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Словообразование в английском языке

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Ieai

1. Neiaiia?aciaaiea a aiaeeeneii ycuea.

2. Aeaeu neiaiia?aciaaiey.

3. Eiiaa?ney.

4. Aooeenaoeey. Oiio?aaeaiea i?aoeenia i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

5. Noooeenaoeey. Oiio?aaeaiea noooeenia nouanoaeoaeueiuo.

6. Aeacaooeenaoeey.

7. Aaa?aaeaoeey.

1. Neiaiia?aciaaiea a aiaeeeneii ycuea

Iiaua neiaa (oae aea, eae e iiaua cia/aiey neia) iiyaeythony oiaaea,
eiaaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iacaaoue iiaua i?aaeiaou eee au?aceoue
ianeieueei eiia ioiioaiea e oaea ecaanoiui i?aaeiaoai eee eae-oi eia/a
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eo. Iiaua neiaa nicaeathony ec nouanoaothueo yeaiaioia
ycuea (neia, iniia, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo aooeenia) ii nouanoaothuei
iiaeaeyi a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey i?eau/iuo niiniaia neiaiia?aciaaiey.
Iai?eia?, D-day (Decimal day)—neiai, nicaeaiiia a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee
Aiaeee e ia?aoiaeo ia iiaoth aeaiaaeioth nenoaio, ia?aciaaii ii ia?acoeo
?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoeo a ycuea neia V-day (H-bomb, G-man). N?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii iiyaeaoeany aaa?aaeaoo?u OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum
Producing Countries), SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks), VAT (value
added tax) iiaoi?ytho i?eau/ioth iiaeaeue oeia USA e AAN. Eiaaea a
?acaa? yia?aaoe/aneiai e?ecena a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ia/aee
i?iiaaaiaee?iaaoue aaeineiaae, iiyaeeinue iiaia nie?auaiea ANA (All
Change to Bicycle). Nie?auaiea ia?aciaaii ec ia/aeueiuo aoea neia,
ninoaaeythueo i?aaeeiaeaiea, oae aea eae SOS (Save our souls — neaiae
aaaenoaey ia ii?a), SNAFU (Situation normal. All fouled up.— au?aaeaiea,
iiioey?iia a aiaiiii aea?aiia ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu,
i?eaeeceoaeueiui ia?aaiaeii eioi?iai yaeyaony Ana a ii?ia. E?oaii iieiay
ia?acaa?eoa.). Aeaaie decolonise, iiyaeaoeeny a ia?eiae ianniaiai
caaiaaaiey iacaaeneiinoe auaoeie eieiieyie, iiaoi?yao no?oeoo?o aeaaieia
decode, decipher, demilitarise, demobilise, decompose.

N?aaieoaeueii iiaua i?iecaiaeiua nouanoaeoaeueiua draftee, conscriptee,
evacuee, promisee, licencee, selectee, insuree e ae?. nicaeaiu ii
iiaeaee: to address — an addressee, to refer — a referee.
Neiaeiinie?auaiiia nouanoaeoaeueiia petro-war nicaeaii iniiaineiaeaieai,
o. a. oai aea niiniaii, /oi e ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoea a ycuea neiaa
psycho-war, psycho-therapy, electro-magnetism.

Iiaiia?aciaaiey iiaoo auoue nicaeaiu ia aaca ethaiai neiaa, eioi?ia
aini?eieiaaony eae no?oeoo?ii-i?iecaiaeiia e ii?oieiae/aneia no?iaiea
eioi?iai iiaeao auoue iniuneaii, oioy e ia anaaaea i?aaeeueii, n
yoeiieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. Oae, iauaecaanoii, /oi nouanoaeoaeueiia
boycott ainoiaeeo e eiaie nianoaaiiiio (oaieeee /aeiaaea, eioi?iai
naycuaatho n yoei aeaeii i?ioanoa) e yaeyaony ii no?oeoo?a i?inoui
iai?iecaiaeiui neiaii. Ii iniuneaiea eiiiiiaioa boy eae iniiau aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaoue oooeeaia neiai ladycott — i?ioano (aieeio)
aeaiuei-aeiiioicyae, ioeacuaathueony iieoiaoue i?iaeoeou, a eaeii-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiii iaaaceia ec-ca iaiiia?iie aei?iaiaeciu. ‘You know what a
‘ladycott’ is? According to the New York Times it’s a new word which has
been coined to describe the American housewives’ boycott of
supermarkets’ (MorningStar). Yeaiaio -gram, au/eaiaiiue ec neia telegram
e cablogram e iniuneaiiue eae ii?oaia ni cia/aieai iinueaaiia ii
oaeaa?aoo, aioae a iiaiia?aciaaiea candygram — oaeaa?aiia n i?eeiaeaiiie
e iae ei?iaeie eiioao. Iai?eia?: Send your friends a candy-gram.
(Advertisement). Ethaiiuoii i?ienoiaeaeaiea . nouanoaeoaeueiuo
beefburger e cheeseburger. Neiaa nicaeaiu ii ia?acoeo hamburger
(?oaeaiue aeoooaen), iniuneaiiiai ia eae i?iecaiaeiia neiai (io
Hamburg), a eae neiaeiia n iniiaie ham-. Eiiiiiaio -mat, eae au
neiioeaio?e?iaaaoee a naaa cia/aiea nouanoaeoaeueiiai automat e
au/eaiaiiue ec neia automat, mailomat, aeeth/ai a ea/anoaa ii?oaiu a
iiaiia?aciaaiea laundromat (i?a/a/iay naiiianeoaeeaaiey).

Ia ana iiaiia?aciaaiey aoiaeyo a ycue a ea/anoaa iiauo neiaa?iuo
aaeeieoe. Iiaua neiaa, oiio?aaeaiiua ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie, ii ia
yaeythueany ocoaeueiuie, o. a. i?eau/iuie aeey inoaeueiuo aiai?yueo ia
aeaiiii ycuea ethaeae e ia ano?a/athueany a eo ?a/e, iacuaatho
ieeaceiiaeueiuie neiaaie. Ieeaceiiaeueiua neiaa nicaeathony ii
nouanoaothuei a ycuea iiaeaeyi a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey i?iaeoeoeaiuo
niiniaia neiaiia?aciaaiey. Iai?eia?: aaiaeeoeci ia ye?aia — i oeeueiao n
o/anoeai Aeaeaeina Aiiaea (Eeoa?aoo?iay aacaoa), a?aiyoiae (A. Aaoiia),
oeiioi?eoue (Ae. A?aiei). What a garbage-brained fellow! (A. Christie).
I am uncled and mother-in-lawed in Texas. (J. Steinbeck). Some of the
developments of today are: cinerama, 3-D, and even smellovision. There
was a poster advertising the technique: ‘First they moved (1893), then
they talked (1927), now they smell (1959)’ (N. Tucker). Indispensable
for seasiders! (Advertisement). The candle is wiltless and dripless.
(Advertisement).

Ieeaceiiaeueiua neiaa a neiaa?yo ia oeene?othony. Aeey iiieiaiey eo
neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue, eaeei niiniaii e ii eaeie no?oeoo?iie iiaeaee
nicaeaii aeaiiia iiaiia?aciaaiea, e ia?aaiaeeoue aai, enoiaey ec
cia/aiey ia?acothueo aai iniia e neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo aooeenia, a a
neo/aa eiiaa?nee — ec cia/aiey enoiaeiiai neiaa. Iiaiia?aciaaiey,
eniieuecoaiua aieueoeinoaii aiai?yueo ia aeaiiii ycuea ethaeae, ii
iiyaeaoeany a ycuea n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii, iacuaatho iaieiaeciaie.
Iaeiaei, iineieueeo a?aiy, a oa/aiea eioi?iai iiaiia?aciaaiea n/eoaaony
iaieiaeciii, a eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ieaaea ia ooi/iaii, iiiyoea
«iaieiaeci» yaeyaony aeiaieueii iaii?aaeaeaiiui.

2. Aeaeu neiaiia?aciaaiey

A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea aeaenoaotho, naiinoiyoaeueii eee a
ni/aoaiee ae?oa n ae?oaii, neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeaeu neiaiia?aciaaiey:
eiiaa?ney, aooeenaoeey, eiii?anney, iniiaineiaeaiea, aaa?aaeaoeey,
aeacaooeenaoeey, iainiaeaiea cia/aiey.

I eiii?annee e iniiaineiaeaiee ?a/ue oea auoa.

Iainiaeaiea cia/aiey (oi/iaa: iainiaeaiea i?iecaiaeiiai cia/aiey
iiiaicia/iiai neiaa) — auaeaeaiea neiaa a iaeiii ec cia/aiee a
naiinoiyoaeueioth neiaa?ioth aaeeieoeo. Iainiaeaiea cia/aiey i?ienoiaeeo
i?e en/aciiaaiee naiaioe/aneie nayce iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeiui e enoiaeiui
cia/aieyie. Iai?eia?, nouanoaeoaeueiia ton oiiia (eiaaoaa ?aiueoa
iaienaiea tun) — iainiaeaoaany cia/aiea neiaa tun aieueoay ai/ea.
Nouanoaeoaeueiia pound ooio noa?eeiaia aicieeei a ?acoeueoaoa
iainiaeaiey /anoiiai cia/aiey ia?a aana. (Cia/aiea iainiaeeinue iinea
oiai, eae aianoi na?aa?a, ooio eioi?iai aue aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeae, a
ea/anoaa aeaiaa ia/aee eniieueciaaoue cieioi, ioee/athuaany io iaai ii
aano.)

Iainiaeaiea cia/aiey — iniaia yaeaiea, noiaeiia n inoaeueiuie niiniaaie
neiaiia?aciaaiey eeoue ii eiia/iiio ?acoeueoaoo: oae aea, eae i?e
aeaenoaee inoaeueiuo niiniaia, i?e iainiaeaiee cia/aiey ia?acoaony iiaay
neiaa?iay aaeeieoea.

E iiaiia?aciaaieyi neaaeoao ioiineoue ia oieueei oa neiaa, eioi?ua oaea
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu neiaa?yie iaieiaeciia e nieneaie iiauo neia, ii e
iioaioeeaeueiua neiaa, o. a. oaeea iiaiia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua aiai?yuei ia
aini?iecaiaeyony, a nicaeathony a i?ioeanna ?a/e ec iaoa?eaea,
eiathuaainy a neiaa?iii ninoaaa ycuea, ii nouanoaothuei a ycuea
ia?acoeai. Yoe ia?aciaaiey iiiyoiu anai iieuecothueiny ycueii, oioy iie
aua ia aoiaeyo a neiaa?iue ninoaa eae aioiaua aaeeieoeu ycuea. A
aeaeueiaeoai, anee oaeea neiaa nicaeathony oaea/ii e anee nouanoaoao
iauanoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue a oaeeo neiaao, iie iiaeoaaouaathony ae?oaeie
aiai?yueie, aini?iecaiaeyony a iiiai/eneaiiuo aeoao ia?auaiey, e oaeei
ia?acii noaiiayony ?aaeueiuie ycueiauie aaeeieoeaie. Iioaioeeaeueiuie
neiaaie iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeea ia?aciaaiey, eae out-of-the-wayness (io
neiae. i?ee. out-of-the-way ioaeaeaiiue, aeaeaeee; iaiau/iue, no?aiiue),
Spanishness (io i?ee. Spanish eniaineee), Africanness (io i?ee. African
ao?eeaineee), honeymooners (io neiaeiiai aeaaiea to honeymoon
i?iaiaeeoue iaaeiaue ianyoe) e o. i. Yoe neiaa, i/aaeaeii, iiea aua ia
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a neiaa?yo aiaeeeneiai ycuea, ii iie i?iecaaaeaiu ii
aeeaui iiaeaeyi «iniiaa i?eeaaaoaeueiiai + noooeen -ness» e «iniiaa
aeaaiea + noooeen -er»; e iiiyoiu aiai?yuei ia ycuea.

3. Eiiaa?ney

Eiiaa?ney — yoi aacaooeenaeueiue niinia neiaiia?aciaaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaenoaey eioi?iai ia?acoaony eaoaai?eaeueii ioee/iia neiai,
niaiaaeathuaa a iaeioi?uo oi?iao n enoiaeiui neiaii. Ia?aciaaiiia
eiiaa?neae neiai aunooiaao a iiaie neioaene/aneie ooieoeee, eiaao
ae?oaia cia/aiea e, a neo/aa ii?oieiae/anee eciaiyaiuo neia, ae?oaoth
ia?aaeeaio. Iai?eia?: The story was filmed. She is such a dear. He
tensed himself for action. He elbowed his way through the crowd. You
must respect your elders. He was snowed under by too many
responsibilities. Her hair is beginning to gray. They kept us in the
dark. I have no say in the matter. I’ll chance it.

Aneaaenoaea iiiieiee oi?iieciaieoaeueiuo noooeenia (a oii /enea ioeaaie
oeaenee) ioaeaeueiua oi?iu neia, naycaiiuo ioiioaieai eiiaa?nee, iiaoo
niaiaaeaoue, auoue iiiieie/iuie. Iai?eia?: Hang the photographs on the
wall. She photographs better than she looks. Give me your autograph. He
refused to autograph the book. The host introduced the newcomers. Who
will host the party? She sows panic. Don’t panic.

I?e eiiaa?nee ia?acoaony iiiiei, naiaioe/anee naycaiiue n enoiaeiui
neiaii. Iiiyoue cia/aiea iiaiia?aciaaiey iiaeii, iie?aynue ia cia/aiea
enoiaeiiai neiaa: She reads only glossies and comics (glossy —
aeyioeaaue). The actor was hissed off the stage (hiss — oeiaiuea,
oeeaiuea). We tried to cushion the fall (a cusion — iiaeooea).

Eiiaa?ney eae niinia neiaiia?aciaaiey iaaethaeaaony e a ?onneii ycuea.
Iai?eia?: ecaeoue /aeiaae (i?e/anoea) e ecaeoua enoeiu
(i?eeaaaoaeueiia), auoiaeiie aeaiue (i?eeaaaoaeueiia) e auoiaeiie
(nouanoaeoaeueiia). Iaeiaei a aiaeeeneii ycuea eiiaa?ney aieaa
i?iaeoeoeaia. Iniaay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eiiaa?nee a aiaeeeneii ycuea
‘iauyniyaony nouanoaiaaieai aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iai?iecaiaeiuo neia, ia
cae?aieaiiuo aooeenaeueii ca /anoueth ?a/e, n?aaieoaeueiie
iaei/eneaiiinoueth neiaieciaieoaeueiuo aooeenia e a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i, a
oaeaea i?inoioie ia?aciaaiey iineaaeieo.

Iniiaiie i?aaeiinueeie ia?aciaaiey iiaie ycueiaie aaeeieoeu iooai
eiiaa?nee yaeyaony eciaiaiea neioaene/aneiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neiaa,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiia eciaiaieai cia/aiey. Aeey eiiaa?nee iaiaoiaeeii
eciaiaiea i?eau/iiai neioaene/aneiai ie?oaeaiey. Neioaene/aneia
ie?oaeaiea ieacuaaaony eiui i?e aaaaeaiee neiaa a ia naienoaaiiue aio
iiaue eiioaeno eee i?e auiaaeaiee iaeiiai ec yeaiaioia i?eau/iiai
eiioaenoa, o. a. a ?acoeueoaoa yeeeinena. A ia?aii neo/aa iiaia neiai
nicaeaaony i?e iaeii?aciaii neioaene/anee iaiau/iii oiio?aaeaiee: ‘What
is his hobby?’ ‘He gardens.’ I’ll do it, the how you leave to me. It is
the why of the crime that interests him. I?e eiiaa?nee, yaeythuaeny
?acoeueoaoii yeeeinena, iiyaeaieth iiaiai neiaa aeieaeii
i?aaeoanoaiaaoue iiiaie?aoiia niaianoiia oiio?aaeaiea aeaoo neia, oae
/oiau i?e auiaaeaiee iaeiiai ec ieo auei au aa?aioe?iaaii iiieiaiea.
Yeeeinen i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth niiniaii eiiaa?nee nouanoaeoaeueiuo ec
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e i?e/anoee. Iai?eia?: a summit (ec summit conference),
a convertible (ec convertible car, coat), a commercial (ec commercial
programme), a regular (ec regular visitor), supersonics (ec supersonic
aircraft), newly marrieds (ec newly married couple).

He ana neiaa, aini?eieiaaiua nae/an eae ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey eiiaa?nee,
auee ia?aciaaiu yoei niiniaii. Iiiaea aeaaieu e nouanoaeoaeueiua
neo/aeii niaiaee ii oi?ia a ia?eiae au?aaieaaiey e ioiaaeaiey ieii/aiee
(iai?eia?, hate e to hate; rest e to rest; smell e to smell; love e to
love; work e to work; end e to end; answer e to answer e ae?.).
Iaeioi?ua ia?u iaeiiei?aiiuo neia eiino?aiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey niaiaee
oiiaoe/anee e a?aoe/anee a i?ioeanna anneieeyoeee (iai?eia?, doubt e to
doubt; change e to change e ae?.). N nia?aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey, ana
eaoaai?eaeueii ?acee/iua ?iaenoaaiiua neiaa, niaiaaeathuea a ioaeaeueiuo
oi?iao, iacaaeneii io a?aiaie e niiniaa ia?aciaaiey, aini?eieiathony eae
iiiieiu.

Iniiaiuie ?aciiaeaeiinoyie eiiaa?nee yaeythony: aa?aaeecaoeey
(ia?aciaaiea aeaaieia), noanoaioeaaoeey (ia?aciaaiea nouanoaeoaeueiuo),
aaeuaeoeaaoeey (ia?aciaaiea i?eeaaaoaeueiuo), aaeaa?aaeecaoeey
(ia?aciaaiea ia?a/ee).

Eiiaa?ney i?ioaeaao ?acee/ii a caaeneiinoe io ii?oieiae/aneie
oa?aeoa?enoeee enoiaeiiai e i?iecaiaeiiai neia. Eiiaa?ney ia?aiai oeia
iaaethaeaaony a neo/aa, anee enoiaeiia e i?iecaiaeiia neiaa (eee iaeii
ec ieo) yaeythony ii?oieiae/anee eciaiyaiuie. Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
ia?aciaaiey iiaiai neiaa i?e eiiaa?nee ia?aiai oeia yaeyaony ia oieueei
eciaiaiea eaene/aneiai cia/aiey e neioaene/aneie ooieoeee neiaa, ii
oaeaea eciaiaiea aai neiaieciaieoaeueiie ia?aaeeaiu. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie
i?eia?aie eiiaa?nee ia?aiai oeia yaeythony aa?aaeecaoeey e
noanoaioeaaoeey, a oaeaea neo/ae, eiaaea enoiaeiui neiaii yaeyaony
nouanoaeoaeueiia eee aeaaie. I eiiaa?nee aoi?iai oeia iiaeii aiai?eoue,
anee e enoiaeiia, e i?iecaiaeiia neiaa ii?oieiae/anee iaeciaiyaiu.
Eiiaa?ney aoi?iai oeia caeeth/aaony a eciaiaiee neioaene/aneie ooieoeee
neiaa e aai eaene/aneiai cia/aiey. Ioiioaieyie eiiaa?nee yoiai oeia
iiaoo auoue naycaiu i?aaeeiae e ia?a/ey (on, off, in e o. i.), i?aaeeiae
e nithcu (before, after e o. i.), ianoieiaiey e nithcu (who, when, why e
o. i.).

Eiiaa?ney ia?aiai oeia iiaeao auoue iieiie e /anoe/iie. I?e iieiie
eiiaa?nee aiiaue ia?aciaaiiia neiai i?eia?aoaao ana naienoaa ae?oaie
/anoe ?a/e (oie, a neioaene/aneie ooieoeee eioi?ie iii ia/eiaao
oiio?aaeyoueny). Oae, i?e aa?aaeecaoeee nouanoaeoaeueiua e
i?eeaaaoaeueiua ia/eiatho iaicia/aoue aeaenoaea e oiio?aaeyoueny a
ooieoeee neacoaiiai, a oaeaea i?eia?aoatho ana neiaieciaieoaeueiua oi?iu
aeaaiea. Iai?eia?: They are taping the programme. The programme has been
taped. They’ll tape the programme e o. i. Aeaaie to tape ia?aciaai
eiiaa?neae io nouanoaeoaeueiiai a tape oa??iiaaieoiay eaioa. I?e iieiie
noanoaioeaaoeee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo aiiaue ia?aciaaiiia neiai iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny i?eeaaaoaeueiui, oiio?aaeyoueny n ii?aaeaeaiiui e
iaii?aaeaeaiiui a?oeeeyie, aunooiaoue a neioaene/aneeo ooieoeeyo
nouanoaeoaeueiiai e eiaoue ana i?enouea nouanoaeoaeueiiio oi?iu
neiaieciaiaiey. Iai?eia?: Ia is a real criminal. Don’t harbour
criminals. The criminal was tracked down. Eiee/anoai iieiinoueth
noanoaioeae?iaaiiuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo aeiaieueii aaeeei: a revolutionary,
a savage, a native, a relative, a private, a Conservative, a Russian, an
American e ae?.

I?e /anoe/iie eiiaa?nee neiai i?eia?aoaao ia iaycaoaeueii ana i?eciaee
ae?oaie /anoe ?a/e (/oi iauyniyaony /anoi aai naiaioe/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie). Oae, /anoe/ii noanoaioeae?iaaiiua i?eeaaaoaeueiua e
i?e/anoey eiatho a?aiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe: oiio?aaeythony oieueei n
ii?aaeaeaiiui a?oeeeai e niaeanothony n aeaaieii a aaeeinoaaiiii /enea
(The supernatural is always frightening. You must learn to accept the
inevitable. One can’t do the impossible); eiatho oieueei oi?io
iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea (exteriors eeiinuaiee ia iaoo?a, aia iaaeeueiia;
casuals iaoaue, oooee ia eaaeaeue aeaiue; perennials aa/iicaeaiua
?anoaiey); ia i?eieiatho ieii/aiey iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea, oioy
niaeanothony n aeaaieii ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea (The fitting have
survived. The needy were taken care of. The wounded were rushed to
hospital) . Iiiaea nouanoaeoaeueiua, ia?aciaaiiua ec aeaaieia a
?acoeueoaoa /anoe/iie eiiaa?nee, eniieuecothony oieueei a oi?ia
aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea: It gave me quite a scare. That was a good laugh.
In this way you’ll get the feel of the country. The film had a long run.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiiaa?nee a nia?aiaiiii
aiaeeeneii ycuea — aa?aaeecaoeey nouanoaeoaeueiuo. Iooai eiiaa?nee io
nouanoaeoaeueiuo ia?aciaaii iiiai aeaaieia: The committee I chair
opposes the move. They parachuted into safety. The soldiers were
mortared. I want the man shadowed. He thumbed through the book. She felt
her eyes tearing. Aa?aaeecaoeee /aua iiaeaa?aathony i?inoua
iai?iecaiaeiua nouanoaeoaeueiua. Ii/oe anai nouanoaeoaeueiui oaeie
no?oeoo?u a aiaeeeneii ycuea niioaaonoaoao aeaaie.

Aeiaieueii /anouie yaeythony oaeaea noanoaioeaaoeey aeaaieia e
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e aaeuaeoeaaoeey i?e/anoee.

Nouanoaeoaeueiua, ia?aciaaiiua eiiaa?neae io aeaaieia e oiio?aaeythueany
n aeaaieaie have, get, give, take, iaicia/atho iau/ii iaeii?aciaia
aeaenoaea: have a try, give smb. a ring, take a look, get a call (from
smb.), have a dip (in the sea), give smb. a push.

I?e/anoey e ia?aciaaiiua io ieo i?eeaaaoaeueiua naiaioe/anee ioee/iu
ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e/anoey iaicia/atho a?aiaiiue i?eciae, naycaiiue n
aeaenoaeai, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeony eee eioi?iio iiaeaa?aaaony i?aaeiao.
I?eeaaaoaeueiua iaicia/atho i?eciae aacioiineoaeueii e aeaenoaeth,
i?iecaiaeeiiio a aeaiiue iiiaio. N?aaieoa: a standing man (noiyuee
/aeiaae) e a standing rule (iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuaa i?aaeei); a walking
man (eaeouee /aeiaae) e a walking case (aieueiie, eioi?iio ?ac?aoaii
anoaaaoue n iinoaee); running water oaeouay aiaea (running — i?e/anoea)
e aiaeii?iaiae (running — i?eeaaaoaeueiia). Neioaene/aneia ioee/ea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?eeaaaoaeueiia, ia?aciaaiiia io i?e/anoey,
/anoi ia oiio?aaeyaony a ooieoeee i?aaeeeaoeaa. Iaeuecy neacaoue: The
rule is standing. The case is walking. Ho: This is a standing rule. He
is a walking case.

4. Aooeenaoeey. Oiio?aaeaiea i?aoeenia i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

Aooeenaoeey — yoi niinia ia?aciaaiey iiauo neia iooai i?eniaaeeiaiey e
iniiaa neiaa neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo aooeenia. Aooeenu, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo
a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae nicaeaaony ioiineoaeueii iiiai iiaiia?aciaaiee,
iacuaathony i?iaeoeoeaiuie. I?iaeoeoeaiuie a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii
ycuea yaeythony noooeenu -ing, -o, -aa, -ist, -er, -ette, ed e ae?.;
i?aoeenu anti-, super-, pro-, mis-, re- e ae?. I?e iiiiue yoeo aooeenia
nicaeathony iiaua i?iecaiaeiua neiaa (i?inoua e neiaeiua). Iai?eia?:
summitologist noi?iiiee niaauaiey ia aunoai o?iaia; superwar aieia n
i?eiaiaieai aoiiiiai i?oaeey; weightlessness iaaaniiinoue; kitchenette
iaeiaaaa?eoiay eooiy; environmentalist ai?yueeny n caa?yciaieai
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu; pedestrianise smth. cai?aoeoue aaea-e. aeaeaeaiea
o?ainii?oa, ?ac?aoea oieueei iaoaoiaeiia aeaeaeaiea; leftist
i?eaea?aeeaathueeny eaauo acaeyaeia; Pentago-nese ycue, oaiaeiue
Iaioaaiio; a smarty oiieoea; a cuty e?anioea; a sweety ieeaoea; a lefty
eaaoa.

A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea ano?a/aaony aieueoia eiee/anoai aooeenia
eae eneiiiuo, oae e caeinoaiaaiiuo. Iaeiaei ia ana iie oiio?aaeythony
nae/an a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothueo yeaiaioia. Eae ioia/aao aeaaeaiee A.
A. Aeiia?aaeia, aooeenu, iioa?yaoea naia cia/aiea, noaaoea
iai?iaeoeoeaiuie e aini?eieiathueany eeoue eae i?eiaoa oie eee eiie
/anoe ?a/e, ia?aaeatho auoue aooeenaie e eeoue iioaioeeaeueii nio?aiytho
naienoai auaeaeyaiinoe. A nayce n yoei, anoanoaaiii, aicieeaao aii?in i
oii, /oi neaaeoao iacuaaoue aeeaui aooeenii e eaeeie i?eciaeaie ii
aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue a nia?aiaiiii ycuea. Aiaeec ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea
iieacuaaao, /oi aeeaui aooeenai i?enoue neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?iua
i?eciaee:

a) I?eniaaeeiyynue e neiaii?iecaiaeyuae iniiaa, aooeen au?aaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiia aano?aeoiia cia/aiea.

a) Aooeen eaaei auaeaeyaony eae neiaiia?acothuee yeaiaio e a niciaiee
aiai?yuaai io/aoeeai iniciaaony eae /anoue neiaa, a ei?iaaay ii?oaia i?e
ioaeaeaiee aeaiiiai aooeena aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue niiniaiinoueth
oiio?aaeyoueny a ycuea aac aooeena eee i?iecaiaeeoue iiaua neiaa i?e
iiiiue ae?oaeo aooeenia.

a) Aooeen oiio?aaeyaony aeey ia?aciaaiey iiauo neia ia oieueei io iniia
oiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, n eioi?uie ii aia?aua iiyaeeny a ycuea, ii e io
iniia eiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Anee yoi caeinoaiaaiiue aooeen, oi ii
aeieaeai aeaaaoue ia?aciaaiey ia aiaeeeneie ii/aa.

a) Aooeen iaeaaeaao ii?aaeae?iiie /anoioie oiio?aaeaiey. *ai aieueoa
ia?aciaaiee aeaao oio eee eiie aooeen, oai i?iaeoeoeaiaa ii. Yoio
i?eciae iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue iioiio, /oi iiiaea aooeenu aicieeatho ec
naiinoiyoaeueiuo neia a i?ioeanna neiaineiaeaiey. Iaeei ec eiiiiiaioia
neiaeiiai neiaa ia/eiaao oiio?aaeyoueny ana /aua e /aua a ni/aoaiee n
ae?oaeie iniiaaie, oa?yy naia ia?aiia/aeueiia cia/aiea e iinoaiaiii
i?eia?aoay aano?aeoiia cia/aiea, i?enouaa oaea oeaeiio eeanno neia. *ai
aieueoa neia n aeaiiui yeaiaioii ano?a/aaony a ycuea, oai n aieueoei
iniiaaieai iu iiaeai n/eoaoue aai aooeenii, a ia eiiiiiaioii neiaeiiai
neiaa.

ae) AEeaie aooeen aeieaeai aeaaaoue iiaiia?aciaaiey. Ecaanoii, /oi
?acaeoea neiaa?iiai ninoaaa ycuea—i?ioeann aanueia aeeeoaeueiue e
ia?aciaaiea iiauo neia i?ienoiaeeo n?aaieoaeueii iaaeeaiii. Aaeaeo yoiai
oio eee eiie aooeen, aeaa ecaanoiia eiee/anoai iiaiia?aciaaiee ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia naiaai ?acaeoey, iiaeao iaeioi?ia a?aiy ia
i?iecaiaeeoue iiauo neia, iiea o iineoaeae aeaiiiai ycuea ia iiyaeony
iio?aaiinoue a neiaa aeey iaicia/aiey iiaiai iiiyoey.

Enoiaey ec yoeo i?eciaeia, iiae aooeenaie neaaeoao iiieiaoue oaeea
ii?oaiu, eioi?ua a naiai ?acaeoee i?eia?aee niioaaonoaothuea aano?aeoiua
cia/aiey, i?enouea oeaeiio eeanno neia, e eioi?ua, i?eniaaeeiyynue e
iniiaa neiaa, eciaiytho aai cia/aiea.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi ana i?iaeoeoeaiua aooeenu yaeythony aeeauie, ii
ia ana aeeaua aooeenu ieacuaathony a ?aaiie ia?a i?iaeoeoeaiuie. Iiae
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth caeanue iiieiaaony, ai-ia?auo, oi /enei neia, eioi?ia
aicieeei ca ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey a ycuea aeaiiiai aooeena a ea/anoaa
neiaiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa, e, ai-aoi?uo, /anoioa iiyaeaiey
iiaiia?aciaaiee n aeaiiui aooeenii. Enoiaey ec yoiai, aooeenu auaatho
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiua, i?iaeoeoeaiua, a iaeioi?ua iaeaaeatho e oae
iacuaaaiie «aaniethoiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth», o. a. oaeie niiniaiinoueth
neiaii?iecaiaenoaa, i?e eioi?ie aooeen iaiueoa anaai eiaao ia?aie/aiee a
noa?a naiaai i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa.

Inoaiiaeiny aeaeaa ia i?iaeaia aooeenaeueiie iiiieiee.

Iiae aooeenaie-iiiieiaie neaaeoao iiieiaoue niaiaaeathuea ii naiaio
aiaoiaio ioi?ieaieth (cao/aieth e iaienaieth) neiaiia?acothuea yeaiaiou,
eioi?ua oiio?aaeythony aeey ia?aciaaiey neia io iniia ?acee/iuo /anoae
?a/e e au?aaeatho a neeo yoiai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua cia/aiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e oieeiaaiee oiai eee eiiai aooeena iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue ia oieueei ec oi?iaeueiuo aai i?eciaeia, ii e i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii, oa?aeoa? aai oiio?aaeaiey, i?ienoiaeaeaiea e
cia/aiea.

Aooeenu-iiiieiu iiaoo aicieeaoue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie:

a) iooai caeinoaiaaiey aooeenia, niaiaaeathueo ii naiaio aiaoiaio
ioi?ieaieth n eiathueieny oaea a ycuea aooeenaie (n?., iai?eia?,
eneiiiue noooeen i?eeaaaoaeueiuo -ish e caeinoaiaaiiue ec o?aioeocneiai
ycuea aeaaieueiue noooeen -ish);

a) a ?acoeueoaoa aeeooa?aioeeaoeee cia/aiee oiai eee eiiai aooeena i?e
oiio?aaeaiee aai aeey ia?aciaaiey eaeie-eeai /anoe ?a/e io iniia
?acee/iuo /anoae ?a/e; aneaaenoaea yoiai iaeie e oa aea aooeenu
i?eia?aoatho aiciiaeiinoue au?aaeaoue ia oieueei ?acee/iua iooaiee
iaeiiai e oiai aea cia/aiey, ii iiae/an e niaa?oaiii ?aciua cia/aiey, o.
a. iiiaicia/iinoue aooeena iiaeao ia?aoiaeeoue a aooeenaeueioth
iiiieieth.

Iai?eia?, iiiieiaie noaee a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea noooeenu -ish a
neiaao dwarfish ea?eeeiaue, iaaei?acaeoue, freakish eai?eciue,
i?e/oaeeeaue e -ish a neiaao yellowish aeaeoiaaoue, lightish
naaoeiaaoue, blackish /a?iiaaoue.

a) aooeenu-iiiieiu iiaoo aicieeaoue a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey ooieoeee
oaea eiathuaainy a ycuea aooeena, eae iai?.: noooeen i?eeaaaoaeueiuo
-ed, eioi?ue aiciee e ?acaeeny ec oi?iiia?acothuaai noooeena aeaaieia
-ed;

a) /anoi aooeenu-iiiieiu aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi ?aciua ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth aooeenu, eioi?ua ia?aiia/aeueii ioee/aeenue ia oieueei
naiei cia/aieai, ii e naiie oi?iie, n oa/aieai a?aiaie, a neeo
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oiiaoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo i?e/ei i?eia?aee eaeaioe/iia
cao/aiea e aeaaea iaienaiea (oae, iai?eia?, aicieeee aooeenu-iiiieiu un-
ia?acothuee i?eeaaaoaeueiua io iniia i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, e un-,
i?iecaiaeyuee aeaaieu io aeaaieueiuo iniia).

I?e onoaiiaeaiee caeiiiia?iinoae oiio?aaeaiey aooeenia a nia?aiaiiii
aiaeeeneii ycuea o/eouaaaony naiaioe/aneay naycue iaaeaeo aooeenaie e
neiaii?iecaiaeyueie iniiaaie. Iiae naiaioe/aneie naycueth eiaaony a
aeaeo acaeiinaycue, a neeo eioi?ie a ycuea i?e iiiiue aeaiiiai aooeena
i?iecaiaeyony iiaua neiaa ia oieueei io ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ?a/e, ii aua
e io ii?aaeaeaiiiai naiaioe/aneiai eeanna neia oie /anoe ?a/e, n eioi?ie
aooeen niiniaai ni/aoaoueny. Oaeay acaeiicaaeneiinoue iauyniyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii cia/aieai aooeena, eioi?ia ii au?aaeaao, ia?acoy iiaua
neiaa, e cia/aieai neiaii?iecaiaeyueo iniia.

I?aoeen ei-

I?aoeen i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ei- nouanoaiaae a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothuaai
yeaiaioa aua ia naiii ?aiiai yoaia oi?ie?iaaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee anao ia?eiaeia ?acaeoey ycuea ii aue aanueia i?iaeoeoeaiui
aooeenii. Oaea a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneee ia?eiae ?acaeoey ycuea iiaeii auei
ano?aoeoue iiiai ia?aciaaiee ia ei-. Iai?eia?: un-be-boht iaiiaeeoiiue,
iai?iaeaaeiue; un-ge-cynde iaaeaaiaea?iue, iaaeia?ue (n?. unkind);
un-ge-cnawen iaecaanoiue (n?. unknown); un-ripe ianiaeue, ianic?aaoee;
unmihtig iaiiuiue, neaaue, aanneeueiue (n?. unmighty).

Enneaaeiaaiea i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ia ei- iieacuaaao, /oi oiio?aaeaiea
aeaiiiai i?aoeena n oa/aieai a?aiaie eciaieeinue. A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii
ycuea i?aoeen ei- oe?iei i?eiaiyeny aeey ia?aciaaiey nouanoaeoaeueiuo.
Iai?eia?: un-ar aan/anoea; un-bealu iaaeiiinoue; un-lust iaaeiaieuenoai;
unmeant iaiiuue; un-riht iai?aaioa; un-banc iaaeaaiaea?iinoue.

Aiaeiae/iia i?eiaiaiea yoio i?aoeen eiae oaeaea e a n?aaeiaaiaeeeneii
ycuea. Iaeiaei a iiaiaiaeeeneii ycuea i?aoeen ei- noae oiio?aaeyoueny
aeey ia?aciaaiey oieueei i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e oieueei io iniia
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo. Ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e i?aoeen ei- nae/an ia ia?acoao. Oa
iaiiiaea nouanoaeoaeueiua, eioi?ua eiatho a naiai ninoaaa ei-, iai?eia?:
unkindness, unwiseness e ae?. i?iecaaaeaiu io i?eeaaaoaeueiuo unkind
(iaaeia?ue); unwise (iaioae?ue, ia?acoiiue) i?e iiiiue noooeena
nouanoaeoaeueiuo -ness.

I. Ania?nai oeacuaaao, /oi i?aoeen ei- i?iecaiaeeo i?eeaaaoaeueiua e
ia?a/ey. Ii i?aeoe/anee ia?a/ee i?aoeen ei- ia ia?acoao, oae eae ana
ia?a/ey, eiathuea a naiai ninoaaa ei- oae aea eae e nouanoaeoaeueiua,
i?ienoiaeyo io niioaaonoaothueo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ia ei-. Oae, iai?eia?,
ia?a/ey unadvisedly, unaware, uncommon, undisturbedly, unreservedly,
unwillingly, unwittingly i?iecaaaeaiu io i?eeaaaoaeueiuo unadvised
iaaeaai?acoiiue, iaiaaeoiaiiue; unaware iaiaeeaeaiiue; ia ciathuee, ia
iiaeic?aaathuee /aai-eeai; uncommon iaiaueiiaaiiue, caia/aoaeueiue
(aeaiiia i?eeaaaoaeueiia eiiaa?oe?iaaeinue a ia?a/ea uncommon);
undisturbed niieieiue; unreserved ioe?iaaiiue.

Eiiaaea i?aoeen ei-, i?eniaaeeiyynue e i?eeaaaoaeueiui, nicaeaao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia ii cia/aieth neiai, ia?acoy, oaeei ia?acii, aioiiei. A
a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ei- oieueei i?eaeeaeaao e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio
cia/aieth oi, /oi au?aaeaaony neiaiia?acothuae iniiaie. Iai?eia?: read
ia?aciaaiiue, ia/eoaiiue e unread iaa?aiioiue, iaia?aciaaiiue; safe
aaciianiue e unsafe iianiue; pointed ino?ue e unpointed ooiie;
pretending naiiiaaeayiiue, iaoaeueiue e unpretending ne?iiiue; sound
caei?iaue, e?aieee, i?i/iue e unsound aieueiie, aieaciaiiue,
enii?/aiiue, aieeie; reserved ne?uoue e unreserved ioe?iaaiiue: selfish
yaienoe/aneee e unselfish aanei?unoiue; thinking ?acoiiue e unthinking
ii?iiao/eaue, eaaeiiuneaiiue.

A neaaeothueo i?eia?ao ei- i?eaeaao i?eeaaaoaeueiiio oieueei
i?eaeeaeaiiia e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio cia/aiea: abiding iinoiyiiue e
unabiding ia?aoiaeiue; manageable iiaeaeathueeny oi?aaeaieth, iineooiue
e unmanageable o?oaeii iiaeaeathueeny eiio?ieth eee ia?aaioea, o?oaeiue;
parliamentary ia?eaiaioneee, i?enouee ia?eaiaioo e unparliamentary
i?ioeaiue ia?eaiaioneei iau/ayi: workmanlike eneoniue e unworkmanlike
naeaeaiiue ii-ethaeoaeuenee, ethaeoaeueneee.

A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea ano?a/aaony iiiai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, a
eioi?uo ei- au?aaeaao cia/aiea ionoonoaey oiai, ia /oi oeacuaaao
neiaiia?acothuay iniiaa. Iai?eia?: unfriended ia eiathuee ae?ocae;
unmatched ia eiathuee naaa ?aaiiai; unaccomplished eeoaiiue naaoneiai
einea; unparented ia eiathuee ?iaeeoaeae, ine?ioaeue; unbacked ia
eiathuee noi?iiieeia, iiaeaea?aeee; unballasted ia eiathuee aaeeanoa;
uncritical eeoaiiue e?eoeee; unbeneficed ia eiathuee aaiaoeoeey,
i?eoiaea; unfriendly iai?eyoaeueneee, a?aaeaneee; ungraceful a?oaue,
iaecyuiue; unquiet aicaoaeaeaiiue; unbelievable iaaa?iyoiue.

I?aoeen ei- yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui eneiiii aiaeeeneei i?aoeenii
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, eioi?ue ia i?ioyaeaiee anao yoaiia ?acaeoey ycuea aue e
inoaaony aeeaui e aanueia i?iaeoeoeaiui neiaiia?acothuei yeaiaioii.
Aieueooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ii i?eia?ae aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi a aa?iaineeo
ycueao neaai ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia au?aaeaiey io?eoeaiey niaoeeaeueiuie
/anoeoeaie. A nayce n yoei aicieeiao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eaaaaoue e
neiaiia?acothuei yeaiaioai, au?aaeathuei io?eoeaiea, eaeei e yaeyaony
i?aoeen ei-.

I?aoeen in-

I?aoeen in- (eee iaeei ec aai oiiaoe/aneeo aa?eaioia) il- ia?aae l; im-
ia?aae b, ?, o; ir- ia?aae r ano?a/aaony n eaoeineeie iniiaaie. A
nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea yoi enoi?e/aneee aooeen eee ii?oieiae/aneay
i?eiaoa i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

Oioy nai i?aoeen a ianoiyuaa a?aiy neiaiia?acothuae ?iee ia ea?aao,
ia?aciaaiey ia in- neeueii aeeytho ia oiio?aaeaiea i?aoeena ei-. Eae
i?aaeei, ia?aciaaiey n i?aoeenii in- oiio?aaeyeenue aeey oiai, /oiau
au?aceoue aieaa oceia, ia?aie/aiiia e aieaa iiae/a?eiooia iiiyoea eee
cia/aiea, /ai n i?aoeenii ei-. Oae, iai?eia?, i?eeaaaoaeueiia incautious
aac?annoaeiue au?aaeaao aieaa oceia iiiyoea ii n?aaiaieth n uncautious
eee not cautious, oae eae uncautious caeeth/aao a naaa i?inoia iaoiaiea
eniieueciaaoue inoi?iaeiinoue (caution), a incautious caeeth/aao a naaa
iaee/ea e?aeiae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe neiao inoi?iaeiinoue (caution), o. a.
aac?annoaeiinoue (recklessness).

Eae i?aaeei, ia?aciaaiey ia in- yaeythony aioiieiaie aani?aoeeniuo
iniia, oiaaea eae io?eoeaiea ea/anoaa, i?eciaea e o. ae. au?aaeaaony
i?aoeenii ei-. Iai?eia?: inartistic icia/aao tasteless (aacaeoniue,
eeoaiiue ecyuiiai aeona, iaooaeiaeanoaaiiue, eeoaiiue ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
/oouey; aaiaeueiue), unartistic icia/aao not artistic (ia a?oenoe/aneee,
ia ooaeiaeanoaaiiue); irreligious icia/aao ungodly, neglecting the fear
and worship of god (aacaiaeiue), wicked, sinful; unreligious icia/aao
not religious (ia?aeeaeiciue, ia ioiinyueeny e ?aeeaee).

I?aoeen iii-

Auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea ia?aciaaiey ia in- e ia ei- ia?anoaee au?aaeaoue
i?inoi io?eoeaiea oiai, /oi au?aaeaii iniiaie, e i?eia?aee
niaoeeoe/aneia cia/aiea, a iai ioaeii ia?aaeaoue cia/aiea i?inoiai
io?eoeaiey. A yoeo neo/ayo iu i?eaaaaai e i?aoeeno iii- Oae, iai?eia?,
i?eeaaaoaeueiia unchristian oae aeieai icia/aei oi, /oi yaeyaony
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui Christian a aieaa oe?ieii niunea, /oi aicieeea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iecaanoe iiaia neiai aeey ?acee/aiey eeoe eee
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua ia iiaee auoue ii?aaeaeaiu eae Christian a
i?yiii niunea yoiai neiaa. Aeey yoie oeaee noaee oiio?aaeyoue neiai
non-christian. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aoeen iii- oiio?aaeyaony a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea a ycuea oaea anoue i?eeaaaoaeueiua ia in- eee ei-, a iai ioaeii
io yoie aea iniiau i?iecaanoe neiai n i?inoui io?eoeaieai. Iai?eia?:
unhuman e inhuman i?eia?aee cia/aiea ia/aeiaa/aneee a niunea «aeanoieee,
caa?neee, iaauiineiue», a iai ioaeii nicaeaoue neiai n i?inoui
io?eoeaieai «ia /aeiaa/aneee, a eaeie-oi ae?oaie» o. a. ia ioiinyueeny e
/aeiaaeo a i?yiii niunea neiaa. A yoii neo/aa iu i?eaaaaai e neiao
non-human (other than human). Ae?oaea i?eia?u: non-logical (proceeding
by other methods than logic) (iaeiae/iue), non-natural (deviating from
the nature) ia ioiinyueeny e i?e?iaea, ioeeiiythueeny io i?e?iaeu (n?.
unnatural).

A ioee/ea io inoaeueiuo i?aoeenia yoie a?oiiu i?aoeen iii- iiaeao
oiio?aaeyoueny aeey ia?aciaaiey nouanoaeoaeueiuo, au?aaeay i?e yoii
cia/aiea: «i?aaeiao eee yaeaiea, ia niaea?aeauea a naaa oiai, /oi
icia/aao neiaiia?acothuay iniiaa». Iai?eia?: non-conductor iai?iaiaeiee
(ecieyoi?); non-aggression iaiaiaaeaiea, non-resistance iai?ioeaeaiea
aeanoe, non-fulfilment iaauiieiaiea.

I?aoeen a-

I?aoeen a- (eee an- ia?aae aeaniie e h) ni/aoaaony oieueei ni neiaaie
a?a/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Eae eaaei auaeaeeiue i?aoeen, a- naiaiaeii
oiio?aaeyaony aeey ia?aciaaiey io?eoeaiee a ?acee/iuo io?aneyo iaoee,
aeaaiui ia?acii, a aeieiaee, oeiee, iaaeeoeeia e ?aaea a iauanoaaiiuo
iaoeao. Iai?eia?: achromatic ao?iiaoe/aneee, aanoeaaoiue, eeoaiiue
ie?anee; anhydrous aacaiaeiue; acotyledonous aannaiaiiaeieueiue e ae?.

Eiiaaea i?aoeen a- oiio?aaeyaony aeey ia?aciaaiey iiauo neia, eiaaea
/oanoaoaony, /oi ia?aciaaiey ia ei-, in-e iii- yaeythony neeoeii
niaoeeoe/aneeie ii cia/aieth e iaaeinoaoi/ii neeueii oeacuaatho ia
io?eoeaiea eee ia ionoonoaea anao i?eciaeia eee ea/anoa, caeeth/aiiuo a
ooaa?aeeoaeueiii eiiiiiaioa (o. a. iniiaa). Iai?eia?: amoral (n?.
immoral) auei nicaeaii, eiaaea iaia?oaeeee, /oi immoral ummoral,
nonmoral iaaeinoaoi/ii ynii io?eoeatho iaee/ea anao iniaaiiinoae,
i?enoueo ii?aeueiiio /aeiaaeo. Asocial au?aaeaao cia/aiea (a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue unsocial e non-social) io?eoeaiey anao oao ea/anoa,
eioi?ua caeeth/aiu a neiaa social.

I?aoeen self-

I?aoeen self- aiciee a ?acoeueoaoa neiaineiaeaiey ec ia?aiai eiiiiiaioa
neiaeiuo neia. Ia?aciaaiey ia self-ano?a/athony aua a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii
ycuea, ii ii/oe ana iie yaeythony nouanoaeoaeueiuie. Iai?eia?: self-eata
naiiaae (n?. i.a. self-eating n oai aea cia/aieai); self-cwalu
naiioaeenoai; self-sceaft naiinicaeaiea, naiioai?aiea.

Iniiaiay ianna i?iecaiaeiuo ia self- ioiineony e eiioeo
n?aaeiaaiaeeeneiai e e iiaiaiaeeeneiio ia?eiaeai.

Eae neiaiia?acothuee yeaiaio self- eiaao ?yae iniaaiiinoae a naiai
oiio?aaeaiee.

N aai iiiiuueth a aiaeeeneii ycuea ia?acothony i?eeaaaoaeueiua e
nouanoaeoaeueiua. I?e yoii nouanoaeoaeueiuo ano?a/aaony cia/eoaeueii
aieueoa, /ai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo. Neioaene/aneea e naiaioe/aneea nayce
iaaeaeo self- e iniiaaie i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e nouanoaeoaeueiuo cia/eoaeueii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa. I?e ?acaa?ouaaiee i?eeaaaoaeueiuo a
neioaene/aneea eiino?oeoeee self- i?eia?aoaao cia/aiea aeaenoaothuaai
eeoea eee i?aaeiaoa. Iai?eia?: self-governing—governing by itself
(naiioi?aaeythueeny); self-diffusive— diffusive by its own power
(naii?ani?ino?aiythueeny); self-righting — righting by itself
(naiiaui?yieythueeny); self-made — made by oneself (naiiaeaeueiue).

Eiay ea?oeia iaaethaeaaony a ia?aciaaieyo ia self-, ioiinyueony e
nouanoaeoaeueiui. I?e ?acaa?ouaaiee eo a neioaene/aneea eiino?oeoeee
self- auiieiyao ooieoeeth aeiiieiaiey. Iai?eia?: self-abhorrence — the
act of abhorring oneself (naiiioa?auaiea); self-murder — the act of
killing oneself (naiioaeenoai); self-reproach — the act of reproaching
or condemning oneself (naiiae/aaaiea); self-control—the act of
controlling oneself, one’s faculties or energies (naiiiaeaaeaiea,
naiieiio?ieue); self-denial — the act of denying oneself gratification
(naiiio?a/aiea).

I?aeoe/anee n iiiiuueth i?aoeena self- iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue
i?eeaaaoaeueiua ii/oe io ethaiai aaeuaeoeae?iaaiiiai i?e/anoey. E
naiaioe/aneiio eeanno, niiniaiiio ni/aoaoueny n i?aoeenii self-
ioiinyony aaeuaeoeae?iaaiiua i?e/anoey aica?aoiuo, ia?aoiaeiuo e
iaia?aoiaeiuo aeaaieia, a oaeaea i?iecaiaeiua i?eeaaaoaeueiua,
ia?aciaaiiua io oaeeo aea aeaaieia.

A aiaeeeneii ycuea eiaaony caeinoaiaaiiue ec a?a/aneiai ycuea i?aoeen
auto-, eioi?ue yaeyaony neiiieiii i?aoeena self-. Auto- aiciee ec
ianoieiaiiiai nouanoaeoaeueiiai autos, /oi cia/eo nai. Eae oeacuaaao I.
Ania?nai, i?aoeen auto- i?iiee a aiaeeeneee ycue oieueei a
iiaiaiaeeeneee ia?eiae.

A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea i?aoeen auto- yaeyaony aeeaui, oioy ii e
ia iieo/ee oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa.
Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?e aai caeinoaiaaiee a aiaeeeneii ycuea oaea
aue naie, eneiiii aiaeeeneee neiaiia?acothuee yeaiaio n oai aea
cia/aieai, eioi?ue i?iecaiaeee neiaa, ioiinyueany e ?acee/iui io?aneyi
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?iieeioa a aiaeeeneee ycue ni
neiaaie, ioiinyueieny e iao/iie oa?ieiieiaee, i?aoeen auto- nio?aiee ca
niaie yoo iniaaiiinoue. I?e yoii ana ia?aciaaiey ia auto- yaeythony
i?iecaiaeiuie io i?eeaaaoaeueiuo. Iai?eia?: autobiographic
aaoiaeia?aoe/aneee; autochthonal ia?aiauoiue (i ianaeaiee no?aiu);
autocratic naiiaea?aeaaiue; autogamous naiiiieiaeioai?ythueeny;
automatic(al) aaoiiaoe/aneee; autonomous aaoiiiiiue, naiioi?aaeythueeny;
automotive naiiaeaeaeoueeny.

I?aoeen well-

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie a aiaeenoeea iao ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaiey
ioiineoaeueii i?e?iaeu aeaiiiai neiaiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa. Iaeie
?anniao?eaatho well- eae i?aoeen, Ae?oaea ioiinyo aai e ia?aui
eiiiiiaioai neiaeiuo neia.

Ioianaiea ia?aciaaiee ia well- e neiaeiui neiaai iauyniyaony, aa?iyoii,
oai, /oi ni aoi?ui eiiiiiaioii well- ieoaony /a?ac aeaoen, e /oi ii
i?ieciineony n oaea?aieai, ?aaiui ii neea oaea?aieth aoi?iai eiiiiiaioa.
Iai?eia?: well-appointed; well-ballanced; well-connected.

Iaeiaei yoe iniaaiiinoe yaeythony oi?iaeueiuie e ia anaaaea eiatho
?aoathuaa cia/aiea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee neiaiia?acothuae ?iee oiai eee eiiai
yeaiaioa.

Yeaiaio well- iaeaaeaao ae?oaeie iniaaiiinoyie, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui aai
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaiia?acothuee aooeen.

Ia?aciaaiey ia well- ninoaaeytho naiaioe/aneee ?yae, a eioi?ii well-
ynii aunooiaao n iaeiei e oai aea aano?aeoiui cia/aieai iieiaeeoaeueiie
noaiaie, ea/anoaa, i?eciaea, iaicia/aiiiai neiaiia?acothuae iniiaie.
Eiuie neiaaie well- icia/aao: «a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie oaeie, eae, ia oi
oeacuaaao neiaiia?acothuay iniiaa».

Iai?eia?: well-aged iiaeeeie; well-balanced o?aaiiaaoaiiue, ii?iaeueiue;
well-born ?iaeiaeoue (born of a family of a noble or high standing; esp.
of a person, gentle and courteous in manner); well-favoured e?aneaue;
i?eaeaeaoaeueiue; well-grown ac?ineue (having attained a satisfactory
growth, esp. of a person, having almost reached one’s maximum physical
growth); well-done oi?ioi i?iaea?aiiue; well-furnished iieiinoueth
niaaaeaiiue; well-knit e?aiei neiei/aiiue, e?aieiai neiaeaiey;
well-known iauaecaanoiue (fully known; widely or generally known);
well-seen yniue, i/aaeaeiue; well-timed naiaa?aiaiiue; well-read
ia/eoaiiue; well-set ei?aianoue, e?aiei neiaeaiiue; well-tried
eniuoaiiue, i?iaa?aiiue.

Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiue yeaiaio well- iiaeao i?eniaaeeiyoueny oieueei e
iniiaai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo (e iniiaai aaeuaeoeae?iaaiiuo i?e/anoee, a
oaeaea e iniiaai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, ia?aciaaiiuo io nouanoaeoaeueiuo n
iiiiuueth noooeena -ed) e a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei
i?eeaaaoaeueiua. Iai?eia?: well-turned oaea/iue, eiaeee; well-meaning
eiathuee aeia?ua iaia?aiey; well-liking oeaaoouee, oieoaiiue, oienoue.

5. Noooeenaoeey. Oiio?aaeaiea noooeenia nouanoaeoaeueiuo

Noooeen -er

Ec anao aaaioeaiuo noooeenia nouanoaeoaeueiuo -er yaeyaony naiui
i?iaeoeoeaiui. Ca ia?eiae naiaai nouanoaiaaiey a aiaeeeneii ycuea ii
i?iecaae aieueoia eiee/anoai neia io ?acee/iuo /anoae ?a/e e ?acaee
oeaeue ?yae cia/aiee.

A ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea n iiiiuueth noooeena -er io nouanoaeoaeueiuo e
aeaaieia i?iecaiaeeeenue nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea eeoe,
caieiathueony oai aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe, ia eioi?ue oeacuaaao
i?iecaiaeyuay iniiaa.

Iai?eia?: cartere (Mod. E. carter) aic/ee; outridere (Mod. E. outrider)
aa?oiaie, nii?iaiaeaeathuee yeeiaae; eiiieaiyaea?; haberdaschere (Mod.
E. haberdasher) oeyiiee, oi?aiaaoe aaeaioa?aae; writere (Mod. E. writer)
ienaoe, ia?aien/ee, ienaoaeue.

A n?aaeiaaiaeeeneee ia?eiae noooeen -er oaeaea au?aaeaao aaaioeaiia
cia/aiea. E n. a. ainoiaeyo oaeea nouanoaeoaeueiua, eae: builder
no?ieoaeue, bookbinder ia?aieao/ee, hatter oeyiiee, hunter ioioiee,
saddler naaeaeueiue ianoa?, weaver oea/ e ae?. Ii a yoi a?aiy cia/aiea
noooeena -er ?acaeaaaony aeaeueoa. I?aaeaea anaai iiyaeythony
nouanoaeoaeueiua, o eioi?uo -er oeacuaaao ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe. Iai?eia?: Londoner eiiaeiiaoe, Englander
aeeoaeue Aiaeee, aiaee/aiei e o. i.

A aeaeueiaeoai (n ?aiiaiiaiaiaeeeneiai ia?eiaea) -ar ?acaeaaao, iiieii
aaaioeaiiai cia/aiey, oaeaea e i?oaeeeiia. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi n
?acaeoeai oaoieee oeaeue ?yae i?eniiniaeaiee, eino?oiaioia, i?eai?ia e
o.i. noae auiieiyoue oo ?aaioo, eioi?oth i?aaeaea i?eoiaeeeinue aeaeaoue
/aeiaaeo. Iai?eia?: roller aaeee, knocker aeaa?iie iieioie e o. i.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy noooeen -ar i?eia?ae aieueooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e
oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue, nio?aiea ca niaie aaaioeaiia e i?oaeeeiia cia/aiea,
/oi aeaao iai iniiaaiea aiai?eoue i iaee/ee aeaoo noooeenia-iiiieiia:
-er n aaaioeaiui cia/aieai e -er n i?oaeeeiui cia/aieai.

Anee ?aiueoa yoio noooeen iia ni/aoaoueny oieueei n iniiaaie aeaaieia e
nouanoaeoaeueiuo, oi nae/an ii, oioy e a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo, ia?acoao iiaua
nouanoaeoaeueiua oaeaea io iniia i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e aeaaea io
/eneeoaeueiuo. I?eniaaeeiyynue e iniiaai nouanoaeoaeueiuo, noooeen –er
au?aaeaao cia/aiea eeoea, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ii?aaeaeaiiie ianoiinoe
(ai?iaeo, aea?aaia, no?aia e o. i.), ia eioi?oth oeacuaaao iniiaa.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi neiaiia?acothueie iniiaaie a yoii neo/aa aeieaeiu auoue
iniiau eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo, iaicia/athueo ii?aaeaeaiioth ianoiinoue
(no?aio, ianaeaiiue ioieo, ino?ia e o. i.) Iai?eia?: borderer aeeoaeue
iia?aie/iie iieinu, villager aeeoaeue aea?aaie, hosteler nooaeaio,
aeeaouee a iauaaeeoee; New Yorker iuethei?eiaaoe, aeeoaeue Iueth-Ei?ea;
islander aeeoaeue ino?iaa, ino?iaeoyiei.

Iiaeiaiia cia/aiea -er au?aaeaao e a ni/aoaiee n iniiaaie
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, oeacuaathueo ia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ianoiinoe.
Iai?eia?: Britisher a?eoaiaoe; northerner naaa?yiei; aeeoaeue naaa?a;
southerner thaeaiei, aeeoaeue thaa; foreigner eiino?aiaoe,
/oaeano?aiaoe.

Noooeen -er iiaeao au?aaeaoue cia/aiea oa?aeoa?iiai ea/anoaa eee
i?eciaea, caeeth/aiiiai a iniiaa. Eeoei iacuaaaony ii yoiio i?eciaeo. A
oaeeo neo/ayo -ar i?eniaaeeiyaony e iniiaai i?eeaaaoaeueiuo,
iaicia/athueo oeaao eee niaoeeoe/aneee i?eciae. Iai?eia?: greener (sl.)
iiae/ie, ia?aieo?niee; fresher (oiea. sl.) ia?aieo?niee.

Eiiaaea noooeen -ar au?aaeaao cia/aiea «/aeiaae oaeiai aic?anoa, ia
eioi?ue oeacuaaao neiaii?iecaiaeyuay iniiaa». Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
nouanoaeoaeueiua ia?acothony io iniia /eneeoaeueiuo ( a i?aaeaeao
aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae ethaeae). Iai?eia?: fifteeners and sixteeners
(?aca.) thiioe iyoiaaeoeaoe e oanoiaaeoeaoe eao, forty-niner (?aca.)
ni?ieaaeaayoeeaoiee /aeiaae.

Iiiai/eneaiioth a?oiio nouanoaeoaeueiuo ninoaaeytho ia?aciaaiey ia -ar
io aeaaieueiuo iniia, i?eniaaeeiyynue e eioi?ui aeaiiue noooeen oaeaea
au?aaeaao aaaioeaiia cia/aiea, ii n ?acee/iuie iooaieaie (iieenaiey):

a) Eeoei, iinoiyiii caieiathuaany oai, ia /oi oeacuaaao
neiaii?iecaiaeyuay iniiaa (i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeaiiiai
eeoea), iai?eia?: sewer oaay, oaaoe; singer iaaaoe; learner o/aueeny,
o/aiee; lecturer eaeoi?; player ea?ie, aeoa?, iocueaio.

a) Eeoei, aeaenoaothuaa ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii a aeaiiia a?aiy: singer
iithuee; oio, eoi iiao (a ia iaaaoe); learner o/aueeny, oio, eoi o/eony;
speaker aiai?yuee, oio, eoi aiai?eo (a aeaiiia a?aiy); player ea?athuee;
oio, eoi ea?aao e ae?.

a) Eeoei, iaeaaeathuaa i?eciaeii, /a?oie eee niiniaiinoueth
i?iecaiaeeoue oi aeaenoaea, ia eioi?ia oeacuaaao iniiaa. N?., iai?eia?,
cia/aiea neiaa swimmer a neaaeothueo i?aaeeiaeaieyo:

Ia is a good swimmer (Ii oi?ioee ieiaaoe). I’m no swimmer (ss ia oiath
ieaaaoue).

I/aiue /anoi nouanoaeoaeueiia n noooeenii -ar eiaao ana o?e iooaiea
cia/aiey (iieenaiey), eae iai?eia?,

player 1) aeoa?; 2) oio, eoi ea?aao, ea?athuee; 3) ea?ie (eeoei,
iaeaaeathuaa niiniaiinoueth ea?aoue);

speaker 1) nieea?; 2) aiai?yuee; oio, eoi aiai?eo; 3) i?aoi?. A oaeeo
neo/ayo auai? iaiaoiaeeiiai cia/aiey ii?aaeaeyaony eiioaenoii.

Noooeen -aa

Aia?aua noooeen -aa i?iiee a aiaeeeneee ycue a ninoaaa o?aioeocneeo
th?eaee/aneeo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oa?ieiia, iacuaathueo eeoe, eioi?ua
yaeythony iauaeoii eaeiai-eeai th?eaee/aneiai eee aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
ia?ii?eyoey, iai?eia?: donee iieo/athuee iiaea?ie; appellee iaaeiyaiue,
ioaao/ee; assignee oiieiiii/aiiue (aoea, iacia/aiiue; presentee
eaiaeeaeao (ia aeieaeiinoue; eeoei, i?aaenoaaeaiiia ei aeai?o;
iieo/aoaeue iiaea?ea.

A aeaeueiaeoai ii aiaeiaee n oaeeie neiaaie aue ia?aciaai oeaeue ?yae
iiauo neia ia aiaeeeneie ii/aa. Noooeen -aa noae i?eniaaeeiyoueny ia
oieueei e aeaaieueiui iniiaai ?iiaineiai, ii e aa?iaineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Iai?eia?: drawee (oei. o?annao io aeaaiea to draw.

A ioee/ea io -er e -or, eioi?ua au?aaeatho cia/aiea aeoeaiiai aeayoaey,
noooeen -aa eiaao ianneaiia cia/aiea eeoea, o. a. iauaeoa oiai
aeaenoaey, ia eioi?ia oeacuaaao aeaaieueiay iniiaa. Yoio iauaeo
aeaenoaey iiaeao auoue i?yiui e einaaiiui, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeiai
aeiiieiaiey o?aaoao iinea naay aeaaieueiay iniiaa, io eioi?ie ia?acoaony
iiaia neiai. Iai?eia?: employee oio, eiai iaieiatho; neoaeauee; examinee
yecaiaiothueeny; oio, eiai yecaiaiotho; detainee caeeth/aiiue; oio, eiai
niaea?aeao iiae no?aaeae; trainee iao/aaiue; oio, eiai iao/atho;
addressee aae?anao; eeoei, e eioi?iio ia?auathony; dedicatee eeoei,
eioi?iio /oi-eeai iinayuaii.

Noooeen -aa ia iieo/ee oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothuaai
yeaiaioa ia aiaeeeneie ii/aa. Iaaieueoay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue -aa
iauyniyaony, aeaaiui ia?acii, oai, /oi naiaioe/aneea eeannu aeaaieueiuo
iniia, niiniaiuo ni/aoaoueny n yoei noooeenii, aanueia iaei/eneaiiu. Oa
aeaaieueiua iniiau, io eioi?uo ia?acothony nouanoaeoaeueiua n iiiiuueth
-aa, iauaaeeiythony a iaeei naiaioe/aneee eeann: aeaaieu, ioiinyueany e
th?eaee/aneei e aaeieieno?aoeaiui iiiyoeyi ni cia/aieai “ia?aaeaaaoue,
a?o/aoue eee aaa?youe /oi-eeai eiio-eeai”. Iai?eia?: to devise caaauaoue
(iaaeaeaeeiinoue) (n?. devisee ianeaaeiee (iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa); to
transfer ia?aaeaaaoue (eiouanoai e o. i.) (n?. trsansferee eeoei,
eioi?iio ia?aaeaaony /oi-eeai eee i?aai ia /oi-eeai); to trust
aeiaa?youe, aaa?youe, ii?o/aoue iiia/aieth (n?. trustee eeoei, eioi?iio
aeiaa?aii, ii?o/aii oi?aaeaiea; iiia/eoaeue, iiaeoi); to legate
caaauaoue (n?. legatee ianeaaeiee); to promise iaauaoue (n?. promisee
eeoei, eioi?iio aeatho iaauaiea); to revenge inoeoue (n?. revengee oio,
eioi?iio inoyo); to say aiai?eoue (n?. say aa oio, eiio aiai?yo); to
examine yecaiaiiaaoue, enneaaeiaaoue; aeii?aoeaaoue (n?. examinee
aeii?aoeaaaiue, yecaiaiothueeny); to assign iacia/aoue, ii?aaeaeyoue ia
aeieaeiinoue (n?. assignee oiieiiii/aiiue; i?aaenoaaeoaeue;
i?aaii?aaiiee); to evacuate yaaeoe?iaaoue (n?. evacuee oio, eiai
yaaeoe?otho, yaaeoe?iaaiiue).

Oaeei ia?acii, o?aioeocneee noooeen i?e/anoey aoi?iai aaeaioe?iaai
aiaeeeneei ycueii eae noooeen nouanoaeoaeueiiai ni cia/aieai eeoea eae
iauaeoa aeaenoaey. Ni a?aiaiai ianneaiia cia/aiea yoiai noooeena,
auoaeathuaa ec ianneaiiai cia/aiey caeinoaiaaiiuo ec o?aioeocneiai ycuea
i?e/anoee, iiae aeeyieai, i/aaeaeii, cia/aiee noooeenia -ar e -or, noaei
eiiaaea onooiaoue ianoi aieaa iaiauaiiiio aaaioeaiiio cia/aieth. Iiyoiio
a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?yae iiaiia?aciaaiee n
noooeenii -aa ni cia/aieai aeoeaiiai aeayoaey. Iai?eia?: absentee
ionoonoaothuee eee oeeiiythueeny io /aai-eeai; refugee aaaeaiaoe;
devotee /aeiaae, anaoeaei i?aaeaiiue eaeiio-eeai aeaeo; yiooceano naiaai
aeaea; nayoioa; oaiaoee.

Oioy noooeen -aa e iaeii?iaeoeoeaai, ii aeaao a?aiy io a?aiaie
iiaiia?aciaaiey. Iai?eia?: telephonee oio, eiio caiiyo ii oaeaoiio;
quizzee o/anoaothuee a ii?ina; selectee i?ecuaiee; amputee /aeiaae, n
aiiooe?iaaiiie iiaie; separatee aeaiiaeeeciaaiiue.

Noooeen -ist

Aoaeo/e i?eiyo aiaeeeneei ycueii a ea/anoaa neiaiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa,
noooeen -ist (F. -iste, L. -ista, Gr. -istes) iieo/ee naia aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea. Iiyoiio ii nae/an ano?a/aaony /anoe/ii a oao neiaao, eioi?ua
auee caeinoaiaaiu ec ?iiaineeo ycueia, a /anoe/ii a iiaiia?aciaaieyo.

A ?iiaineeo ycueao -ist i?iecaiaeee nouanoaeoaeueiua io eiaiiuo iniia.
Yoo iniaaiiinoue ii nio?aiee e a aiaeeeneii ycuea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii
iiaeao i?eniaaeeiyoueny e iniiaai nouanoaeoaeueiuo e i?eeaaaoaeueiuo,
oioy n iineaaeieie ii ano?a/aaony a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo.

Ia?acoy iiaua neiaa, noooeen -ist au?aaeaao cia/aiea aeoeaii
aeaenoaothuaai eeoea. Ii a caaeneiinoe io cia/aiey i?iecaiaeyueo iniia
noooeen -ist au?aaeaao ?acee/iua iooaiee iniiaiiai cia/aiey. Ni/aoaoueny
ii iiaeao ni neaaeothueie naiaioe/aneeie eeannaie iniia:

Nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea i?oaeey o?oaea (iacaaiey iaoei,
iocueaeueiuo, eino?oiaioia e o. i.). A yoeo neo/ayo noooeen -ist
iaicia/aao eeoei, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai naycaia n i?aaeiaoii,
iaicia/aiiui iniiaie. Iai?eia?: motor iioi? (n?. motorist iioi?eno);
machine iaoeia (n?. machinist iaoeieno); automobile aaoiiiaeeue (n?.
automobilist aaoiiiaeeeno); harp a?oa (n?. harpist a?oeno); guitar
aeoa?a (n?. guitarist aeoa?eno); accordion aeei?aeaii (n?. accordionist
aeei?aeaiieno); violin ne?eiea (n?. violinist ne?eia/).

Nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea iacaaiey ?acee/iuo io?aneae o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae (iaoee, eoeueoo?u, eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa e o.
i.). A ni/aoaiee n oaeeie iniiaaie noooeen -ist au?aaeaao cia/aiea
eeoea, caiyoiai a oie iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe, ia eioi?oth oeacuaaao
i?iecaiaeyuay iniiaa. Iai?eia?: technology oaoiieiaey (n?. technologist
oaoiieia); geology aaieiaey (n?. geologist aaieia; biology aeieiaey (n?.
biologist aeieia).

3) Nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea ecaanoiua a enoi?ee eiaia eeoe,
aaoi?ia ?acee/iuo o/aiee, oai?ee, iai?aaeaiee a iaoea, ii?aaeaeaiiuo
acaeyaeia e o. i. A ni/aoaiee n ieie noooeen -ist iaicia/aao
iineaaeiaaoaeae yoeo o/aiee, oai?ee, eaeaeiuo oa/aiee, iai?aaeaiee a
iaoea, acaeyaeia e o. i. Iai?eia?: Lenin Eaiei ((n?. Leninist eaieiaoe);
Marx Ia?en (n?. Marxist ia?eneno); Darwin Aea?aei (n?. Darwinist
aea?aeieno); Pushkin Iooeei (n?. Pushkinist iooeeieno).

4) Nouanoaeoaeueiua, iaicia/athuea iieeoe/aneea e iao/iua oa/aiey.
Ni/aoaynue n iniiaaie aeaiiiai naiaioe/aneiai eeanna, noooeen -ist
iaicia/aao noi?iiieea, iineaaeiaaoaey yoeo oa/aiee, iai?aaeaiee.
Iai?eia?: communism eiiioieci (n?. communist eiiioieno); socialism
nioeeaeeci (n?. socialist nioeeaeeno); materialism iaoa?eaeeci (n?.
materialist iaoa?eaeeno); defeatism ii?aaeai/anoai (n?. defeatist
ii?aaeaiaoe); revisionism ?aaeceiieci (n?. revisionist ?aaeceiieno);
pacifism iaoeeoeci (n?. pacifist iaoeeoeno).

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie nouanoaeoaeueiuo aeaiiiai naiaioe/aneiai eeanna
yaeyaony oi, /oi iie, eae i?aaeei, ioi?ieaiu noooeenii -ism.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, noooeen -ist iiaeao ni/aoaoueny e n
i?eeaaaoaeueiuie. I?iecaiaeyueie iniiaaie oaeeo ia?aciaaiee yaeythony
i?eeaaaoaeueiua ia -al. Iie iau/ii au?aaeatho i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
iao/iiio eee iieeoe/aneiio oa/aieth, oeacaiiiio a iniiaa. Iai?eia?:
natural anoanoaaiiue, i?e?iaeiue (n?. naturalist iaoo?aeeno);
controversial nii?iue, aeeneonneiiiue (n?. controversialist nii?uee,
iieaieno); transcendental o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiue (n?. transcendentalist
noi?iiiee o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie oeeinioee); conversational ?acaiai?iue,
?acaiai?/eaue (n?. conversationalist ianoa? iiaiai?eoue, eioa?aniue
niaanaaeiee); individual ee/iue, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue (n?. individualist
eiaeeaeaeoaeeno) e ae?.

Noooeen -ist—aeeaie e i?iaeoeoeaiue noooeen nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai
ycuea. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaeea iiaiia?aciaaiey, eae manicurist
iaieeth?oa, behaviorist aeoaaei?eno, columnist iaic?aaaoaeue;
oaeueaoiieno e ae?.

Noooeen -ness

Noooeen -ness, eioi?ue aue i?iaeoeoeaiui aua a ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea,
aaeeinoaaiiue ec anao eneiiiuo noooeenia ioaea/aiiuo eiai
nouanoaeoaeueiuo aei neo ii? nio?aiee naith i?e?iaeo a?aiiaoe/aneie
aano?aeoeee e niiniaiinoue e neiaii?iecaiaenoao. A oiaea naiaai ?acaeoey
-ness i?eia?ae oaeoth oe?ieoth oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue, /oi nae/an n aai
iiiiuueth ia?acothony aano?aeoiua nouanoaeoaeueiua ia oieueei io
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, ii e io ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e e aeaaea io oeaeuo
neiaini/aoaiee, oiio?aaeythueony ao?eaooeaii, oiaaea eae a
ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii ycuea ii ni/aoaeny oieueei n i?eeaaaoaeueiuie e
aaeuaeoeae?iaaiiuie i?e/anoeyie aoi?uie, au?aaeaaoeie ninoiyiea, oneiaea
eee ea/anoai.

A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea, i?eniaaeeiyynue e iniiaai iiiai/eneaiiuo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e ae?oaeo /anoae ?a/e, oiio?aaeythueony ao?eaooeaii,
noooeen -ness au?aaeaao cia/aiea naienoaa, ea/anoaa, ninoiyiey eee
i?eciaea, ioaea/aiiiai io i?aaeiaoa.

Iai?eia?: bashfulness canoai/eainoue, ?iainoue; blindness neaiioa,
ineaieaiea; cleverness iaea?aiiinoue; comeliness ieeiaeaeiinoue;
effectiveness yooaeoeaiinoue, awareness inaaaeiie?iiinoue; aliveness
aeeainoue, /ooeinoue, aloofness io/oaeaeaiiinoue e ae?.

Eae i?aaeei, noooeen -ness i?eniaaeeiyaony e ei?iaaui i?eeaaaoaeueiui.
Iai?eia?: wildness aeeeinoue; whiteness aaeecia, aeaaeiinoue; rawness
iaia?aaioaiiinoue; sadness ia/aeue, oiuiea; tenderness iaaeiinoue;
soreness /oanoaeoaeueiinoue; redness e?aniioa; richness y?einoue,
aeeainoue, aiaaonoai.

*oi aea eanaaony i?iecaiaeiuo iniia, oi noo. -ness iiaeao
i?eniaaeeiyoueny a iniiaiii e oai ec ieo, eioi?ua eiatho a naiai ninoaaa
noooeenu -o, -fill, -ous, -ive, -ed, -ish, -ward, -less, -ary(-ory),
-ant, -worthy.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea i?eeaaaoaeueiuo ia aeeyao ia oiio?aaeaiea noooeena
-ness; ii iaeeiaeiai iiaeao ni/aoaoueny eae eneiiiuie, oae e n
caeinoaiaaiiuie i?eeaaaoaeueiuie. Iai?eia?:

a) io eneiiiuo iniia: narrowness ocinoue, ia?aie/aiiinoue; nearness
aeecinoue; naughtiness enii?/aiiinoue, iaiineooaiea;

a) io ?iiaineeo iniia: politeness aaaeeeainoue, ainieoaiiinoue;
rancidness i?iai?eeinoue; humaneness /aeiaa/iinoue, aeia?ioa,
aoiaiiinoue.

Noooeen -ness iiaeii ioianoe e /eneo aaniethoii i?iaeoeoeaiuo aooeenia
nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aai
niiniaiinoue ia?aciauaaoue iioaioeeaeueiua neiaa oeia Spanishness (the
state, condition, or quality of being Spanish); half-awakedness
iieoniiiia ni noiyiea, iieocaauouea (the state of being half-awaked);
worthwhileness (the state of being worth-while); outpouring-ness
eceeyiea (/oanoa) (the state, or condition of being outpouring).

6. Aeacaooeenaoeey

Aeacaooeenaoeey — niinia neiaiia?aciaaiey, i?e eioi?ii neiaa ia?acothony
iooai ioa?anuaaiey noooeena eee yeaiaioa, aiaoia noiaeiiai n noooeenii.
Oae ia?aciaaiu aeaaieu to burgle io a burglar, to beg io a beggar, to
enthuse io enthusiasm, to legislate io a legislator, to diplome io a
diplomat e ae?. A nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea Aeacaooeenaoeey /aua
iaaethaeaaony i?e eiii?annee neiaini/aoaiee e iaeo?aeueiuo ia?aciaaiee e
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth neiaeiuo neia oeia to vacuumclean (to
house-keep, to housewarm, to stagemanage).

7. Aaa?aaeaoeey

Aaa?aaeaoeey — ia?aciaaiea iiauo neia iooai nie?auaiey (ona/aiey)
iniiau. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey yoiai niiniaa neiaiia?aciaaiey
nicaeathony neiaa n iaiieiie, ona/aiiie, iniiaie (eee iniiaaie),
iacuaaaiua aaa?aaeaoo?aie. Aaa?aaeaoo?u iiaoo auoue i?inouie e
neiaeiuie.

I?inoua aaa?aaeaoo?u ia?acothony iooai ioa?anuaaiey eiia/iiai eee
ia/aeueiiai neiaia iniiau. Iai?eia?: caps (capital letters), demo
(demonstration), intro (introductory sentence ia?aia i?aaeeiaeaiea
aacaoiie noaouee, eioi?ia aeieaeii n?aco aea caeioa?aniaaoue /eoaoaey),
ad (advertisement).

Aaa?aaeaoo?u, yaeythueany aoi?e/iui iaeiaiiaaieai i?aaeiaoa e
nouanoaothuea a ycuea ia?aaia n iieiie oi?iie, yaeythony noeeenoe/anee
ie?aoaiiuie neiaaie e iinyo iaioeoeeaeueiue ?acaiai?ii-oaieeuey?iue
oa?aeoa?. N?aaieoa, iai?eia?, neaaeothuea ia?u neia: sister — sis;
doctor — doc; referee — ref; professor — prof; second — sec; difference
— dif; promenade — prom; operation — op e o. i. Anee enoiaeiia neiai
caauaaaony eee ia/eiaao oiio?aaeyoueny ?aaea e aaa?aaeaoo?a noaiiaeony
iniiaiui, a ia aoi?e/iui iaeiaiiaaieai i?aaeiaoa, nie?auaiiia neiai
noaiiaeony noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiui: plane (ec aeroplane), cab (ec
cabriolet), perm (ec permanent wave), phone (ec telephone), bus (ec
omnibus) e ae?.

Neiaeiua aaa?aaeaoo?u (neiaeiinie?auaiiua neiaa) ia?acothony aeaenoaeai
aaa?aaeaoeee e iniiaineiaeaiey e ninoiyo ec ia/aeueiuo aoea eee neiaia
neia e iniia eee ec ni/aoaiey eo n iieiuie iniiaaie. Iai?eia?: CND
(Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament); PA system (public address system);
Interpol (International police); hi-fi (high fidelity); sci-fic (science
fiction); V-Day (Victory Day).

Nie?auaiey, ninoiyuea ec ia/aeueiuo aoea neia e iniia, iacuaathony
eieoeeaeueiuie aaa?aaeaoo?aie eee ae?iieiaie. Ae?iieiu /eoathony ii
aoeaai (n?. ?onne. OeE, EINN, AOeNIN) eee eae neiaa ii i?aaeeai /oaiey
(n?. ?onne. aoc, OANN, eaanai). Iai?eia?:

CIC [‘si: ‘ai ‘si:] —Counter Intelligence Corps – Neoaeaa eiio??acaaaeee
NOA

UNESCO [‘ju:’neskou]-United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
Organisation – O/?aaeaeaiea III ii aii?inai i?inaauaiey, iaoee e
eoeueoo?u (THIANEI)

NATO [‘neitou] — North Atlantic Treaty Organisation –
Naai?i-Aoeaioe/aneee iaeo (IAOI)

A neiaeiinie?auaiiuo neiaao, ia?aciaaiiuo ni/aoaieai ia/aeueiie aoeau e
oeaeie iniiau, ia?aue eiiiiiaio eiaao aeoaaeoiia /oaiea. Iai?eia?,
A-bomb aoiiiay aiiaa; H-bomb aiaei?iaeiay aiiaa; G-man aaaio OA?.

Eaene/aneea aaa?aaeaoo?u (neiaa) neaaeoao ioee/aoue io a?aoe/aneeo
aaa?aaeaoo? (a?aoe/aneeo nie?auaiee). A?aoe/aneea aaa?aaeaoo?u — yoi
neiaieu, eniieuecoaiua aianoi neia e neiaini/aoaiee ia ienueia. A onoiie
?a/e ei niioaaonoaotho iieiiiniiaiua neiaa e neiaini/aoaiey.

A?aoe/aneea aaa?aaeaoo?u iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie ia/aeueiua aoeau
iniia e neia, ia?aoth e iineaaeithth aoeau neiaa eee ni/aoaiea
niaeaniuo. Iai?eia?: Gen. (General), Col. (Colonel), UK (United
Kingdom), RAF (Royal Air Force), Ky (Kentucky), rkt (rocket), gvt
(government). Iiiaea a?aoe/aneea aaa?aaeaoo?u yaeythony nie?auaieyie
eaoeineeo neia: a. g. (exempli gratia) iai?eia?, i. e. (id est) oi
anoue, L. (libra) ooio noa?eeiaia, v. (versus) i?ioea (a noaea, nii?oa).

A aiaeeeneii ycuea, a ioee/ea io ?onneiai, aaa?aaeaoo?u iiaoo
ieai/eaaoueny aeaniuie: ave. (avenue), usu. (usual), Fri. (Friday),
Colo. (Colorado).

A?aoe/aneea aaa?aaeaoo?u iiaoo noaiiaeoueny neiaaie. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
oii neo/aa, anee a?aoe/aneea nie?auaiey ia/eiatho oiio?aaeyoueny a
onoiie ?a/e ia?yaeo ni neiaaie. Oae aicieeee neiaa I? /eai aiaeeeneiai
ia?eaiaioa (ec member of Parliament); a GI aia?eeaineee nieaeao (ec
government issue); a VC e?ano Aeeoi?ee, aunoay aiaiiay iaa?aaea a Aiaeee
(ec Victoria Cross). Neiaa, nicaeaiiua ec a?aoe/aneeo nie?auaiee, iiaoo,
eae e iau/iua neiaa, noaiiaeoueny aacie aeey iiaiia?aciaaiee. Iai?eia?,
io nouanoaeoaeueiiai IN, auaoaai ia?aiia/aeueii a?aoe/aneei nie?auaieai
neiaini/aoaiey master of ceremonies eiioa?ainuea; ?anii?yaeeoaeue;
aaaeouee i?ia?aiio, ia?aciaai aeaaie to emce aanoe i?ia?aiio, aunooiaoue
a ea/anoaa eiioa?ainuea.

Iniaaiiinoueth nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea yaeyaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai aaa?aaeaoo?. I?eau/iuie nie?auaieyie yaeythony iaeiaiiaaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e aeieaeiinoae (F.O.— Foreign Office,
N.I.— Colonial Office, PM — Prime-Minister); eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aaaionoa e
?aaeeiaauaoaeueiuo eiiiaiee (A? — Associated Press; UPI — United Press
Informational; USIA — United States Information Agency; BBC — British
Broadcasting Corporation; ABC — American Broadcasting Corporation; CBS —
Columbia Broadcasting System; NBC — National Broadcasting Company);
aiaiiuo aeieia (NATO — North Atlantic Treaty Organisation; SEATO – South
East Asia Treaty Organisation), aaeao?ainii?oiuo aaaionoa (BOAC —
British Overseas Airways Corporation; TWA — Trains-World Airlines).

Iiiaea aaa?aaeaoo?u yaeythony ieeaceiiaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie, iiiyoiuie
oieueei a i?aaeaeao aeaiiiai oaenoa. Oaeea aaa?aaeaoo?u iau/ii
iauyniythony a naiii oaenoa i?e ia?aii eo iiyaeaiee.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?aaeiaa O. E. Eaeneeieiaey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. Iineaa, 1977

2. Oeooa?iai A. I., Eaaeoeeay O. ?. Iiniaea ii ia?aaiaeo aiaeeeneiai
ycuea ia ?onneee. I., 1973

3. ?aoeea? ss. E. Oai?ey ia?aaiaea e ia?aaiae/aneay i?aeoeea. I., 1974

4. Noi?oi A. A. Eaeoeee ii ycueiciaieth. Ieine 1971

5. Nie?ieoeeee A. E. Eaeneeieiaey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. I.,1956

6. Nieioeaa A. I. sscue eae nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iia ia?aciaaiea. I, 1971

7. Eoiei A. A. O?acaieiaey nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. I, 1972

8. Ea?auoe I. I. Aooeenaeueiia neiaiia?aciaaiea a aiaeeeneii ycuea. I.,
1965

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