiiyoeai
eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca, e anee iiieiaoue iiae no?oeoo?ie
oii?yaei/aiioth nenoaio eiio?anoia e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee, eioi?ay iiaeao
auoue auyaeaia a ycuea ia oieueei a caoeao e a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?iao, ii e
a cia/aieyo eeiaaenoe/aneeo oi?i, oi ii?aaeaeyaony aaaeiinoue eco/aiey
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?acee/iuo neiaini/aoaiee.

Neiaini/aoaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae a?oiia neioaene/anee naycaiiuo
ciaiaiaoaeueiuo neia a ninoaaa i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay naia ia yaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaieai. Aeaaieueiua neiaini/aoaiey caieiatho eneeth/eoaeueiia
ianoi a neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?a nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea eae n
oi/ee c?aiey /anoioiinoe eo oiio?aaeaiey, oae e a ieaia ?aciiia?acey eo
no?oeoo?iuo iiaeaeae. Aaeaeo ?acii?iaeiinoe ?acee/iuo iiaeeeannia
aeaaieia aiaeeeneiai ycuea, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo nouanoaaiiuie ?acee/eyie a
eo neioaene/aneie aeeno?eaooeee, eeanneoeeaoeey aeaaieueiuo
neiaini/aoaiee nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea i?aaenoaaeyao
cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe.

Eioeieoea ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth yaeyaony ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui; a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea (VII – X aaea) ii eiae ana
naienoaaiiua nouanoaeoaeueiiio ii?oieiae/aneea e neioaene/aneea
naienoaa, a /anoiinoe, eciaiyeny ii iaaeaaeai. Naienoai yoi eiaao neaae
a iaee/ee nia?aiaiiuo aeaoo oi?i eioeieoeaa: aac /anoeoeu to –
eioeieoeaa, i?ienoiaeyuaai ec oi?iu eiaieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea OE drincan e
n /anoeoeae to – eioeieoeaa, i?ienoiaeyuaai ec oi?iu aeaoaeueiiai
iaaeaaea: OE drincenne. A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea to aue i?aaeeiaii,
ni/aoaaoeiny n aeaoaeueiui iaaeaaeii eioeieoeaa e iaicia/ae i?e yoii
oeaeue eee iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey.

Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea eioeieoeaa naycaii n i?ioeannii aiaea/aiey yoie
oi?iu a nenoaio aeaaiea e oo?aoie ath iaeioi?uo eiaiiuo /a?o. Oae, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, eioeieoea i?eia?ae aeaaieueiua eaoaai?ee aeaea, a?aiaie
e caeiaa, a n ae?oaie, ii e ia/aeo n?aaeiaaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea oo?aoee
oi?io aeaoaeueiiai iaaeaaea. Aneaaenoaea iioa?e eioeieoeaii eiaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a, oaea ia aini?eieiaaony eae i?aaeeia: ii noae iniaui
iieacaoaeai eioeieoeaa.

Ec aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe aeaaieueiuo eiino?oeoeee, iienaiiuo A.N.Oi?i-ae [17,
n.25], eioeieoea i?enoonoaoao a ainueie ec ieo. Yoi aeaaieueiay
eiino?oeoeey 2 (aeaeaa AE 2) “Aeaaie + not +) eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to
(+…), AE 3 “Aeaaie + nouanoaeoaeueiia (ianoieiaiea) + (not +)
eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to (+ …), AE 5 “Aeaaie + nouanoaeoaeueiia
(ianoieiaiea) + eioeieoea aac /anoeoeu to (+ …), AE 13 “Aeaaie +
nithciia neiai + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to (+ …), AE 14 “Aeaaie +
nouanoaeoaeueiia (ianoieiaiea) + nithciia neiai + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae
to (+ …), AE 25 “Aeaaie + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to a ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee (+ …).

Eeanneoeeaoeey aeaaieueiuo neiaini/aoaiee, i?aaeeiaeaiiay E.N.
Aa?ooaea?iaui, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. neiaini/aoaiey, yae?ii eioi?uo iiaeao auoue eae ia?aoiaeiue, oae e
iaia?aoiaeiue aeaaie;

2. neiaini/aoaiey, yae?ii eioi?uo iiaeao auoue aeaaie oieueei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaeeeanna: eeai oieueei ia?aoiaeiue, eeai oieueei
iaia?aoiaeiue. Ionthaea a ooieoeee ?anoe?aiee a aeaaieueiuo
neiaini/aoaieyo iiaoo oiio?aaeyoueny a /enea ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e
(ia?a/ee, i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e ae?.) aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa.

A ooieoeee iauaeoiiai aeiiieiaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea oaeaea a /enea
ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e (nouanoaeoaeueiuo, ianoieiaiee e ae?.) iiaoo
oiio?aaeyoueny aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa, aeaaieueiua neiaini/aoaiey a
oi?ia eioeieoeaiiai i?aaeeeaoeaiiai neiaini/aoaiey. A ooieoeee
eaaeeoeoee?othuaai aeiiieiaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea oaeaea iiaoo
oiio?aaeyoueny aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa eee i?e/anoey eee aeaaieueiua
neiaini/aoaiey n niioaaonoaothueie oi?iaie a ea/anoaa yae?a [3, n.18].

A ?aaioao ii aiaeeeneie a?aiiaoeea, iaienaiiuo a niaaoneee ia?eiae,
iiaeiaiua neiaini/aoaiey o?aeoothony eae “ninoaaiia neacoaiia”;
ca?oaaaeiua aea (aiaeeeneea e aia?eeaineea) ii?iaoeaiua a?aiiaoeee
iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho iiae/eiaiiue /eai oaeeo neiaini/aoaiee eae
aeiiieiaiea (complement) i?e aeaaiea. Iu i?aaeii/eoaai a aeaiiii neo/aa
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny o?aeoiaee, i?eiyoie a aiaeeeneeo a?aiiaoeeao e
?anniao?eaaoue iiae/eiaiiue /eai i?e iaia?aoiaeiii aeaaiea eae
eaaeeoeoee?othuaa aeiiieiaiea, iineieueeo iiiyoea “ninoaaiiai
neacoaiiai” aaniethoii iai?eiaieii e oaeei eiino?oeoeeyi, aaea aeaaie –
yae?i neiaini/aoaiey oiio?aaeyaony ia a i?aaeeeaoeaiie, a a iaee/iie
oi?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioeieoea (iaii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia aeaaiea) i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaee/ioth aeaaieueioth oi?io, eioi?ay iacuaaao aeaenoaea, ia
oeacuaay ie eeoea, ie /enea. Eioeieoea ioaa/aao ia aii?inu /oi aeaeaoue?
/oi naeaeaoue? Oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeii eioeieoeaa yaeyaony /anoeoea to,
eioi?ay ia eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey e ia i?eieiaao oaea?aiey.

I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e ?anniio?aieth eaoaai?eaeueiuo oi?i eioeieoeaa a
eo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue eaaeaeoth ec a?aiiaoe/aneeo eaoaai?ee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?enoueo eioeieoeao eae iai?aaeeeaoeaiie oi?ia aeaaiea. “Eioeieoea…
aeaao ioaea/aiiia, iaiauaiiia iiiyoea i aeaenoaee; a yoie oi?ia naycue
aeaenoaey n aeayoaeai eeoue i?aaeiieaaaaony eiae/anee, a ia au?aaeaaony
oi?iaeueiuie i?eciaeaie” [10, n.161].

ssaeyynue aeaaieueiui iiieiaoeaii, eioeieoea eiaao ?yae iniaaiiinoae,
naeeaeathueo aai n ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea: aeaaea a ooieoeeyo,
naienoaaiiuo eiaie, eioeieoea nio?aiyao niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue
aeaenoaea eae i?ioeann, o.a. eiaao caeiaiaua e aeaeiaua ?acee/ey,
au?aaeaao a?aiy, ia?aoiaeiinoue e iaia?aoiaeiinoue iniiau e, /oi naiia
aeaaiia – eiaao naie nianoaaiiue noauaeo aeaenoaey; e?iia oiai,
eioeieoea eiaao niiniaiinoue i?eieiaoue i?yiia aeiiieiaiea e
ii?aaeaeyoueny ia?a/eai.

“A ?aaioao ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeenoia i?aoaaee/eaaaony eiaiiay noi?iia
eioeieoeaa, eceeoiaa aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iienaieth neo/aaa n /anoeoeae
to, eioeieoea iieiinoueth i?e?aaieaaaony e nouanoaeoaeueiiio i?e
?anniio?aiee aai neioaene/aneeo ooieoeee” [10, n.161]. Oai naiui
caoooaauaaaony aeaaieueiinoue eioeieoeaa, a iaaeaeo oai aeaaieueiua
naienoaa eioeieoeaa auyaeythony ia oieueei a oeacaiiuo auoa i?eciaeao,
ii e a oii, /oi iiaeiaii ee/iui oi?iai aeaaiea, eioeieoea ia?aaeaao a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeaenoaea eae i?ioeann, eioi?ue ia iiaeao
iuneeoueny aia nayce n aai i?iecaiaeeoaeai. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, niioianaii n iiaeeaaeauei
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioeieoea iacuaaaony noauaeoiui. Anee aeayoaeue au?aaeai
aeiiieiaieai, eioeieoea iacuaaaony iauaeoiui. Niioianaiiinoue aeaenoaey
n aai aeayoaeai auyaeyaony i?e oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a i?aaeeiaeaiee
aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai o i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey, i/aaeaeii iioiio,
/oi eioeieoea, iiaeiaii aeaaieo, au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, iaicia/aiiia
iniiaie, oiaaea eae i?e/anoea ia?aaeaao i?eciae eee oeacuaaao ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo niaa?oaeinue ae?oaia aeaenoaea, a aa?oiaeee
a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eioeieoea, iaeaaeaao eiaiiuie /a?oaie.

Aieiaoaeueiia eco/aiea oai?aoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii aii?inai a?aiiaoeee
iieacaei, /oi eae n?aaee ioa/anoaaiiuo, oae e n?aaee ca?oaaaeiuo
eeiaaenoia nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey a ioiioaiee ooieoeee
eioeieoeaa a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo aai oiio?aaeaiey. E eo /eneo
A.I.Aiaoneaaneay ioiineo iaei ?ac?aaioaiiue aii?in neioaenena
nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea – eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa
iineaaeothueo yaeaiee.

“Iai?eia?, Eeiaae i?eaiaeeo i?aaeeiaeaiea: He went home only to die”.
A ioiioaiee yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nai aaoi? ieoao, /oi “eioeieoea ia
iaicia/aao caeanue ie oeaee, ie neaaenoaey, a oieueei iineaaeothuaa
aeaenoaea”. A ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a oae aea nouanoaoao ianeieueei
oi/ae c?aiey ia eioeieoea a iiaeiaiii oiio?aaeaiee. Iaeie ioa/anoaaiiua
eeiaaenou n/eoatho, /oi eioeieoea a yoeo neo/ayo auiieiyao ooieoeeth
ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey. Inoaiiaeiny ia ae?oaeo oi/eao c?aiey, –
i?aaeeaaaao A.I.Aiaoneaaneay. – E.I.Ia?aoa? n/eoaao oaeea eioeieoeau
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie oeaee. A.A.Aoaeeiaa, ?anniao?eaay eioeieoea a
aiaeiae/iii oiio?aaeaiee, ioia/aao, /oi a iaeieo neo/ayo eioeieoea
au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai ee/iiai aeaaiea, a
ae?oaeo aeaenoaea eioeieoeaa niaa?oaaony iaeiia?aiaiii n aeaenoaeai
ee/iiai aeaaiea. E.N.Aa?ooaea?ia e Ae.A.Ooaeeia ioia/atho, /oi a
nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea eioeieoea iiaeao iaicia/aoue aeaenoaea,
neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai, au?aaeaiiui aeaaieii-neacoaiui
(ianoiyoaeuenoai iineaaeothuaai aeaenoaey). A.E.Eaooaineay e ae?.,
?anniao?eaay aiaeiae/iua neo/ae oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa, ioia/atho, /oi
eioeieoea aunooiaao caeanue a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo
yaeaiee. Yoie aea oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaathony e aaoi?u o/aaieea
aiaeeeneiai ycuea A.A.Aeethiai e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, – iiaeuoiaeeaaao A.I.Aiaoneaaneay, – eae a ca?oaaaeiie,
oae e a ioa/anoaaiiie aiaeenoeea nouanoaotho o?e oi/ee c?aiey ia
ooieoeeth eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii oiio?aaeaiee: ia?aay oi/ea c?aiey –
eioeieoea auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey. Aoi?ay oi/ea
c?aiey – eioeieoea auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee. O?aouey
oi/ea c?aiey – eioeieoea iaicia/aao aeaenoaea, neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai
aeaaiea-neacoaiiai, e auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa iineaaeiaaaoeo
yaeaiee (iineaaeothuaai aeaenoaey, niioonoaothueo yaeaiee). Eoae, ana
aiaeenou (ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua inoaaeytho aii?in i ooieoeee
eioeieoeaa a oaeii oiio?aaeaiee ioe?uoui), i?eaea?aeeaathony aaeeiie
oi/ee c?aiey a ioiioaiee neioaene/aneie ooieoeee oaeiai eioeieoeaa,
n/eoay aai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, ii ?anoiaeyony ai iiaieyo ioiineoaeueii
oiai, e eaeie ?aciiaeaeiinoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa ii ioiineony” [5, n.90-91].

Ae?oaie i?eia?. “A aiaeeeneii ycuea, oae aea eae e a ?onneii, i/aiue
?ani?ino?aiaiu ni/aoaiey, ninoiyuea ec aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia e
eioeieoeaa ae?oaiai aeaaiea, – eiinoaoe?oao A.A.Ei?iaaaa. – Oioy n oi/ee
c?aiey aiaoiaai ioi?ieaiey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ni/aoaieyie iaeuecy
iaia?oaeeoue ieeaeie ?acieoeu, oai ia iaiaa a i?aaeeiaeaiee iie iiaoo
eiaoue ?acee/iia cia/aiea e auiieiyoue niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua
neioaene/aneea ooieoeee, oi anoue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ee/iie oi?iie
aeaaiea e eioeieoeaii iiaoo auoue aanueia ?aciiia?aciuie. Eioeieoea
iiaeao auoue aeiiieiaieai e aeaaieo a ee/iie oi?ia, eee
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, eee, iaeiiaoe, ninoaaeyoue aianoa n iei iaeii oeaeia –
neiaeiia aeaaieueiia eee eiaiiia neacoaiia. Iaeiaei aii?in i oii, /oi
eiaiii ii?aaeaeyao neioaene/aneoth ?ieue eioeieoeaa a oii eee ae?oaii
eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee, eaeiau nayce iaaeaeo eioeieoeaii e aeaaieii a
ee/iie oi?ia eee eioeieoeaii e iiaeeaaeauei, – aua a iaaeinoaoi/ii
inaauai a nouanoaothuae eeoa?aoo?a e ioaeaeaaony a ouaoaeueiii eco/aiee”
[14, n.157].

“A oi a?aiy, eae aii?in noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aiaeeoe/aneiai
ianneaa a ee/iuo oi?iao aeaaiea ?ac?aaioai aeaoaeueii, – ieoao
A.A.Aeaenaaaa, – ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo ?acaeoeth no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa a
nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea, ii/oe ia eiaaony. A iaeioi?uo
enneaaeiaaieyo iiaeii ano?aoeoue ioaeaeueiua caia/aiey, eanathueany
iaee/iuo oi?i, iaeiaei iie o?aaiaioa?iu e /anoi iinyo nii?iue oa?aeoa?.

Oi?ie?iaaiea aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iu ianneaa a nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i
i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiii e iaiaeeiaeiai aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo (eioeieoeaa,
i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey). I?ioeann oieoeeaoeee aeeeeny iiiai aaeia ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai iiaiaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea, e a?yae ee aai iiaeii
n/eoaoue caeii/aiiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Eae ecaanoii, ia anyeia ni/aoaiea aeaaiea to be n i?e/anoeai II iiaeii
n/eoaoue aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iie no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa. Yoi eiaao ianoi a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaiiia ni/aoaiea ia naycaii n aeaenoaeai, a
ia?aaeaao eeoue ninoiyiea noauaeoa. A eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
auneacuaaeinue iiaiea, /oi ?ani?ino?aiaiea ianneaa ia anth aeaaieueioth
ia?aaeeaio (eae a ee/iuo, oae e a iaee/iuo oi?iao) caeii/eeinue e XV
aaeo. Iaeiaei aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaeii ioianoe oieueei e eioeieoeao,
e oi eeoue /anoe/ii. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee neeiiiu n/eoaoue, /oi
ianneaiue eioeieoea iaee/anoaiaae oaea a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea. Oaeia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea eeoaii iniiaaiee: ni/aoaiea aeaaieia beon e wesan n
i?e/anoeai II a oi a?aiy aua ia noaei aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iie aeaaea a
nenoaia ee/iuo oi?i.

Oi?ia eioeieoeaa aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeanue i?inoie, oiio?aaeyeanue
iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiii aeey ia?aaea/e iaieo cia/aiee – aeoeaiiai e
ianneaiiai. ?acee/eoue eo iiaeii auei oieueei ec eiioaenoa.
Ia?ainiuneaiea ni/aoaiey to be + i?e/anoea a aiaeeoe/aneoth oi?io
ianneaiiai eioeieoeaa i?ienoiaeeo eeoue e eiioeo n?aaeiaaiaeeeneiai
ia?eiaea (NA). Yoi iiaiea auneacuaaaony oeaeui ?yaeii eeiaaenoia
(O.Jespersen, I.A.Aeieo?eaaie, J.C.Nesfield). ?ani?ino?aiaiea aea
ianneaa ia ae?oaea eaoaai?eaeueiua oi?iu (ia?oaeoa, eiioeieona)
i?iaeieaeaeinue a oa/aiea anaai ?IA.

A iieueco oiai, /oi a ia/aea ?IA ia ianooieei aua oieoeeaoeee ianneaiiai
eioeieoeaa, aiai?eo e ii/oe iieiia ionoonoaea ia?oaeoiuo oi?i
no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa. Iniaaiii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee
ianneaiue eioeieoea a Oaenie?ianeoth yiioo. A yoi a?aiy ?anoe?yaony e?oa
aeaaieia, oiio?aaeythueony a aeaiiie no?oeoo?a, iieo/aao ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?oaeoiay oi?ia no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa, iaaethaeaaony aoiaeaeaiea
ianneaiiai eioeieoeaa a ?acee/iua eiino?oeoeee. Iaeiaei e o aaoi?ia
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey aua iiaeii ano?aoeoue iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia
oiio?aaeaiea aeoeaiie e ianneaiie oi?i eioeieoeaa [1, n.179].

?aaioa O.A.?anoi?aoaaa e I.Y.Naoaeue “I ?acaeoee aiaeeoe/aneeo
aeaaieueiuo oi?i a iiaiaiaeeeneee ia?eiae (XVIII-XX aa.)” iinayuaia
enneaaeiaaieth iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey aiaeeeneeo oi?i a
iicaeiaiiaiaiaeeeneee ia?eiae. Eae iiae/a?eeaatho aaoi?u, eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy iieo/aao oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaeioi?ua iiaua n?aaenoaa iaicia/aiey
aoaeouaai: oi?ia aeeeoaeueiiai aeaea e eiino?oeoeee be going to +
eioeieoea, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho iaiouaieaioth /anoue nia?aiaiiie
iee?inenoaiu oooo?aeueiuo n?aaenoa. Yoa a?aiiaoe/aneay oi?ia ia?acoao a
/enea ae?oaeo oi?i (Future Indefinite, Future Continuous e ae?.) nenoaio
ycueiauo aaeeieoe n a?aiiaoe/aneei cia/aieai – ioianaiiinoueth aeaenoaey
e noa?a aoaeouaai, e ninoaaeyao nouanoaaiioth /anoue anae iee?inenoaiu,
aeinoeaay ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoioiinoe oiio?aaeaiey.

Oae, a XVIII aaea yoa eiino?oeoeey oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
i?eciaeaie: iia iaei oiio?aaeoaeueia – aa /anoioiinoue ninoaaeyao anaai
0,80% e ano?a/aaony oieueei a iaeiii cia/aiee – iaia?aiee niaa?oeoue
aeaenoaea; oeacaiiia cia/aiea ia?aie/eaaao oiio?aaeaiea eiino?oeoeee –
iia ano?a/aaony oieueei n iaeooaaeaiiui iiaeeaaeauei; eioeieoea anaaaea
eiaao oi?io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa.

A XIX aaea ioia/athony neaaeothuea eciaiaiey a oiio?aaeaiee be going to
+ eioeieoea: /anoioiinoue aic?anoaao ca noieaoea aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac,
eiino?oeoeey eiaao eae iiaeaeueiia, oae e a?aiaiiia cia/aiea, ni/aoaaony
eae n iaeooaaeaiiui, oae e n iaiaeooaaeaiiui iiaeeaaeauei, eioeieoea
oiio?aaeyaony a oi?iao eae aeaenoaeoaeueiiai, oae e no?aaeaoaeueiiai
caeiaa.

A XX aaea be going to + eioeieoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
iniaaiiinoyie: oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue eiino?oeoeee nouanoaaiii ia
iaiyao-ny; aic?anoaao oiio?aaeaiea eiino?oeoeee aac cia/aiey iaia?aiey;
eioeieoea naiaiaeii ni/aoaaony eae n iaeooaaeaiiui, oae e n
iaiaeooaaeaiiui iiaeeaaeauei; eaene/aneea ia?aie/aiey iieiinoueth niyou;
eioeieoea i?aaenoaaeai aeaaieaie eae oiio?aaeythueieny, oae e ia
oiio?aaeythueieny a oi?iao aeeeoaeueiiai aeaea; eioeieoea eiaao oi?iu
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai e no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaia [1, c.222.]

Oaeei ia?acii, aiaeec oiio?aaeaiey be going to + eioeieoea iieacae, /oi
?acaeoea ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia, ii?aaeaeythueo
oiio?aaeaiea yoie oi?iu, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiiia?ii. Iaeie i?eciaee:
ioiineoaeueiay /anoioiinoue, niinia au?aaeaiey iiaeeaaeauaai, oi?ia
eioeieoeaa – noaaeeece?othony oaea e eiioeo XIX aaea, oiaaea eae ae?oaea
– eaene/aneia iaiieiaiea, niioiioaiea iiaeaeueiiai e a?aiaiiiai cia/aiee
– i?iaeieaeaao eciaiyoueny e a XX aaea. Ana yoi iicaieyao
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?aeoa?enoeee be going to +
eioeieoea i?aoa?iaaatho ii?aaeaeaiioth yaiethoeeth.

?anniio?aiea no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo ia/iai n
iiaeeaaeauaai. N oi/ee c?aiey noauaeoiie niioianaiiinoe iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aeaa neo/ay oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai.

1. Naycue n eaeei-eeai aeayoaeai ionoonoaoao, /oi iaaethaeaaony i?e
auneacuaaiee iauaecaanoiuo enoei, ia naycaiiuo n eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae
eee eiie?aoiui aeaenoaothuei eeoeii. Oi?iaeueiuie i?eciaeaie oaeiai
auneacuaaiey yaeythony: oi?ia ianoiyuaai a?aiaie a i?inoii ninoaaiii
neacoaiii n i?inoie aeaaieueiie oi?iie e /anoi iacuaaaiia “neiiao?e/iia”
iino?iaiea, o.a. iaee/ea eioeieoeaa e a iiaeeaaeauai e a neacoaiii.

2. Naycue aeaenoaey eioeieoeaa n aeayoaeai aunooiaao aeinoaoi/ii y?ei a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea auneacuaaiea naycaii n eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae.
Neacoaiia /aua anaai noieo a oi?ia i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie eee ia?oaeoa
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie; i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeaenoaey au?aaeai a i?aaeeiaeaiee
i?eoyaeaoaeueiui ianoieiaieai, ee/iui ianoieiaieai a iauaeoiii iaaeaaea,
nouanoaeoaeueiui a iauai iaaeaaea eee aea auyniyaony ec eiioaenoa [10,
n.165].

To shut up a non or Lion or tiger in confinement was surely a horrible
barbarity. (Galsworthy, p.165).

To go on like this was tangerous. (Galsworthy, p.61).

To get Irene out of London, away from opportunities of going about and
seeing people, away from her friends and those who put ideas into her
head ! That was the thing ! (Galsworthy, p.66).

Because they told me that to admire Walter Pater was to prove myself a
cultures young man, … (Maugham, p.47).

Then it was a distinction to be under forty, but now to be more than
twenty-five is absurb. (Maugham, p.29).

… but the North Sea gave it a pleasant tang so that it was a felight
just to live and breath. (Maugham, p.54).

For a long time no critic has enjoyed in France a more incontestable
authority, and it was impossible not to be impressed by the clainis he
made… (Maugham, p.22).

It doesn’t do us any good to wring our hands over the far-off things.
(Dreiser, p.527)

It was not for Carry to know the thing in which appealed to her
(Dreiser, p.526) – iiaeeaaeauaa a eiino?oeoeee “neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea”

In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. (Maugham.,
p.48).

“To be delivered immediately”, which was sure to be attended to;
(Dickens, p.798).

To repeat the same thing requires the feminine temperament. (Maugham,
p.64).

How wonderful to have her love him so! (Dreiser, p.62).

How stupid of me to quarrel with him! (Maugham, p.99).

To get Bcemis and Webster of Utica is the next thing to do. (Dreiser,
p.42).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee neiaeiiai iiaeeaaeauaai:

Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune.
(Galsworthy, p.20).

The only person who appears to have seen the young man is the captain of
that little steamboat. (Dreiser, p.24).

You seem to walk with your head among the stars. (Maugham, p.93).

A heavy sky seemed to cover the world with the grey whiteness of a
whitewashed ceiling. (Galsworthy, p.144).

Getting the butler on the wire, he inqired whether Mr. Clyde Griffiths
chanced to be there. (Dreiser, p.47).

You feel like a disembodied spirit, immaterial; and you seem to be able
to tought beauty as though it were a palpable thing. (Maugham, p.93).

Passion! He seemed, indeed, to have heard of it, and rules such as “A
young man and a young woman ought never to be trusted together” were
fixed in his mind. (Galsworthy, p.143).

By the way, do you happen to know a young man around here by the name of
Clifford Golden? (Dreiser, p.27).

Eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec i?eia?ia, ioia/aiiuo iaie, iieacuaaao, /oi
oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai e neiaeiiai
iiaeeaaeauaai ano?a/aaony a eeoa?aoo?iii aiaeeeneii ycuea ia /anoi: ia
160 i?eia?ia auei ioia/aii 28 neo/aaa oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa.
I?aiaeaaeathuei a yoie ooieoeee aue i?inoie eioeieoea iauaai aeaea
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa.

Neaaeothuae oa?aeoa?enoeeie eioeieoeaa yaeyaony auiieiyaiay ei
neioaene/aneay ooieoeey eiaiiie /anoe ninoaaiiai eiaiiiai neacoaiiai.

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia:

His first indignation was to be elated… ( Dreiser, p.332).

It’s not your brother who is about to die (Quick, p.318).

Neglected dislase and hopeless poverty were as certain to be his
position as death itself. (Dichens, p.53).

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai:

… do hot inform your husband that you are to meet with me (Quick,
p.315).

“Yes, but it also says”, the director remarked, “that you are to look
chocked”… (Dreiser, p.195).

Ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaee/iuie oi?iaie aeaaiea oiio?aaeaiea
eioeieoeaa a ea/anoaa aoi?iai /eaia ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai cia/eoaeueii
oe?a e ?aciiia?aciaa.

Eioeieoea aunooiaao a ooieoeee aoi?iai /eaia a neaaeothueo
?aciiaeaeiinoyo ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai:

A ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii ni nayceie be. 2. A ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii
aeaeiaii neacoaiii, aaea aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia oeacuaaao ia oa?aeoa?
i?ioeanna, au?aaeaiiiai eioeieoeaii eee aa?oiaeeai (aai ia/aei,
i?iaeieaeaiea eee eiiaoe). 3. A ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii iiaeaeueiii
neacoaiii. 4. A ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii, aaea eiaiiia neacoaiia (n
i?eeaaaoaeueiui eee i?e/anoeai II) ni/aoaaony n eioeieoeaii – niuneiaui
oeaio?ii anaai neiaini/aoaiey. Eiaiiay /anoue a oaeii neacoaiii
ia?aaeaao ioiioaiea e aeaenoaeth, au?aaeaiiiio eioeieoeaii, eee ioeaieo
yoiai aeaenoaey [10, n.166].

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii (aeaaie be + eioeieoea).

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii /anoi oiio?aaeyaony a ni/aoaiee n
aeaaieii-nayceie be. Aeaaie be a yoii neo/aa ano?a/aaony ai anao
a?aiaiao a?oiiu Indefinite e Perfect. Eioeieoea iau/ii eiaao oi?io
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa. Iiaeeaaeauaa au?aaeaii ioaea/aiiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui, iai?eia?, aim – oeaeue, intention – iaia?aiea e ae?.

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai (be +
eioeieoea).

Aeaaie be ia?aae eioeieoeaii a ninoaaiii neacoaiii iiaeao au?aaeaoue
aeieaeainoaiaaiea, aiciiaeiinoue, i?eaeaaaoue neacoaiiio iooaiie
aoaeouaai a?aiaie. Ii oiio?aaeyaony a Present e Past Indefinite,
eioeieoea eiaao oi?io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai eee no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa.

Ia?oaeoiue eioeieoea iinea iiaeaeueiuo aeaaieia.

A ycuea iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia ia?oaeoiui
eioeieoeaii, iau/ii ioiineony e i?ioaaeoaio a?aiaie. Aeaaie must n
iineaaeothuei Infinitive Perfect ia?aaiaeeony aeieaeai aue, aeieaeii
auoue, iaaa?ii, aeaaie could – aiciiaeii (iia, iia au), may – aiciiaeii,
iiaeao auoue, might – iia au.

Ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia.

“Iaeaieaa a?aiiaoeciaaiiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth” ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai
neacoaiiai, n/eoatho aaoi?u “Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea” [10],
yaeyaony ni/aoaiea iiaeaeueiuo aeaaieia can, must e ae?oaea n
eioeieoeaii. Iniiaaieai aeey ?anniio?aiey ae?oaeo neiaini/aoaiee n
caaeneiui noauaeoiui eioeieoeaii eae ia?acothueo ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
neacoaiia neoaeeo ineaaeaiea eaene/aneiai cia/aiey aeaaiea
(i?eeaaaoaeueiiai eee i?e/anoey II), e eioi?iio i?eiueaao eioeieoea,
ecaanoiay iauiinoue cia/aiee yoeo neia, eo niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue
ioiioaiea noauaeoa e aai aeaenoaeth, iaicia/aiiiio eioeieoeaii, eae e
aiciiaeiiio, i?aaeiieaaaaiiio, iaiaoiaeeiiio, aeaeaaiiio, iaia/aiiiio e
inouanoaeaieth (iiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey) eee oeacuaaoue ia ia/aei,
i?iaeieaeaiea eee eiiaoe aeaenoaey (ioiioaiey aeaeiaua). N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey ni/aoaiea oeia begin to work ia?acoao ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
aeaeiaia neacoaiia, a ni/aoaiea oeia I intend to work – ninoaaiia
aeaaieueiia iiaeaeueiia neacoaiia.

Eae auynieeinue, n?aaee a?aiiaoenoia iao aaeeiiai acaeyaea ia yoe
neiaini/aoaiey. Ana ca?oaaaeiua aiaeenou ?anniao?eaatho eioeieoea,
i?eiueathuee e aeaaieo eee i?eeaaaoaeueiiio ethaiai cia/aiey, eae
aeiiieiaiey, ia o/eouaay oiai iauaai, /oi auaeaeyaony a naiaioeea neia,
io eioi?uo caaeneo eioeieoea e cia/aiey anaai ni/aoaiey a oeaeii e
i?eaeaaay iaiiia?ii aieueoia cia/aiea eiaiiui naienoaai eioeieoeaa.
Enneaaeiaaoaee ?onneiai ycuea noiyo ia niaa?oaiii eiuo iiceoeeyo. Iie
?anniao?eaatho oaeea ni/aoaiey a ?onneii ycuea eae ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
neacoaiia aeaeiaiai eee iiaeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aaoi?u iaeioi?uo
o/aaieeia aiaeeeneiai ycuea ?ani?ino?aieee yoi oieeiaaiea ia
niioaaonoaothuea ni/aoaiey n eioeieoeaii a aiaeeeneii ycuea, auaeaeyy
aeaeiaia e iiaeaeueiia ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia.

“Iu oaeaea i?eaea?aeeaaainy eeiee, iaia/aiiie ?onneeie eeiaaenoaie, e
?anniao?eaaai ni/aoaiey aeaaiea n caaeneiui noauaeoiui eioeieoeaii eae
oi?iu ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a
cia/aiee aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia auaeaeyaony iauaa – au?aaeaiea ioiioaiey
noauaeoa e aeaenoaeth eee aeaeiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaenoaey eioeieoeaa.
Ii n?aaiaieth ni neoaeaaiie /anoueth ninoaaiiai eiaiiiai neacoaiiai –
nayci/iuie aeaaieaie – aeaaieu e eiaiiua ni/aoaiey, aunooiathuea a
neoaeaaiie /anoe ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai, aieaa y?ee
eaene/anee. Anee iiaeaeueiua aeaaieu iiaeii niiinoaaeoue n
iieociaiaiaoaeueiuie nayceaie, oi a inoaeueiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo
ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai aai ia?aay /anoue niiinoaaeia ni
ciaiaiaoaeueiuie nayceaie, e ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia a oeaeii
iaiaa a?aiiaoeciaaii, /ai eiaiiia” [10, n.261].

Eioeieoea oiio?aaeyaony eae /anoue ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai a
ni/aoaiee n iiaeaeueiuie aeaaieaie, ni iiiaeie ae?oaeie aeaaieaie,
eioi?ua aac eioeieoeaa ia aeatho iieiiai niunea (eae e niioaaonoaothuea
aeaaieu a ?onneii ycuea), a oaeaea a ni/aoaiee n i?eeaaaoaeueiuie n
aeaaieii-nayceie.

The great majority are perfectly content to do the ordinary thing.
(Maugham, p.67).

… He means to say”, said Sob… (Dichens, p.830).

… but I was not allowed to go in return to his house. (Maugham, p.53).

… and I am so glad to know that you spoke of him so nicely. (Maugham,
p.57).

Hand it all, one can afford to be generous ! (Maugham, p.47).

He flourished in a bad period and he was inclined to be long-winded.
(Maugham, p.48).

Thaddens had contrived to look hurt (Quich, p.302).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aeiiieiaiey.

Noauaeoiue eioeieoea n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei aunooiaao a ?iee aeiiieiaiey a
neeo oiai, /oi, ni/aoaynue n ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea, ii /anoi ia?acoao
ninoaaiia neacoaiia. Eioeieoea ano?a/aaony a aeaiiie neioaene/aneie
ooieoeee a ni/aoaiee n aeaaieaie a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, a
no?aaeaoaeueiii e i?e ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii. Iauaeoiue eioeieoea
ia iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?iee naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeiiieiaiey e aeaaieo, ii
i?eiueaao e nouanoaeoaeueiiio eee ianoieiaieth a ea/anoaa aoi?iai /eaia
neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey. [10, n.167].

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee i?yiiai aeiiieiaiey:

“… You compel me to say it; …”. (London, p.290).

A study of twelve men in broad light proved them to be nearly of a type.
(Dreiser, p.531).

“Well, you tell that Hermann of yours to mind his own business; …”.
(London, p.283).

I’ ll thank you not to insult him. (Quick, p.311).

He found his partner to be very disagreeable. (Dreiser, p.332).

“… she might lead him to believe that she was fond of him; …” (J.
Galsworthy, p.76).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aoi?iai aeiiieiaiey (cia/aiea aeaaieia cause, get,
lead, make + eioeieoea).

Aeaaieu cause, get, lead e make, anee ca ieie neaaeotho aeaa aeiiieiaiey
(1-a – nouanoaeoaeueiia eee ianoieiaiea e 2-a – eioeieoea), eiatho iaeii
iauaa cia/aiea “aucuaaoue (eaeia-oi aeaenoaea)”, “canoaaeyoue (eiai-eeai
/oi-eeai aeaeaoue)”.

I?e yoii aeaaie cause ia?aaiaeeony i?eaiaeeoue e, neoaeeoue (auoue)
i?e/eiie, aucuaaoue. A oaeii neo/aa eioeieoea ia?aaeaaony ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui. Eiiaaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony cause i?e ia?aaiaea iioneaoue,
eioeieoea aea ia?aaeaaaoue ee/iie oi?iie (neacoaiui) a oii a?aiaie, a
eioi?ii noieo aeaaie cause.

Light steps in the gravel made him turn his head. ( London, p. 130 )

She caused a telegram to be send to him. ( Galsworthy, p. 58 )

I cannot get her to finish her lessons. ( Dreiser, p. 74 )

Neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea iiaeao oiio?aaeyoueny a ii?aaeaeeoaeueiii eee
aeiiieieoaeueiii i?eaeaoi/iii i?aaeeiaeaiee. A yoeo i?aaeeiaeaieyo
eioeieoea neaaeoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca aeaaieii (a aeaenoaeoaeueiii
caeiaa), e eioi?iio ioiineony neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea. Ia?aui /eaiii
neiaeiii aeiiieiaiey yaeythony ioiineoaeueiua ianoieiaiey that, what,
which.

Iiaeeaaeauaa e neacoaiia i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaiaeyony
aaiaeiui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, eioeieoea ia?aaiaeeony ee/iie
oi?iie aeaaiea, o.a. noaiiaeony neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey a oeaeyo
aai auaeaeaiey (yioacu) noieo ia?aae iiaeeaaeauei. A oaeeo
i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea neaaeoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca aeaaieii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa (o.a. iinea aeaaieia oeia assume, consider,
expect, find, know e ae?.).

Aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue iiaeiaiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee. a) Ia?aaiae ia/eiaaony n iiaeeaaeauaai e neacoaiiai;
inoaeueiay /anoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaiaeeony aeiiieieoaeueiui
i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii /oi; aeaaie a oi?ia eioeieoeaa
ia?aaeaaony ee/iie oi?iie e noaiiaeony neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey – iiaeeaaeauei.
Iiaeeaaeauaa e neacoaiia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeii ia?aaiaeeoue
aaiaeiui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, oiaaea iiaeeaaeauei aeaaiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey aoaeao ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey, a neacoaiui –
eioeieoea.

Please make up your mind, whether you want me to decorate for you, or to
retire.(Galsworthy, p.151).

Dirk wishes me to tell you… (Maugham, p.129).

I believe him to be headed toward his old place of business. (Quick,
p.300).

“I told you”, he said,” that I want this house to be a surprise, so
don’t say anything about it. (Galsworthy, p.69).

Of course, if you want me to, Orville, I’ ll go over there. (Dreiser,
p.22).

Silent, swaying to each motion of their charriot, old Solyon watched
them be driving away under the sunlight. (Galsworthy, p.32).

She made no secret of her desires, and I was bidden to translate ’ She
wants you to go home with her’’. (Maugham, p.65).

J respect you as a man of business; and you can’t expect me to believe a
word you say. (Galsworthy, p.71).

She wanted me to go – to go away with her somewhere. (Dreiser, p.94).

“J told you, – he said – that I want this house to be a surprise”.
(Galsworthy, p.69).

A ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey eioeieoea niioianai n ii?aaeaeyaiui eae ni naiei
noauaeoii, aeoeaiui eee ianneaiui, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ii?aaeaeyaiia
au?aaeaii eiie?aoiui nouanoaeoaeueiui, iaii?aaeaeaiiuie eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ianoieiaieyie, i?eeaaaoaeueiuie eee /eneeoaeueiuie a
?iee i?aaeiaoiiai /eaia.

Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaieai e ii?aaeaeyaiui a yoii neo/aa aieaa
neiaeiia, /ai iiaeii noaeeoue ii oi?ia neiaini/aoaiey; iii /aoei
auyaeyaony i?e ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue i?e iiiiue ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, a eioi?ii eioeieoeaiiio ii?aaeaeaieth a
aiaeeeneii ycuea niioaaonoaoao ee/iue aeaaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie a?aiaiiie
oi?ia, /anoi a ni/aoaiee ni neiaii n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai. Eiia
iniuneaiea yoiai ni/aoaiea iaaiciiaeii, oae eae eioeieoea, iacuaathuee
aeaenoaea, i?eiueaao e eiaie, au?aaeathuaio noauaeo yoiai aeaenoaey,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii, aac iiiiue eaeie-eeai ee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea, eioi?ay
oeacuaaea au ia ioiioaiea e aeaiiiio aeaenoaeth, ia oa?aeoa? nayce
iaaeaeo aeaenoaeai e aeayoaeai.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey noieo iinea ii?aaeaeyaiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, /aua eiaao oi?io no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa e ioaa/aao
ia aii?in eaeie? Eioeieoea-ii?aaeaeaiea caeeth/aao a naay iiaeaeueiue
iooaiie aeieaeainoaiaaiey, aiciiaeiinoe (eiiaaea aeaeaiey) eee ia?aaeaao
aoaeouaa a?aiy. Ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue ii?aaeaeeoaeueiui
i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai, neacoaiia eioi?iai eiaao iooaiie
aeieaeainoaiaaiey, aiciiaeiinoe (eiiaaea aeaeaiey) eee aoaeouaai
a?aiaie. Auai? iiaeaeueiiai iooaiea iiaeneacuaaaony iauei niuneii anaai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Anee eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey au?aaeai aeaaieii,
niioaaonoaothuee yeaeaaeaio eioi?iai a ?onneii ycuea o?aaoao iinea naay
i?aaeeiaa, oi yoio i?aaeeia i?e ia?aaiaea noaaeony ia?aae nithciui
neiaii; iinea ii?yaeeiauo /eneeoaeueiuo first, second e ae?oaeo eee
iinea i?eeaaaoaeueiiai last ia?aaiaeeony ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea a oii
a?aiaie, a eioi?ii noieo neacoaiia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Anee iaaeaeo neiaaie first, last e eioeieoeaii noieo nouanoaeoaeueiia,
oi eioeieoea n ioiinyueieny e iaio neiaaie ia?aaiaeeony i?eaeaoi/iui
ii?aaeaeeoaeueiui i?aaeeiaeaieai eee i?e/anoiui iai?ioii.

Anee eioeieoea a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaieai e
nouanoaeoaeueiiio, ia?aae eioi?ui noieo ni/aoaiea neia there is (there
are) oi ia?aaiae oaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey oaeiaii ia/eiaoue ni neiaa
neaaeoao, ioaeii eee iiaeii (neaaeiaaei, iaaei aoaeao, iiaeii auei – a
caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie neacoaiiai); aeaeaa ia?aaiaeeony eioeieoea,
eioi?ue a ?onneii ycuea ia?aaeaaony eioeieoeaii a aeaenoaeoaeueiii
caeiaa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiaeeaaeauaa a ia?aaiaea ieacuaaaony
aeiiieiaieai.

Eioeieoea iinea ioiineoaeueiuo ianoieiaiee which e whom n
i?aaeoanoaothuei i?aaeeiaii ia?aaiaeeony eee ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea a
ooieoeee neacoaiiai ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey
(neacoaiia eiaao iooaiie iiaeaeueiinoe), eee ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii aeey; a yoii neo/aa ioiineoaeueiia
ianoieiaiea n i?aaeeiaii ia ia?aaiaeeony.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey:

“ … considering that I shall be the first to build”. (Galsworthy. The
man of property, p.70).

Martin had a question of his own to propound to her. (London,pP.289).

“But there is more to be said”, he continued, after a pause painful to
both. (London, p.291).

.., he should be easy to deal with in money matters. (… aeaiaaeiue
aii?in n iei aoaeao iao?oaeii oeaaeeoue). – (Galsworthy, p.67).

Mrs. Driffield didn’t like people to see him when he was like that…
(Maugham, p.49).

The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to desert
him – these – all save Sondra perhaps. (Dreiser, p.72).

I find myself in a position to throw light on just that part of his
tragic career which has remained most obscure. (Maugham, p.26).

There was the political situation to be considered and there was this
general party situation to be thought of. (Dreiser, p19).

Beauty is the only master to serve. (London, p.307).

I had not the smallest indication on which to let my imagination work.
(Maugham, p.128).

Those privileged to be present at a family festival of the Forsytes have
seen that charming and instructive sight. (Galsworthy, p.17).

I lived at the hotel de la Fleur, and Mrs. Johnson, the proprietress,
had a sad story to tell of lost opportunity. (Maugham, p.183).

I’ m the last to close up (Dreiser, p.299).

It would be everything to get Irene out of town. (Galsworthy, p.66).

He was a worthy member of society, a good husband and father, an honest
broker, but there was no reason to waste one’s time over him. (Maugham,
p.358).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee, neaaenoaey e niioonoaothueo
oneiaee.

A.I.ss?oeaaa ieoao: “A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii iaoiaeei iu oo oi?io
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ay i?e naiai aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee noaea iaeiie ec
oeie/iuo /a?o no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. ?a/ue eaeao i
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee a ea/anoaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea –
eioeieoeaa, i?e/anoey e a aeaeueiaeoai aa?oiaeey…

Ec aaeaa?aeaeueiuo oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea
/aua anaai ano?a/aaony eioeieoea oeaee. I.Eyeeaoae oeacuaaao, /oi iinea
aeoeaiuo aeaaieia eioeieoea oeaee a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneeo iaiyoieeao
ano?a/aaony 983 ?aca. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eioeieoea eiaao iooaiie
i?e/eiiinoe. Eiiaaea eioeieoea eiaao neaaenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Ii
i?eaaaeaiiui i?eia?ai iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi aiieia io/aoeeai au?aaeai a
ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea oieueei eioeieoea oeaee, oioy a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo a niioaaonoaothuai eiioaenoa iiaeii oniio?aoue a eioeieoeaa e
ae?oaea ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiua cia/aiey.

A n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii iaeaieueoea i?aia?aciaaiey no?oeoo?iiai e niuneiaiai
ii?yaeea i?ienoiaeyo a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ianoiyoaeuenoai au?aaeaii
eaeei-eeai ioaeaaieueiui eiaiai. Yoi ioaeaaieueiia eiy iiaeao eiaoue i?e
naaa neioaene/anee caaeneiua io iaai neiaa e ia?aciauaaoue oiaaea oeaeue
iai?io, eiathuee ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea, aaea ioaeaaieueiia
neoaeeo eae au niuneiaui e a?aiiaoe/aneei oeaio?ii iai?ioa. Oae, iai?io
n eioeieoeaii iiaeao eiaoue cia/aiea neaaenoaey, au?aaeaoue oneiaea
i?e/eio.

Eiiaaea a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea iin?aaenoaii iai?ioa n eioeieoeaii
ia?aaeaaony cia/aiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia?aca aeaenoaey (eioi?ia a
iiaiaiaeeeneii au?aaeaaony iau/ii /a?ac by + aa?oiaeee). Ii naiui /anoui
neo/aai inoaaony eioeieoea oeaee (eioi?ue oaea aue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai
e a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii). Iaeiaei eioeieoea oeaee n for to ia auoaniee
ieii/aoaeueii eioeieoeaa n to. A n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea (iniaaiii a
iicaeiai n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii) iaa oi?iu oiio?aaeythony n iaeeiaeiaui
oniaoii. [18, n.153-157].

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee iiaeao noiyoue eee a ia/aea,
eee a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii ioaa/aao ia aii?in aeey /aai? e iiaeao
aaiaeeoueny nithcaie – so as (to) – oae /oiau: n oai /oiau e in order
(to) – aeey oiai /oiau. Ia?aaiaeeony eioeieoeaii n nithcaie aeey oiai
/oiau, n oai /oiau eee ioaeaaieueiui nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii aeey.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee:

The dismal man… opened the roll of paper and proceeded, partly to read
and partly to relate, the following incident, which we find recorded on
the Transactions of the club, as “The Stroller’s Tale”. (Dichens, p.52).

The taffered remains of a checked curtain were drawn round the bed’s
head, to exclude the wind, which… made its way into the room through
the numerous chinks in the door… (Dichens, p.55).

If Some seemingly vulnerable object appeared he was all attention – to
pass the compliments of the day, to lead the way to the parlor car,
carring her grip, or, failing that, to tace a seat next to her with the
hope of being able to court her to her destination. (Dreiser, p.25).

That she was one of those women – not too common in the Anglo-Saxon
race-born to be loved and to love… (Galsworthy, p.64).

… she had no business to make him feel like that – a wife and a
husband being one person. (Galsworthy, p.75).

He had stopped to look in at a picture shop, for Soames was an “amateur”
of pictures, and had a little room in no 62, Montpellier Square full of
canvases, Stacked again + the wall which he had no room to hang.
(Galsworthy, p.65).

… taking note of the stories, articles and poems that editors saw fit
to publish. (London, p.100).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey ioaa/aao ia aii?in aeey
/aai?, eae eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee. Aai i?eciaeii
yaeyaony oi, /oi ii niioiineony n ?aiaa noiyueie ia?a/eyie too –
neeoeii, sufficiently, enough – aeinoaoi/ii e i?eeaaaoaeueiui sufficient
– aeinoaoi/iue eee noieo iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea nithca as e niioiineony
n ?aiaa noiyuei ia?a/eai so eee ianoieiaieai such: so… as to – oae
(oaeie, ianoieueei)… /oi (/oiau), such… as to – oaeie… /oi
(/oiau).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey eiaao iiaeaeueiue
iooaiie aiciiaeiinoe. Niioianaiiue n ia?a/eyie too, enough, sufficiently
e i?., eioeieoea ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii
aeey oiai /oiau, /oiau.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey, noiyuee iinea nithca as
e niioianaiiue n ia?a/eai so (so… as to), ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiiie
oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii /oiau.

Eioeieoea, niioianaiiue n ia?a/eai such (such… as to, in such a way as
to), ia?aaeaaony ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea – neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey n nithcii /oi. A yoii neo/aa a?aiy neacoaiiai
ii?aaeaeyaony oai a?aiaiai, a eioi?ii noieo aeaaie-naycea a aiaeeeneii
i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey:

It was enough to make get up and leave table. (Galsworthy, p.75).

“Too miserly to bum two cents’ worth of gas and save his boarders’
neck”. (London, p.47).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo oneiaee ii
oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeai ia ioee/aaony io ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee, iaeiaei ii
noieo oieueei a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey e ia au?aaeaao oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe
aeaenoaey. *aua anaai ianoiyoaeuenoaii niioonoaothueo oneiaee auaatho
aeaaieu form, produce – ia?aciauaaoue, give, yield – aeaaaoue e ae?.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo oneiaee ia?aaiaeeony
aeaai?e/anoeai, ioaeaaieueiui nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii c, aeaaieii
a ee/iie oi?ia (neacoaiui) e nithcii e.

Oneiaey:

I assure you he wouldn’t break into a sweat were he to dine in hell with
the devil himself. ( Quich, p.319).

Ia?aca aeaenoaey:

… and were strapped very tightly over a pair of patcher and mended
shoes, as if to conceal the dirty white stockings, which were
nevertheless distinctly visible. (Dichens, p.24).

Eioeieoea /anoi oiio?aaeyaony a ninoaaa ?acee/iuo eiino?oeoeee.

Iai?io for + nouanoaeoaeueiia (eee ianoieiaiea) + eioeieoea.

Eioeieoea, noiyuee iinea nouanoaeoaeueiiai eee iinea ianoieiaiey a
iauaeoiii iaaeaaea n i?aaeoanoaothuei i?aaeeiaii for, au?aaeaao
aeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeo i?aaeiao eee eeoei, iaicia/aiiia aeaiiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui eee ianoieiaieai.

Iai?io “for + nouanoaeoaeueiia + eioeieoea” auiieiyao ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey (a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a /aua anaai ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee eee neaaenoaey).

Ia?aaiae iai?ioa caaeneo io auiieiyaiie ei ooieoeee, i?e yoii i?aaeeia
for iioneaaony, a aanue iai?io – eioeieoea n nouanoaeoaeueiui
(ianoieiaieai) n for – ia?aaiaeeony i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai
niioaaonoaaiii auiieiyaiie aeaiiui iai?ioii ooieoeee. Eioeieoea
aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey niioaaonoaoao aeaaieo a ee/iie oi?ia, o.a.
ooieoeee neacoaiiai ?onneiai ia?aaiaea, a noiyuaa ia?aae eioeieoeaii
nouanoaeoaeueiia – iiaeeaaeauaio.

I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this
way.( Drieser, p.58 ).

That was for him to find out. ( Galsworthy, p.275).

I hope you will not think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to
you like this. ( Maugham, p. 73).

Iinea iiiaeo aeaaieia a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa oiio?aaeyaony iai?io
“iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ni/aoaiea
ianoieiaiey a iauaeoiii iaaeaaea eee nouanoaeoaeueiiai a iauai iaaeaaea
n eioeieoeaii.

Iai?io “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” ea?aao a i?aaeeiaeaiee ?ieue
iaeiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, a eiaiii neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey. A iai?ioa
“iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” nouanoaeoaeueiia eee ianoieiaiea
au?aaeaao eeoei (eee i?aaeiao), niaa?oathuaa aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia
eioeieoeaii, eee iiaeaa?aathuaany yoiio aeaenoaeth.

Iai?io “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” ?aaai ii cia/aieth
aeiiieieoaeueiiio i?eaeaoi/iiio i?aaeeiaeaieth, oioy ii ?aaeei iiaeao
auoue caiaiai oaeei i?aaeeiaeaieai.

Ec niiinoaaeaiey iai?ioa “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” n
?aaiicia/iui aio i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai aeaeii, /oi ianoieiaiea a
iauaeoiii iaaeaaea him niioaaonoaoao iiaeeaaeauaio i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey he, a eioeieoea to come – neacoaiiio will come.

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny e a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa, niioaaonoaoy neacoaiiio
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiiio aeaaieii a no?aaeaoaeueiii
caeiaa.

A iai?ioa “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” iiaoo auoue aeaa eee
ianeieueei eioeieoeaia, niioaaonoaothueo aeaoi eee ianeieueeei neacoaiui
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A ?onneii ycuea iao iai?ioa,
niioaaonoaothuaai iai?ioo “iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”, e ii
ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue aeiiieieoaeueiui i?eaeaoi/iui
i?aaeeiaeaieai.

… I have a particular service I want you to do to me… (Maugham,
P.57).

O?aaeeoeeiiiay a?aiiaoeea auaeaeyao i?aaeeeaoeaiue iai?io eioeieoeaii,
eiaioaiue “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”, a i?aaeeiaeaieyo oeia
The man was expected to win. “Iu ?anniao?eaaai a oaeeo neo/ayo iniaoth
?aciiaeaeiinoue ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai, – ieooo aaoi?u
“Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea”, – a eioi?ii ia?aay aai /anoue –
neoaeaaiay – naycuaaao iiaeeaaeauaa n eioeieoeaii, au?aaeathuei
aeaenoaea i?aaeiieaaaaiia, iaeeaeaaiia, ecaanoiia eaeiio-oi eeoeo, ia
oeacaiiiio a i?aaeeiaeaiee. Aeaiiia iino?iaiea /eaieii neioaene/anee e
ia?acoao ia iai?io, a aeaoninoaaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea, a eioi?ii eioeieoea
naycai n iiaeeaaeauei a ea/anoaa niuneiaie /anoe ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai
neacoaiiai [10, n.169].

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny a ?acee/iuo oi?iao:

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Indefinite au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, iaeiia?aiaiiia n
aeaenoaeai aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Continuous au?aaeaao aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea,
iaeiia?aiaiiia aeaenoaeai aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Perfect au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, i?aaeoanoaothuaa
aeaenoaeth aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Perfect Continuous au?aaeaao aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea,
niaa?oaaoaany a oa/aiea io?acea a?aiaie, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai aeaenoaeth
aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Neo/ae oiio?aaeaiey iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”:

Oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea neacoaiia au?aaeaii neaaeothueie aeaaieaie a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa: to say, to state, to report, to announce, to
believe, to expect, to know, to understand, to consider, to see, to
hear.

I?aaeeiaeaiea n iai?ioii “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”
ia?aaiaeeony neiaeiiiiae/eiaiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai. Aeaaie a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiii-ee/iui iai?ioii
(aiai?yo, niiauatho…), ea?athuei ?ieue aeaaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, ca
eioi?ii neaaeoao i?eaeaoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea n nithcii /oi.

I?aaeeiaeaiea n iai?ioii “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” iiaeii
ia?aaanoe e i?inoui i?aaeeiaeaieai n iaii?aaeaeaiii-ee/iui iai?ioii a
?iee aaiaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iai?ioii “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea
neacoaiia au?aaeaii aeaaieaie to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen,
to chance.

Iai?ioii “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea
neacoaiia au?aaeaii i?eeaaaoaeueiuie: likely, unlikely, certain, sure,
neaaeothueie ca aeaaieii-nayceie. Indefinite Infinitive iinea yoeo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo iau/ii au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, ioiinyuaany e aoaeouaio.

Iai?io “Eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”:

Alroy Kear was a bachelor and now at fifty was likely to remain one.
(Maugham, p.40).

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii neacoaiii (iai?io “eiaie-oaeueiue
iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”).

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” yaeyaony
aoi?ui /eaiii ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai e noieo iinea ee/iie
oi?iu aeaaiea – ia?aiai neacoaiiai.

Aeaaieu, iinea eioi?uo iiaeao noiyoue eioeieoea, aeaeyony ia oa, eioi?ua
oiio?aaeythony a yoii iai?ioa a) a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa e a) a
aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa. Aeaaieu a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa iaicia/atho
oinoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue eee /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea: know – ciaoue,
consider – n/eoaoue, believe – iieaaaoue, think – aeoiaoue, see –
aeaeaoue, hear – neuoaoue e ae?. A aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa oiio?aaeyaony
oieueei ianeieueei aeaaieia: seem, appear – eacaoueny; prove, turn out –
ieacaoueny; happen, chance – neo/aoueny, neo/aeii ieacuaaoueny.
Eioeieoea a yoii iai?ioa iiaeao noiyoue oaeaea iinea neiaini/aoaiee: be
likely – aa?iyoii, iiaeii; be sure, be certain – ianiiiaiii, eiia/ii.

Aiciiaeiu aeaa niiniaa ia?aaiaea iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii”.

Ia?aue /eai neacoaiiai (aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia) noaaeony ia?aae
iiaeeaaeauei e ia?aaiaeeony aeaaieii a iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia. Inoaaoayny
/anoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaeaaony aeiiieieoaeueiui i?eaeaoi/iui
i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii /oi (?aaea /oiau). Iiaeeaaeauei i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey noaiiaeony i?e ia?aaiaea aiaeeeneia iiaeeaaeauaa, a
eioeieoea – aai neacoaiui.

Ii?yaeie neia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nio?aiyaony. Eioeieoea
ia?aaiaeeony neacoaiui, a aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia ia?aaeaaony aaiaeiui
i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, aaiaeiui neiaii eee iai?ioii.

Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe ia?aaiaea iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii”:

A. Neo/ae, eiaaea ec aeaoo oeacaiiuo niiniaia ia?aaiaea iaeei
iaaiciiaeai.

Ia?aaiae iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” iaaiciiaeai, anee
iai?io noieo a ii?aaeaeeoaeueiii eee aeiiieieoaeueiii i?eaeaoi/iii
i?aaeeiaeaiee, aaea ioiineoaeueiia ianoieiaiea (that, what, which)
yaeyaony iiaeeaaeauei.

Aoi?ie niinia ia?aaiaea iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”
iaaiciiaeai, anee eioeieoea au?aaeaao aeaenoaea eee ninoiyiea,
i?ioeai?a/auaa iaoei i?aaenoaaeaieyi.

A. Iai?io “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” n aeaaieaie, noiyueie a
io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ia. Anee ia?aue /eai ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai au?aaeai
io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ie aeaaiea a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, oi yoi
io?eoeaiea i?e ia?aaiaea ioiineony ei aoi?iio /eaio. Anee ia?aue /eai
ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai au?aaeai io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?iie aeaaiea a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa, oi io?eoeaiea, eae i?aaeei, i?e ia?aaiaea i?e
iae e nio?aiyaony.

A. Iai?io “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” n iiaeaeueiui aeaaieii.
Iiaeaeueiue aeaaie i?e ia?aaiaea ioiineony, eae i?aaeei, e aeaaieo a
no?aaeaoaeueiii eee aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, noiyuaio ia?aae
eioeieoeaii.

A. Ia?aaiae a?oiiu nouanoaeoaeueiiai n i?aaeeiaii, noiyuae iaaeaeo
aeaaieii a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa e eioeieoeaii. A?oiia
nouanoaeoaeueiiai n i?aaeeiaii, noiyuay iinea aeaaiea a no?aaeaoaeueiii
caeiaa, ioiineony e yoiio iineaaeiaio.

Ae. Ia?aaiae i?aaeeiaeaiee n aeaoiy neacoaiuie, ec eioi?uo iaeii
i?inoia, a aoi?ia yaeyaony /anoueth iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii”. Anee a i?aaeeiaeaiee aeaa neacoaiuo e i?e yoii ao?ia
yaeyaony /anoueth iai?ioa “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii”, oi i?e
ia?aaiaea ia?aae aoi?ui neacoaiui iiaoi?yaony iiaeeaaeauaa.

A. Iai?io “eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii” a i?aaeeiaeaieyo,
aaiaeeiuo ia?a/eai there. I?aaeeiaeaiey oeia there seems to be, there
are believed to exist e ae?. ?acieoea a oii, /oi a ieo au?aaeaii
ioiioaiea aaoi?a e niaea?aeaieth auneacuaaiey.

I?eia?u?

Eioeieoea n ioiinyueieny e iaio neiaaie ia?acoao ni/aoaiey,
oiio?aaeyaiua a ea/anoaa aaiaeiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aaiaeiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey anaaaea auaeaeyaony
caiyoie eee oe?a. E?oa aeaaieia, oiio?aaeyaiuo a yoii neo/aa, aeiaieueii
ia?aie/ai.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aaiaeiiai /eaia iiaeii ia?aaiaeeoue: 1.
aeaai?e/anoiui iai?ioii; iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii anee,
iinea eioi?iai aeey nayce n iineaaeothuei i?aaeeiaeaieai eiiaaea
aaiaeyony aeiiieieoaeueiua neiaa caiaoei, neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi ie
ae?.; naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeeiaeaieai ni neacoaiui a iiaaeeoaeueiii
iaeeiiaiee eee ecuyaeoaeueiii 1-ai eeoea iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea.

Tom’s mode of commencing the conversation being rather unusual, not to
say startling. (Dichens, p.223).

Every gentleman who hears me, is probably aquainted with the reply made
by an individual, who – to use an ordinary figure of speech – ‘hung out’
in a tub. (Dichens, p.118).

A aiaeeeneii ycuea ano?a/aaony naiinoiyoaeueiue eioeieoeaiue iai?io,
ninoiyuee ec nouanoaeoaeueiiai a iauai iaaeaaea e eioeieoeaa.
Nouanoaeoaeueiia a oaeii iai?ioa iaicia/aao eeoei eee i?aaeiao,
niaa?oathuee aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, eee iiaeaa?aathueeny
yoiio aeaenoaeth. Oaeie iai?io noieo a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey e ioaeaeai
caiyoie. Ia?aaiaeeony i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii i?e/ai, a eioi?ii aeaaie
au?aaeaao aeieaeainoaiaaiea. Naiinoiyoaeueiue eioeieoeaiue iai?io
ano?a/aaony a th?eaee/aneeo oaenoao e a eiiia?/aneeo aeieoiaioao.

Oaeei ia?acii, eae auei ioia/aii auoa, enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea eioeieoeaa
naycaii n aiaea/aieai aai a nenoaio aeaaiea ianoieueei, /oi ii
iinoaiaiii ana aieueoa oo?a/eaae iaeioi?ua eiaiiua /a?ou e i?eia?aoae
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaaieueiua. Iaa oaiaeaioeee ?aaeeciaaeenue eae a noa?a
ii?oieiaee, oae e a noa?a neioaenena. Ia?aay i?eaaea e oiio, /oi
eioeieoea oo?aoee eaoaai?eth iaaeaaea e niiniaiinoue oi?aaeyoue
i?aaeeiaii. A ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey aoi?ie o iaai iiyaeeenue
aeaaieueiua eaoaai?ee caeiaa, aeaea e a?aiaiiie ioianaiiinoe, a oaeaea
?acaeeanue niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue i?aaeeeaoeeth.

Ii ia?yaeo n aeaaieueiuie eaoaai?eyie, eioeieoea nio?aiee i?enouea aio
eiaiiua /a?ou. Eiaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eioeieoeaa i?iyaeyaony a
neioaene/aneie ooieoeee eiaie a i?aaeeiaeaiee, aaea ii iiaeao caieiaoue
iiceoeee iiaeeaaeauaai, aeiiieiaiey e i?aaeeeaoeaiiai /eaia. Oi anoue
eiaiiie oa?aeoa? eioeieoeaa au?aaeaaony oieueei a o?ao neioaene/aneeo
ooieoeeyo. Oaeiai iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony A.A.Ei?iaaaa, I.A. Eia?eia,
E.A.Aocaaaa, I.E.Innianeee e aaoi?u i?aeoe/aneeo a?aiiaoee, n?aaee ieo
A.A.Eaooaineay, I.I.Aaneeaaneay e ae?oaea.

A iiceoeee aea ii?aaeaeaiey e ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iau/ii oaeaea
oiiieiathony i?e iienaiee eiaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eioeieoeaa, ii noieue
?aceoaeueii ioee/aaony io eiaie, /oi yoe naienoaa aaeaa ee iiaoo auoue
ioianaiu e eiaiiui. A ninoaaa i?aaeeiaeaiey eioeieoea iiaeao caieiaoue
noeeenoe/aneea iiceoeee anao aiciiaeiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaaa 2. Noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii.

I?e eco/aiee eioeieoeaiuo eiino?oeoeee a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.
No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneee iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue cia/aiea aaeeieoe ycuea,
i?aaeaea anaai neia a neiaini/aoaieyo; n?aaieoaeueii-niiinoaaeoaeueiue –
onoaiiaeoue eiathueany noiaeaeaiey/?anoiaeaeaiey a iino?iaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiee n eniieueciaaieai neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii;
niiinoaaeoaeueiue iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao iniaue eioa?an,
iineieueeo a eaaeaeii ycuea eiathony naie i?aaeea, caeiiiia?iinoe,
?aaoee?othuea eae oneiaey iino?iaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey, oae e oneiaey aai
/eaiaiey e ii?aaeaeythuea niaoeeoeeo no?oeoo?u eaaeaeiai ycuea;
no?oeoo?ii-eeiaaenoe-/aneee iicaieyao auaeaeeoue /aoeea no?oeoo?iua
yeaiaiou ycuea eae ciaeiaie nenoaiu e eae naoe ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
yeaiaioaie ycueiaie nenoaiu, oa?aeoa?eciaaoue no?iaia iienaiea ycuea –
iauaa i?aaeei, caeiiiia?iinoe, naienoaaiiua aiaeeeneiio ycueo, ?aciui
ycueai eee ycueo aiiaua; noeeenoe/aneee iiiiaaao auyaeoue ycueiaua ii?iu
e niiniau oiio?aaeaiey aiaeeeneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a ?aciuo aeaeao
ienueiaiiinoe, a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo ycueiaiai iauaiey [15, n.31-32].

Noaouey ?.A.?acieea “Aeaaieueiua eiino?oeoeee a nia?aiaiiie ?acaiai?iie
?a/e” i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ia?acaoe iienaiey ?acoeueoaoia
niiinoaaeoaeueiiai aiaeeca oiio?aaeaiey aeaaieueiuo oi?i e eiino?oeoeee
a aeaoo aeaeao: a oaenoao niiioaiiie onoiie aiaeeeneie ?a/e e a
aeeaeiae/aneie ?a/e ia?niiaaeae, caoeene?iaaiiie a i?iecaaaeaieyo
nia?aiaiiuo aiaeeeneeo aaoi?ia. Eioa?an e eco/aieth ia ioaeaeueiuo oi?i
eee eiino?oeoeee, a aieueoeo o?aaiaioia oaenoa, ia neo/aai, o.e.
iiaeoiae e eco/aieth ycueiauo oaeoia, eioi?ue yaeyaony aanueia
aeooaeueiui aeey eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, iaaiciiaeai aac aiaeeca
aieueoeo io?uaeia ?a/aauo auneacuaaiee, eioi?ua aaeeinoaaiii iiaoo
aeaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aaeueiii
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ycuea, i aai eiiioieeaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoyo.

Yoe aeaiiua yaeythony iaeiei ec iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee aeecinoe, oioy e ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe, iaieo aeaeia oaenoa ia i?aaeiao oiio?aaeaiey
eioeieoeaa. I?e yoii ?ai?acaioe?iaaiiay ?a/ue iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae aieaa oii?yaei/aiiay e ii?ie?iaaiiay iaieoanoaoeey ?aaeueiie
aiaeeeneie ?acaiai?iie ?a/e.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey A.A.Aeaenaaaie (“Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaee/iuo oi?i
aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo noeeyo ?a/e” ) iineoaeeee iaee/iua oi?iu aeaaiea,
oiio?aaeaiiua a ea/anoaa iiaeeaaeauaai a aeaoo noeeyo: a noeea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e a aacaoa.

Auai? eiaiii yoeo aeaoo noeeae ia neo/aai e iauyniyaony eo aaaeiie
?ieueth a i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee. I?e yoii aaoi? enneaaeiaaiey enoiaeeo
ec oiai, /oi ?acee/iua neioaene/aneea ia?aciaaiey iiaoo aunooiaoue a
ea/anoaa iieacaoaey oiai eee eiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai noeey aeaaiaea?y
oie acaeiinayce, eioi?ay nouanoaoao iaaeaeo neioaaiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie
oaenoa e aai ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeaaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth.

I?aaeiaoii ?anniio?aiey ianoiyuae eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa a noeea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u,
iiyoiio aiaeec noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a
ooieoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey iniiauaaaony ia ycueiaii
iaoa?eaea, acyoii ec ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiey aiaeeeneeo e
aia?eeaineeo ienaoaeae.

A eneonnoaa neiaa, a aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa neiaa e ia?aca a?iiaaeiia
ianoi caieiaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiay ecia?aceoaeueiinoue a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i.
A?aiiaoe/aneea yaeaiey i?aaie/anee naycaiu ni no?iai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey. Aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?a/e, ea/anoai e
iniaaiiinoe noeey ia iiaoo eco/aoueny a io?uaa io niaea?aeaoaeueiuo
ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo ii?oieiae/aneeie eaoaai?eyie. A?aiiaoe/aneea oi?iu
o/anoaotho a au?aaeaiee oiieeo noeeenoe/aneeo ithainia e yiioeee ?a/e, a
?ani?aaeaeaiee naaoa e oaie neiaaniuo e?anie, a ia?aoiaeao io iaeiiai
noeey eceiaeaiey e ae?oaiio, au?aaeaiiuo ioai?ii ycueiauo n?aaenoa ai
anai naiaia?acee a?aiiaoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee auneacuaaiey.

Noeeenoe/aneia yaeaiea aicieeaao a naiii i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ycuea, a
aeoa ?a/e, a noeeenoe/aneoth ooieoeeth ycueiaua n?aaenoaa i?eia?aoatho a
eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii a i?aaeaeao oiai eee eiiai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai i?iyaeaiey. Iooaiee e e?anee ?a/aaie yeni?annee ai
anai iiiaiia?acee ec ?aaeecaoeee a ?a/e iaoa?eaeueii naeeaeatho
noeeenoeeo n a?aiiaoeeie.

Aeaaie – iaeaieaa aieay a?aiiaoe/aneay eaoaai?ey. A aeaaieueiii neiaa ni
anai ?aciiia?aceai aai cia/aiee e oe?ioie yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneiai
iioaioeeaea ni/aoaaony ?aciiia?acea a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i.

Eioeieoea eae oi?ia aeaaiea ioee/aaony aieueoei aeeaiaciiii ?acee/iuo
iooaieia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae naiaai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai i?iyaeaiey.

I?eia?u, aua?aiiua aeey eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou ec ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo aaoi?ia, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
?anniio?aoue iaeaieaa eioa?aniua noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, naycaiiua n
eniieueciaaieai eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey; ia
iniiaa noeeenoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oaenoa iieaaeai
yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneee iioaioeeae aeaiiie iaee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea.

Oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai ia/anoia yaeaiea a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iii iaoneiaeaii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaia?ie aaoi?neiai iiaanoaiaaiey, a oaeaea
niaea?aeaieai eiie?aoiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Aeinoeaeaiea yeni?anneaiie
au?aceoaeueiinoe a i?aaeeiaeaieyo n eioeieoeaii a ?iee iiaeeaaeauaai
i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth ?acee/iuo noeeenoe/aneeo i?eaiia.
Iai?eia?, a i?aaeeiaeaiee –

To quarrel with him – how stupid of me ! (Maugham, p.99). iiouaiea nayce
to be (To quarrel with him is (was) stupid of me)

– iiae/a?eeaaao yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea aa?iy. Yeni?anney aeinoeaaaony
oaeaea aeaaiaea?y eioiiaoeeiiiiio ?enoieo i?aaeeiaeaiey. E?iia oiai,
yeeeinen a aeaiiii i?eia?a auaeaeyao eioeieoea a i?aiiceoeee, oeie/iie
aeey aeaiiie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee.

Yeeeioe/aneia iino?iaiea aiaeiae/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey –

To have her love him – how wonderful ! (Dreiser, p.62)

– ineiaeiaii eniieueciaaieai Complex Object, eioi?ia a yoii i?eia?a
ea?aao iniaoth noeeenoe/aneoth ?ieue. Aeaiiay eiino?oeoeey y?ei
ia?aaeaao /oanoaa e ia?aaeeaaiey ia?niiaaea, /aio oaeaea niinianoaoao
iaiau/iue naiaioe/aneee auai? aeaaiea to have.

A i?aaeeiaeaiee –

To repeat the same thing requires the feminime temperament (Maugham,
p.64)

– i?enoonoaoao e?iie/aneee iiaeoaeno. A nicaeaiee e?iiee aieueooth
?ieue ea?aao eioeieoea, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai naycuaathony eiae/aneia e
eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea aeaiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
eioeieoea eiaao y?eoth yiioeeiiaeueioth ie?aneo e yiioeeiiaeueiia
cia/aiea.

Iniaia cia/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa a ninoaaa
eiino?oeoeee Complex Subject. Eniieueciaaiea aeaaieia to seem, to
happen, to chance ioee/aaony iniaie noauaeoeaiie yeni?anneae. ?anniio?ei
?yae i?eia?ia:

(1) His manner changed when I happened to mention her (Dreiser, p.137).

(2) Everyone seemed to be talking and I sitting in silence, felt awkward
(Maugham, p.31).

(3) Getting the butler on the wire, he inquired whether Mr. Clyde
Griffiths chanced to be there (Dreiser, p.47).

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, eioeieoeaiua eiino?oeoeee a aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo
noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiu, ii i?e ?anniio?aiee aaiaeyueo /eaiia
eiino?oeoeee iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue eo naeeaeaiea n iiaeaeueiuie aeaaieaie,
au?aaeathueie ia?aaeueiinoue aeaenoaey, aiciiaeiinoue, iaoaa?aiiinoue e
ae?oaea noauaeoeaii-iiaeaeueiua cia/aiey, /oi naii ii naaa oaea
yeni?anneaii. I?e ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue (1) e (3) i?aaeeiaeaiee
oianoii eniieueciaaiea neia “neo/aeii”, “iaacia/ae” e o.i., eioi?ua
iiae/a?eeaatho ioeaieo auneacuaaiey. Ai (2) i?aaeeiaeaiee
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/-iay iiaeaeueiinoue ineiaeiyaony aioeoacie (be
talking – sitting in silence), a oaeaea eniieueciaaieai oi?iu Continuous
Infinitive Active, eioi?ay i?eieiaao ia naay ooieoeeth au?aaeaiey
noauaeoeaiie yeni?annee. I?e oaeie yiioeeiiaeueii-yeni?anneaiie
aeooaeecaoeee niauoea ecia?aaeaaony eae au i?ienoiaeyuei ia aeacao
/eoaoaey, iiae/a?eeaaaony eioaineaiinoue, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey.

Eiiaaea iiieii noauaeoeaiie iiaeaeueiinoe a i?aaeeiaeaiee n Complex
Subject i?enoonoaoao e?iiey:

’ Does he bore you ? I asked.

’ You see, I happen to be his wife ! (Maugham, p.36)

eee:

Passion ! He seemed, indeed, to have heard of it, and rules such as ’’ A
young man and a young woman ought never to be trusted together ’’ were
fixed in his mind (Galsworthy, p.143).

A iineaaeiai i?eia?a noeeenoe/aneay ie?anea oi?iu Perfect Infinitive
Active caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiiie eioaineoeeaoeee cia/aiey
caaa?oaiiinoe aeaenoaey. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia a?aiaiiia cia/aiea oi?iu
eioeieoeaa ieacuaaao eiioaeno.

Iniaaiii eioa?anii oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a eiino?oeoeee Complex
Subject a iaoaoi?e/aneii cia/aiee. Iai?eia?:

A heavy sky seemed to cover the world with the grey whiteness of a
whitewashed ceiling (Galsworthy, p.144).

The sky war so blue, and the sun so bright, that an eternal summer
seemed to reign over this prospect (Galsworthy, p.72).

You feel like a disembodied spirit, immaterial; and you seem to be able
to touch beauty as though it were a palpable Hung (Maugham, p.93).

Something seemed to twist his heart and suddenly he felt u sense of
wonderful freedom (Maugham, p.187).

You seem to walk with your head among the stars (Maugham, p.93).

A aeaiiuo i?eia?ao ia?aae iaie ?acaa?iooua iaoaoi?u, eioi?ua ninoiyo ec
ianeieueeeo iaoaoi?e/anee oiio?aaeaiiuo neia, nicaeathueo aaeeiue ia?ac;
ii oeaio?ii nicaeaiey iaoaoi?e/aneiai ia?aca yaeyaony eioeieoea. Eiaiii
oi?iu to cover, to reign, to touch beauty, to twist heart niinianoaotho
aieaa yiioeeiiaeueiie, ia?aciie eioa?i?aoaoeee iienuaaaiuo yaeaiee.
Iaoaoi?a aeaao eaeie-oi ioeaii/iue iiiaio auneacuaaieth, iiyoiio ii
i?e?iaea naiae iia i?aaeeeaoeaia e iiaeaeueia. A ni/aoaiee n
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iie iiaeaeueiinoueth, oa?aeoa?ecothuae, eae auei
ioia/aii auoa, i?aaeeiaeaiey n aeaiiie eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeeae,
iaoaoi?e/aneia eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaa niinianoaoao ?aaeecaoeee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ie?iiiieiaiey, noauaeoeaii-aaoi?neiai acaeyaea ia
iienuaaaiua yaeaiey.

Oaeaea eae e iaoaoi?a, iiuiui n?aaenoaii oa?aeoa?enoeee yaeaiee e
i?aaeiaoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony n?aaiaiea. ?aaeecaoeey eioeieoeaa
a ooieoeee n?aaiaiey – yaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeeia, ii n aai iiiiuueth
aeinoeaaaony aieaa y?eay au?aceoaeueiinoue nicaeaaaaiiai ia?aca.
Iai?eia?:

His body crumpled as to have a blow and he leaned to steady himself
against an adjacent true (Dreiser, p.29).

Orville Mason could readily sympathize with a family which on sight
struck him as having, perhaps, like to endure the whips, the scorns and
the contumelies of life (Dreiser, p.26).

An appeal to the emotions is little likely to be effectual before
luncheon (Maugham, p.54).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea a ooieoeee n?aaiaiey a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie niinianoaoao ?ane?uoeth aaoi?neiai ie?iiuouaiey, auyaeyy
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iia ioiioaiea ienaoaey e oaeoai iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aiaeec i?eia?ia n eioeieoeaii a eiino?oeoeee Complex Subject iieacae
noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioeieoeaa, naycaiiua
i?aaeaea anaai n eniieueciaaieai eaene/aneeo noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa.
?aaeecaoeey aea eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeee Complex Object i?aaenoaaeyao
eioa?an n neioaene/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea
iniiaiua noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a
eiino?oeoeee Complex Object:

iaee/ea ?acee/iuo aeaeia iiaoi?ia:

aiaaeeieinen:

She wanted me to go – to go away with her somewhere (Dreiser, p.94).
Ooieoeey iiaoi?a eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee – ooieoeey
eiie?aoecaoeee, oneeaiey, /oi nicaeaao yooaeo aeeaie aicaoaeaeaiiie
?a/e.

yieoi?a:

I did not know what she wanted me to do. ’ What is it exactly she wanted
me to do ? ’ I asked ( Maugham, p.48). Iiaoi? eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeee
a yoii i?eia?a noe?aao ia?aoiae io iaeiiai ieaia auneacuaaiey e
ae?oaiio. Aaoi? eae au aeaiiino?e?oao eiiioieeaoeaiue i?ioeann:
?iaeaeaiea iunee e iineaaeothuaa aa aiieiuaiea a ycueiaoth iaiei/eo.

ia?aeeaeeci eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue iiaoi?a:

You wanted her to die. You wanted her to drown. And you just let her
drown ! (Dreiser, p.275).

I want you to find the scondrel who did this. I want him to suffer as
this pure, good girl has been made to suffer (Dreiser, p.37).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo ia?aeeaeeci nicaeaao ?eoie/aneoth i?aaiecaoeeth
auneacuaaiey, ia?aaeaao yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea aa?iy.

2) iiouaiea eioeieoeaa (yeeeinen):

Please, please don’ t, darling! O – O – don’ t want you to (Dreiser,
p.66).

Of course, if you want me to, Orville, I’ll go over there (Dreiser,
p.22).

Iiouaiea eioeieoeaa caeanue oa?aeoa?ecoao oneiaey, a eioi?uo i?ioaeaao
iauaiea, a oaeaea aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea aiai?yuaai.

ineiaeiaiea iaeii?iaeiuie /eaiaie i?aaeeiaeaiey:

There are two things that I want you to think about and stick to
(Dreiser, p.133).

Please make up your mind, whether you want me to decorate for you, or to
retire (Galsworthy, p.151).

He saw her rise and fall, her eyes darken with anger (Galsworthy,
p.230).

Iaeii?iaeiua /eaiu iiaoo auoue naycaiu niaaeeieoaeueiui nithcii and –
(1) eee aannithciie naycueth – (3). Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao nithc
or – (2), eioi?ue niaaeeiyao eiioaenooaeueiua aioiieiu, au?aaeaiiua
eioeieoeaii to decorate e to retire. Ineiaeiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
iaeii?iaeiuie /eaiaie yaeyaony iaeiei ec n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai oiia iiaanoaiaaiey.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eioeieoea a eiino?oeoeee Complex Object aunooiaao a
oi?ia Continuous Infinitive Active.

Iai?eia?:

Silent, swaying to last motion of their charriot, old Solyon watched
them be driving away under the sunlight (Galsworthy, p.32).

She knew him to be thinking (Galsworthy, p.24).

Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneia i?iyaeaiea aeaiiie oi?iu i?aa?auaao
/eoaoaey eae au a o/anoieea niauoee, ia?aaeaaay iano?iaiey e
ia?aaeeaaiey aa?iaa, iiae/a?eeaay yiioeeiiaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue,
i?iaeieaeaiiinoue aeaenoaey.

Eiiaaea a eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeee Complex Object a oeaeyo
yiioeeiiaeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia /eoaoaey i?eiaiyaony
i?eai ia?anoaiey:

I should like him to die miserable, poor, starving, without a friend
(Maugham, p.73).

A aeaiiii i?eia?a ia?anoaiea iiae/a?eeaaao yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea,
aioo?aiiea ia?aaeeaaiey aa?iy. Aieaa oiai, ia i?eaia ia?anoaiey iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ioiioaiea ienaoaey e oaeoai iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: oi, /oi aeey aaoi?a yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui, aieaa
cia/eoaeueiui, aieaa aia/aoeythuei, ii i?aaiecoao a oi?ia ia?anoaiey.

Noeeenoe/aneee i?eai ia?anoaiey aeiaieueii /anoi eniieuecoaony i?e
oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee neacoaiiai. Iai?eia?:

Is it success to be an eminent surgeon with ten thousand a year and a
beautiful wife, to do what you most want, to live under the conditions
that please you, in peace with yourself, to make a hash of life ?
(Maugham, p.190).

Ia?anoaiea a aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee /?acau/aeii noauaeoeaii.
Yiioeeiiaeueiay ie?aoaiiinoue, yeni?anney aeinoeaaaony iooai iino?iaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey a oi?ia ?eoi?e/aneiai aii?ina, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iniaue noeeenoe/aneee i?eai.

?anniio?ei ae?oaie i?eia?:

I was prepared to be persuasive and touching, and indignant, and
sarcastic (Maugham, p.58).

Caeanue ia?anoaiea ineiaeiaii iiiainithceai, eioi?ia i?eaeaao
auneacuaaieth ?eoie/anee i?aaieciaaiiue oa?aeoa?, a oaeaea auaeaeyao
eaaeaeoth ninoaaioth /anoue ?yaea, aaiaeeiiai eioeieoeaii.

Ae?oaie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioeieoeaa-neacoaiiai
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea oaeiai noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia, eae ia?ao?ac:

He had been able to… to… to… attempt this terrible thing – to kill
a girl whom once he had loved (Dreiser, p.51).

Ooieoeey ia?ao?aca ’to attempt this terrible thing’ a aeaiiii i?eia?a –
ooieoeey noauaeoeaiie aaoi?neie oa?aeoa?enoeee iienuaaaiiai yaeaiey.
Ienaoaeue iuoaaony aieaa oi/ii au?aceoue naith ioeaieo, io?aceoue
iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua /a?ou i?iecioaaeoaai niauoey. Niiiaiey aaoi?a
iiae/a?eeaathony n iiiiuueth ?aoa?aeaoeee, eioi?ay au?aaeaia
iin?aaenoaii iiaoi?a /anoeoeae ’ to’, a oaeaea a?aoe/anee (iiiaioi/ey).

Eioeieoea-neacoaiia i/aiue /anoi oiio?aaeyaony a ninoaaa no?oeoo?u used
+eioeieoea:

He used to come here sometimes, and I used to see him walking about
Papeete. When I heard he was in town, I used to send a boy to find him
and make him come to dinner with me (Maugham, p.185).

Cia/aieai aeaiiie no?oeoo?u yaeyaony aeaenoaea a i?ioeii a oa/aiea
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai, ii aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Eioaineoeeaoeey
cia/aiey iiaoi?iinoe aeaenoaey au?aaeaaony iiaoi?ii no?oeoo?u, /oi
nicaeaao yooaeo iiiioiiiinoe, ianiaoiinoe iiaanoaiaaiey.

Iniaoth noeeenoe/aneoth ?ieue ea?aao eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaa a oi?ia
Perfect Infinitive Active a ooieoeee neacoaiiai:

She ought never to have married Sue (Maugham, p.45).

Yeni?anneaiinoue ia?oaeoiiai eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii neo/aa caeeth/aaony a
ii?aaeaeaiiie eioaineoeeaoeee cia/aiey eaoaai?e/iinoe, eioi?ia
aeinoeaaaony oaeaea iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey a?aiiaoe/aneeo
(iiaeaeueiue aeaaie “ought”) e eaene/aneeo (ia?a/ea – “never”) n?aaenoa.

Eiiaaea noeeenoe/aneoth iaa?oceo iiaeao ianoe i?inoie
eioeieoea-neacoaiia, ia ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aoi?inoaiaiiuie /eaiaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey:

I want to paint (Maugham, p.61).

Yeni?anneaiia cia/aiea eioeieoeaa ’to paint’ ?aaeecoaony a eiioaenoa.
Eiaiii eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea yoiai eioeieoeaa iiae/a?eeaaao
aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea aa?iy.

Eioeieoea-neacoaiia a oaeeo i?aaeeiaeaieyo, eae –

The only thing was to wait in silence (Maugham, p.102).

Sune’s first thought was go away, but instead she crossed to the long
window opening on the little court (Galsworthy, p.120) –

auiieiyao ooieoeeth naiaia?aciiai eiie?aoecaoi?a cia/aiey naiaioe/anee
iaiieiiai iiaeeaaeauaai. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiea iauaai
niunea oeaeiai ca n/ao niuneiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, cia/eiinoe
eioeieoeaa. Iiaeiaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo ineiaeiyoueny
aeiiieieoaeueiuie noeeenoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Iai?eia?:

Even if she hated him, he at all went out not to put himself in the
wrong by neglecting this ancient rite. And why did she hate him? Even
now he could not altogether believe it. It was strange to be hated!
(Galsworthy, p.240) – iiaoi? oi?iu ’ hated’.

eee:

My first idea was to begin it with the account of Strickland’s last
years in Tahiti and with his horrible death, and then to go back what I
knew of his beginnings. This I meant to do (Maugham, p.180).

– iaeii?iaeiua /eaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua eioeieoeaii, a oaeaea
aiaoi?e/aneia i?eniaaeeiaiea iineaaeiaai i?aaeeiaeaiey,
iiae/a?eeaathuaai iniiaioth iuneue ia?aiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa
iniaoth ?ieue ea?aao eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a
oeaio?a aieiaiey i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca.

Eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei e i?e eniieueciaaiee
eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey. ?anniio?ei ianeieueei i?eia?ia:

(1) There are your children to think of (Maugham, p.59).

(2) Those privileged to be present at a family festival of the Forsytes
have seen that charming and instructive sight (Galsworthy, p.17).

(3) If he had any talent I should be the first to encourage (Maugham,
p.70).

(4) He was a worthy member of society, a good husband and father, an
honest, brocker, but there was no reason to waste one’s time over him
(Maugham, p.39).

(5) There was the political situation to be considered and there was
this general party situation to be thought of (Dreiser, p.19).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea auaeaeyao eaeea-oi ii?aaeaeaiiua
ea/anoaa, i?eciaee iienuaaaiuo yaeaiee. N iiiiuueth eioeieoeaa
au?aaeathony aieaa neiaeiua e ?aciiia?aciua naienoaa, oa?aeoa?enoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe, /ai iin?aaenoaii ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e a ooieoeee
ii?aaeaeaiey. Iinoiiceoeeiiiia iieiaeaiea eioeieoeaa iaeaaeaao aieueoie
noaiaiueth i?aaeeeaoeaiinoe e oai naiui noeeenoe/aneie yeni?annee. A
aeinoeaeaiee yeni?annee aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao iaee/ea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, a (5) i?aaeeiaeaiee a nicaeaiee
e?iie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey i?eieiaao o/anoea aioeoaca, iniiaaiiay ia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee eiioaenooaeueiuo aioiieiia (political situation –
this general party situation), a oaeaea ?acee/iue eaene/aneee auai?
eioeieoeaia-neiiieiia: to consider – to think of (aaconeiaii, aa?eaio
’to think of’ yaeyaony ?acaiai?iui, aieaa oiio?aaeoaeueiui, /ai
’consider’, e oiio?aaeyaony aeey oneeaiey eiioaenooaeueiiai cia/aiey
iacia/eoaeueiinoe aoi?iai niauoey ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aui).

Ea/anoaaiii-ianneaiia cia/aiea oi?iu Indefinite Infinitive Passive a
aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee i?eaeaao noauaeoo iienaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, neoaeeo
aeey eioaineoeeaoeee auneacuaaiey.

I?eniaaeeieoaeueiay eiino?oeoeey a (4) i?aaeeiaeaiee – but there was no
reason to waste one’s time over him – oiio?aaeaia aeey nicaeaiey yiioeee
iaiaeeaeaiiinoe, aa iniiaiay ooieoeey – oneeeoue nicaeaiiia eaene/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie i?ioeai?a/ea (iinea ia?a/eneaiey iieiaeeoaeueiuo /a?o
ia?niiaaea iaiaeeaeaiiia eioeieoeaiia ii?aaeaeaiea – to waste one’s time
over him).

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo cia/aiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony oieueei /a?ac eiioaeno. Iai?eia?:

The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to desert
him – these – all save Sondra perhaps (Dreiser, p.72).

Cia/aiea eioeieoeaiiai ii?aaeaeaiey a aeaiiii yeeeioe/aneii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii?aaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii aac iii?u ia eiioaeno,
eioi?ue iiiiaaao iiiyoue yiioeeiiaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea, no?ao,
?anoa?yiiinoue aa?iy.

Aieueoia cia/aiea i?e nicaeaiee yeni?anneaiinoe auneacuaaiey eiaao e
iiceoeey aoi?inoaiaiiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiiai eioeieoeaii.
Iniaaiii y?ei yoi i?iyaeyaony i?e ?aaeecaoeee eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. A aeaiiie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee eioeieoea iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny eae a i?aiiceoeee, iai?eia?:

To recognize it you must repeat the adventure of the artist (Maugham,
p.85).

In order to get justice for you, we’ve had to get up something else
(Dreiser, p.176).

She was very unhappy, but to excite my sympathy she was able to make a
show of her unhappiness (Maugham, p.53).

oae e a iinoiiceoeee, iai?eia?:

He gave me rather indifferent hand to shake (Maugham, p.37).

He stretched out his hand to meet that clean – shaven man (Galsworthy,
p.25).

When some Dutch people came here to buy Dirk’s pictures he tried to
persuade them to buy Strickland’s. (Maugham, p.85).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aiiceoeey eioeieoeaiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aieaa yeni?anneaia, o.a. aeaiiay neioaene/aneay iiceoeey yioaoe/anee
auaeaeyao eioeieoea, iiae/a?eeaaao naiinoiyoaeueiinoue au?aaeaaiiai ei
aeaenoaey. A iinoiiceoeee ianoiyoaeuenoai noaiiaeony noeeenoe/anee
iaeo?aeueiui, i?eia?aoaao aeiaaai/iia, aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea.

Eiiaaea ianoiyoaeuenoai, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, aunooiaao iainiaeaiii,
a oi?ia iaiieiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey:

These persons had accepted. Why? To avoid the tedium of dining tete – a
– tete, to give their servant a rest. (Maugham, p.37).

A aeaiiii i?eia?a eioeieoeaiia ianoiyoaeuenoai yaeyaony /anoueth
noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia Question-in-the-Narrative, eioi?ue iiiiaaao aieaa
oi/ii io?aceoue iunee, ?annoaeaeaiey aa?iy. Yeeeioe/aneia iino?iaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey n eioeieoeaii a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa naeeaeaao aai n
oae iacuaaaiuie eioeieoeaiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie. Iai?eia?:

But to look in the eyes of Roberta! God! He could not keep from seeing
them. (Dreiser, p.50).

How to do, what to say?! He was so confused. (Dreiser, p.49).

Eioeieoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ano?a/athony a aiaeeeneii ycuea aeinoaoi/ii
?aaeei. Iie eiatho aeaaiui /eaiii eioeieoea e ii aieueoae /anoe
yeni?anneaiu. A eioeieoeaiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao
eioiiaoeey, eae i?aaeei, iie yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiu – au?aaeaiea
yiioeee ninoaaeyao eo iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea. Aoi?ia eioeieoeaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea n aii?ineoaeueiuie neiaaie e iniaie aineeeoeaoaeueiie
eioiiaoeeae yei ia?aaeaao aacunoiaeiinoue, ino?ioo neooaoeee. A yoii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ’how’ e ‘what’ oa?ytho i?yiia aii?ineoaeueiia cia/aiea e
noaiiayony ia aii?ineoaeueiuie, a /enoi aineeeoeaoaeueiuie neiaaie.
Eioeieoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaeaaeathuea y?eei yeni?anneaiui oa?aeoa?ii,
aeaeatho iiaanoaiaaiea aieaa aeeiaie/iui, iicaieytho /eoaoaeth aeoaaea
i?iieeiooue ai aioo?aiiee ie? ia?niiaaea.

Aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeoeoeaii eioeieoea ooieoeeiie?oao a ninoaaa
o?acaieiae/aneeo ni/aoaiee. Iai?eia?:

To tell you the truth, this is one of the most puzzling cases I have run
up against (Dreiser, p.136).

He brought with him a collection of Indian curious, to say nothing of an
independent fortune and several slaves. (Dreiser, p.178).

O?acaieiae/aneea ni/aoaiey yaeythony yiioeeiiaeueiuie ?ano?naie ycuea.
Iniiaiay noa?a oiio?aaeaiey o?acaieiaeciia – aeeaay ?acaiai?iay ?a/ue.
I?e eniieueciaaiee o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe a ?a/e ia?niiaaea
aeinoeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiue noeeenoe/aneee yooaeo. Ienaoaeue iuoaaony
iaeaieaa oi/ii ia?aaeaoue neooaoeeth iauaiey, i?eaeeceoue aa e ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaiuo o?acaieiae/aneeo ni/aoaiee
iiaeii ioianoe e /eneo yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa.

I?iaaaeaiiue noeeenoe/aneee aiaeec ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea ia i?eia?a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ecaanoiuo aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo
ienaoaeae iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuee auaiae: noeeenoe/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe eioeieoeaa n o/aoii anae neiaeiinoe acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aai a?aiiaoe/aneie oi?iie e ooieoeeiiaeueiui i?iyaeaieai aeinoaoi/ii
auniee. Eioeieoea iaeaaeaao aiaaoui a?naiaeii eaene/aneeo e
neioaene/aneeo noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
ecia?aceoaeueiinoe. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?a i?eia?aoaao naia noeeenoe/aneia cia/aiea, e?aeia eciai/eaia e
iiiaiia?aciia.

Oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea ia?aciiai oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa eae
ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia i?aaiecaoeee ?a/e i?eaeaeaao
iniaia aieiaiea. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi noeeenoe/aneia yaeaiea aicieeaao
a naiii i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee eioeieoeaa, a aeoa ?a/e, a noeeenoe/aneoth
ooieoeeth eioeieoea i?eia?aoaao a eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie
ycueiauie n?aaenoaaie a i?aaeaeao oiai eee eiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iyaeaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Ciaeiinoai n oaenoaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ecaanoiuo
aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo ienaoaeae, ouaoaeueiue aiaeec aua?aiiuo 150
i?eia?ia neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii, auyaeyao neaaeothuaa. Iineieueeo
eco/aiea iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneiai ianeaaeey ii aeaiiie oaia ioaaouaaao
iaoa?eae aiaeeeneiai ycuea XVIII, XIX e XX aaeia, iu a eaeie-oi noaiaie
iiaeai noaeeoue i oii, eae ?acaeaaeinue oaeia yaeaiea eae neiaini/aoaiea
n eioeieoeaii a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey a aiaeeeneii
ycuea. Iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneee e i?eaaaeaiiue oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae
iieacaee, /oi eioeieoea e eioeieoeaiua eiino?oeoeee – ?acaeaathuayny
eaoaai?ey. Ia yoii iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth noaeeoue aeaaea ?anniio?aa
oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa oieueei a iaeiie ooieoeee – ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa iineaaeothueo yaeaiee a aiaeeeneii ycuea XVIII-XX aaeia.

I?eaaaeaiiue iaie iaci? oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a ae?oaeo ooieoeeyo n
aeinoaoi/iie, eae iai eaaeaony, oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth iieacuaaao, /oi
iaeiei ec nii?iuo aii?inia eeiaaenoeee aue e inoaaony aii?in i
nouanoaiaaiee e oa?aeoa?a no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae.
Iineieueeo iiiaea naiaioe/aneea caeiiu ioe?uou, yoio aii?in, eae
n/eoatho iiiaea o/aiua [20], iiaeii n/eoaoue ?aoaiiui a iieiaeeoaeueiii
niunea, iineieueeo oaeoi?u, io eioi?uo caaeneo eciaiaiea cia/aiee,
/?acau/aeii iiiaiia?aciu, caeiiu yoe aeieaeiu eiaoue ia
i?e/eiii-aeanoeee, a i?e/eiii-aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa? e oeacuaaoue
oeie/iia e nouanoaaiiia a naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a ycuea. Ia yoi ia?auae
aieiaiea aua aeaaeaiee A.Aeiia?aaeia.

“Iauai e niaea?aeaiea iaicia/aaiuo neiaaie iiiyoee, eo eeanneoeeaoeey e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, iinoaiaiii i?iyniyynue e ioi?ieyynue, nouanoaaiii e
iiiaie?aoii aeaeieciaiythony ii ia?a ?acaeoey ycuea. Iie ?acee/iu ia
?aciuo yoaiao aai enoi?ee… sscue iaiaauaaony aianoa n ?acaeoeai eaeae,
e iaeia e oa aea aiaoiyy iaiei/ea neiaa ia?anoaao iiaaaaie iiauo
cia/aiee e niuneia. Eiaaea cao?iioo iaeei /eai oeaie, ioeeeeaaony e
cao/eo oeaeia. Aicieeathuaa iiiyoea ieacuaaaony nicao/iui ni anai oai,
/oi naycaii n ioaeaeueiuie /eaiaie oeaie aei e?aeieo i?aaeaeia yoie
nayce ” [6, n.18].

Aeaeeia?aoey:

Aeaenaaaa A.A. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo
noeeyo ?a/e // Aii?inu a?aiiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey e oaenoa a
aiaeeeneii ycuea:Na. iao/. o?. – I.,1987. -Aui.247. – N.3-9.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N. I/a?ee ii ii?oieiaee nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. –
I., 1975.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N. I?iaeaiu neioaenena i?inoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
aiaeeeneiai ycuea: Aaoi?ao. aeen… ae-?a oeeie.iaoe. -I. 1965.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N., Ooaeeia Ae.A. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.,
1973.

Aiaoneaaneay A.I. Ianoiyoaeuenoai iineaaeothueo yaeaiee // O/aiua
caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1967. – O.361. – N.85-180.

Aeiia?aaeia A.A. ?onneee ycue (a?aiiaoe/aneia o/aiea i neiaa). – 2-a
ecae. – I., 1972.

Aeiieo?iaa E.I. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.-E., 1954.

Ai?iioeiaa A.I. I/a?ee ii a?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I, 1960.

Aaicaeaa A.I. Nia?aiaiiue ?onneee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue. *.2. Neioaenen. –
I., 1958.

AEeaaaeei A.I. e ae?. Nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue: Oai?ao. eo?n
a?aiiaoeee / AEeaaaeei A.I., Eaaiiaa E.I., Eioee E.E. – I., 1956.

Eeueeo A.A. Nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue: Oai?ao. eo?n. – Ecae.2-a, eni?.
e aeii. – I., 1948.

Eaooaineay e ae?. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea (ia aiaeeeneii ycuea). –
I., 1973.

Ea/aeiaa E.I., Ec?aeeaae/ A.A. I?aeoe/aneay a?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea
n oi?aaeiaieyie e eeth/aie. I, 1997. – 717 n.

Ei?iaaaa A.A. I iaeioi?uo ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiuo ooieoeeyo i?eaeaaieueiiai
eioeieoeaa a aiaeeeneii ycuea // O/aiua caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai
iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.157-168.

Naiaioeei-noeeenoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey oaenoa e i?aaeeiaeaiey: Iaaeaoc.
na. iao/. o?. / Ioa.?aae. C.ss.Oo?aaaa. – E., 1980. – 125 n.

Oniaineay I.A., Ieoaeuenii O.I. I?aeoe/aneee eo?n a?aiiaoeee aiaeeeneiai
ycuea. – NIa, 1995.

Oi?iae A.N. Eiino?oeoeee e iai?iou aiaeeeneiai ycuea /Ia?. n aiae.
A.N.Eaiaoueaaa. – I., 1992. – 336 n.

ss?oeaaa A.I. Enoi?e/aneee neioaenen aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.-E.,1961. –
308 n.

Eeueeo A.A. I eaoaai?ee ninoiyiey a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea // O/aiua
caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.91-102.

A?iieueae E.A. I?iaeaia caeiiiia?iinoe naiaioe/aneeo eciaiaiee a enoi?ee
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo naianeieiae/aneeo oai?ee // O/aiua caienee
Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.19-34.

A?iieueae E.A. Noeeenoeea nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I., 1990.

Aeiiaoiaa A.E. Eioa?i?aoaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oaenoa. – I., 1983.

Akhmanova O., Idgelis F. What is the English we Use ? A Course in
Practical Stylistics. – Moscow, 1978.

Galperin I.K. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1981.

Kuknarenko V.A/ A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Moscow, 1986.

Galswoorthy J. The man of property. – Moscow, 1950.

C.Dichens C. The Posthumous papers of the Pickwick club. – Moscow, 1949.

Dreiser T. American Tragedy. – Moscow, 1986.

Dreiser T. Sister Carry. – Moscow, 1968.

London D. Martin Eden. – Moscow, 1953.

Maugham S. Cakes and Ale: or the Skeleton in the cupboard. – Moscow,
1980.

Maugham S. The Moon and Sixpence. – Moscow, 1969.

Quich A. Deception. – Moscow, 1993.

NOA?UE AA?EAIO!

Eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii

a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey

a aiaeeeneii ycuea

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
…………..

Aeaaa 1. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneea iniaaiiinoe neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo
ooieoeeyo………………………………………………………
…………………………

Aeaaa 2. Noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii……………………………………………..

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………..

Aeaeeia?aoey……………………………………………………
……..

Aaaaeaiea.

Nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea a aiaeeeneii ycuea i?aaenoaaeaia o?aiy
eaoaai?eaeueiuie oi?iaie – eioeieoeaii (the Infinitive), eiaiaie oi?iie
(the Ing) e i?e/anoeai II (Participle II). Nenoaia eioeieoeaa a
aiaeeeneii ycuea o?aaeeoeeiiii oa?aeoa?ecoaony a?aiiaoe/aneeie
eaoaai?eyie caeiaa, aeaea e a?aiaiiie ioianaiiinoe. Oi?ia eioeieoeaa
i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoiy aa?eaioaie – ia?ee?iaaiiui (marked Infinitive ) e
iaia?ee?iaaiiui (unmarked Infinitive). ?acieoea iaaeaeo ia?ee?iaaiiie e
iaia?ee?iaaiiie oi?iie eioeieoeaa caeeth/aaony a oneiaeyo eo
neioaene/aneiai oiio?aaeaiey.

Oi?iu eioeieoeaa ii niiniao ia?aciaaiey ie/ai ia ioee/athony io oi?i
ee/iiai aeaaiea: eaaeaeay oi?ia eioeieoeaa yaeyaony eae au iaiauaieai
niioaaonoaothueo ee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea, iaeiaei iie ?acei ioee/athony
ae?oa io ae?oaa ii ooieoeeyi a i?aaeeiaeaiee.

A i?aaeeiaeaiee eioeieoea iiaeao neoaeeoue: iiaeeaaeauei, eiaiiie
/anoueth neacoaiiai, /anoueth ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai,
aeiiieiaieai, ii?aaeaeaieai, ianoiyoaeuenoaii.

Eioeieoea – ia oeaio? aeaaieueiie nenoaiu, a aa ie?aeia. Ia neo/aeii
aii?in ia eioeieoeaa iniaaiii aieiiaae a?aiiaoenoia. *anoue eo
(oi?ooiianeay oeiea, e?iia A.I.Iaoeianeiai) ?aoeoaeueii ioaeaeyea
eioeieoea io aeaaiea, nnueaynue ia oi, /oi ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth
eioeieoea yaeyaony eiaiai n aeaaieueiie iniiaie, /oi eioeieoea ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo ie i?aaeeeaoeaiuo, ie aoo?eaooeaiuo oi?i aeaaiea.
Eioeieoea aue iauyaeai iniaie /anoueth ?a/e e ?anniao?eaaeny eae neiai,
ia i?e/anoiia e ni?yaeaieth. Oae, eioeieoea iiae eiaiai «ioaeaaieey»
auaeaeye ec aeaaiea a naiinoiyoaeueioth eaoaai?eth E.O.Ea-eaeaeiae/.
Eeoue aeaaeaieee Ae.I.Ianyieei-Eoeeeianeee e A.A.Oaoia-oia e eeiaaenou
aiaeoyiianeie oeieu ianoie/eai iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi eioeieoea a
nia?aiaiiii ?onneii ycuea – yoi «ioaeaaieueiue iiieiaoea», o.a.
iniiaiay, enoiaeiay oi?ia aeaaiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi e A.A.Iioaaiy, n/eoay eioeieoea iniaie /anoueth ?a/e, ana
aea i?eienuaae aio ioiioaiea e iaii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo. Eioeieoea, ii
Iioaaia, «ia caeeth/aao a naaa naiaai noauaeoa, ii o?aaoao aai eae
i?eeaaaoaeueiia e aeaaie… Ioee/ea iaii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeeiiaiey io
ee/iiai aeaaiea (verbum finitum) ninoieo a oii, /oi yoio iineaaeiee
caeeth/aao a naaa ii?aaeaeaiea naiaai eeoea (1-ai, 2-ai eee 3-ai),
oiaaea eae a iaii?aaeaeaiiii iaeeiiaiee, au?aaiiii ec nayce, eeoei
inoaaony iaii?aaeaeaiiui. A aeeaie ?a/e eeoei iaii?aaeaeaiiia anaaaea
ii?aaeaeyaony oai eee ae?oaei niiniaii» [6, n.243].

Oi/ii oaeaea aeaaeaiee A.A.Oaoiaoia aneaae ca A.A.Iioaaiae ianoaeaae ia
oii, /oi «Iaaiciiaeii – aac ianeeey iaae ycueii e iaae naiei niciaieai –
oaeaeaoue a oi?ia aeeoue ioaeaeueiia neiai, ia naycaiiia n oi?iaie
aeeao, y aeee e o.ae. Iaeuecy oaeaea aaciaiai?i/ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue
eioeieoea anai ae?oaei «i?aaeeeaoeaiui oi?iai» aeaaiea» [6, n.343].

Aaoi?u oai?aoe/aneiai eo?na a?aiiaoeee «Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea»
[10] n/eoatho, /oi a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea oi?iu eioeieoeaa, eae
e oi?iu i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey, ioiinyony e iaee/iui oi?iai aeaaiea.
Aiaeec yoeo oi?i i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an n oi/ee c?aiey iauae
oa?aeoa?enoeee no?iy aiaeeeneiai ycuea, iaeiie ec niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o
eioi?iai yaeyaony ?acaeoay nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i e iniaaiiinoe eo
oiio?aaeaiey. Ioee/ea iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea io ee/iuo caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi eioeieoea, i?e/anoea e aa?oiaeee ia eiatho a?aiiaoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee eeoea, /enea e iaeeiiaiey e iioiio ia iiaoo auiieiyoue
naienoaaiiie ee/iui oi?iai neioaene/aneie ooieoeee neacoaiiai.
Ionoonoaea iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiie aeey eo neioaene/aneie ooieoeee
eaoaai?ee eeoea io?aaeaaony a naiii oa?ieia «iaee/iua oi?iu».

A ioiioaiee eiaiiuo /a?o iaee/iua oi?iu nio?aiytho naienoaaiiua ei
enoi?e/aneea nayce n nouanoaeoaeueiui (eioeieoea e aa?oiaeee) e n
i?eeaaaoaeueiui (i?e/anoea), oiaaea eae aeaaieueiua /a?ou yaeythony,
aeaaiui ia?acii, ?acoeueoaoii eo iinoaiaiiiai e aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea anoue enoi?ey eo iinoaiaiiiai
aeeth/aiey a aeaaieueioth nenoaio, aneaaenoaea /aai aeey auyaeaiey eo
niaoeeoeee a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea eo aeaaieueiua naienoaa eiatho
aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai eneiiii i?enouea ei eiaiiua /a?ou.

Auai? oaiu eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou iauyniyaony naiae aeooaeueiinoueth e
ioiineoaeueiie iiaeciie. Ciaeiinoai n iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie ii
aeaiiie oaia iieacuaaao, /oi iia iaei ?ac?aaioaia, iniaaiii niaaoneeie,
?inneeneeie aiaeenoaie, /aio iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yaeyaony ionoonoaea a
oiiaeao nieeaeiuo aeaeeioae ai?iaea, a /anoiinoe, Ciiaeueiie iao/iie
aeaeeioaee ?inoianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, aeenna?oaoeee e iaoa?eaeia
eiioa?aioeee aeaaea ii /anoiui aii?inai aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Oeaeue ianoiyuae ?aaiou – eco/aiea eiino?oeoeee neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii e iniaaiiinoae oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo, /oi
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa, eae iaee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo
noeeyo ?a/e, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie «aieaa aeeaia» ia?aciaaiea, /ai
aa?oiaeee eee i?e/anoea, iaeaaeaao aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai oi?i, /oi
aeaeaao aai aieaa aeaeei e ieanoe/iui» [1, n.3].

A caaea/e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou aoiaeeei eco/aiea eiathuaainy
iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ii oaia enneaaeiaaiey, iiaiee ?aciuo
o/aiuo, ?anniao?eaathueo eioeieoea a enoi?e/aneii ieaia; auyaeaiea
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii a
?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo; eco/aiea noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii; aeaiiino?aoeey i?aeoe/aneeo
iaaueia ia?aaiaea aiaeeeneiai eioeieoeaa ia ?onneee ycue.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey auei i?iaiaeece?iaaii aieaa 1500 no?aieoe oaenoa
ca?oaaaeiie eeanne/aneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u ia aiaeeeneii
ycuea, ioia/aii aieaa noa iyoeaeanyoe i?eia?ia oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a
?acee/iuo ooieoeeyo, ii?aaeaeaiu eiino?oeoeee neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii e naiaioe/aneea a?oiiu aeaaieia, eioi?uie au?aaeai eioeieoea
a aiaeeeneii e ?onneii ycueao.

Oaeoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeee iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneea
?aaiou ?onneeo e ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeenoia, a oaeaea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey aiaeeeneie e aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?u XIX – XX aaeia.
?aaioa eeethno?e?oaony i?eia?aie eaaeaeiai neo/ay oiio?aaeaiey
eioeieoeaa a oie eee eiie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee, aua?aiiuie ec
iienaoaeueiie e aeeaeiae/aneie ?a/e ia?niiaaeae ieaea ia?a/eneaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee: «Iinia?oiua caienee Ieeaeeneiai eeoaa» *.Aeeeeaina,
«Aia?eeaineay o?aaaaeey» e «Nano?a Ea??e» O.Ae?aeca?a, «Naaa i
Oi?naeoao (o.1: Nianoaaiiee)» Ae.Aienoi?ne, «Ia?oei Eaeai» Ae.Eiiaeiia,
ia?aaanoe inoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey:

Eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, aeaoo aeaa, caeeth/aiey e
aeaeeia?aoee.

Oeeoaou a ?aaioa ioi?ieaiu eaaae?aoiuie neiaeaie, iai?eia?, [5, n.16]: 5
– ii?yaeeiaue iiia? oeeoe?oaiiai enoi/ieea (iiiia?aoee eee noaouee) a
?acaeaea «Aeaeeia?aoey», «n.16» – no?aieoea enoi/ieea, n eioi?iai
i?eaaaeaia oeeoaoa.

Aeaaa 1. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneea iniaaiiinoe neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo.

Eae ooaa?aeaeaao E.A.A?iieueae, aei ia/aea XX aaea eeiaaenou
caieiaeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii, aii?inii i oii, «eae e ii/aio iaiyaony
cia/aiea neia, o.a. nin?aaeioi/eee naia aieiaiea ia i?iaeaia
aeeao?iie/aneie, e oieueei ia ?oaaaea aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey ia?aoeeenue
e naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a» [20, n.26]. Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eea
oai?ey «naiaioe/aneiai iiey», naycaiiay n eiaiaie E.O?ea?a, Iaea?a,
Einaia e Ii?oeeaa, eioi?ua enneaaeiaaee oceea a?oiiu neia, iauaaeeiaiiua
iauiinoueth au?aaeaaiuo eie iiiyoee. Oeueiai ?anniao?eaae neiai eae
eeiaaenoe/aneee ciae e n/eoae, /oi iaoea i ciaeao aiiaua aeieaeia
onoaiiaeoue naiaioe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe aiaa?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe naiaioe/aneiai no?iy
eiie?aoiuo ycueia, n ae?oaie.

Iiiyoea no?oeoo?u yaeyaony aeey no?oeoo?aeenoia iniiaiui iiiyoeai
eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca, e anee iiieiaoue iiae no?oeoo?ie
oii?yaei/aiioth nenoaio eiio?anoia e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee, eioi?ay iiaeao
auoue auyaeaia a ycuea ia oieueei a caoeao e a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?iao, ii e
a cia/aieyo eeiaaenoe/aneeo oi?i, oi ii?aaeaeyaony aaaeiinoue eco/aiey
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?acee/iuo neiaini/aoaiee.

Neiaini/aoaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae a?oiia neioaene/anee naycaiiuo
ciaiaiaoaeueiuo neia a ninoaaa i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay naia ia yaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaieai. Aeaaieueiua neiaini/aoaiey caieiatho eneeth/eoaeueiia
ianoi a neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?a nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea eae n
oi/ee c?aiey /anoioiinoe eo oiio?aaeaiey, oae e a ieaia ?aciiia?acey eo
no?oeoo?iuo iiaeaeae. Aaeaeo ?acii?iaeiinoe ?acee/iuo iiaeeeannia
aeaaieia aiaeeeneiai ycuea, oa?aeoa?ecoaiuo nouanoaaiiuie ?acee/eyie a
eo neioaene/aneie aeeno?eaooeee, eeanneoeeaoeey aeaaieueiuo
neiaini/aoaiee nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea i?aaenoaaeyao
cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe.

Eioeieoea ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth yaeyaony ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui; a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea (VII – X aaea) ii eiae ana
naienoaaiiua nouanoaeoaeueiiio ii?oieiae/aneea e neioaene/aneea
naienoaa, a /anoiinoe, eciaiyeny ii iaaeaaeai. Naienoai yoi eiaao neaae
a iaee/ee nia?aiaiiuo aeaoo oi?i eioeieoeaa: aac /anoeoeu to –
eioeieoeaa, i?ienoiaeyuaai ec oi?iu eiaieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea OE drincan e
n /anoeoeae to – eioeieoeaa, i?ienoiaeyuaai ec oi?iu aeaoaeueiiai
iaaeaaea: OE drincenne. A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea to aue i?aaeeiaii,
ni/aoaaoeiny n aeaoaeueiui iaaeaaeii eioeieoeaa e iaicia/ae i?e yoii
oeaeue eee iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey.

Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea eioeieoeaa naycaii n i?ioeannii aiaea/aiey yoie
oi?iu a nenoaio aeaaiea e oo?aoie ath iaeioi?uo eiaiiuo /a?o. Oae, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, eioeieoea i?eia?ae aeaaieueiua eaoaai?ee aeaea, a?aiaie
e caeiaa, a n ae?oaie, ii e ia/aeo n?aaeiaaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea oo?aoee
oi?io aeaoaeueiiai iaaeaaea. Aneaaenoaea iioa?e eioeieoeaii eiaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a, oaea ia aini?eieiaaony eae i?aaeeia: ii noae iniaui
iieacaoaeai eioeieoeaa.

Ec aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe aeaaieueiuo eiino?oeoeee, iienaiiuo A.N.Oi?i-ae [17,
n.25], eioeieoea i?enoonoaoao a ainueie ec ieo. Yoi aeaaieueiay
eiino?oeoeey 2 (aeaeaa AE 2) «Aeaaie + not +) eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to
(+…), AE 3 «Aeaaie + nouanoaeoaeueiia (ianoieiaiea) + (not +)
eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to (+ …), AE 5 «Aeaaie + nouanoaeoaeueiia
(ianoieiaiea) + eioeieoea aac /anoeoeu to (+ …), AE 13 «Aeaaie +
nithciia neiai + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to (+ …), AE 14 «Aeaaie +
nouanoaeoaeueiia (ianoieiaiea) + nithciia neiai + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae
to (+ …), AE 25 «Aeaaie + eioeieoea n /anoeoeae to a ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee (+ …).

Eeanneoeeaoeey aeaaieueiuo neiaini/aoaiee, i?aaeeiaeaiiay E.N.
Aa?ooaea?iaui, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii: 1. neiaini/aoaiey, yae?ii
eioi?uo iiaeao auoue eae ia?aoiaeiue, oae e iaia?aoiaeiue aeaaie; 2.
neiaini/aoaiey, yae?ii eioi?uo iiaeao auoue aeaaie oieueei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaeeeanna: eeai oieueei ia?aoiaeiue, eeai oieueei
iaia?aoiaeiue. Ionthaea a ooieoeee ?anoe?aiee a aeaaieueiuo
neiaini/aoaieyo iiaoo oiio?aaeyoueny a /enea ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e
(ia?a/ee, i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e ae?.) aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa.

A ooieoeee iauaeoiiai aeiiieiaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea oaeaea a /enea
ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e (nouanoaeoaeueiuo, ianoieiaiee e ae?.) iiaoo
oiio?aaeyoueny aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa, aeaaieueiua neiaini/aoaiey a
oi?ia eioeieoeaiiai i?aaeeeaoeaiiai neiaini/aoaiey. A ooieoeee
eaaeeoeoee?othuaai aeiiieiaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea oaeaea iiaoo
oiio?aaeyoueny aeaaieu a oi?ia eioeieoeaa eee i?e/anoey eee aeaaieueiua
neiaini/aoaiey n niioaaonoaothueie oi?iaie a ea/anoaa yae?a [3, n.18].

A ?aaioao ii aiaeeeneie a?aiiaoeea, iaienaiiuo a niaaoneee ia?eiae,
iiaeiaiua neiaini/aoaiey o?aeoothony eae «ninoaaiia neacoaiia»;
ca?oaaaeiua aea (aiaeeeneea e aia?eeaineea) ii?iaoeaiua a?aiiaoeee
iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho iiae/eiaiiue /eai oaeeo neiaini/aoaiee eae
aeiiieiaiea (complement) i?e aeaaiea. Iu i?aaeii/eoaai a aeaiiii neo/aa
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny o?aeoiaee, i?eiyoie a aiaeeeneeo a?aiiaoeeao e
?anniao?eaaoue iiae/eiaiiue /eai i?e iaia?aoiaeiii aeaaiea eae
eaaeeoeoee?othuaa aeiiieiaiea, iineieueeo iiiyoea «ninoaaiiai
neacoaiiai» aaniethoii iai?eiaieii e oaeei eiino?oeoeeyi, aaea aeaaie –
yae?i neiaini/aoaiey oiio?aaeyaony ia a i?aaeeeaoeaiie, a a iaee/iie
oi?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioeieoea (iaii?aaeaeaiiay oi?ia aeaaiea) i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaee/ioth aeaaieueioth oi?io, eioi?ay iacuaaao aeaenoaea, ia
oeacuaay ie eeoea, ie /enea. Eioeieoea ioaa/aao ia aii?inu /oi aeaeaoue?
/oi naeaeaoue? Oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeii eioeieoeaa yaeyaony /anoeoea to,
eioi?ay ia eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey e ia i?eieiaao oaea?aiey.

I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e ?anniio?aieth eaoaai?eaeueiuo oi?i eioeieoeaa a
eo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue eaaeaeoth ec a?aiiaoe/aneeo eaoaai?ee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?enoueo eioeieoeao eae iai?aaeeeaoeaiie oi?ia aeaaiea. «Eioeieoea…
aeaao ioaea/aiiia, iaiauaiiia iiiyoea i aeaenoaee; a yoie oi?ia naycue
aeaenoaey n aeayoaeai eeoue i?aaeiieaaaaony eiae/anee, a ia au?aaeaaony
oi?iaeueiuie i?eciaeaie» [10, n.161].

ssaeyynue aeaaieueiui iiieiaoeaii, eioeieoea eiaao ?yae iniaaiiinoae,
naeeaeathueo aai n ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea: aeaaea a ooieoeeyo,
naienoaaiiuo eiaie, eioeieoea nio?aiyao niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue
aeaenoaea eae i?ioeann, o.a. eiaao caeiaiaua e aeaeiaua ?acee/ey,
au?aaeaao a?aiy, ia?aoiaeiinoue e iaia?aoiaeiinoue iniiau e, /oi naiia
aeaaiia – eiaao naie nianoaaiiue noauaeo aeaenoaey; e?iia oiai,
eioeieoea eiaao niiniaiinoue i?eieiaoue i?yiia aeiiieiaiea e
ii?aaeaeyoueny ia?a/eai.

«A ?aaioao ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeenoia i?aoaaee/eaaaony eiaiiay noi?iia
eioeieoeaa, eceeoiaa aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iienaieth neo/aaa n /anoeoeae
to, eioeieoea iieiinoueth i?e?aaieaaaony e nouanoaeoaeueiiio i?e
?anniio?aiee aai neioaene/aneeo ooieoeee» [10, n.161]. Oai naiui
caoooaauaaaony aeaaieueiinoue eioeieoeaa, a iaaeaeo oai aeaaieueiua
naienoaa eioeieoeaa auyaeythony ia oieueei a oeacaiiuo auoa i?eciaeao,
ii e a oii, /oi iiaeiaii ee/iui oi?iai aeaaiea, eioeieoea ia?aaeaao a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeaenoaea eae i?ioeann, eioi?ue ia iiaeao
iuneeoueny aia nayce n aai i?iecaiaeeoaeai. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, niioianaii n iiaeeaaeauei
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioeieoea iacuaaaony noauaeoiui. Anee aeayoaeue au?aaeai
aeiiieiaieai, eioeieoea iacuaaaony iauaeoiui. Niioianaiiinoue aeaenoaey
n aai aeayoaeai auyaeyaony i?e oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a i?aaeeiaeaiee
aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai o i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey, i/aaeaeii iioiio,
/oi eioeieoea, iiaeiaii aeaaieo, au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, iaicia/aiiia
iniiaie, oiaaea eae i?e/anoea ia?aaeaao i?eciae eee oeacuaaao ia
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, i?e eioi?uo niaa?oaeinue ae?oaia aeaenoaea, a aa?oiaeee
a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eioeieoea, iaeaaeaao eiaiiuie /a?oaie.

Aieiaoaeueiia eco/aiea oai?aoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii aii?inai a?aiiaoeee
iieacaei, /oi eae n?aaee ioa/anoaaiiuo, oae e n?aaee ca?oaaaeiuo
eeiaaenoia nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey a ioiioaiee ooieoeee
eioeieoeaa a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo aai oiio?aaeaiey. E eo /eneo
A.I.Aiaoneaaneay ioiineo iaei ?ac?aaioaiiue aii?in neioaenena
nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea – eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa
iineaaeothueo yaeaiee.

«Iai?eia?, Eeiaae i?eaiaeeo i?aaeeiaeaiea: He went home only to die».
A ioiioaiee yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nai aaoi? ieoao, /oi «eioeieoea ia
iaicia/aao caeanue ie oeaee, ie neaaenoaey, a oieueei iineaaeothuaa
aeaenoaea». A ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a oae aea nouanoaoao ianeieueei
oi/ae c?aiey ia eioeieoea a iiaeiaiii oiio?aaeaiee. Iaeie ioa/anoaaiiua
eeiaaenou n/eoatho, /oi eioeieoea a yoeo neo/ayo auiieiyao ooieoeeth
ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey. Inoaiiaeiny ia ae?oaeo oi/eao c?aiey, –
i?aaeeaaaao A.I.Aiaoneaaneay. – E.I.Ia?aoa? n/eoaao oaeea eioeieoeau
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie oeaee. A.A.Aoaeeiaa, ?anniao?eaay eioeieoea a
aiaeiae/iii oiio?aaeaiee, ioia/aao, /oi a iaeieo neo/ayo eioeieoea
au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai ee/iiai aeaaiea, a
ae?oaeo aeaenoaea eioeieoeaa niaa?oaaony iaeiia?aiaiii n aeaenoaeai
ee/iiai aeaaiea. E.N.Aa?ooaea?ia e Ae.A.Ooaeeia ioia/atho, /oi a
nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea eioeieoea iiaeao iaicia/aoue aeaenoaea,
neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai, au?aaeaiiui aeaaieii-neacoaiui
(ianoiyoaeuenoai iineaaeothuaai aeaenoaey). A.E.Eaooaineay e ae?.,
?anniao?eaay aiaeiae/iua neo/ae oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa, ioia/atho, /oi
eioeieoea aunooiaao caeanue a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo
yaeaiee. Yoie aea oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaathony e aaoi?u o/aaieea
aiaeeeneiai ycuea A.A.Aeethiai e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, – iiaeuoiaeeaaao A.I.Aiaoneaaneay, – eae a ca?oaaaeiie,
oae e a ioa/anoaaiiie aiaeenoeea nouanoaotho o?e oi/ee c?aiey ia
ooieoeeth eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii oiio?aaeaiee: ia?aay oi/ea c?aiey –
eioeieoea auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey. Aoi?ay oi/ea
c?aiey – eioeieoea auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee. O?aouey
oi/ea c?aiey – eioeieoea iaicia/aao aeaenoaea, neaaeothuaa ca aeaenoaeai
aeaaiea-neacoaiiai, e auiieiyao ooieoeeth ianoiyoaeuenoaa iineaaeiaaaoeo
yaeaiee (iineaaeothuaai aeaenoaey, niioonoaothueo yaeaiee). Eoae, ana
aiaeenou (ca eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua inoaaeytho aii?in i ooieoeee
eioeieoeaa a oaeii oiio?aaeaiee ioe?uoui), i?eaea?aeeaathony aaeeiie
oi/ee c?aiey a ioiioaiee neioaene/aneie ooieoeee oaeiai eioeieoeaa,
n/eoay aai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, ii ?anoiaeyony ai iiaieyo ioiineoaeueii
oiai, e eaeie ?aciiaeaeiinoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa ii ioiineony» [5, n.90-91].

Ae?oaie i?eia?. «A aiaeeeneii ycuea, oae aea eae e a ?onneii, i/aiue
?ani?ino?aiaiu ni/aoaiey, ninoiyuea ec aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia e
eioeieoeaa ae?oaiai aeaaiea, – eiinoaoe?oao A.A.Ei?iaaaa. – Oioy n oi/ee
c?aiey aiaoiaai ioi?ieaiey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ni/aoaieyie iaeuecy
iaia?oaeeoue ieeaeie ?acieoeu, oai ia iaiaa a i?aaeeiaeaiee iie iiaoo
eiaoue ?acee/iia cia/aiea e auiieiyoue niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua
neioaene/aneea ooieoeee, oi anoue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ee/iie oi?iie
aeaaiea e eioeieoeaii iiaoo auoue aanueia ?aciiia?aciuie. Eioeieoea
iiaeao auoue aeiiieiaieai e aeaaieo a ee/iie oi?ia, eee
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, eee, iaeiiaoe, ninoaaeyoue aianoa n iei iaeii oeaeia –
neiaeiia aeaaieueiia eee eiaiiia neacoaiia. Iaeiaei aii?in i oii, /oi
eiaiii ii?aaeaeyao neioaene/aneoth ?ieue eioeieoeaa a oii eee ae?oaii
eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee, eaeiau nayce iaaeaeo eioeieoeaii e aeaaieii a
ee/iie oi?ia eee eioeieoeaii e iiaeeaaeauei, – aua a iaaeinoaoi/ii
inaauai a nouanoaothuae eeoa?aoo?a e ioaeaeaaony a ouaoaeueiii eco/aiee»
[14, n.157].

«A oi a?aiy, eae aii?in noaiiaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aiaeeoe/aneiai
ianneaa a ee/iuo oi?iao aeaaiea ?ac?aaioai aeaoaeueii, – ieoao
A.A.Aeaenaaaa, – ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo ?acaeoeth no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa a
nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea, ii/oe ia eiaaony. A iaeioi?uo
enneaaeiaaieyo iiaeii ano?aoeoue ioaeaeueiua caia/aiey, eanathueany
iaee/iuo oi?i, iaeiaei iie o?aaiaioa?iu e /anoi iinyo nii?iue oa?aeoa?.

Oi?ie?iaaiea aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iu ianneaa a nenoaia iaee/iuo oi?i
i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiii e iaiaeeiaeiai aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo (eioeieoeaa,
i?e/anoey e aa?oiaeey). I?ioeann oieoeeaoeee aeeeeny iiiai aaeia ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai iiaiaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea, e a?yae ee aai iiaeii
n/eoaoue caeii/aiiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Eae ecaanoii, ia anyeia ni/aoaiea aeaaiea to be n i?e/anoeai II iiaeii
n/eoaoue aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iie no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa. Yoi eiaao ianoi a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaiiia ni/aoaiea ia naycaii n aeaenoaeai, a
ia?aaeaao eeoue ninoiyiea noauaeoa. A eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
auneacuaaeinue iiaiea, /oi ?ani?ino?aiaiea ianneaa ia anth aeaaieueioth
ia?aaeeaio (eae a ee/iuo, oae e a iaee/iuo oi?iao) caeii/eeinue e XV
aaeo. Iaeiaei aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaeii ioianoe oieueei e eioeieoeao,
e oi eeoue /anoe/ii. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee neeiiiu n/eoaoue, /oi
ianneaiue eioeieoea iaee/anoaiaae oaea a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea. Oaeia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea eeoaii iniiaaiee: ni/aoaiea aeaaieia beon e wesan n
i?e/anoeai II a oi a?aiy aua ia noaei aiaeeoe/aneie oi?iie aeaaea a
nenoaia ee/iuo oi?i.

Oi?ia eioeieoeaa aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeanue i?inoie, oiio?aaeyeanue
iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiii aeey ia?aaea/e iaieo cia/aiee – aeoeaiiai e
ianneaiiai. ?acee/eoue eo iiaeii auei oieueei ec eiioaenoa.
Ia?ainiuneaiea ni/aoaiey to be + i?e/anoea a aiaeeoe/aneoth oi?io
ianneaiiai eioeieoeaa i?ienoiaeeo eeoue e eiioeo n?aaeiaaiaeeeneiai
ia?eiaea (NA). Yoi iiaiea auneacuaaaony oeaeui ?yaeii eeiaaenoia
(O.Jespersen, I.A.Aeieo?eaaie, J.C.Nesfield). ?ani?ino?aiaiea aea
ianneaa ia ae?oaea eaoaai?eaeueiua oi?iu (ia?oaeoa, eiioeieona)
i?iaeieaeaeinue a oa/aiea anaai ?IA.

A iieueco oiai, /oi a ia/aea ?IA ia ianooieei aua oieoeeaoeee ianneaiiai
eioeieoeaa, aiai?eo e ii/oe iieiia ionoonoaea ia?oaeoiuo oi?i
no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa. Iniaaiii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee
ianneaiue eioeieoea a Oaenie?ianeoth yiioo. A yoi a?aiy ?anoe?yaony e?oa
aeaaieia, oiio?aaeythueony a aeaiiie no?oeoo?a, iieo/aao ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?oaeoiay oi?ia no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa, iaaethaeaaony aoiaeaeaiea
ianneaiiai eioeieoeaa a ?acee/iua eiino?oeoeee. Iaeiaei e o aaoi?ia
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey aua iiaeii ano?aoeoue iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia
oiio?aaeaiea aeoeaiie e ianneaiie oi?i eioeieoeaa [1, n.179].

?aaioa O.A.?anoi?aoaaa e I.Y.Naoaeue «I ?acaeoee aiaeeoe/aneeo
aeaaieueiuo oi?i a iiaiaiaeeeneee ia?eiae (XVIII-XX aa.)» iinayuaia
enneaaeiaaieth iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey aiaeeeneeo oi?i a
iicaeiaiiaiaiaeeeneee ia?eiae. Eae iiae/a?eeaatho aaoi?u, eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy iieo/aao oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaeioi?ua iiaua n?aaenoaa iaicia/aiey
aoaeouaai: oi?ia aeeeoaeueiiai aeaea e eiino?oeoeee be going to +
eioeieoea, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho iaiouaieaioth /anoue nia?aiaiiie
iee?inenoaiu oooo?aeueiuo n?aaenoa. Yoa a?aiiaoe/aneay oi?ia ia?acoao a
/enea ae?oaeo oi?i (Future Indefinite, Future Continuonus e ae?.)
nenoaio ycueiauo aaeeieoe n a?aiiaoe/aneei cia/aieai – ioianaiiinoueth
aeaenoaey e noa?a aoaeouaai, e ninoaaeyao nouanoaaiioth /anoue anae
iee?inenoaiu, aeinoeaay ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoioiinoe oiio?aaeaiey.

Oae, a XVIII aaea yoa eiino?oeoeey oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
i?eciaeaie: iia iaei oiio?aaeoaeueia – aa /anoioiinoue ninoaaeyao anaai
0,80% e ano?a/aaony oieueei a iaeiii cia/aiee – iaia?aiee niaa?oeoue
aeaenoaea; oeacaiiia cia/aiea ia?aie/eaaao oiio?aaeaiea eiino?oeoeee –
iia ano?a/aaony oieueei n iaeooaaeaiiui iiaeeaaeauei; eioeieoea anaaaea
eiaao oi?io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa.

A XIX aaea ioia/athony neaaeothuea eciaiaiey a oiio?aaeaiee be going to
+ eioeieoea: /anoioiinoue aic?anoaao ca noieaoea aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac,
eiino?oeoeey eiaao eae iiaeaeueiia, oae e a?aiaiiia cia/aiea, ni/aoaaony
eae n iaeooaaeaiiui, oae e n iaiaeooaaeaiiui iiaeeaaeauei, eioeieoea
oiio?aaeyaony a oi?iao eae aeaenoaeoaeueiiai, oae e no?aaeaoaeueiiai
caeiaa.

A XX aaea be going to + eioeieoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
iniaaiiinoyie: oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue eiino?oeoeee nouanoaaiii ia iaiyaony;
aic?anoaao oiio?aaeaiea eiino?oeoeee aac cia/aiey iaia?aiey; eioeieoea
naiaiaeii ni/aoaaony eae n iaeooaaeaiiui, oae e n iaiaeooaaeaiiui
iiaeeaaeauei; eaene/aneea ia?aie/aiey iieiinoueth niyou; eioeieoea
i?aaenoaaeai aeaaieaie eae oiio?aaeythueieny, oae e ia oiio?aaeythueieny
a oi?iao aeeeoaeueiiai aeaea; eioeieoea eiaao oi?iu aeaenoaeoaeueiiai e
no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaia [1, c.222.]

Oaeei ia?acii, aiaeec oiio?aaeaiey be going to + eioeieoea iieacae, /oi
?acaeoea ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia, ii?aaeaeythueo
oiio?aaeaiea yoie oi?iu, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiiia?ii. Iaeie i?eciaee:
ioiineoaeueiay /anoioiinoue, niinia au?aaeaiey iiaeeaaeauaai, oi?ia
eioeieoeaa – noaaeeece?othony oaea e eiioeo XIX aaea, oiaaea eae ae?oaea
– eaene/aneia iaiieiaiea, niioiioaiea iiaeaeueiiai e a?aiaiiiai cia/aiee
– i?iaeieaeaao eciaiyoueny e a XX aaea. Ana yoi iicaieyao
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?aeoa?enoeee be going to +
eioeieoea i?aoa?iaaatho ii?aaeaeaiioth yaiethoeeth.

?anniio?aiea no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii a ?acee/iuo neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo ia/iai n
iiaeeaaeauaai. N oi/ee c?aiey noauaeoiie niioianaiiinoe iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aeaa neo/ay oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai.

1. Naycue n eaeei-eeai aeayoaeai ionoonoaoao, /oi iaaethaeaaony i?e
auneacuaaiee iauaecaanoiuo enoei, ia naycaiiuo n eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae
eee eiie?aoiui aeaenoaothuei eeoeii. Oi?iaeueiuie i?eciaeaie oaeiai
auneacuaaiey yaeythony: oi?ia ianoiyuaai a?aiaie a i?inoii ninoaaiii
neacoaiii n i?inoie aeaaieueiie oi?iie e /anoi iacuaaaiia «neiiao?e/iia»
iino?iaiea, o.a. iaee/ea eioeieoeaa e a iiaeeaaeauai e a neacoaiii.

2. Naycue aeaenoaey eioeieoeaa n aeayoaeai aunooiaao aeinoaoi/ii y?ei a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea auneacuaaiea naycaii n eiie?aoiie neooaoeeae.
Neacoaiia /aua anaai noieo a oi?ia i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie eee ia?oaeoa
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie; i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeaenoaey au?aaeai a i?aaeeiaeaiee
i?eoyaeaoaeueiui ianoieiaieai, ee/iui ianoieiaieai a iauaeoiii iaaeaaea,
nouanoaeoaeueiui a iauai iaaeaaea eee aea auyniyaony ec eiioaenoa [10,
n.165].

To shut up a non or Lion or tiger in confinement was surely a horrible
barbarity. (Galsworthy, p.165).

To go on like this was tangerous. (Galsworthy, p.61).

To get Irene out of London, away from opportunities of going about and
seeing people, away from her friends and those who put ideas into her
heas ! That was the thing ! (Galsworthy, p.66).

Because they told me that to admire walter Pater was to prove myselt a
cultures young man, … (Maugham, p.47).

Then it was a distinction to be under forty, but now to be more than
twenty-five is absurb. (Maugham, p.29).

… but the North Sea gave it a pleasant tang so that it was a felight
just to live and breeth. (Maugham, p.54).

For a long time no critic has evjoyed in France a more incontestable
authority, and it was impossible not to be impressed by the clainis he
made… (Maugham, p.22).

It doesn’t do us any goot to wring our hands over the far-off things.
(Dreiser, p.527)

It was not for Carry to know the thing in which appealed to her
(Dreiser, p.526) – iiaeeaaeauaa a eiino?oeoeee «neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea»

In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. (Maugham.,
p.48).

«To be delivered immediately», which was sure to be attended to;
(Dichens, p.798).

To repeat the same thing requires the feminine temperament. (Maugham,
p.64).

How wonderful to have her love him so! (Dreiser, p.62).

How stupid of me to quarrel with him! (Maugham, p.99).

To get Bcemis L Webster of Uticais the next thing to do. (Dreiser,
p.42).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee neiaeiiai iiaeeaaeauaai:

Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune.
(Galsworthy, p.20).

The only person who appears to have seen the young man is the captain of
that little steamboat. (Dreiser, p.24).

You seem to walk with your head among the stars. (Maugham, p.93).

A heavy sky seemed to cover the world with the grey whiteness of a
whitewashed ceiling. (Galsworthy, p.144).

Getting the butler on the wire, he inqired whether Mr. Clyde Griffiths
chanced to be there. (Dreiser, p.47).

You feel like a disembodied spirit, immaterial; I you seem to be able to
tought beauty as though it were a palpable thing. (Maugham, p.93).

Passion! He scemed, indeed, to have heard of it, I rules such as «A
young man I a young woman ought never to be trusted together» were fixed
in his mind. (Galsworthy, p.143).

By the way, do you happen to know a young man around here by the name of
Clifford golden? (Dreiser, p.27).

Eiee/anoaaiiue aiaeec i?eia?ia, ioia/aiiuo iaie, iieacuaaao, /oi
oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai e neiaeiiai
iiaeeaaeauaai ano?a/aaony a eeoa?aoo?iii aiaeeeneii ycuea ia /anoi: ia
160 i?eia?ia auei ioia/aii 28 neo/aaa oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa.
I?aiaeaaeathuei a yoie ooieoeee aue i?inoie eioeieoea iauaai aeaea
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa.

Neaaeothuae oa?aeoa?enoeeie eioeieoeaa yaeyaony auiieiyaiay ei
neioaene/aneay ooieoeey eiaiiie /anoe ninoaaiiai eiaiiiai neacoaiiai.

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia:

His first indination was to be elated… ( Dreiser, p.332).

It’s hot your brother who is about to dil (Quick, p.318).

Neglected dislase and hopeless poverty were as certain to be his
position as death itself. (Dichens, p.53).

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai:

… do hot inform qour husband that your are to meet with me (Quick,
p.315).

«Jes, but it also says», the director remarked, «that you are to look
chocked»… (Dreiser, p.195).

Ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaee/iuie oi?iaie aeaaiea oiio?aaeaiea
eioeieoeaa a ea/anoaa aoi?iai /eaia ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai cia/eoaeueii
oe?a e ?aciiia?aciaa.

Eioeieoea aunooiaao a ooieoeee aoi?iai /eaia a neaaeothueo
?aciiaeaeiinoyo ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai:

A ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii ni nayceie be. 2. A ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii
aeaeiaii neacoaiii, aaea aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia oeacuaaao ia oa?aeoa?
i?ioeanna, au?aaeaiiiai eioeieoeaii eee aa?oiaeeai (aai ia/aei,
i?iaeieaeaiea eee eiiaoe). 3. A ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii iiaeaeueiii
neacoaiii. 4. A ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii, aaea eiaiiia neacoaiia (n
i?eeaaaoaeueiui eee i?e/anoeai II) ni/aoaaony n eioeieoeaii – niuneiaui
oeaio?ii anaai neiaini/aoaiey. Eiaiiay /anoue a oaeii neacoaiii
ia?aaeaao ioiioaiea e aeaenoaeth, au?aaeaiiiio eioeieoeaii, eee ioeaieo
yoiai aeaenoaey [10, n.166].

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii (aeaaie be + eioeieoea)

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii /anoi oiio?aaeyaony a ni/aoaiee n
aeaaieii-nayceie be. Aeaaie be a yoii neo/aa ano?a/aaony ai anao
a?aiaiao a?oiiu Indefinite e Perfect. Eioeieoea iau/ii eiaao oi?io
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai caeiaa. Iiaeeaaeauaa au?aaeaii ioaea/aiiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui, iai?eia?, aim – oeaeue, intention – iaia?aiea e ae?.

Aeaaie be a ooieoeee naycee ia?aaiae caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau (/oi),
yoi, a a ianoiyuai a?aiaie /anoi iioneaaony.

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai

(be + eioeieoea)

Aeaaie be ia?aae eioeieoeaii a ninoaaiii neacoaiii iiaeao au?aaeaoue
aeieaeainoaiaaiea, aiciiaeiinoue, i?eaeaaaoue neacoaiiio iooaiie
aoaeouaai a?aiaie. Ii oiio?aaeyaony a Present e Past Indefinite,
eioeieoea eiaao oi?io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai eee no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa.

Ia?oaeoiue eioeieoea iinea iiaeaeueiuo aeaaieia.

A ycuea iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia ia?oaeoiui
eioeieoeaii, iau/ii ioiineony e i?ioaaeoaio a?aiaie. Aeaaie must n
iineaaeothuei Infinitive Pervect ia?aaiaeeony aeieaeai aue, aeieaeii
auoue, iaaa?ii, aeaaie could – aiciiaeii (iia, iia au), may – aiciiaeii,
iiaeao auoue, might – iia au (ni.1-4).

Ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia.

«Iaeaieaa a?aiiaoeciaaiiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth» ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai
neacoaiiai, n/eoatho aaoi?u «Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea» [10],
yaeyaony ni/aoaiea iiaeaeueiuo aeaaieia can, must e ae?oaea n
eioeieoeaii. Iniiaaieai aeey ?anniio?aiey ae?oaeo neiaini/aoaiee n
caaeneiui noauaeoiui eioeieoeaii eae ia?acothueo ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
neacoaiia neoaeeo ineaaeaiea eaene/aneiai cia/aiey aeaaiea
(i?eeaaaoaeueiiai eee i?e/anoey II), e eioi?iio i?eiueaao eioeieoea,
ecaanoiay iauiinoue cia/aiee yoeo neia, eo niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue
ioiioaiea noauaeoa e aai aeaenoaeth, iaicia/aiiiio eioeieoeaii, eae e
aiciiaeiiio, i?aaeiieaaaaiiio, iaiaoiaeeiiio, aeaeaaiiio, iaia/aiiiio e
inouanoaeaieth (iiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey) eee oeacuaaoue ia ia/aei,
i?iaeieaeaiea eee eiiaoe aeaenoaey (ioiioaiey aeaeiaua). N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey ni/aoaiea oeia begin to work ia?acoao ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
aeaeiaia neacoaiia, a ni/aoaiea oeia I intend to work – ninoaaiia
aeaaieueiia iiaeaeueiia neacoaiia.

Eae auynieeinue, n?aaee a?aiiaoenoia iao aaeeiiai acaeyaea ia yoe
neiaini/aoaiey. Ana ca?oaaaeiua aiaeenou ?anniao?eaatho eioeieoea,
i?eiueathuee e aeaaieo ee i?eeaaaoaeueiiio ethaiai cia/aiey, eae
aeiiieiaiey, ia o/eouaay oiai iauaai, /oi auaeaeyaony a naiaioeea neia,
io eioi?uo caaeneo eioeieoea e cia/aiey anaai ni/aoaiey a oeaeii e
i?eaeaaay iaiiia?ii aieueoia cia/aiea eiaiiui naienoaai eioeieoeaa.
Enneaaeiaaoaee ?onneiai ycuea noiyo ia niaa?oaiii eiuo iiceoeeyo. Iie
?anniao?eaatho oaeea ni/aoaiey a ?onneii ycuea eae ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia
neacoaiia aeaeiaiai eee iiaeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Aaoi?u iaeioi?uo
o/aaieeia aiaeeeneiai ycuea ?ani?ino?aieee yoi oieeiaaiea ia
niioaaonoaothuea ni/aoaiey n eioeieoeaii a aiaeeeneii ycuea, auaeaeyy
aeaeiaia e iiaeaeueiia ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia.

«Iu oaeaea i?eaea?aeeaaainy eeiee, iaia/aiiie ?onneeie eeiaaenoaie, e
?anniao?eaaai ni/aoaiey aeaaiea n caaeneiui noauaeoiui eioeieoeaii eae
oi?iu ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea a
cia/aiee aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia auaeaeyaony iauaa – au?aaeaiea ioiioaiey
noauaeoa e aeaenoaeth eee aeaeiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaenoaey eioeieoeaa.
Ii n?aaiaieth ni neoaeaaiie /anoueth ninoaaiiai eiaiiiai neacoaiiai –
nayci/iuie aeaaieaie – aeaaieu e eiaiiua ni/aoaiey, aunooiathuea a
neoaeaaiie /anoe ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai, aieaa y?ee
eaene/anee. Anee iiaeaeueiua aeaaieu iiaeii niiinoaaeoue n
iieociaiaiaoaeueiuie nayceaie, oi a inoaeueiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo
ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai aai ia?aay /anoue niiinoaaeia ni
ciaiaiaoaeueiuie nayceaie, e ninoaaiia aeaaieueiia neacoaiia a oeaeii
iaiaa a?aiiaoeciaaii, /ai eiaiiia» [10, n.261].

Eioeieoea oiio?aaeyaony eae /anoue ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai a
ni/aoaiee n iiaeaeueiuie aeaaieaie, ni iiiaeie ae?oaeie aeaaieaie,
eioi?ua aac eioeieoeaa ia aeatho iieiiai niunea (eae e niioaaonoaothuea
aeaaieu a ?onneii ycuea), a oaeaea a ni/aoaiee n i?eeaaaoaeueiuie n
aeaaieii-nayceie.

The great majority are perfectly content to do the ordinary thing.
(Maugham, p.67).

«She seems to have made guite a conguest of you,any way», drawled Aunt
-Hester from her corner.(Galsworthy, p.131).

And behind his speech seemed to sound again that himbling violance of
primitive generations. (Galsworthy, p.63).

She saw one stop and the footman dismound, opening the door for the
gentleman who seemed to be leisurely returring from some afternoon
pleasure. (Dreiser, p.143).

She seemed to offer herself to the assault of love. (Maugham, p.182).

… He means to say», said Sob… (Dichens, p.830).

… but I was not allowed to go in return to his house. (Maugham, p.53).

… and I am so glad to know that you spoke of him so nicelu. (Maugham,
p.57).

Hand it all, one can afford to be generous ! (Maugham, p.47).

He flourished in a bad period and he was inclined to be long-winded.
(Maugham, p.48).

Thaddens had contrived to look hurt (Quich, p.302).

Ia?aoiae

Noauaeoiue eioeieoea n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeei aunooiaao a ?iee aeiiieiaiey a
neeo oiai, /oi, ni/aoaynue n ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea, ii /anoi ia?acoao
ninoaaiia neacoaiia. Eioeieoea ano?a/aaony a aeaiiie neioaene/aneie
ooieoeee a ni/aoaiee n aeaaieaie a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, a
no?aaeaoaeueiii e i?e ninoaaiii eiaiiii neacoaiii. Iauaeoiue eioeieoea
ia iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?iee naiinoiyoaeueiiai aeiiieiaiey e aeaaieo, ii
i?eiueaao e nouanoaeoaeueiiio eee ianoieiaieth a ea/anoaa aoi?iai /eaia
neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey. [10, n.167].

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee i?yiiai aeiiieiaiey:

«… Jou compel me to say it; …». (London, p.290).

A study of twese men in broad light proved them to be nearly of a type.
(Dreiser, p.531).

«Well, qou tell that Hermann of yours to mind his own business; …».
(London, p.283).

I’ ll thanki qou not to insult him. (Quick, p.311).

He found his partner to be very disagreeable. (Dreiser, p.332).

«… she might lead him to believe that she was fond of him; …» (J.
Galsworthy, p.76).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aoi?iai aeiiieiaiey (cia/aiea aeaaieia cause, get,
lead, make + eioeieoea).

Aeaaieu cause, get, lead e make, anee ca ieie neaaeotho aeaa aeiiieiaiey
(1-a – nouanoaeoaeueiia eee ianoieiaiea e 2-a – eioeieoea), eiatho iaeii
iauaa cia/aiea «aucuaaoue (eaeia-oi aeaenoaea)», «canoaaeyoue (eiai-eeai
/oi-eeai aeaeaoue)».

I?e yoii aeaaie cause ia?aaiaeeony i?eaiaeeoue e, neoaeeoue (auoue)
i?e/eiie, aucuaaoue. A oaeii neo/aa eioeieoea ia?aaeaaony ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui. Eiiaaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony cause i?e ia?aaiaea iioneaoue,
eioeieoea aea ia?aaeaaaoue ee/iie oi?iie (neacoaiui) a oii a?aiaie, a
eioi?ii noieo aeaaie cause. I?EIA?U [10, n.168].

Neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea iiaeao oiio?aaeyoueny a ii?aaeaeeoaeueiii eee
aeiiieieoaeueiii i?eaeaoi/iii i?aaeeiaeaiee. A yoeo i?aaeeiaeaieyo
eioeieoea neaaeoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca aeaaieii (a aeaenoaeoaeueiii
caeiaa), e eioi?iio ioiineony neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea. Ia?aui /eaiii
neiaeiii aeiiieiaiey yaeythony ioiineoaeueiua ianoieiaiey that, what,
which.

Iiaeeaaeauaa e neacoaiia i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaiaeyony
aaiaeiui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, eioeieoea ia?aaiaeeony ee/iie
oi?iie aeaaiea, o.a. noaiiaeony neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey a oeaeyo
aai auaeaeaiey (yioacu) noieo ia?aae iiaeeaaeauei. A oaeeo
i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea neaaeoao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca aeaaieii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa (o.a. iinea aeaaieia oeia assume, consider,
expect, find, know e ae?.).

Aiciiaeiu aeaa aa?eaioa ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue iiaeiaiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee. a) Ia?aaiae ia/eiaaony n iiaeeaaeauaai e neacoaiiai;
inoaeueiay /anoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaiaeeony aeiiieieoaeueiui
i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii /oi; aeaaie a oi?ia eioeieoeaa
ia?aaeaaony ee/iie oi?iie e noaiiaeony neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey – iiaeeaaeauei.
Iiaeeaaeauaa e neacoaiia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeii ia?aaiaeeoue
aaiaeiui i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, oiaaea iiaeeaaeauei aeaaiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey aoaeao ia?aue /eai neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey, a neacoaiui –
eioeieoea.

Please make up your mind, whether you want me to decorate for you, or to
retire.(Galsworthy, p.151).

Dirk wishes me to tell you… (Maugham, p.129).

I believe him to be headed toward his old place of business. (Quick,
p.300).

«I told you», he said,» that I want this house to be a surprise, so
don’t say arything about it. (Galsworthy, p.69).

Of course, if you want me to, Orville, I’ ll go iver there. (Dreiser,
p.22).

Silent, swaying to each motion of ther chrriot, old Solyon watched them
be driving away under the sunlight. (Galsworthy, p.32).

She made no secret of her desires, I was bilden to translate ’ She
wants you to go home with her’’. (Maugham, p.65).

J respect uoy as a man of business; I you can’t expect me to believe a
word you say. (Galsworthy, p.71).

She wanted me to go – to go away with her somewhere. (Dreiser, p.94).

«J told you, – he said – that J want this house to be a surprise».
(Galsworthy, p.69).

Auaiaeu:

A ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey eioeieoea niioianai n ii?aaeaeyaiui eae ni naiei
noauaeoii, aeoeaiui eee ianneaiui, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ii?aaeaeyaiia
au?aaeaii eiie?aoiui nouanoaeoaeueiui, iaii?aaeaeaiiuie eee
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ianoieiaieyie, i?eeaaaoaeueiuie eee /eneeoaeueiuie a
?iee i?aaeiaoiiai /eaia.

Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaieai e ii?aaeaeyaiui a yoii neo/aa aieaa
neiaeiia, /ai iiaeii noaeeoue ii oi?ia neiaini/aoaiey; iii /aoei
auyaeyaony i?e ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue i?e iiiiue ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, a eioi?ii eioeieoeaiiio ii?aaeaeaieth a
aiaeeeneii ycuea niioaaonoaoao ee/iue aeaaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie a?aiaiiie
oi?ia, /anoi a ni/aoaiee ni neiaii n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai. Eiia
iniuneaiea yoiai ni/aoaiea iaaiciiaeii, oae eae eioeieoea, iacuaathuee
aeaenoaea, i?eiueaao e eiaie, au?aaeathuaio noauaeo yoiai aeaenoaey,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii, aac iiiiue eaeie-eeai ee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea, eioi?ay
oeacuaaea au ia ioiioaiea e aeaiiiio aeaenoaeth, ia oa?aeoa? nayce
iaaeaeo aeaenoaeai e aeayoaeai.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey noieo iinea ii?aaeaeyaiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, /aua eiaao oi?io no?aaeaoaeueiiai caeiaa e ioaa/aao
ia aii?in eaeie? Eioeieoea-ii?aaeaeaiea caeeth/aao a naay iiaeaeueiue
iooaiie aeieaeainoaiaaiey, aiciiaeiinoe (eiiaaea aeaeaiey) eee ia?aaeaao
aoaeouaa a?aiy. Ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue ii?aaeaeeoaeueiui
i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai, neacoaiia eioi?iai eiaao iooaiie
aeieaeainoaiaaiey, aiciiaeiinoe (eiiaaea aeaeaiey) eee aoaeouaai
a?aiaie. Auai? iiaeaeueiiai iooaiea iiaeneacuaaaony iauei niuneii anaai
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Anee eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey au?aaeai aeaaieii,
niioaaonoaothuee yeaeaaeaio eioi?iai a ?onneii ycuea o?aaoao iinea naay
i?aaeeiaa, oi yoio i?aaeeia i?e ia?aaiaea noaaeony ia?aae nithciui
neiaii; iinea ii?yaeeiauo /eneeoaeueiuo first, second e ae?oaeo eee
iinea i?eeaaaoaeueiiai last ia?aaiaeeony ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea a oii
a?aiaie, a eioi?ii noieo neacoaiia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Anee iaaeaeo neiaaie firs, last e eioeieoeaii noieo nouanoaeoaeueiia, oi
eioeieoea n ioiinyueieny e iaio neiaaie ia?aaiaeeony i?eaeaoi/iui
ii?aaeaeeoaeueiui i?aaeeiaeaieai eee i?e/anoiui iai?ioii.

Anee eioeieoea a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaieai e
nouanoaeoaeueiiio, ia?aae eioi?ui noieo ni/aoaiea neia there is (there
are)? oi ia?aaiae oaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey oaeiaii ia/eiaoue ni neiaa
neaaeoao, ioaeii eee iiaeii (neaaeiaaei, iaaei aoaeao, iiaeii auei – a
caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie neacoaiiai); aeaeaa ia?aaiaeeony eioeieoea,
eioi?ue a ?onneii ycuea ia?aaeaaony eioeieoeaii a aeaenoaeoaeueiii
caeiaa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiaeeaaeauaa a ia?aaiaea ieacuaaaony
aeiiieiaieai.

Eioeieoea iinea ioiineoaeueiuo ianoieiaiee which e whom n
i?aaeoanoaothuei i?aaeeiaii ia?aaiaeeony eee ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea a
ooieoeee neacoaiiai ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey
(neacoaiia eiaao iooaiie iiaeaeueiinoe), eee ioaeaaieueiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii aeey; a yoii neo/aa ioiineoaeueiia
ianoieiaiea n i?aaeeiaii ia ia?aaiaeeony.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey:

« … considering that I shall be the first to build». (Galsworthy. The
man of property, p.70).

Martin hat a question of his own to propound to her. (London,pP.289).

«But there is more to be said», he continued, after a pause painful to
both. (London, p.291).

.., he should be easy to deal with in money matters. (… aeaiaaeiue
aii?in n iei aoaeao iao?oaeii oeaaeeoue). – (Galsworthy, p.67).

Mrs. Driffield didn’t like people to see him when he was like that…
(Maugham, p.49).

The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to desert
him – these – all sawe Sondra perhaps. (Dreiser, p.72).

I find myself in a position to throw light on just that part of his
tragic career which has remained most obscure. (Maugham, p.26).

There was the political situation to be considered J there was this
general party situation to be thought of. (Dreiser, p19).

Beauty is the only master to serve. (London, p.307).

I had not the smailest indication on which to let my imagination work.
(Maugham, p.128).

Those privileged to be present at a family festival of the Forsytes have
seen that charming and instructive sight. (Galsworthy, p.17).

I lived at the hotel de la Fleur, and Mrs. Johnson, the proprietress,
had a sad story to tell of Lost opportunity. (Maugham, p.183).

I’ m the last to close up (Dreiser, p.299).

It woult be everything to get Irene out of town. (Galsworthy, p.66).

He was a worthy member of society, a good husband and father, an honest
broker, but there was no reason to waste one’s tince over him. (Maugham,
p.358).

Ia?aoiae

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee, neaaenoaey e niioonoaothueo
oneiaee.

A.I.ss?oeaaa ieoao: «A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii iaoiaeei iu oo oi?io
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ay i?e naiai aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee noaea iaeiie ec
oeie/iuo /a?o no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. ?a/ue eaeao i
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee a ea/anoaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea –
eioeieoeaa, i?e/anoey e a aeaeueiaeoai aa?oiaeey…

Ec aaeaa?aeaeueiuo oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea
/aua anaai ano?a/aaony eioeieoea oeaee. I.Eyeeaoae oeacuaaao, /oi iinea
aeoeaiuo aeaaieia eioeieoea oeaee a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneeo iaiyoieeao
ano?a/aaony 983 ?aca. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eioeieoea eiaao iooaiie
i?e/eiiinoe. Eiiaaea eioeieoea eiaao neaaenoaaiiia cia/aiea. Ii
i?eaaaeaiiui i?eia?ai iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi aiieia io/aoeeai au?aaeai a
ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea oieueei eioeieoea oeaee, oioy a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo a niioaaonoaothuai eiioaenoa iiaeii oniio?aoue a eioeieoeaa e
ae?oaea ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiua cia/aiey.

A n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii iaeaieueoea i?aia?aciaaiey no?oeoo?iiai e niuneiaiai
ii?yaeea i?ienoiaeyo a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ianoiyoaeuenoai au?aaeaii
eaeei-eeai ioaeaaieueiui eiaiai. Yoi ioaeaaieueiia eiy iiaeao eiaoue i?e
naaa neioaene/anee caaeneiua io iaai neiaa e ia?aciauaaoue oiaaea oeaeue
iai?io, eiathuee ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea, aaea ioaeaaieueiia
neoaeeo eae au niuneiaui e a?aiiaoe/aneei oeaio?ii iai?ioa. Oae, iai?io
n eioeieoeaii iiaeao eiaoue cia/aiea neaaenoaey, au?aaeaoue oneiaea
i?e/eio.

Eiiaaea a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea iin?aaenoaii iai?ioa n eioeieoeaii
ia?aaeaaony cia/aiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia?aca aeaenoaey (eioi?ia a
iiaiaiaeeeneii au?aaeaaony iau/ii /a?ac by + aa?oiaeee). Ii naiui /anoui
neo/aai inoaaony eioeieoea oeaee (eioi?ue oaea aue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai
e a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii). Iaeiaei eioeieoea oeaee n for to ia auoaniee
ieii/aoaeueii eioeieoeaa n to. A n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea (iniaaiii a
iicaeiai n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii) iaa oi?iu oiio?aaeythony n iaeeiaeiaui
oniaoii. [18, n.153-157].

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee iiaeao noiyoue eee a ia/aea,
eee a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii ioaa/aao ia aii?in aeey /aai? e iiaeao
aaiaeeoueny nithcaie – so as (to) – oae /oiau: n oai /oiau e in order
(to) – aeey oiai /oiau. Ia?aaiaeeony eioeieoeaii n nithcaie aeey oiai
/oiau, n oai /oiau eee ioaeaaieueiui nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii aeey.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee:

The dismal man… opened the roll of paper and proceeded, partly to read
and partly to relate, the following incident, which we find recorded on
the Transactions of the club, as «The Stroller’s Tale». (Dichens, p.52).

The taffered remains of a checked curtain were drawn round the bed’s
head, to exclude the wind, which… made its way into the room through
the numerous chinks in the door… (Dichens, p.55).

If Some seemingly vulnerable object appeared he was all attention – to
pass the compliments of the day, to lead the way to the parlor car,
carring her grip, or, failing that, to tace a seat next to her with the
hope of being able to court her to her destination. (Dreiser, p.25).

That she was one of those women – not too common in the Anglo-Saxon
race-born to be loved and to love… (Galsworthy, p.64).

… she had no business to make him feel like that – a wife and a
husband being one person. (Galsworthy, p.75).

He had stopped to look in at a picture shop, for Soames was an «amateur»
of piktures, and had a little room in no 62, Montpellier Square full of
canvases, Stacked agains + the wall whikh hehad no room to hang.
(Galsworthy, p.65).

… taking note of the stories, articles and poems that editors saw fit
to bublish. (London, p.100).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey ioaa/aao ia aii?in aeey
/aai?, eae eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee. Aai i?eciaeii
yaeyaony oi, /oi ii niioiineony n ?aiaa noiyueie ia?a/eyie too –
neeoeii, sufficiently, enough – aeinoaoi/ii e i?eeaaaoaeueiui sufficient
– aeinoaoi/iue eee noieo iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea nithca as e niioiineony
n ?aiaa noiyuei ia?a/eai so eee ianoieiaieai such: so… as to – oae
(oaeie, ianoieueei)… /oi (/oiau), such… as to – oaeie… /oi
(/oiau).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey eiaao iiaeaeueiue
iooaiie aiciiaeiinoe. Niioianaiiue n ia?a/eyie too, enough, sufficiently
e i?., eioeieoea ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii
aeey oiai /oiau, /oiau.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa neaaenoaey, noiyuee iinea nithca as
e niioianaiiue n ia?a/eai so (so… as to), ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiiie
oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii /oiau.

Eioeieoea, niioianaiiue n ia?a/eai such (such… as to, in such a way as
to), ia?aaeaaony ee/iie oi?iie aeaaiea – neacoaiui i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey n nithcii /oi. A yoii neo/aa a?aiy neacoaiiai
ii?aaeaeyaony oai a?aiaiai, a eioi?ii noieo aeaaie-naycea a aiaeeeneii
i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Neaaenoaey:

It was enough to make get up and leave table. (Galsworthy, p.75).

«Too mieserly to bum two cents’ worth of gas and save his boarders’
neck». (London, p.47).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo oneiaee ii
oi?iaeueiui i?eciaeai ia ioee/aaony io ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee, iaeiaei ii
noieo oieueei a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey e ia au?aaeaao oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe
aeaenoaey. *aua anaai ianoiyoaeuenoaii niioonoaothueo oneiaee auaatho
aeaaieu form, produce – ia?aciauaaoue, give, yield – aeaaaoue e ae?.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaothueo oneiaee ia?aaiaeeony
aeaai?e/anoeai, ioaeaaieueiui nouanoaeoaeueiui n i?aaeeiaii c, aeaaieii
a ee/iie oi?ia (neacoaiui) e nithcii e.

Oneiaey:

I assure you he wouldn’t break into a sweat were he to dine in hell with
the dewil himself. ( Quich, p.319).

Ia?aca aeaenoaey:

… and were strapped very tightly over a pair of patcher and mended
shoes, as if to conceal the dirty white stockings, which were
nevertheless distinctly visible. (Dichens, p.24).

Ia?aoiae eee auaiaeu ?

Iai?io for + nouanoaeoaeueiia (eee ianoieiaiea) + eioeieoea.

Eioeieoea, noiyuee iinea nouanoaeoaeueiiai eee iinea ianoieiaiey a
iauaeoiii iaaeaaea n i?aaeoanoaothuei i?aaeeiaii for, au?aaeaao
aeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeo i?aaeiao eee eeoei, iaicia/aiiia aeaiiui
nouanoaeoaeueiui eee ianoieiaieai.

Iai?io «for + nouanoaeoaeueiia + eioeieoea» auiieiyao ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey (a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a /aua anaai ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee eee neaaenoaey).

Ia?aaiae iai?ioa caaeneo io auiieiyaiie ei ooieoeee, i?e yoii i?aaeeia
for iioneaaony, a aanue iai?io – eioeieoea n nouanoaeoaeueiui
(ianoieiaieai) n for – ia?aaiaeeony i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai
niioaaonoaaiii auiieiyaiie aeaiiui iai?ioii ooieoeee. Eioeieoea
aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey niioaaonoaoao aeaaieo a ee/iie oi?ia, o.a.
ooieoeee neacoaiiai ?onneiai ia?aaiaea, a noiyuaa ia?aae eioeieoeaii
nouanoaeoaeueiia – iiaeeaaeauaio.

Iai?io «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» e neo/ae aai oiio?aaeaiey.
Iinea iiiaeo aeaaieia a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa oiio?aaeyaony iai?io
«iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii», i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ni/aoaiea
ianoieiaiey a iauaeoiii iaaeaaea eee nouanoaeoaeueiiai a iauai iaaeaaea
n eioeieoeaii.

Iai?io «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» ea?aao a i?aaeeiaeaiee ?ieue
iaeiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, a eiaiii neiaeiiai aeiiieiaiey. A iai?ioa
«iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» nouanoaeoaeueiia eee ianoieiaiea
au?aaeaao eeoei (eee i?aaeiao), niaa?oathuaa aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia
eioeieoeaii, eee iiaeaa?aathuaany yoiio aeaenoaeth.

Iai?io «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» ?aaai ii cia/aieth
aeiiieieoaeueiiio i?eaeaoi/iiio i?aaeeiaeaieth, oioy ii ?aaeei iiaeao
auoue caiaiai oaeei i?aaeeiaeaieai.

Ec niiinoaaeaiey iai?ioa «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» n
?aaiicia/iui aio i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai aeaeii, /oi ianoieiaiea a
iauaeoiii iaaeaaea him niioaaonoaoao iiaeeaaeauaio i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey he, a eioeieoea to come – neacoaiiio will come.

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny e a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa, niioaaonoaoy neacoaiiio
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiiio aeaaieii a no?aaeaoaeueiii
caeiaa.

A iai?ioa «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» iiaoo auoue aeaa eee
ianeieueei eioeieoeaia, niioaaonoaothueo aeaoi eee ianeieueeei neacoaiui
i?eaeaoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A ?onneii ycuea iao iai?ioa,
niioaaonoaothuaai iai?ioo «iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii», e ii
ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue aeiiieieoaeueiui i?eaeaoi/iui
i?aaeeiaeaieai.

Iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii:

… I have a particular service I want you to do to me… (Maugham,
P.57).

Ia?aoiae

O?aaeeoeeiiiay a?aiiaoeea auaeaeyao i?aaeeeaoeaiue iai?io eioeieoeaii,
eiaioaiue «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii», a i?aaeeiaeaieyo oeia
The man was expested to win. «Iu ?anniao?eaaai a oaeeo neo/ayo iniaoth
?aciiaeaeiinoue ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai, – ieooo aaoi?u
«Nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea», – a eioi?ii ia?aay aai /anoue –
neoaeaaiay – naycuaaao iiaeeaaeauaa n eioeieoeaii, au?aaeathuei
aeaenoaea i?aaeiieaaaaiia, iaeeaeaaiia, ecaanoiia eaeiio-oi eeoeo, ia
oeacaiiiio a i?aaeeiaeaiee. Aeaiiia iino?iaiea /eaieii neioaene/anee e
ia?acoao ia iai?io, a aeaoninoaaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea, a eioi?ii eioeieoea
naycai n iiaeeaaeauei a ea/anoaa niuneiaie /anoe ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai
neacoaiiai [10, n.169].

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny a ?acee/iuo oi?iao:

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Indefinite au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, iaeiia?aiaiiia n
aeaenoaeai aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Continuous au?aaeaao aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea,
iaeiia?aiaiiia aeaenoaeai aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Perfect au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, i?aaeoanoaothuaa
aeaenoaeth aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Eioeieoea a oi?ia Perfect Continuous au?aaeaao aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea,
niaa?oaaoaany a oa/aiea io?acea a?aiaie, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai aeaenoaeth
aeaaiea a ee/iie oi?ia.

Neo/ae oiio?aaeaiey iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»:

Oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea neacoaiia au?aaeaii neaaeothueie aeaaieaie a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa: to say, to state, to report, to announce, to
believe, to expect, to know, to understand, to consider, to see, to
hear.

I?aaeeiaeaiea n iai?ioii «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»
ia?aaiaeeony neiaeiiiiae/eiaiiui i?aaeeiaeaieai. Aeaaie a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa ia?aaiaeeony iaii?aaeaeaiii-ee/iui iai?ioii
(aiai?yo, niiauatho…), ea?athuei ?ieue aeaaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, ca
eioi?ii neaaeoao i?eaeaoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea n nithcii /oi.

I?aaeeiaeaiea n iai?ioii «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» iiaeii
ia?aaanoe e i?inoui i?aaeeiaeaieai n iaii?aaeaeaiii-ee/iui iai?ioii a
?iee aaiaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iai?ioii «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea
neacoaiia au?aaeaii aeaaieaie to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen,
to chance.

Iai?ioii «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» oiio?aaeyaony, eiaaea
neacoaiia au?aaeaii i?eeaaaoaeueiuie: likely, unlikely, certain, sure,
neaaeothueie ca aeaaieii-nayceie. Indefinite Infinitnve iinea yoeo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo iau/ii au?aaeaao aeaenoaea, ioiinyuaany e aoaeouaio.

Iai?io «Eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»:

Alroy Kear was a bachelor and now at fifty was likely to remain one.
(Maugham, p.40).

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii aeaaieueiii neacoaiii (iai?io «eiaie-oaeueiue
iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»)

Eioeieoea a iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» yaeyaony
aoi?ui /eaiii ninoaaiiai aeaaieueiiai neacoaiiai e noieo iinea ee/iie
oi?iu aeaaiea – ia?aiai neacoaiiai.

Aeaaieu, iinea eioi?uo iiaeao noiyoue eioeieoea, aeaeyony ia oa, eioi?ua
oiio?aaeythony a yoii iai?ioa a) a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa e a) a
aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa. Aeaaieu a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa iaicia/atho
oinoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue eee /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea: know – ciaoue,
consider – n/eoaoue, believe – iieaaaoue, think – aeoiaoue, see –
aeaeaoue, hear – neuoaoue e ae?. A aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa oiio?aaeyaony
oieueei ianeieueei aeaaieia: seem, appear – eacaoueny; prove, turn out –
ieacaoueny; happen, chance – neo/aoueny, neo/aeii ieacuaaoueny.
Eioeieoea a yoii iai?ioa iiaeao noiyoue oaeaea iinea neiaini/aoaiee: be
likely – aa?iyoii, iiaeii; be sure, be certain – ianiiiaiii, eiia/ii.

Aiciiaeiu aeaa niiniaa ia?aaiaea iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii».

Ia?aue /eai neacoaiiai (aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia) noaaeony ia?aae
iiaeeaaeauei e ia?aaiaeeony aeaaieii a iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia. Inoaaoayny
/anoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?aaeaaony aeiiieieoaeueiui i?eaeaoi/iui
i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii /oi (?aaea /oiau). Iiaeeaaeauei i?eaeaoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey noaiiaeony i?e ia?aaiaea aiaeeeneia iiaeeaaeauaa, a
eioeieoea – aai neacoaiui.

Ii?yaeie neia aiaeeeneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nio?aiyaony. Eioeieoea
ia?aaiaeeony neacoaiui, a aeaaie a ee/iie oi?ia ia?aaeaaony aaiaeiui
i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii eae, aaiaeiui neiaii eee iai?ioii.

Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe ia?aaiaea iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii»:

A. Neo/ae, eiaaea ec aeaoo oeacaiiuo niiniaia ia?aaiaea iaeei
iaaiciiaeai.

Ia?aaiae iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» iaaiciiaeai, anee
iai?io noieo a ii?aaeaeeoaeueiii eee aeiiieieoaeueiii i?eaeaoi/iii
i?aaeeiaeaiee, aaea ioiineoaeueiia ianoieiaiea (that, what, which)
yaeyaony iiaeeaaeauei.

Aoi?ie niinia ia?aaiaea iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»
iaaiciiaeai, anee eioeieoea au?aaeaao aeaenoaea eee ninoiyiea,
i?ioeai?a/auaa iaoei i?aaenoaaeaieyi.

A. Iai?io «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» n aeaaieaie, noiyueie a
io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ia. Anee ia?aue /eai ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai au?aaeai
io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?ie aeaaiea a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, oi yoi
io?eoeaiea i?e ia?aaiaea ioiineony ei aoi?iio /eaio. Anee ia?aue /eai
ninoaaiiai neacoaiiai au?aaeai io?eoeaoaeueiie oi?iie aeaaiea a
no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa, oi io?eoeaiea, eae i?aaeei, i?e ia?aaiaea i?e
iae e nio?aiyaony.

A. Iai?io «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» n iiaeaeueiui aeaaieii.
Iiaeaeueiue aeaaie i?e ia?aaiaea ioiineony, eae i?aaeei, e aeaaieo a
no?aaeaoaeueiii eee aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, noiyuaio ia?aae
eioeieoeaii.

A. Ia?aaiae a?oiiu nouanoaeoaeueiiai n i?aaeeiaii, noiyuae iaaeaeo
aeaaieii a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa e eioeieoeaii. A?oiia
nouanoaeoaeueiiai n i?aaeeiaii, noiyuay iinea aeaaiea a no?aaeaoaeueiii
caeiaa, ioiineony e yoiio iineaaeiaio.

Ae. Ia?aaiae i?aaeeiaeaiee n aeaoiy neacoaiuie, ec eioi?uo iaeii
i?inoia, a aoi?ia yaeyaony /anoueth iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n
eioeieoeaii». Anee a i?aaeeiaeaiee aeaa neacoaiuo e i?e yoii ao?ia
yaeyaony /anoueth iai?ioa «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii», oi i?e
ia?aaiaea ia?aae aoi?ui neacoaiui iiaoi?yaony iiaeeaaeauaa.

A. Iai?io «eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii» a i?aaeeiaeaieyo,
aaiaeeiuo ia?a/eai there. I?aaeeiaeaiey oeia there seems to be, there
are believed to exist e ae?. ?acieoea a oii, /oi a ieo au?aaeaii
ioiioaiea aaoi?a e niaea?aeaieth auneacuaaiey.

I?eia?u?

Ia?aoiae

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aaiaeiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey anaaaea auaeaeyaony
caiyoie eee oe?a. E?oa aeaaieia, oiio?aaeyaiuo a yoii neo/aa, aeiaieueii
ia?aie/ai.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee aaiaeiiai /eaia iiaeii ia?aaiaeeoue: 1.
aeaai?e/anoiui iai?ioii; iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iie aeaaiea n nithcii anee,
iinea eioi?iai aeey nayce n iineaaeothuei i?aaeeiaeaieai eiiaaea
aaiaeyony aeiiieieoaeueiua neiaa caiaoei, neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi ie
ae?.; naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaeeiaeaieai ni neacoaiui a iiaaeeoaeueiii
iaeeiiaiee eee ecuyaeoaeueiii 1-ai eeoea iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea.

Aaiaeiue /eai i?aaeeiaeaiey:

Tom’s mode of commencing the conversation being rather unusual, hot to
say Startling. (Dichens, p.223).

Every gentlman who hears me, is probably aquainted with the reply made
by an individual, who – to use an ordinary figure of speech – ‘hung out’
in a tub. (Dichens, p.118).

A aiaeeeneii ycuea ano?a/aaony naiinoiyoaeueiue eioeieoeaiue iai?io,
ninoiyuee ec nouanoaeoaeueiiai a iauai iaaeaaea e eioeieoeaa.
Nouanoaeoaeueiia a oaeii iai?ioa iaicia/aao eeoei eee i?aaeiao,
niaa?oathuee aeaenoaea, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, eee iiaeaa?aathueeny
yoiio aeaenoaeth. Oaeie iai?io noieo a eiioea i?aaeeiaeaiey e ioaeaeai
caiyoie. Ia?aaiaeeony i?aaeeiaeaieai n nithcii i?e/ai, a eioi?ii aeaaie
au?aaeaao aeieaeainoaiaaiea. Naiinoiyoaeueiue eioeieoeaiue iai?io
ano?a/aaony a th?eaee/aneeo oaenoao e a eiiia?/aneeo aeieoiaioao.

Oaeei ia?acii, eae auei ioia/aii auoa, enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea eioeieoeaa
naycaii n aiaea/aieai aai a nenoaio aeaaiea ianoieueei, /oi ii
iinoaiaiii ana aieueoa oo?a/eaae iaeioi?ua eiaiiua /a?ou e i?eia?aoae
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaaieueiua. Iaa oaiaeaioeee ?aaeeciaaeenue eae a noa?a
ii?oieiaee, oae e a noa?a neioaenena. Ia?aay i?eaaea e oiio, /oi
eioeieoea oo?aoee eaoaai?eth iaaeaaea e niiniaiinoue oi?aaeyoue
i?aaeeiaii. A ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey aoi?ie o iaai iiyaeeenue
aeaaieueiua eaoaai?ee caeiaa, aeaea e a?aiaiiie ioianaiiinoe, a oaeaea
?acaeeanue niiniaiinoue au?aaeaoue i?aaeeeaoeeth.

Ii ia?yaeo n aeaaieueiuie eaoaai?eyie, eioeieoea nio?aiee i?enouea aio
eiaiiua /a?ou. Eiaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eioeieoeaa i?iyaeyaony a
neioaene/aneie ooieoeee eiaie a i?aaeeiaeaiee, aaea ii iiaeao caieiaoue
iiceoeee iiaeeaaeauaai, aeiiieiaiey e i?aaeeeaoeaiiai /eaia. Oi anoue
eiaiiie oa?aeoa? eioeieoeaa au?aaeaaony oieueei a o?ao neioaene/aneeo
ooieoeeyo. Oaeiai iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony A.A.Ei?iaaaa, I.A. Eia?eia,
E.A.Aocaaaa, I.E.Innianeee e aaoi?u i?aeoe/aneeo a?aiiaoee, n?aaee ieo
A.A.Eaooaineay, I.I.Aaneeaaneay e ae?oaea.

A iiceoeee aea ii?aaeaeaiey e ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iau/ii oaeaea
oiiieiathony i?e iienaiee eiaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eioeieoeaa, ii noieue
?aceoaeueii ioee/aaony io eiaie, /oi yoe naienoaa aaeaa ee iiaoo auoue
ioianaiu e eiaiiui. A ninoaaa i?aaeeiaeaiey eioeieoea iiaeao caieiaoue
noeeenoe/aneea iiceoeee anao aiciiaeiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaaa 2. Noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey neiaini/aoaiee n
eioeieoeaii.

I?e eco/aiee eioeieoeaiuo eiino?oeoeee a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.
No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneee iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue cia/aiea aaeeieoe ycuea,
i?aaeaea anaai neia a neiaini/aoaieyo; n?aaieoaeueii-niiinoaaeoaeueiue –
onoaiiaeoue eiathueany noiaeaeaiey/?anoiaeaeaiey a iino?iaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiee n eniieueciaaieai neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii;
niiinoaaeoaeueiue iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao iniaue eioa?an,
iineieueeo a eaaeaeii ycuea eiathony naie i?aaeea, caeiiiia?iinoe,
?aaoee?othuea eae oneiaey iino?iaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey, oae e oneiaey aai
/eaiaiey e ii?aaeaeythuea niaoeeoeeo no?oeoo?u eaaeaeiai ycuea;
no?oeoo?ii-eeiaaenoe-/aneee iicaieyao auaeaeeoue /aoeea no?oeoo?iua
yeaiaiou ycuea eae ciaeiaie nenoaiu e eae naoe ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
yeaiaioaie ycueiaie nenoaiu, oa?aeoa?eciaaoue no?iaia iienaiea ycuea –
iauaa i?aaeei, caeiiiia?iinoe, naienoaaiiua aiaeeeneiio ycueo, ?aciui
ycueai eee ycueo aiiaua; noeeenoe/aneee iiiiaaao auyaeoue ycueiaua ii?iu
e niiniau oiio?aaeaiey aiaeeeneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a ?aciuo aeaeao
ienueiaiiinoe, a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo ycueiaiai iauaiey [15, n.31-32].

Noaouey ?.A.?acieea «Aeaaieueiua eiino?oeoeee a nia?aiaiiie ?acaiai?iie
?a/e» i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ia?acaoe iienaiey ?acoeueoaoia
niiinoaaeoaeueiiai aiaeeca oiio?aaeaiey aeaaieueiuo oi?i e eiino?oeoeee
a aeaoo aeaeao: a oaenoao niiioaiiie onoiie aiaeeeneie ?a/e e a
aeeaeiae/aneie ?a/e ia?niiaaeae, caoeene?iaaiiie a i?iecaaaeaieyo
nia?aiaiiuo aiaeeeneeo aaoi?ia. Eioa?an e eco/aieth ia ioaeaeueiuo oi?i
eee eiino?oeoeee, a aieueoeo o?aaiaioia oaenoa, ia neo/aai, o.e.
iiaeoiae e eco/aieth ycueiauo oaeoia, eioi?ue yaeyaony aanueia
aeooaeueiui aeey eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, iaaiciiaeai aac aiaeeca
aieueoeo io?uaeia ?a/aauo auneacuaaiee, eioi?ua aaeeinoaaiii iiaoo
aeaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aaeueiii
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ycuea, i aai eiiioieeaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoyo.

Yoe aeaiiua yaeythony iaeiei ec iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee aeecinoe, oioy e ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoe, iaieo aeaeia oaenoa ia i?aaeiao oiio?aaeaiey
eioeieoeaa. I?e yoii ?ai?acaioe?iaaiiay ?a/ue iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae aieaa oii?yaei/aiiay e ii?ie?iaaiiay iaieoanoaoeey ?aaeueiie
aiaeeeneie ?acaiai?iie ?a/e.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey A.A.Aeaenaaaie («Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaee/iuo oi?i
aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo noeeyo ?a/e» ) iineoaeeee iaee/iua oi?iu aeaaiea,
oiio?aaeaiiua a ea/anoaa iiaeeaaeauaai a aeaoo noeeyo: a noeea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e a aacaoa.

Auai? eiaiii yoeo aeaoo noeeae ia neo/aai e iauyniyaony eo aaaeiie
?ieueth a i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee. I?e yoii aaoi? enneaaeiaaiey enoiaeeo
ec oiai, /oi ?acee/iua neioaene/aneea ia?aciaaiey iiaoo aunooiaoue a
ea/anoaa iieacaoaey oiai eee eiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai noeey aeaaiaea?y
oie acaeiinayce, eioi?ay nouanoaoao iaaeaeo neioaaiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie
oaenoa e aai ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeaaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth.

A eneonnoaa neiaa, a aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa neiaa e ia?aca a?iiaaeiia
ianoi caieiaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiay ecia?aceoaeueiinoue a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i.
A?aiiaoe/aneea yaeaiey i?aaie/anee naycaiu ni no?iai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey. Aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?a/e, ea/anoai e
iniaaiiinoe noeey ia iiaoo eco/aoueny a io?uaa io niaea?aeaoaeueiuo
ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo ii?oieiae/aneeie eaoaai?eyie. A?aiiaoe/aneea oi?iu
o/anoaotho a au?aaeaiee oiieeo noeeenoe/aneeo ithainia e yiioeee ?a/e, a
?ani?aaeaeaiee naaoa e oaie neiaaniuo e?anie, a ia?aoiaeao io iaeiiai
noeey eceiaeaiey e ae?oaiio, au?aaeaiiuo ioai?ii ycueiauo n?aaenoa ai
anai naiaia?acee a?aiiaoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee auneacuaaiey.

Noeeenoe/aneia yaeaiea aicieeaao a naiii i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ycuea, a
aeoa ?a/e, a noeeenoe/aneoth ooieoeeth ycueiaua n?aaenoaa i?eia?aoatho a
eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii a i?aaeaeao oiai eee eiiai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai i?iyaeaiey. Iooaiee e e?anee ?a/aaie yeni?annee ai
anai iiiaiia?acee ec ?aaeecaoeee a ?a/e iaoa?eaeueii naeeaeatho
noeeenoeeo n a?aiiaoeeie.

Aeaaie – iaeaieaa aieay a?aiiaoe/aneay eaoaai?ey. A aeaaieueiii neiaa ni
anai ?aciiia?aceai aai cia/aiee e oe?ioie yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneiai
iioaioeeaea ni/aoaaony ?aciiia?acea a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i.

Eioeieoea eae oi?ia aeaaiea ioee/aaony aieueoei aeeaiaciiii ?acee/iuo
iooaieia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae naiaai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai i?iyaeaiey.

I?eia?u, aua?aiiua ec ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aiaeeeneeo e
aia?eeaineeo aaoi?ia aeey iaoae eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie ?aaiou, aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue ?anniio?aoue iaeaieaa eioa?aniua noeeenoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
/eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey; ia iniiaa noeeenoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oaenoa iieaaeai yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneee iioaioeeae
aeaiiie iaee/iie oi?iu aeaaiea.

Oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai ia/anoia yaeaiea a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iii iaoneiaeaii
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaia?ie aaoi?neiai iiaanoaiaaiey, a oaeaea
niaea?aeaieai eiie?aoiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Aeinoeaeaiea yeni?anneaiie
au?aceoaeueiinoe a i?aaeeiaeaieyo n eioeieoeaii a ?iee iiaeeaaeauaai
i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth ?acee/iuo noeeenoe/aneeo i?eaiia.
Iai?eia?, a i?aaeeiaeaiee:

1. Fo quarreel with him – how stupid of me ! (Maugham, p.99). iiouaiea
nayce to be (Jo quarrel with him is (was) stupid of me) iiae/a?eeaaao
yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea aa?iy. Yeni?anney aeinoeaaaony oaeaea
aeaaiaea?y eioiiaoeeiiiiio ?enoieo i?aaeeiaeaiey. E?iia oiai, yeeeinen a
aeaiiii i?eia?a auaeaeyao eioeieoea a i?aiiceoeee, oeie/iie aeey aeaiiie
neioaene/aneie ooieoeee.

Yeeeioe/aneia iino?iaiea aiaeiae/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey:

2 Io have her love him – how wonderful ! (Dreiser, p.62) ineiaeiaii
eniieueciaaieai Complex Object, eioi?ia a yoii i?eia?a ea?aao iniaoth
noeeenoe/aneoth ?ieue. Aeaiiay eiino?oeoeey y?ei ia?aaeaao /oanoaa e
ia?aaeeaaiey ia?niiaaea, /aio oaeaea niinianoaoao iaiau/iue
naiaioe/aneee auai? aeaaiea to have.

3 A i?aaeeiaeaiee: Io repeat the same Hung requires the feminime
temperament (Maugham, p.64) i?enoonoaoao e?iie/aneee iiaeoaeno. A
nicaeaiee e?iiee aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao eioeieoea, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai
naycuaathony eiae/aneia e eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea aeaiiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, eioeieoea eiaao y?eoth yiioeeiiaeueioth
ie?aneo e yiioeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea.

Iniaia cia/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa a ninoaaa
eiino?oeoeee Complex Subject. Eniieueciaaiea aeaaieia to seem, to
happen, to chance ioee/aaony iniaie noauaeoeaiie yeni?anneae. ?anniio?ei
?yae i?eia?ia:

4 (1) His manner changed when O happened to mention her (Dreiser,
p.137).

5 (2) Everyone seemed to be talking and O sitting in silence, felt
awkward (Maugham, p.31).

6 (3) Getting the butler on the wire, he inquired whether Mr. Clyde
griffiths chanced to be there (Dreiser, p.47).

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, eioeieoeaiua eiino?oeoeee a aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo
noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiu, ii i?e ?anniio?aiee aaiaeyueo /eaiia
eiino?oeoeee iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue eo naeeaeaiea n iiaeaeueiuie aeaaieaie,
au?aaeathueie ia?aaeueiinoue aeaenoaey, aiciiaeiinoue, iaoaa?aiiinoue e
ae?oaea noauaeoeaii-iiaeaeueiua cia/aiey, /oi naii ii naaa oaea
yeni?anneaii. I?e ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue (1) e (3) i?aaeeiaeaiee
oianoii eniieueciaaiea neia «neo/aeii», «iaacia/ae» e o.i., eioi?ua
iiae/a?eeaatho ioeaieo auneacuaaiey. Ai (2) i?aaeeiaeaiee
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iay iiaeaeueiinoue ineiaeiyaony aioeoacie (be talking
– sitting in silence), a oaeaea eniieueciaaieai oi?iu Continuous
Infinitive Active, eioi?ay i?eieiaao ia naay ooieoeeth au?aaeaiey
noauaeoeaiie yeni?annee. I?e oaeie yiioeeiiaeueii-yeni?anneaiie
aeooaeecaoeee niauoea ecia?aaeaaony eae au i?ienoiaeyuei ia aeacao
/eoaoaey, iiae/a?eeaaaony eioaineaiinoue, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaey.

Eiiaaea iiieii noauaeoeaiie iiaeaeueiinoe a i?aaeeiaeaiee n Complex
Subject i?enoonoaoao e?iiey:

7 ’ Does he bore you ? O ashead.

8 ’ Gou see, O happen to be his wife ! (Maugham, p.36)

eee:

9 Passion ! He seemed, indeed, to have heard of it, and rules such as ’’
A young man and a ybung woman ought never to be trusted together ’’ wre
fixed in his mind (Galsworthy, p.143).

A iineaaeiai i?eia?a noeeenoe/aneay ie?anea oi?iu Perfect Infinitive
Active caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiiie eioaineoeeaoeee cia/aiey
caaa?oaiiinoe aeaenoaey. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia a?aiaiiia cia/aiea oi?iu
eioeieoeaa ieacuaaao eiioaeno.

Iniaaiii eioa?anii oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa a eiino?oeoeee Complex
Subject a iaoaoi?e/aneii cia/aiee. Iai?eia?:

10 A heavy sky seemed to cover the world with the grey whiteress of a
whitewashed ceiling (Galsworthy, p.144).

(11) Ihe sky war so blue, and the sun so bright, that an eterrnal
summer seemed to reign ouer this prospect (Galsworthy, p.72).

(12) Iou ful like a disembodied spirit, immaterial; and you seem to be
able to touch beauty as though it wie a palpable Hung (Maugham, p.93).

(13) Something seemed to twist his heart and suddenly he felt u sense of
wonderful freedom (Maugham, p.187).

Gou seem to walk with your head among the stars (Maugham, p.93).

A aeaiiuo i?eia?ao ia?aae iaie ?acaa?iooua iaoaoi?u, eioi?ua ninoiyo ec
ianeieueeeo iaoaoi?e/anee oiio?aaeaiiuo neia, nicaeathueo aaeeiue ia?ac;
ii oeaio?ii nicaeaiey iaoaoi?e/aneiai ia?aca yaeyaony eioeieoea. Eiaiii
oi?iu to cover, to reign, to touch beauty, to twist heart niinianoaotho
aieaa yiioeeiiaeueiie, ia?aciie eioa?i?aoaoeee iienuaaaiuo yaeaiee.
Iaoaoi?a aeaao eaeie-oi ioeaii/iue iiiaio auneacuaaieth, iiyoiio ii
i?e?iaea naiae iia i?aaeeeaoeaia e iiaeaeueia. A ni/aoaiee n
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iie iiaeaeueiinoueth, oa?aeoa?ecothuae, eae auei
ioia/aii auoa, i?aaeeiaeaiey n aeaiiie eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeeae,
iaoaoi?e/aneia eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaa niinianoaoao ?aa-eecaoeee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ie?iiiieiaiey, noauaeoeaii-aaoi?neiai acaeyaea ia
iienuaaaiua yaeaiey.

Oaeaea eae e iaoaoi?a, iiuiui n?aaenoaii oa?aeoa?enoeee yaeaiee e
i?aaeiaoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony n?aaiaiea. ?aaeecaoeey eioeieoeaa
a ooieoeee n?aaiaiey – yaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeeia, ii n aai iiiiuueth
aeinoeaaaony aieaa y?eay au?aceoaeueiinoue nicaeaaaaiiai ia?aca.
Iai?eia?:

(15) His body crumpled as to have a blous and he leaned to steady
himself against an adjacent true (Dreiser, p.29).

(16) Orville Mason could readily sympathige with a family which on sight
struck him as having, perhaps, lihe to endure the whips, the scorns and
the contumelies of life (Dreiser, p.26).

(17) An appeal to the emotions is litlle lihely to be effectual before
luncheon (Maugham, p.54).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea a ooieoeee n?aaiaiey a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie niinianoaoao ?ane?uoeth aaoi?neiai ie?iiuouaiey, auyaeyy
noauaeoeaii-ioeaii/iia ioiioaiea ienaoaey e oaeoai iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aiaeec i?eia?ia n eioeieoeaii a eiino?oeoeee Complex Subject iieacae
noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioeieoeaa, naycaiiua
i?aaeaea anaai n eniieueciaaieai eaene/aneeo noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa.
?aaeecaoeey aea eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeee Complex Object i?aaenoaaeyao
eioa?an n neioaene/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea
iniiaiua noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a
eiino?oeoeee Complex Object:

iaee/ea ?acee/iuo aeaeia iiaoi?ia:

aiaaeeieinen:

(18) She wanted me to go – to go away with her somewhere (Dreiser,
p.94). Ooieoeey iiaoi?a eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee – ooieoeey
eiie?aoecaoeee, oneeaiey, /oi nicaeaao yooaeo aeeaie aicaoaeaeaiiie
?a/e.

yieoi?a:

(19) I did not know what she wanted me to do. ’ What is it exactly she
wanted me to do ? ’ I ashed ( Maugham, p.48). Iiaoi? eioeieoeaiie
eiino?oeoeee a yoii i?eia?a noe?aao ia?aoiae io iaeiiai ieaia
auneacuaaiey e ae?oaiio. Aaoi? eae au aeaiiino?e?oao eiiioieeaoeaiue
i?ioeann: ?iaeaeaiea iunee e iineaaeothuaa aa aiieiuaiea a ycueiaoth
iaiei/eo.

ia?aeeaeeci eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue iiaoi?a:

(20) You wanted her to die. You wanted her to drown. And you just let
her drown ! (Dreiser, p.275).

(21) I want you to find the seondrel who did this. I want him to suffer
as this pure, good girl has kun made to suffer (Dreiser, p.37).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo ia?aeeaeeci nicaeaao ?eoie/aneoth i?aaiecaoeeth
auneacuaaiey, ia?aaeaao yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea aa?iy.

2) iiouaiea eioeieoeaa (yeeeinen):

(22) Please, please don’ t, darling! O – O – don’ t want you to
(Dreiser, p.66).

(23) Of course, if you want me to, Orville, A’ll go over there (Dreiser,
p.22).

Iiouaiea eioeieoeaa caeanue oa?aeoa?ecoao oneiaey, a eioi?uo i?ioaeaao
iauaiea, a oaeaea aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea aiai?yuaai.

ineiaeiaiea iaeii?iaeiuie /eaiaie i?aaeeiaeaiey:

(1) Jhere are two thinge that I want you to think about and stick to
(Dreiser, p.133).

(2) Please make up your mind, whether you want me to decorate for you,
or to retire (Galsworthy, p.151).

(3) He saw her boskm rise and fall, her eyes darken with anger
(Galsworthy, p.230).

Iaeii?iaeiua /eaiu iiaoo auoue naycaiu niaaeeieoaeueiui nithcii and –
(1) eee aannithciie naycueth – (3). Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao nithc
or – (2), eioi?ue niaaeeiyao eiioaenooaeueiua aioiieiu, au?aaeaiiua
eioeieoeaii to decorate e to retire. Ineiaeiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
iaeii?iaeiuie /eaiaie yaeyaony iaeiei ec n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai oiia iiaanoaiaaiey.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eioeieoea a eiino?oeoeee Complex Object aunooiaao a
oi?ia Continuous Jnfinitive Active.

Iai?eia?:

(25) Silent, swaying to lach motion of their charriot, old Solyon
watched them be driving away under the sunlight (Galsworthy, p.32).

(26) She knew him to be thinking (Galsworthy, p.24).

Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneia i?iyaeaiea aeaiiie oi?iu i?aa?auaao
/eoaoaey eae au a o/anoieea niauoee, ia?aaeaaay iano?iaiey e
ia?aaeeaaiey aa?iaa, iiae/a?eeaay yiioeeiiaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue,
i?iaeieaeaiiinoue aeaenoaey.

Eiiaaea a eioeieoeaiie eiino?oeoeee Complex Object a oeaeyo
yiioeeiiaeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia /eoaoaey i?eiaiyaony
i?eai ia?anoaiey:

(27) J shauld like him to die miserable, poor, starving, without a
friend (Maugham, p.73).

A aeaiiii i?eia?a ia?anoaiea iiae/a?eeaaao yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea,
aioo?aiiea ia?aaeeaaiey aa?iy. Aieaa oiai, ia i?eaia ia?anoaiey iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia ioiioaiea ienaoaey e oaeoai iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: oi, /oi aeey aaoi?a yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui, aieaa
cia/eoaeueiui, aieaa aia/aoeythuei, ii i?aaiecoao a oi?ia ia?anoaiey.

Noeeenoe/aneee i?eai ia?anoaiey aeiaieueii /anoi eniieuecoaony i?e
oiio?aaeaiee eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee neacoaiiai. Iai?eia?:

(28) Is it suceess to be an eminent surgeon with ten thousund a year and
a beautiful wife, to do what you most want, to live under the conditions
that please you, in pease with yourself, to make a hash of life ?
(Maugham, p.190).

Ia?anoaiea a aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee /?acau/aeii noauaeoeaii.
Yiioeeiiaeueiay ie?aoaiiinoue, yeni?anney aeinoeaaaony iooai iino?iaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey a oi?ia ?eoi?e/aneiai aii?ina, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iniaue noeeenoe/aneee i?eai.

?anniio?ei ae?oaie i?eia?:

(29) J was prepared to be persuasive and toaching, and indignant, and
sarcastic (Maugham, p.58).

Caeanue ia?anoaiea ineiaeiaii iiiainithceai, eioi?ia i?eaeaao
auneacuaaieth ?eoie/anee i?aaieciaaiiue oa?aeoa?, a oaeaea auaeaeyao
eaaeaeoth ninoaaioth /anoue ?yaea, aaiaeeiiai eioeieoeaii.

Ae?oaie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioeieoeaa-neacoaiiai
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea oaeiai noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia, eae ia?ao?ac:

(30) He had been able to… to… to… attempt this terrible thing – to
kill a girl whom once he had loved (Dreiser, p.51).

Ooieoeey ia?ao?aca ’to attempt this terrible thing’ a aeaiiii i?eia?a –
ooieoeey noauaeoeaiie aaoi?neie oa?aeoa?enoeee iienuaaaiiai yaeaiey.
Ienaoaeue iuoaaony aieaa oi/ii au?aceoue naith ioeaieo, io?aceoue
iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua /a?ou i?iecioaaeoaai niauoey. Niiiaiey aaoi?a
iiae/a?eeaathony n iiiiuueth ?aoa?aeaoeee, eioi?ay au?aaeaia
iin?aaenoaii iiaoi?a /anoeoeae ’ to’, a oaeaea a?aoe/anee (iiiaioi/ey).

Eioeieoea-neacoaiia i/aiue /anoi oiio?aaeyaony a ninoaaa no?oeoo?u used
+ Inf.:

(31) He used to come here sometimes, and J usell to sec him walking
about Papeete. When J heard he was in town, J used to send a boy to find
him and make him come to dinner with ru (Maugham, p.185).

Cia/aieai aeaiiie no?oeoo?u yaeyaony aeaenoaea a i?ioeii a oa/aiea
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai, ii aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Eioaineoeeaoeey
cia/aiey iiaoi?iinoe aeaenoaey au?aaeaaony iiaoi?ii no?oeoo?u, /oi
nicaeaao yooaeo iiiioiiiinoe, ianiaoiinoe iiaanoaiaaiey.

Iniaoth noeeenoe/aneoth ?ieue ea?aao eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaa a oi?ia
Perfect Infinitive Active a ooieoeee neacoaiiai:

(32) She ought never to have married Sum (Maugham, p.45).

Yeni?anneaiinoue ia?oaeoiiai eioeieoeaa a aeaiiii neo/aa caeeth/aaony a
ii?aaeaeaiiie eioaineoeeaoeee cia/aiey eaoaai?e/iinoe, eioi?ia
aeinoeaaaony oaeaea iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey a?aiiaoe/aneeo
(iiaeaeueiue aeaaie «ought») e eaene/aneeo (ia?a/ea ? -c.9 «never»)
n?aaenoa.

Eiiaaea noeeenoe/aneoth iaa?oceo iiaeao ianoe i?inoie
eioeieoea-neacoaiia, ia ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aoi?inoaiaiiuie /eaiaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey:

(33) I want to paint (Maugham, p.61).

Yeni?anneaiia cia/aiea eioeieoeaa ’to paint’ ?aaeecoaony a eiioaenoa.
Eiaiii eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea yoiai eioeieoeaa iiae/a?eeaaao
aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea aa?iy.

Eioeieoea-neacoaiia a oaeeo i?aaeeiaeaieyo, eae –

(34)The only thing was to wait in silence (Maugham, p.102).

(35)Sune’s first thought was go away, but instead she crossed to the
long window opening on the little court (Galsworthy, p.120) –

auiieiyao ooieoeeth naiaia?aciiai eiie?aoecaoi?a cia/aiey naiaioe/anee
iaiieiiai iiaeeaaeauaai. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ienoiaeeo oneeaiea iauaai
niunea oeaeiai ca n/ao niuneiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, cia/eiinoe
eioeieoeaa. Iiaeiaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo ineiaeiyoueny
aeiiieieoaeueiuie noeeenoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Iai?eia?:

(36) Even if she hated him, he at all wents ought not to put himself in
the wrong by neglecting this ancient rite. And why did she hate him?
Even now he could not altogether believe it. It was strange to be hated!
(Galsworthy, p.240) – iiaoi? oi?iu ’ hated’.

eee:

(37)My first idea was to begin it with the account of Strickland’s last
years in Iahiti and with his horrible death, and then to go back
andrelate what I knew of his beginnings. This I meant to do (Maugham,
p.180).

– iaeii?iaeiua /eaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua eioeieoeaii, a oaeaea
aiaoi?e/aneia i?eniaaeeiaiea iineaaeiaai i?aaeeiaeaiey,
iiae/a?eeaathuaai iniiaioth iuneue ia?aiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa
iniaoth ?ieue ea?aao eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a
oeaio?a aieiaiey i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca.

Eiioaenooaeueiia cia/aiea yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei e i?e eniieueciaaiee
eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey. ?anniio?ei ianeieueei i?eia?ia:

39 – (1) There are your children to think of (Maugham, p.59).

(2) Those privileged to be present at a family festival of the Forsytes
have seen that charming and instructive sight (Galsworthy, p.17).

(3) If he had any talent I should be the first to encourage (Maugham,
p.70).

(4) He was a worthy member of society, a good husband and father, an
honest, broher, but there was no reason to waste one’s tinu over him
(Maugham, p.39).

(5) There was the political situation to be considered and there was
this general party situation to be thaught of (Dreiser, p.19).

A aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo eioeieoea auaeaeyao eaeea-oi ii?aaeaeaiiua
ea/anoaa, i?eciaee iienuaaaiuo yaeaiee. N iiiiuueth eioeieoeaa
au?aaeathony aieaa neiaeiua e ?aciiia?aciua naienoaa, oa?aeoa?enoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe, /ai iin?aaenoaii ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e a ooieoeee
ii?aaeaeaiey. Iinoiiceoeeiiiia iieiaeaiea eioeieoeaa iaeaaeaao aieueoie
noaiaiueth i?aaeeeaoeaiinoe e oai naiui noeeenoe/aneie yeni?annee. A
aeinoeaeaiee yeni?annee aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao iaee/ea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, a (5) i?aaeeiaeaiee a nicaeaiee
e?iie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey i?eieiaao o/anoea aioeoaca, iniiaaiiay ia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee eiioaenooaeueiuo aioiieiia (political situation –
this general party situation), a oaeaea ?acee/iue eaene/aneee auai?
eioeieoeaia-neiiieiia: to consider – to think of (aaconeiaii, aa?eaio
’to think of’ yaeyaony ?acaiai?iui, aieaa oiio?aaeoaeueiui, /ai
’consider’, e oiio?aaeyaony aeey oneeaiey eiioaenooaeueiiai cia/aiey
iacia/eoaeueiinoe aoi?iai niauoey ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aui).

Ea/anoaaiii-ianneaiia cia/aiea oi?iu Indefinite Infinitive Passive a
aeaiiii i?aaeeiaeaiee i?eaeaao noauaeoo iienaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, neoaeeo
aeey eioaineoeeaoeee auneacuaaiey.

I?eniaaeeieoaeueiay eiino?oeoeey a (4) i?aaeeiaeaiee – but there was no
reason to waste one’s time over him – oiio?aaeaia aeey nicaeaiey yiioeee
iaiaeeaeaiiinoe, aa iniiaiay ooieoeey – oneeeoue nicaeaiiia eaene/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie i?ioeai?a/ea (iinea ia?a/eneaiey iieiaeeoaeueiuo /a?o
ia?niiaaea iaiaeeaeaiiia eioeieoeaiia ii?aaeaeaiea – to waste one’s time
over hine).

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo cia/aiea eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony oieueei /a?ac eiioaeno. Iai?eia?:

(40) The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to
desert him – these – all save Sondra perhars (Dreiser, p.72).

Cia/aiea eioeieoeaiiai ii?aaeaeaiey a aeaiiii yeeeioe/aneii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii?aaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii aac iii?u ia eiioaeno,
eioi?ue iiiiaaao iiiyoue yiioeeiiaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea, no?ao,
?anoa?yiiinoue aa?iy.

Aieueoia cia/aiea i?e nicaeaiee yeni?anneaiinoe auneacuaaiey eiaao e
iiceoeey aoi?inoaiaiiiai /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiiai eioeieoeaii.
Iniaaiii y?ei yoi i?iyaeyaony i?e ?aaeecaoeee eioeieoeaa a ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa. A aeaiiie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee eioeieoea iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny eae a i?aiiceoeee, iai?eia?:

(41) To recognige it you must repeat the adventure of the artist
(Maugham, p.85).

Inorder to get justice for you, we’ve had to get up something else
(Dreiser, p.176).

She was very unhappy, but to excite my sympathy she was able to make a
show of her unhappiness (Maugham, p.53).

oae e a iinoiiceoeee, iai?eia?:

(42) He gave me rather indifferent hand to shake (Maugham, p.37).

He stretched out his hand to meet that clean – shawen man (Galsworthy,
p.25).

When some Dutch people came here to buy Dirk’s pictures he tried to
persuade them to buy Strickland’s. (Maugham, p.85).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aiiceoeey eioeieoeaiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa
aieaa yeni?anneaia, o.a. aeaiiay neioaene/aneay iiceoeey yioaoe/anee
auaeaeyao eioeieoea, iiae/a?eeaaao naiinoiyoaeueiinoue au?aaeaaiiai ei
aeaenoaey. A iinoiiceoeee ianoiyoaeuenoai noaiiaeony noeeenoe/anee
iaeo?aeueiui, i?eia?aoaao aeiaaai/iia, aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea.

Eiiaaea ianoiyoaeuenoai, au?aaeaiiia eioeieoeaii, aunooiaao iainiaeaiii,
a oi?ia iaiieiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey:

(43) These persons had accepted. Why? To avoid the tedium of dning tete
– a – tete, to give their sewant a rest. (Maugham, p.37).

A aeaiiii i?eia?a eioeieoeaiia ianoiyoaeuenoai yaeyaony /anoueth
noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia Question-in-the-Narrative, eioi?ue iiiiaaao aieaa
oi/ii io?aceoue iunee, ?annoaeaeaiey aa?iy. Yeeeioe/aneia iino?iaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey n eioeieoeaii a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa naeeaeaao aai n
oae iacuaaaiuie eioeieoeaiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie. Iai?eia?:

(44) But to look in the eyes of Roberta! God! He could not heep from
seeing them. (Dreiser, p.50).

Hew to do, what to say?! He was so confused. (Dreiser, p.49).

Eioeieoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ano?a/athony a aiaeeeneii ycuea aeinoaoi/ii
?aaeei. Iie eiatho aeaaiui /eaiii eioeieoea e ii aieueoae /anoe
yeni?anneaiu. A eioeieoeaiuo i?aaeeiaeaieyo aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao
eioiiaoeey, eae i?aaeei, iie yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiu – au?aaeaiea
yiioeee ninoaaeyao eo iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea. Aoi?ia eioeieoeaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiea n aii?ineoaeueiuie neiaaie e iniaie aineeeoeaoaeueiie
eioiiaoeeae yei ia?aaeaao aacunoiaeiinoue, ino?ioo neooaoeee. A yoii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ’how’ e ‘what’ oa?ytho i?yiia aii?ineoaeueiia cia/aiea e
noaiiayony ia aii?ineoaeueiuie, a /enoi aineeeoeaoaeueiuie neiaaie.
Eioeieoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaeaaeathuea y?eei yeni?anneaiui oa?aeoa?ii,
aeaeatho iiaanoaiaaiea aieaa aeeiaie/iui, iicaieytho /eoaoaeth aeoaaea
i?iieeiooue ai aioo?aiiee ie? ia?niiaaea.

Aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeoeoeaii eioeieoea ooieoeeiie?oao a ninoaaa
o?acaieiae/aneeo ni/aoaiee. Iai?eia?:

(45) To tell you the truth, this is one of the most puccling cases I
have run up against (Dreiser, p.136).

He brought with him a collection of Indian curious, to say notfung of an
independent fortune and several slaves. (Dreiser, p.178).

O?acaieiae/aneea ni/aoaiey yaeythony yiioeeiiaeueiuie ?ano?naie ycuea.
Iniiaiay noa?a oiio?aaeaiey o?acaieiaeciia – aeeaay ?acaiai?iay ?a/ue.
I?e eniieueciaaiee o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe a ?a/e ia?niiaaea
aeinoeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiue noeeenoe/aneee yooaeo. Ienaoaeue iuoaaony
iaeaieaa oi/ii ia?aaeaoue neooaoeeth iauaiey, i?eaeeceoue aa e ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, eniieueciaaiea eioeieoeaiuo o?acaieiae/aneeo ni/aoaiee
iiaeii ioianoe e /eneo yeni?anneaii-noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa.

I?iaaaeaiiue noeeenoe/aneee aiaeec ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea ia i?eia?a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ecaanoiuo aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo
ienaoaeae iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuee auaiae: noeeenoe/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe eioeieoeaa n o/aoii anae neiaeiinoe acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
aai a?aiiaoe/aneie oi?iie e ooieoeeiiaeueiui i?iyaeaieai aeinoaoi/ii
auniee. Eioeieoea iaeaaeaao aiaaoui a?naiaeii eaene/aneeo e
neioaene/aneeo noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
ecia?aceoaeueiinoe. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioeieoeaa a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?a i?eia?aoaao naia noeeenoe/aneia cia/aiea, e?aeia eciai/eaia e
iiiaiia?aciia.

Oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea ia?aciiai oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa eae
ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia i?aaiecaoeee ?a/e i?eaeaeaao
iniaia aieiaiea. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi noeeenoe/aneia yaeaiea aicieeaao
a naiii i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee eioeieoeaa, a aeoa ?a/e, a noeeenoe/aneoth
ooieoeeth eioeieoea i?eia?aoaao a eiie?aoiii ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie
ycueiauie n?aaenoaaie a i?aaeaeao oiai eee eiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iyaeaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Ciaeiinoai n oaenoaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ecaanoiuo
aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo ienaoaeae, ouaoaeueiue aiaeec aua?aiiuo 150
i?eia?ia neiaini/aoaiee n eioeieoeaii, auyaeyao neaaeothuaa. Iineieueeo
eco/aiea iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneiai ianeaaeey ii aeaiiie oaia ioaaouaaao
iaoa?eae aiaeeeneiai ycuea XVIII, XIX e XX aaeia, iu a eaeie-oi noaiaie
iiaeai noaeeoue i oii, eae ?acaeaaeinue oaeia yaeaiea eae neiaini/aoaiea
n eioeieoeaii a iiceoeee ?acee/iuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey a aiaeeeneii
ycuea. Iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneee e i?eaaaeaiiue oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae
iieacaee, /oi eioeieoea e eioeieoeaiua eiino?oeoeee – ?acaeaathuayny
eaoaai?ey. Ia yoii iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth noaeeoue aeaaea ?anniio?aa
oiio?aaeaiea eioeieoeaa oieueei a iaeiie ooieoeee – ooieoeee
ianoiyoaeuenoaa iineaaeothueo yaeaiee a aiaeeeneii ycuea XVIII-XX aaeia.

I?eaaaeaiiue iaie iaci? oiio?aaeaiey eioeieoeaa a ae?oaeo ooieoeeyo n
aeinoaoi/iie, eae iai eaaeaony, oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth iieacuaaao, /oi
iaeiei ec nii?iuo aii?inia eeiaaenoeee aue e inoaaony aii?in i
nouanoaiaaiee e oa?aeoa?a no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae.
Iineieueeo iiiaea naiaioe/aneea caeiiu ioe?uou, yoio aii?in, eae
n/eoatho iiiaea o/aiua [20], iiaeii n/eoaoue ?aoaiiui a iieiaeeoaeueiii
niunea, iineieueeo oaeoi?u, io eioi?uo caaeneo eciaiaiea cia/aiee,
/?acau/aeii iiiaiia?aciu, caeiiu yoe aeieaeiu eiaoue ia
i?e/eiii-aeanoeee, a i?e/eiii-aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa? e oeacuaaoue
oeie/iia e nouanoaaiiia a naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a ycuea. Ia yoi ia?auae
aieiaiea aua aeaaeaiee A.Aeiia?aaeia.

«Iauai e niaea?aeaiea iaicia/aaiuo neiaaie iiiyoee, eo eeanneoeeaoeey e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, iinoaiaiii i?iyniyynue e ioi?ieyynue, nouanoaaiii e
iiiaie?aoii aeaeieciaiythony ii ia?a ?acaeoey ycuea. Iie ?acee/iu ia
?aciuo yoaiao aai enoi?ee… sscue iaiaauaaony aianoa n ?acaeoeai eaeae,
e iaeia e oa aea aiaoiyy iaiei/ea neiaa ia?anoaao iiaaaaie iiauo
cia/aiee e niuneia. Eiaaea cao?iioo iaeei /eai oeaie, ioeeeeaaony e
cao/eo oeaeia. Aicieeathuaa iiiyoea ieacuaaaony nicao/iui ni anai oai,
/oi naycaii n ioaeaeueiuie /eaiaie oeaie aei e?aeieo i?aaeaeia yoie
nayce » [6, n.18].

Aeaeeia?aoey:

Aeaenaaaa A.A. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaee/iuo oi?i aeaaiea a ?acee/iuo
noeeyo ?a/e // Aii?inu a?aiiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey e oaenoa a
aiaeeeneii ycuea: Na. iao/. o?. – I., 1987. – Aui.247. – N.3-9.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N. I/a?ee ii ii?oieiaee nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. –
I., 1975.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N. I?iaeaiu neioaenena i?inoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
aiaeeeneiai ycuea: Aaoi?ao. aeen… ae-?a oeeie.iaoe. – I. 1965.

Aa?ooaea?ia E.N., Ooaeeia Ae.A. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.,
1973.

Aiaoneaaneay A.I. Ianoiyoaeuenoai iineaaeothueo yaeaiee // O/aiua
caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1967. – O.361. – N.85-180.

Aeiia?aaeia A.A. ?onneee ycue (a?aiiaoe/aneia o/aiea i neiaa). – 2-a
ecae. – I., 1972.

Aeiieo?iaa E.I. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.-E., 1954.

Ai?iioeiaa A.I. I/a?ee ii a?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I, 1960.

Aaicaeaa A.I. Nia?aiaiiue ?onneee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue. *.2. Neioaenen. –
I., 1958.

AEeaaaeei A.I. e ae?. Nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue: Oai?ao. eo?n
a?aiiaoeee / AEeaaaeei A.I., Eaaiiaa E.I., Eioee E.E. – I., 1956.

Eeueeo A.A. Nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue: Oai?ao. eo?n. – Ecae.2-a, eni?.
e aeii. – I., 1948.

Eaooaineay e ae?. A?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea (ia aiaeeeneii ycuea). –
I., 1973.

Ea/aeiaa E.I., Ec?aeeaae/ A.A. I?aeoe/aneay a?aiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea
n oi?aaeiaieyie e eeth/aie. I, 1997. – 717 n.

Ei?iaaaa A.A. I iaeioi?uo ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiuo ooieoeeyo i?eaeaaieueiiai
eioeieoeaa a aiaeeeneii ycuea // O/aiua caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai
iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.157-168.

Naiaioeei-noeeenoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey oaenoa e i?aaeeiaeaiey: Iaaeaoc.
na. iao/. o?. / Ioa.?aae. C.ss.Oo?aaaa. – E., 1980. – 125 n.

Oniaineay I.A., Ieoaeuenii O.I. I?aeoe/aneee eo?n a?aiiaoeee aiaeeeneiai
ycuea. – NIa, 1995.

Oi?iae A.N. Eiino?oeoeee e iai?iou aiaeeeneiai ycuea /Ia?. n aiae.
A.N.Eaiaoueaaa. – I., 1992. – 336 n.

ss?oeaaa A.I. Enoi?e/aneee neioaenen aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I.-E.,1961. –
308 n.

Eeueeo A.A. I eaoaai?ee ninoiyiey a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea // O/aiua
caienee Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.91-102.

A?iieueae E.A. I?iaeaia caeiiiia?iinoe naiaioe/aneeo eciaiaiee a enoi?ee
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo naianeieiae/aneeo oai?ee // O/aiua caienee
Eaieia?aaeneiai iaae.einoeoooa. – 1958. – O.154. – N.19-34.

A?iieueae E.A. Noeeenoeea nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I., 1990.

Aeiiaoiaa A.E. Eioa?i?aoaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oaenoa. – I., 1983.

Akhmanova O., Idgelis F. What is the English we Use ? A Course in
Practical Stylistics. – Moscow, 1978.

Galperin I.K. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1981.

Kuknarenko V.A/ A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Moscow, 1986.

Galswoorthy J. The man og property. – Moscow,

C.Dichens C. The Posthumous papers of the Pickwick club. – Moscow, 1986.

Dreiser T. American Tragedy. – Moscow, 1986.

Dreiser T. Sister Carri. – Moscow, 1986.

London D. Martin Eden. – Moscow, 1986.

Maugham S. Cakes and Ale: or the Sheleton in the cupboard. – Moscow,
1986.

Maugham S. The Moon and Sixpence. – Moscow, 1986.

Quich A. Deception. – Moscow, 1986.

Naycee e oaenoo

A.A.Eeueeo a noaouea «I eaoaai?ee ninoiyiey a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii ycuea»
(1958) ienae: «Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea nenoaiu /anoae ?a/e a aiaeeeneii
ycuea, eae e a ae?oaeo ycueao, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie i/aiue iaei
enneaaeiaaii. Iaaeaeo oai anoue ana iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi iii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaith iaeio ec nouanoaothueo noi?ii ?acaeoey
a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy ycuea. Aeaaeaiee E.A.Ua?aa a naiae noaouea «I
/anoyo ?a/e a ?onneii ycuea» ioia/ae: «Iiyoiio iiaeao auoue ia
aaniieacii auei au i?aaei?eiyoue iieiue ia?aniio? aii?ina (i /anoyo ?a/e
– A.E.) i?eiaieoaeueii e eaaeaeiio ioaeaeueiiio ycueo a ii?aaeaeaiiue
iiiaio aai enoi?ee». Aiai?y ia «ii?aaeaeaiiii iiiaioa enoi?ee»,
E.A.Ua?aa, eiia/ii, eiae a aeaeo, /oi nenoaia /anoae ?a/e a eaaeaeii
ycuea iiaeao eciaiyoueny a oiaea aai enoi?ee, o.a. /oi a nayce n
enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy ycuea iiaoo aicieeaoue
iiaua /anoe ?a/e» .

Oaeei ia?acii, anee a oii eee eiii ycuea a XX aaea nouanoaoao oa eee
eiay /anoue ?a/e, ec yoiai iaeuecy aac iniaiai enneaaeiaaiey
caeeth/aoue, /oi yoa /anoue ?a/e nouanoaiaaea a aeaiiii ycuea n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. ?acoiaaony, oaeea /anoe ?a/e, eae nouanoaeoaeueiia,
i?eeaaaoaeueiia, aeaaie auee a aiaeeeneii ycuea, ia/eiay n aai
ae?aaiaeoeo iaiyoieeia, ynii e oi, /oi iie nouanoaiaaee e
iauaaa?iaineii, e a iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii ycuea-iniiaa. Ii a ioiioaiee
oaeeo /anoae ?a/e, eae eaoaai?ey ninoiyiey, /anoeoeu eee iiaeaeueiua
neiaa, (eioeieoea ?) aii?in ieacuaaaony aieaa neiaeiui. Caeanue
iaiaoiaeeii niaoeeaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea iaoa?eaea ii ioaeaeueiui
ia?eiaeai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iiaeii aoaeao onoaiiaeoue, eiaaea ia/aea
ca?iaeaeaoueny e eiaaea ioi?ieeanue eaaeaeay ec yoeo /anoae ?a/e [19,
n.91].

Aeaaie – naiay neiaeiay e naiay aieay a?aiiaoe/aneay eaoaai?ey ycuea,
eae e eiy nouanoaeoaeueiia, yaeyaony neioaene/aneei noa?aeiai
o?aciia?aciaaiey. Aeaaie iaeaieaa eiino?oeoeaai ii n?aaiaieth ni anaie
ae?oaeie eaoaai?eyie /anoae ?a/e. Aeaaieueiua eiino?oeoeee eiatho
?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia eiaiiua neiaini/aoaiey e i?aaeeiaeaiey.
I?aaeeeaoeaiua iai?iou ?aciiai ?iaea aicieeatho e oiiiaeathony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai aeaaiea. A iaeanoe aeaaiea i?ioaeatho iai?yaeaiiua
i?ioeannu eiino?oeoeaiiai iauaaeeiaiey yeaiaioia ?a/e. Ia yoi aua a
aioe/iie oeeinioee e eeiaaenoeea ia?auaee aieiaiea: Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue,
Aeiiao o/eee ia eiaie e aeaaiea eae i aeaoo aeaaiuo /anoyo ?a/e.

Iicaeiaa ia yoie ii/aa neiaeeeinue naiaia?aciia o/aiea i aeaaiea eae i
oeaio?aeueiie eaoaai?ee ycuea, i?enaieaoae naaa iniiaiua oi?iu e
ooieoeee ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee e nicaeaaoae naie iniaua «eieiiee» a iaeanoe
anao aeaaiuo /anoae ?a/e. Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi naiaioe/aneay
no?oeoo?a aeaaiea aieaa aiea e aeaea, /ai anao ae?oaeo a?aiiaoe/aneeo
eaoaai?ee, e yoi naienoai aeaaiea caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae
a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy aeaaiea. A iaeanoe aeaaiea i?ioaeatho iai?yaeaiiua
i?ioeannu eiino?oeoeaiiai iauaaeeiaiey yeaiaioia ?a/e. Nenoaia aeaaiea
aieaa neie?aoe/ia e aieaa neioaene/ia, /ai nenoaia anao ae?oaeo
ciaiaiaoaeueiuo /anoae ?a/e. «Aeaaieueiia neiai n aiaaonoaii e
?aciiia?aceai cia/aiee ni/aoaao e aiaaonoai e ?aciiia?acea oi?i» [6,
n.342].

I?aeoe/aneay /anoue ?aaiou –

i?eia?u ec ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee iiaeeaaeauaai

To shut up a non or Lion or tiger in confinement was surely a horrible
barbarity. (Canaaeeoue eueaa eee oea?a a eeaoeo – naiia ianoiyuaa
aa?aa?noai). – (Galswoorthy. The man og property, P.165).

To go on like this was tangerous. (Eia/a aeaei iiaeao i?eiyoue iianiue
iai?io). – (Galswoorthy. The man og property, P.61).

To get Irene out of London, away from opportunities of going about and
seeing people, away from her friends and those who put ideas into her
heas ! That was the thing ! (Oaacoe E?yi ec Eiiaeiia, eeoeoue aa
aiciiaeiinoe ano?a/aoueny n ethaeueie, oaacoe io ae?ocae e io oao,
naeaaao aa n oieeo! Aio /oi naiia aeaaiia !). – (Galswoorthy. The man og
property, P.66).

Because they told me that to admire walter Pater was to prove myselt a
cultures young man, … (Iia aiai?eee, /oi eoeueoo?iue iieiaeie /aeiaae
aeieaeai ainoeuaoueny Oieoa?ii Iaoa?ii…) – (S.Maugham. Cahes and Ale:
or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.47).

Then it was a distinction to be under forty, but now to be more than
twenty-five is absurb. (A oa a?aiaia ienaoaeue iieiaea ni?iea eao
i?eaeaeae e naaa aieiaiea, oaia?ue ienaoaee noa?oa aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe eao
– eiie/aneea oeao?u). – (S.Maugham. The Moon and Sixpence, P.29).

… but the North Sea gave it a pleasant tang so that it was a felight
just to live and breeth. (.., a Naaa?iia ii?a i?eaeaaaei aio iniaaiiue
i?eaeon, oae /oi i?inoi aeeoue e aeuoaoue auei ianeaaeaeaieai). –
(S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.54).

For a long time no critic has evjoyed in France a more incontestable
authority, and it was impossible not to be impressed by the clainis he
made… (Oaea aeieaia a?aiy ie e iaeiiio e?eoeeo ai O?aioeee oae ia
i?eneooeaaeenue, aea e, i?aaaea, aai aeiaiaeu ia iiaee ia i?iecaanoe
aia/aoeaiey…). – (S.Maugham. The Moon and Sixpence, P.22).

It doesn’t do us any goot to wring our hands over the far-off things. (
(T.Dreiser. Sister Carri, P.527)

It was not for Carry to know the thing in which appealed to her
(T.Dreiser. Sister Carri, P.526) – iiaeeaaeauaa a eiino?oeoeee «neiaeiia
aeiiieiaiea»

In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. (*a?ac ieiooo y
niiao oeoe, ia ia?ooay… ). – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or the
Sheleton in the cupboard, P.48). – eioeieoea a eiino?oeoeee, ii aai
ooieoeey = iiaeeaaeauaio

«To be delivered immediately», which was sure to be attended to; (.., a
ia eiiaa?oa iaienaii: «Niaoii»). – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of
the Pickwick club, P.798). – aii?in: ia?aaiae i?aaeeueiue ?(Aeeeeain,
n.634)

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeaee, neaaenoaey e niioonoaothueo
oneiaee.

Oeaee: The dismal man… opened the roll of paper and proceeded, partly
to read and partly to relate, the following incident, which we find
recorded on the Transactions of the club, as «The Stroller’s Tale»
(I?a/iue noauaeo iineaaeiaae.., ?acaa?ioe ?oeiienue e ia/ae eceaaaoue,
oi /eoay, oi ?anneacuaay, ieaeaneaaeothuaa i?ienoanoaea, niiauaiea i
eioi?ii iu iaoiaeei a i?ioieieao eeoaa iiae iacaaieai «?anneac
no?ainoaothuaai aeoa?a». – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of the
Pickwick club, P.52).

The taffered remains of a checked curtain were drawn round the bed’s
head, to exclude the wind, which… made its way into the room through
the numerous chinks in the door… (O ecaieiauey aenaea ?aaiay eeao/aoay
caiaaanea, neoaeeaoay caueoie io aao?a, eioi?ue i?iieeae a yoo aeaeeoth
eiiiaoo neaicue iiiai/eneaiiua uaee a aeaa?e, e caiaaanea ana a?aiy
?acaaaaeanue. – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of the Pickwick club,
P.55).

If Some seemingly vulnerable object appeared he was all attention – to
pass the compliments of the day, to lead the way to the parlor car,
carring her grip, or, failing that, to tace a seat next to her with the
hope of being able to court her to her destination. (Ii eae oieueei ia
aai ai?eciioa iiyaeyeny iiaeaoeeaue, ii aai iiaieth, iauaeo, ii
noaiiaeeny aiieiuaiiui aieiaieai e ethaaciinoueth, caaiaeee ?a/ue i
iiaiaea, aaeaioii ioe?uaae aeaa?ue aaaiia, iiiiaae ianoe /aiiaeai, anee
aea yoi ia oaeaaaeinue, noa?aeny nanoue ?yaeii, iaaeaynue aei i?eauoey
iiacaea e ianoo iacia/aiey iaeoe aiciiaeiinoue iiooaaeeaaoue). –
(T.Dreiser. Sister Carri, P.25).

That she was one of those women – not too common in the Anglo-Saxon
race-born to be loved and to love… (/oi E?yi auea iaeiie ec oao
aeaiuei, ia /anoi ano?a/athueony a aiaeinaeniineie ?ana, eioi?ua
?iaeaeaiu ethaeoue e auoue ethaeiuie…) – (J. Galsworthy. The man of
property, P.64).

… she had no business to make him feel like that – a wife and a
husband being one person. – (… ca/ai iia noaaeo aai a oaeia iieiaeaiea
– aaaeue ioae e aeaia – aaeeiu). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property,
P.75).

He had stopped to look in at a picture shop, for Soames was an «amateur»
of piktures, and had a little room in no 62, Montpellier Square full of
canvases, Stacked agains + the wall whikh hehad no room to hang. (Ii
inoaiiaeeny o iaeiie ec aeo?ei, aaea auee aunoaaeaiu ea?oeiu. Niin aue
«ethaeoaeai» aeeaiiene: iaaieueoay eiiiaoa a aeiia N62 ia
Iiiiaeuea-neaa? auea caiieiaia oienoaie, noiyaoeie aaeieue noai, oae eae
eo iaaaea auei aaoaoue). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property, P.65).

… taking note of the stories, articles and poems that editors saw fit
to bublish. (… noa?aynue oynieoue naaa, eaeea noeoe, iiaanoe, ?anneacu
i?aayony ecaeaoaeyi). – (D.London. Martin Eden, P.100).

Neaaenoaey:

It was enough to make get up and leave table. (Io iaeiiai yoiai iiaeii
anoaoue ec-ca noiea e oeoe ec eiiiaou). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of
property, P.75).

«Too mieserly to bum two cents’ worth of gas and save his boarders’
neck». («Ne?yaa, – iiaeoiae ii, – aeaeaao oieaoeoue aeaa eeoieo oeaioa
ca aac, /oiau aeeeueoeu ia ?acaeaaee naaa iinia»). – (D.London. Martin
Eden, P.47).

Oneiaey:

I assure you he wouldn’t break into a sweat were he to dine in hell with
the dewil himself (Amanda Quich. Deception, P.319).

Ia?aca aeaenoaey:

… and were strapped very tightly over a pair of patcher and mended
shoes, as if to conceal the dirty white stockings, which were
nevertheless distinctly visible. (… e auee ooai iaoyioou ia caeaoaiiua
e ia?aeaoaiiua aaoiaee, aeaau ne?uoue a?yciua aaeua /oeee, eioi?ua oai
ia iaiaa inoaaaeenue ia aeaeo). – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of
the Pickwick club, P.24).

Eioeieoea a ninoaaiii neacoaiii:

aeaaieueiia neacoaiia:

The great majority are perfectly content to do the ordinary thing.
(Aieueoeinoao i?aaeony ana aeaeaoue, eae ethaee). – (S. Maugham. The
Moon and Sixpence, P.67).

«She seems to have made guite a conguest of you,any way», drawled Aunt
Hester from her corner. («Iia, eaaeaony, nianai oaay iiei?eea», –
i?ioyioea ec naiaai oaea oaoy Ynoa?). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of
property, P.131).

And behind his speech seemed to sound again that himbling violance of
primitive generations. (A aai neiaao niiaa iineuoaeanue eeiei/ouay
y?inoue ia?aiauoiuo iieieaiee. – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property,
P.63).

She saw one stop and the footman dismound, opening the door for the
gentleman who seemed to be leisurely returring from some afternoon
pleasure (T.Dreiser. Sister Carri, P.143).

She seemed to offer herself to the assault of love. (… e eae aoaeoi
auea aioiaa onooieoue ethaiaiiio iaoeneo.) – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale:
or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.182).

… He means to say», said Sob… (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of
the Pickwick club, P.830).

… but I was not allowed to go in return to his house (S.Maugham. Cakes
and Ale: or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.53).

… and I am so glad to know that you spoke of him so nicelu. (…
iiaeic?aiey iiaeoaa?aeee au…) – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or the
Sheleton in the cupboard, P.57).

Hand it all, one can afford to be generous ! (*a?o aicueie, iiaeai aea
iu naaa iicaieeoue auoue aaeeeiaeooiuie!) – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale:
or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.47).

He flourished in a bad period and he was inclined to be long-winded. (Ii
?anoeaae a iaoaea/ioth yiioo, e o iaai inoaeanue neeiiiinoue e
ionoineiaeth). – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or the Sheleton in the
cupboard, P.48).

Thaddens had contrived to look hurt (A. Quich. Peception, P.302).

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia:

His first indination was to be elated… (Aia/aea ii aue a ainoi?aa…)
– (T. Dreiser. Sister Carry, P.332).

It’s hot your brother who is about to dil (A. Quick. Deception, P.318).

Neglected dislase and hopeless poverty were as certain to be his
position as death itself. (Caiouaiiay aieaciue e aacunoiaeiay aaaeiinoue
aeieaeiu auee auianoue aio ia aeieth iaecaaaeii, eae naia nia?oue, anee
au ii i?iaeieaeae eaeoe oii?ii yoei iooai). – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous
papers of the Pickwick club, P.53).

Ninoaaiia eiaiiia neacoaiia n iiaeaeueiui cia/aieai:

… do hot inform qour husband that your are to meet with me (A. Quick.
Deception, P.315).

«Jes, but it also says», the director remarked, «that you are to look
chocked»… («Aea, ii caeanue neacaii oaeaea, /oi au ioaeiieaiu» –
caai?y/eeny ?aaeenna?). – (T. Dreiser. Sister Carry, P.195).

Eioeieoea a ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiey:

« … considering that I shall be the first to build». (… aaaeue y
ia?aue ia/eiath caeanue no?ieoueny). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of
property, P.70).

Martin hat a question of his own to propound to her. (O Ia?oeia a naith
i/a?aaeue aue aii?in e ?ooe). – (D.London. Martin Eden, P.289).

«But there is more to be said», he continued, after a pause painful to
both. («Ii yoei aua ia ana neacaii», – i?iaeieaeae ii iinea io/eoaeueiie
aeey iaieo iaocu). – (D.London. Martin Eden, P.291).

.., he should be easy to deal with in money matters. (… aeaiaaeiue
aii?in n iei aoaeao iao?oaeii oeaaeeoue). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of
property, P.67).

Beauty is the only master to serve. (Ionoue aaoae oeaeueth aoaeao
oieueei iaeia E?anioa). – (D.London. Martin Eden, P.307).

Mrs. Driffield didn’t like people to see him when he was like that…
(Iennen Ae?eooeeae ia ethaeea, /oiau ii a oaeii aeaea iieacuaaeny
ethaeyi…) -(S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or the Sheleton in the cupboard,
P.49).

I find myself in a position to throw light on just that part of his
tragic career which has remained most obscure. (Oaeei ia?acii, iia
i?aaenoaaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?ieeoue naao ia oo ii?o aai o?aae/aneie
aeecie, eioi?ay inoaaaeanue n?aaieoaeueii oaiiie). – (S. Maugham. The
Moon and Sixpence, P.26).

I had not the smailest indication on which to let my imagination work.
(Ii iiaio aiia?aaeaieth ia ca /oi auei caoeaieoueny). – (S. Maugham. The
Moon and Sixpence, P.128).

I lived at the hotel de la Fleur, and Mrs. Johnson, the proprietress,
had a sad story to tell of Lost opportunity. (ss aeee a ioaea «Aeaea
Oea?», e oicyeea aai, iennen Aeaeiinii, iiaaaeaea iia ia/aeueioth
enoi?eth i oii, eae iia i?icaaaea n/anoeeaue neo/ae). – (S. Maugham. The
Moon and Sixpence, P.183).

I’ m the last to close up (T. Dreiser. Sister Carry, P.299).

It woult be everything to get Irene out of town. (Oaacoe E?ai ca ai?iae
– a yoii ana). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property, P.66).

Aeiiieiaiea:

I?yiia aeiiieiaiea:

«… Jou compel me to say it;». (… Au aea naie iaiy ni?ineee). –
(D.London. Martin Eden, P.290).

A study of twese men in broad light proved them to be nearly of a type.
(I?eniio?aaoenue e yoei ethaeyi i?e y?eii naaoa aeiy, iiaeii auei
caiaoeoue, aei /aai iie ana iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa). – (T. Dreiser.
Sister Carry, P.531).

«Well, qou tell that Hermann of yours to mind his own business; …».
(«Oae neaaee naiaio Aa?iaio, /oiau ii ia eac ia a naie aeaea …». –
(D.London. Martin Eden, P.283).

I’ ll thanki qou not to insult him (A. Quick Deception, P.311).

He found his partner to be very disagreeable (T. Dreiser. Sister Carry,
P.332).

… she might lead him to believe that she was fond of him; (/oi ii
iiaeao enoieeiaaoue eaeia-ieaoaeue aa neiai, aeano eee ciae eae
i?iyaeaiea ethaae). – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property, P.76).

Neiaeiia aeiiieiaiea:

Dirk wishes me to tell you… (Aee?e i?ineo iaiy neacaoue…). – (S.
Maugham. The Moon and Sixpence, P.129).

I believe him to be headed toward his old place of business (A. Quick.
Deception, P.300).

«I told you», he said,» that I want this house to be a surprise, so
don’t say arything about it. («ss oaea aiai?ee aai, /oi iiea aea?aeo
iino?ieeo a nae?aoa, – neacae Niin, – e au oiaea ieeiio ia
?anneacuaaeoa».) – (J. Galsworthy. The man of property, P.69).

Iai?io «Eiaieoaeueiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii»:

Alroy Kear was a bachelor and now at fifty was likely to remain one.
(Ye?ie Ee? oieino, e oaia?ue, eiaaea aio ieioei iyoueaeanyo eao, aio,
aa?iyoii, i?aaenoieo oaeiaui e inoaoueny). – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale:
or the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.40)

Iauaeoiue iaaeaae n eioeieoeaii

… I have a particular service I want you to do to me… (ss oi/o
iii?ineoue aan ia iaeiii iaeieaeaiee…) – (S.Maugham. Cakes and Ale: or
the Sheleton in the cupboard, P.57)

Aaiaeiue /eai i?aaeeiaeaiey:

Tom’s mode of commencing the conversation being rather unusual, hot to
say Startling. (… aiai?eo Oii Nia?o (o Oiia auea i?aneaa?iay i?eau/ea
eiiaaea ?oaaoueny). – (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of the Pickwick
club, P.223).

Every gentlman who hears me, is probably aquainted with the reply made
by an individual, who – to use an ordinary figure of speech – ‘hung out’
in a tub (C.Dichens. The Posthumous papers of the Pickwick club, P.118).

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