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Cia/aiea i?aaeeiaa a enoiaeiii oiio?aaeaiee naycaii n i?ioioeie/aneie
neooaoeeae e ii?aaeaeaiiui naiaioe/aneei eeannii aeaaiea e aeoaioia. Ec
i?ioioeie/aneie neooaoeee iiaeii auaeaeeoue eiaieoeaioth noaio, eioi?ay
ii-?aciiio eioa?i?aoe?oaony e iiaeeoeoee?oaony ?aciuie cia/aieyie e
a?oiiaie cia/aiee. Enoiaeiia cia/aiea i?aaeeiaia – i?ino?ainoaaiiia, a
yoii cia/aiee iie oiio?aaeythony n aeaaieaie aeaeaeaiey e iieiaeaiey a
i?ino?ainoaa, ooi/iyy e eiie?aoece?oy iai?aaeaiea e acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea iauaeoia: iinoaaeoue iaoeio ia noiyieo/a aa?aae/aicea
(ieiei) aeiia/ia?aae aeiiii/ca caai?ii/iiae iaaan.

Iaeia ec caaea/ eiaieoeaiiai aiaeeca naiaioeee i?aaeeiaia –
i?ineaaeeoue, eae enoiaeiay i?ino?ainoaaiiay noaia ?ani?ino?aiyaony
(“?anoe?yaony”) ia iai?ino?ainoaaiiua neooaoeee e iaoaoi?e/aneea
i?ino?ainoaa.

?anniao?eaathony cia/aiey i?aaeeiaa IA n aeeocaoeaii.

AACIAUA IIIICEOeEE

1) IA + ACC. vs. IA + LOC.

Naiaioeea eiino?oeoeee IA + Aei. neeaaeuaaaony ec naiaioeee i?aaeeiaa e
naiaioeee iaaeaaea (niaeaniaaiiuo e oiio aea n naiaioeeie aeaaiea –
?aaeueiiai eee ?aeiino?oe?oaiiai i?aaeeeaoa). Aeeaae Aei. oi?ioi aeaeai
i?e niiinoaaeaiee n eiino?oeoeeae IA + I?aaee.: iai?aaeoaeueiue
Aeieoaeueiue i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aiauaiea, eciaiaiea, ia?aoiae ec iaeiie
oi/ee a ae?oaoth, eieaoeaiue I?aaeeiaeiue – ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea,
oeene?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea a iaeiie oi/ea:

iieiaeeoue O ia noie (Y) – O eaaeeo ia noiea (Y)

O iioae ia eiioea?o (Y) – O aue ia eiioea?oa (Y)

2) Ae?oaia aaaeiia i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea – IA vs. A.

IA – ioe?uoia i?ino?ainoai, ieineinoue, iiaa?oiinoue;

A – cae?uoia i?ino?ainoai, aianoeeeua, “eiioaeia?”:

O iieiaeee Y ia noie (Y iaoiaeeony naa?oo, ia iiaa?oiinoe, aeaeai);

O iieiaeee Y a noie / a yuee (Y iaoiaeeony aioo?e, ia aeaeai)

Enoiaeiia cia/aiea IA naycaii n neooaoeeae i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
ia?aiauaiey. Iia eiaao ianeieueei aeaiioaoeaiuo aa?eaioia, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo aeaao naie naiaioe/aneea “?aoeaenu” – a?oiiu i?iecaiaeiuo
cia/aiee:

(1) ia?aiauaiea ia iiaa?oiinoue/ieineinoue/ioe?uoia ianoi:

iieiaeee eieao ia noie; iinoaaee /aiiaeai ia iie;

(2) “ioaao” iiaa?oiinoe: iaaeae oeyio ia aieiao / eieueoei ia iaeaoe;

(3) oeenaoeey: iaiecuaaoue aonu ia ieoeo;

(4) aeaeaeaiea nieco aaa?o: caeac ia aea?aai.

Iniiaiui aoaeai n/eoaoue aa?eaio (1), iineieueeo ii eaaeeo a iniiaa
iaeaieueoaai eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeiuo cia/aiee.

Enoiaeiia oiio?aaeaiea i?aaeeiaa IA – (1) iieiaeeoue eieao (X) ia noie
(Y):

X – O?aaeoi? (Trajector, Tr), Y – I?eaioe? (Landmark, Lm)

(iu eniieuecoai yoe oa?ieiu a niioaaonoaee n o?aaeeoeeae eiaieoeaiie
a?aiiaoeee, n?. [Langaker 1987; 1991], a oaeaea [Talmy 1978; 1983]
(aeeceea iiiyoey oiia e oeao?u), n?. aua iaci? [Oeeeiaiei 2000]).

Iniiaiua IA?AIAO?U I?IOIOEIE*ANEIE NEOOAOeEE

(a) enoiaeiia ninoiyiea:

– ?annoiyiea, AeENOAIOeEss iaaeaeo enoiaeiie oi/eie e i?eaioe?ii (eiia/-

iie oi/eie);

– I?eaioe? – ieineinoue, IIAA?OIINOUe, AIAOIssss noi?iia, aa?o.

– I?eaioe? eiaao i?ino?ainoaaiioth I?IOssAEAIIINOUe (‘iiaa?oiinoue’),
eioi?ay a ae?oaeo cia/aieyo iiaeao o?ainoi?ie?iaaoueny ai a?aiaiioth
i?ioyaeaiiinoue (‘eioa?aae’);

(a) aeaeaeaiea O?aaeoi?a io enoiaeiie oi/ee aei I?eaioe?a:

– I?eaioe? caaeaao IAI?AAEAIEA aeaeaeaiey e yaeyaony EIIA*IIE
OI*EIE/OeAEUeTH;

(a) eiia/iia ninoiyiea:

– O?aaeoi? caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth ieiuaaeue, iiaa?oiinoue I?eaioe?a
(o.a. oiaea eiaao “i?ioyaeaiiinoue”, eiee/anoaaiiue ia?aiao?);

– O?aaeoi? eiaao onoie/eaia, oeene?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea, o.e. I?eaioe?
yaeyaony “III?IE”;

– Iaaethaeaoaeue aini?eieiaao neooaoeeth ECAIA, ni noi?iiu, ec
ia/aeueiie oi/ee

– Iaaethaeaoaeue aeaeeo I?eaioe? “ia?aae niaie” – AIA?AAeE;

– Iaaethaeaoaeue aeaeeo aiaoithth noi?iio, iiaa?oiinoue I?eaioe?a.

ENOIAeIAss NAIAIOE*ANEAss NOAIA

Nouanoaotho ?aciua aiciiaeiinoe iniuneaiey enoiaeiie i?ino?ainoaaiiie
neooaoeee: a iaeiii neo/aa aeoeaioe?othony “ai?eciioaeueiua” nayce
O?aaeoi?a e I?eaioe?a (iaee/ea enoiaeiie aeenoaioeee iaaeaeo O?aaeoi?ii
e I?eaioe?ii, aeaeaeaiea O?aaeoi?a a iai?aaeaiee I?eaioe?a; I?eaioe? a
yoii neo/aa aunooiaao a ea/anoaa eiia/iie oi/ee-oeaee – yoi aeeaae
Aeieoaeueiiai iai?aaeoaeueiiai); a ae?oaii neo/aa aeoeaioe?othony
“aa?oeeaeueiua” nayce O?aaeoi?a e I?eaioe?a (iieiaeaiea O?aaeoi?a
“iaaa?oo”, ia iiaa?oiinoe – e auoaeathuay ionthaea eaeay aeaaeaiey,
aeeyiey; iieiaeaiea I?eaioe?a “aieco”, “iiae” – e auoaeathuay ionthaea
eaeay iii?u).

Tr

| aeaeaeaiea “aiec”:

| aan; aeaaeaiea; aeeyiea;

| aa?anney

?

iii?a

Tr ————————–® Lm iiaa?oiinoue

i?eaioe?

aeaeaeaiea ® eciaiaiea ninoiyiey

aeenoaioeey, iai?aaeaiea ® oeaeue, ioiioaiea, niioaaonoaea

I. III?A e AeAAEAIEA

Ia?aue eeanoa? cia/aiee naycai n eaeaae iii?u (n?. [Naeeaa?noiaa 2000]).

1) Tr – oyaeaeue iauaeo (iaoa?eaeueiue eee iaoaoi?e/aneee) eee neea,
aeaenoaothuay aiaeiae/iui ia?acii (oyaeanoue, aeaaeaiea, “iiaeaaeaiea”);

Lm – i?aaeiao eee (/aua) eeoei.

AAN, OssAEANOUe, “IIOA”, “A?AIss”

acaaeeoue iaoie naaa ia nieio; aiceiaeeoue iaycaiiinoue /
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia eiai

AeAAEAIEA, AEEssIEA – oece/aneia eee iaoaoi?e/aneia

aeaoue / aeaaeoue / aeaenoaiaaoue / aicaeaenoaiaaoue / aeeyoue ia
eiai//oi

AA?ANNEss

iaianoue ia; iaa?ineoueny ia; iae?e/aoue ia eiai.

Aa?anney yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui iaoaoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai eaeae aeaaeaiey
“naa?-oo”, iiaeaaeaiey (n?. oae. caaeeiaoue e?eoeeo/eieoeeaoeao;
aeaaeoue ia ineoeeo e o.i.).

2) Lm – iauaeo (i?aaeiao, /anoue oaea), eioi?ue
iiaeaea?aeeaaao/oaea?aeeaaao eiai//oi-e.

III?A

Lm iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiai//oi Lm oaea?aeeaaao eiai//oi

a eaeii-e. iieiaeaiee / ninoiyiee a eaeii-e. iieiaeaiee / ninoiyiee

iie?aoueny ia o?inoue; iinaaeeoue niaaeo ia oeaiue;

anoaoue ia iiae canoaaiooue eo?oeo ia ioaiaeoeo

N?AAeNOAI: aeeoue ia ca?ieaoo

NIINIA ® ANIAEO

i?iaiaaoue ia aeon iyaeee ia iuoiue; neaiie ia iaeei aeac;

ia iie acaeyae; ia ia?aue acaeyae

Cia/aiey niiniaa e aniaeoa, aanueia aeaeaeea io i?ioioeie/aneie
neooaoeee i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ia?aiauaiey, niaea?aeao iaoaoi?e/aneea
ia?ainiuneaiey n?aco ianeieueeeo eaeae. Iie naycaiu n eaeayie
eino?oiaioa, n?aaenoaa, iii?u e oeenaoeee (n?. eiaeoue ia oaei/eo / ia
aeeaoea; iiaeaeaoue ia aeeeo; iaiecuaaoue ia ieoeo), eioi?ua
o?ainoi?ie?othony a n?aaenoai, niinia iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee: i?iaiaaoue
ia aeon (“ia ycue” – o.a. ycueii), ii?aaeaeeoue ia aeac (o.a. aeacaie).
Caeanue oaeaea iaia?oaeeaaaony iaiau/iay aeey iniiaiuo oiio?aaeaiee IA
iiceoeey iaaethaeaoaey: iaoaoi?e/aneia aeaeaeaiea “iioiea” eioi?iaoeee
i?ienoiaeeo ia IO Iaaethaeaoaey (“aia?aae”), a E Iaaethaeaoaeth (n?.
oae. Ia iiiaaeaeny iia ia aeaca!).

E?iia oiai, a neo/ayo i?iaiaaoue ia aeon / ia iuoiue; ii?aaeaeeoue ia
aeac niaea?aeeony eaeay aniaeoa – auaeaeyaony iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo
niiniaia, eaiaeia iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee. A a cia/aieyo aniaeoa anoue
eaeay niioaaonoaey (ni. ieaea) iaaeaeo i?eciaeii e noa?ie (iaeanoueth)
aai i?iyaeaiey, n?. iyaeee ia iuoiue.

II. ECIAIAIEA NINOIssIEss, NOAOONA, NIINIAA AeAENOAEss

1) Ia?aiauaiea (ec cae?uoiai i?ino?ainoaa) a ioe?uoia i?ino?ainoai:

aueoe ia oeeoeo / ia eanoieoeo / ia e?ueueoei / ia noeaio; auaeyiooue ia
oeeoeo; n?. ia?a

/ey ia?oaeo, (auaa?iooue) iaeciaieo

2) Eciaiaiea ninoiyiey, noaoona, niiniaa aeaenoaey:

aueoe ia iaineth; ia?aeoe ia iaaeeaiiue oaa; ia?aeoe ia iiaoth nenoaio
ianeo

aeeaaiey; ia?aaanoe oaeno ia aiaeeeneee ycue

Aeaaiay eaeay yoiai eeanoa?a cia/aiee – ia?aoiae ec iaeiiai iieiaeaiey,
ninoiyiey a ae?oaia (aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaia, oeene?iaaiiia,
“i?ioyaeaiiia” – iiaeeoeeaoeey eaeae “iii?u”). Caeanue a oieona
ieacuaaaony n?aaiaiea (e ?acee/ea) aeaoo yoeo ninoiyiee – noa?iai e
iiaiai, a ia?aiauaiea ec iaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa a ae?oaia ioiaeaeaaaony ia
caaeiee ieai. Anee a i?ino?ainoaaiiii cia/aiee i?aaeiieaaaaony ana-oaee
oece/aneia ia?aiauaiea, oi a iai?ino?ainoaaiiuo aeaaieu ia?aiauaiey
(aueoe; ia?aeoe; ia?aaanoe) oiio?aaeythony oaea iaoaoi?e/anee e
au?aaeatho iauoth eaeath eciaiaiey.

III. I?EAIOE? e IAI?AAEAIEA

1. Lm – I?EAIOE?

Tr – /aeiaae eee o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai.

I?eaioe? caeanue iiieiaaony a aoeaaeueiii niunea – eae nianoaaiii
i?eaioe?, o.a. iauaeo, ia eioi?ue niio?eo /aeiaae; iauaeo, eioi?ue
caaeaao iai?aaeaiea aeaeaeaiey (iieacaoaeueii, /oi e nai aeaaie
i?eaioe?iaaoueny oi?aaeyao i?aaeeiaii IA). Ec enoiaeiie noaiu caeanue
aaaeia eaeay aiaoiae noi?iiu. I?eaioe? – ia oi/ea e ia aianoeeeua,
O?aaeoi? aeaeaeaony ia aioo?ue, a oieueei a iai?aaeaiee I?eaioe?a,
i?eaeeaeaaony e iaio (IA vs. A).

Iineieueeo I?eaioe? ia yaeyaony ianoii, i?ino?ainoaii, ieineinoueth, a
yaeyaony iauaeoii, oi ?acoeueoaoii aeaeaeaiey O-a ia iiaeao auoue
neooaoeey “O iaoiaeeony ia Y-a”. Anee aeaeaeaiea ia i?ae?aoeony, aai
?acoeueoaoii aoaeao noieeiiaaiea, iau/ii iaaeaeaoaeueiia aeey O-a.

(1a) eiio?iee?oaiia aeaeaeaiea:

aoaoue ia iaiiue (‘a noi?iio, a iai?aaeaiee iaiy’)

(anee O aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaeaiea, ii aeinoeaiao oi/ee Y)

(1a) iaeiio?iee?oaiia e/eee iaaeaeaoaeueiia aeey iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia
neooaoeee aeaeaeaiea:

ei?aaeue ianny ia neaeu; oaie aoae i?yii ia ian

(anee O aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaeaiea, i?iecieaeao “eiioaeo”
(noieeiiaaiea) O-a n

Y-ii)

(1a) o?aaiaio enoiaeiie noaiu –
iaeiio?iee?oaiue/iaiaeeaeaiiue/iacaieaie?i-

aaiiue eiioaeo (“ano?a/a”) O?aaeoi?a n I?eaioe?ii (i?e/ai yoi
“o?iioaeue-

iia” noieeiiaaiea, a ioee/ea io “oi/a/iiai”, n?. a?acaeny a noiea):

i?ino?ainoa.: iaoeioeny ia aea?aai; iaa?ae ia ecaooeo;

iaoaoi?e/.: ia?aaeny ia canaaeo/ia iai?eyoiinoe;iaoieeioeny ia
nii?ioeaeaiea

(Tr (O) aeaeaaeny a iai?aaeaiee I?eaioe?a (Y), ii ia ciae yoiai – e,
aiciiaeii,

ia oioae au eiioaeoa n Y-ii)

2. Lm – IAI?AAEAIEA

(2a) Tr – aeaeaeoueeny (iiaeaeaeiue) iauaeo:

iiacae ia Iineao; aeaeaaoueny ia tha; eo?n ia ia?ano?ieeo;

n?. oae. ia?a/ey: iiaa?ioe iai?aai / iaeaai

E?iia ‘iai?aaeaiey’, “aeoeaiui” eiiiiiaioii enoiaeiie noaiu yaeyaony
oaeaea ‘aeenoaioeey’: yoi acaeyae ia I?eaioe? ec ia/aeueiie oi/ee. Anee
auneacuaaiea O auoae ia oeeoeo eiieeoee?oao ‘O ia oeeoea’, oi iiacae ia
Iineao iiaeii neacaoue, oieueei iiea iiacae aua ia a Iineaa (n?. *
Iiacae ia Iineaa).

(2a) Tr – iaiiaeaeaeiue iauaeo:

aei?iaa ia Iineao; ieia ia tha / ia oeeoeo / ia aeai?

(ieia ai aeai? iiae/a?eeaaao i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea aeai?a eae “cae?uoiai”,
aioo?aiiaai i?ino?ainoaa oeeoea eae i?ino?ainoao aiaoiaio e ioe?uoiio,
iacaieiooiio, n?. oae. ieia auoiaeyo ia ieiuaaeue – a ia?aoeie; iaeiaei
aeai? iiaeao iniuneyoueny e eae ioe?uoia i?ino?ainoai (ia aeai?a – ‘ia
oeeoea, aia aeiia’) – oiaaea ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeai caieiooiio i?ino?ainoao
aeiia).

? a n o e ? a i e y

E a?oiia cia/aiee “aeaeeiue i?eaioe?”–”iai?aaeaiea” i?eiueatho:

1) Iai?aaeaiea acaeyaea:

O niio?ae ia iaiy

Acaeyae aeaeaeaony io /aeiaaea e iauaeoo, iiyoiio ii eiaao IAI?AAEAIEA;

i?e yoii, anee O niio?eo IA Y, ii aeaeeo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iiaa?oiinoue, aiaoiinoue, aiaoithth noi?iio;

n?. niio?ae a ieii / a aeaca – i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iiaa?oiinoe e oi/ee: O
niio?eo a oi/eo e oi/ao oaeaeaoue, /oi aioo?e.

2) Noiaenoai / iiaeiaea:

O iioiae ia Y

3) ?aaeoeey:

Ioaaoeoue ia aii?in / naaaeaoueny ia e?ee / iaeyiooueny ia e?ee /
io?aaae?iaaoue ia caia/aiea / ?aaeoeey ia e?eoeeo / ioeeeeiooueny ia
i?ecua / niaeaneoueny ia iaoe oneiaey / iiaeaeaoueny ia oaiai?u /
?aciceeoueny ia nano?o / iaeaeaoueny ia oooeo

?acoiaaony, ioaaou ia aii?inu e i?i/ea “ioaaoiua” ?aaeoeee e aeaenoaey
aeeth/atho eaeath niIOAAOnoaey (/oi aeaeii aeaaea ec yoeiieiae/aneiai
?iaenoaa yoeo neia), e oaeia ia?aieaoaiea ?aciuo aniaeoia e eiiiiiaioia
enoiaeiie noaiu e anoanoaaiii, e aeaaea iaecaaaeii. Aua aieueoa yoa
eaeay niioaaonoaey iaia?oaeeaaaony a neooaoeee noiaenoaa. Iu
i?eniaaeeiyai yoe cia/aiey e cia/aieyi a?oiiu “i?eaioe?” ec oao
niia?aaeaiee, /oi a neaaeothuae a?oiia “Lm-oeaeue” Lm – yoi aoaeouay
neooaoeey, nouanoaothuay eeoue a aiia?aaeaiee, “a ieaia”, a neo/aa aea
noiaenoaa eee ?aaeoeee Lm – yoi iauaeo eee neooaoeey, nouanoaothuea a
iaee/ee, a ?aaeueiinoe (eae e nianoaaiii i?eaioe? – i?eaioe?
aeaeaeaiey).

IV. OeAEUe e NIIOAAONOAEA

1. AeAEAEAIEA e OeAEE

1) Lm – EIIA*IAss OI*EA aeaeaeaiey

O (Tr) – /aeiaae/o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai;

Y (Lm) – eiia/iue ioieo aeaeaeaiey: “ioe?uoia” ianoi.

A enoiaeiie oi/ea O (iau/ii) ia aeaeeo eiia/ioth oi/eo Y, a oieueei
ciaao i iae e oi/ao aa aeinoe/ue:

O iioae ia noaaeeii / ia ?a/eo / ia ieyae / iiaoae ia ii?a / ia Eaaeac /
ia Eei? / ia Aeyneo; eae i?ieoe / iiianoue ia oeeoeo (ieiuaaeue) Ie?a

2) Lm – NEOOAOeEss a aoaeouai:

O eaeao/i?eoae ia ?aaioo/ia eaeoeeth/ia eiioea?o/ia naaaeueao/ia
ia?aaiai?u/ia naeaeaiea/ia ni?aaiiaaiey/ia nia?aiea/ia aieio

Oioy Y a eiino?oeoeeyo aeaea eaeoe ia eaeoeeth oaea ia ianoi, a
neooaoeey, ii i?ienoiaeeoue yoa neooaoeey aoaeao a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa
L. *oiau i?eiyoue a iae o/anoea, O aeieaeai i?eauoue (ia?aianoeoueny) a
yoi ianoi. Niaa?oaiiue aeae aeaaiea aeaeaeaiey icia/aao, /oi O i?eaue a
ianoi L: O i?eoae ia niaeoaeeue ® O a oaao?a. Eioa?anii, /oi anee
neooaoeey-oeaeue ia eieaeeciaaia a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa, oi
IA-eiino?oeoeey ia oiio?aaeyaony a niaa?oaiiii aeaea:

iioae ia aieio – * i?eoae ia aieio (® i?eaue ia o?iio);

iioae ia ioioo – * i?eoae ia ioioo (® i?eoae a ean).

Cia/aiea “Lm-eiia/iay oi/ea” (eaeao ia noaaeeii) yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui
ia?aoiaeiui caaiii iaaeaeo i?ino?ainoaaiiuie e iai?ino?ainoaaiiuie
cia/aieyie. Neooaoeey “iaoiieie/anee” naycaia eae n ianoii, oae e ni
a?aiaiai aa inouanoaeaiey, e iaa yoeo ia?aoiaea anoue a naiaioe/aneie
ia?aaeeaia IA (eaeao ia noaaeeii ® ia iao/; i?eaoae ia eaieeoeu ® ia
iaaeaeth).

A oeie/iii neo/aa Lm – yoi OeAEUe O-a (a neeo anoanoaaiiie nayce niuneia
‘eiia/iay oi/ea ® OeAEUe’). A ae?oaeo neo/ayo Y yaeyaony oeaeueth
ae?oaeo ethaeae (O-a aaaeoo ia ?anno?ae), oeaeueth eeoea-eiio?iea?a
(oa?noue ia einothi: Y – iioea einothia) eee aeaaea aiiaua ia yaeyaony
oeaeueth (a?ineee ia aa?ioth nia?oue). Iaeiaei ai anao neo/ayo ca Y-ii,
aeaaea iaicia/aiiui i?aaeiaoiui eiaiai (oeia einothi), ne?uaaaony
iaeioi?ay neooaoeey.

Aicieeaao aii?in, eae i?ienoiaeeo oaeia ?anoe?aiea, ii/aio aeey
iaicia/aiey nayce /aeiaaea e neooaoeee auae?aaony i?aaeeia IA.

IA a cia/aieyo oeia eaeoe ia eiioea?o; ?ann/eouaaoue ia iiiiuue ae?ocae;
i?aea? ia iaune ianeoaeeaaao noa?o aoaeouaai, e i?e/eiu oaeiai
naiaioe/aneiai naeaeaa aiieia i/aaeaeiu. Niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiii, /oi
aoaeouaa niauoea Y (Lm) eiioeaiooaeeciaaii eae I?eaioe?, eioi?ue noauaeo
eae au aeaeeo ia?aae niaie, e eioi?iio ii i?eaeeaeaaony a i?ino?ainoaa
e/eee ai a?aiaie. Aoaeouaa iaoiaeeony aia?aaee, ia?aae iaie, “ia?aae
aeacaie”. Oaeay aea i?ino?ainoaaiiay iaoaoi?a ?aaeecoaony a
eiino?oeoeeyo iinoaaeoue ia?aae niaie oeaeue; ia?aae iaie noieo neiaeiay
caaea/a; e o.i.

Iaeiaei i?ino?ainoaaiiia/a?aiaiiia i?eaeeaeaiea e aoaeouae neooaoeee, e
aiiaua e I?eaioe?o, iiaeao “ecia?aaeaoueny” e ae?oaeie i?aaeeiaaie,
iai?eia?, E: iiaeoiaeeoue e aeiio / aioiaeoueny e yecaiaio.

E?iia oiai, neooaoeey, aia anyeiai niiiaiey, iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
“eiioaeia?”, eiathuee aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai, eoaea aeaeaeaony eee aaea
iaoiaeeony /aeiaae, e oiaaea aeieaeai auoue eniieueciaai i?aaeeia A,
n?.: eaeoe a eeii / a ?acaaaeeo / a aie; iaoiaeeoueny a
iieiaeaiee/ninoiyiee;aianoue a aeai?anneth; a oinea/a oaeana/a no?aoa e
o.i.).

A /ai aea niaoeeoeea IA? I/aaeaeii, /oi caaeaenoaiaaiu aieaa
niaoeeoe/iua e iaiaa o?eaeaeueiua naiaioe/aneea i?eciaee, /ai i?inoi
“iai?aaeaiiinoue”, “ia?auaiiinoue” a aoaeouaa. E?iia O?aaeoi?a a
i?ioioeie/aneie neooaoeee anoue aua Iaaethaeaoaeue (a neo/aa eaeoe ia
eaeoeeth O?aaeoi? e Iaaethaeaoaeue niaiaaeatho), e iiiaea iniaaiiinoe
naiaioeee IA naycaiu n oai, /oi Iaaethaeaoaeue ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai
eioa?aaea aeaeaeaiey e iinea aai ieii/aiey i?iaeieaeaao aeaeaoue
I?eaioe? “ia?aae niaie”, ia oa?yao aai ec iiey c?aiey e oai naiui
nio?aiyao ii?aaeaeaiiue eiio?ieue iaae neooaoeeae Y, caieiaao, oae
neacaoue, “aiaoithth” iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e iae. Eae yoe iniaaiiinoe
eiaieoeaiie noaiu, auaeaeeiie eo enoiaeiiai i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
oiio?aaeaiey IA, eniieuecothony a iai?ino?ainoaaiiuo eiioaenoao?

Ethaie i?aaeeia iaicia/aao (i?ino?ainoaaiiia eee iai?ino?ainoaaiiia)
ioiioaiea iaaeaeo iauaeoaie. IA iaicia/aao ioiioaiea-NIIOAAONOAEA.
Aaaeiay iniaaiiinoue oiio?aaeaiey IA –”ONOAIIAEAIIINOUe”,
“i?aaeii?a-aeaeaiiinoue” neooaoeee Y.

A aoaeouai anoue neo/aeiua niauoey, i eioi?uo iu ia ciaai, e anoue
niauoey, i eioi?uo iu ciaai (aeoiaai), iioiio /oi iu eee ae?oaea ethaee
eo caieaie?iaaee (eee iioiio /oi iu oioei, /oiau iie i?iecioee). IA
onoaiaaeeaaao niioiioaiea iaaeaeo O?aaeoi?ii O e oaeei a eaeii-oi niunea
“aeaeeiui”, ecaanoiui aoaeouei niauoeai Y – iacia/aiiui,
caieaie?iaaiiui, iaeeaeaaiui, aeaeaoaeueiui.

Iau/ii Y – yoi oaeay neooaoeey, ianoi e a?aiy eioi?ie eai-oi ca?aiaa
“onoaiiaeaii”; neooaoeey Y ca?aiaa caieaie?iaaia, iacia/aia, i?i iaa
ca?aiaa ecaanoii, /oi iia i?iecieaeao. O.a. iaaeaeo O-ii e Y-ii
nouanoaoao iaeioi?ia ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiia IOIIOAIEA (n?. caienaeny ia
i?eai e a?a/o; eoiee oa?noue ia einothi).

A /anoiii neo/aa neooaoeeth Y “ono?aeaaao” ia nai noauaeo, a ae?oaea
ethaee eee aa ?aaeecaoeey nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ae?oaeo ethaeae. Anee
?aaeecaoeey neooaoeee Y caaeneo io noauaeoa e aa ianoi e a?aiy iiaoo
auoue eciaiaiu ei, no?aiii aiai?eoue O iioae IA Y. Iai?eia?:

Eaaiia iioae ia iaaae anoanoaaiii aoaeao iiieiaoueny eae (a) ia
iaaaeaiiue ia?a?ua eee (a) aai i?eaeaneee ia iaaae. I?eaeaneee ia iaaae,
i?enoonoaiaae ia iaaaea iaeuecy neacaoue i?i naie nianoaaiiue,
“aeiiaoiee” iaaae; anee ia “naie” iaaae, oiaaea – iioae iaaaeaoue;

Aeaoe iioee ia i?iaoeeo – “ii ieaio”, o.a. eoi-oi ieaie?oao,
eiio?iee?oao, iacia/aao, i?aaiecoao yoi ia?ii?eyoea. Anee /aeiaae nai
?aoaao, eiaaea e neieueei aio aoeyoue, anoanoaaiiaa neacaoue: Ii iioae
iiaoeyoue;

I?eoae a nii?ocae ia o?aie?iaeo (ii ieaio, ii a?aoeeo, ii aeiaiai?o) vs.
I?eoae a nii?ocae iio?aie?iaaoueny.

Ii aeaaea anee neooaoeeth Y “ono?aeaaao” nai O, iia ana ?aaii aeey iaai
yaeyaony a eaeii-oi niunea “iacia/aiiie”, iaycaoaeueiie – ?ac ii aa
caieaie?iaae, ii oai naiui i?eiye ia naay aioo?aiiaa iaycaoaeuenoai aa
?aaeeciaaoue (iai?eia?, anee ac?ineue /aeiaae iioae ia i?iaoeeo – yoi,
nei?aa anaai, eaeay-oi “?aao-ey?iay”, aaeaaeiaaiay icaei?iaeoaeueiay
i?iaoeea, oae neacaoue, ii niaeaoaieth n naiei niaie, n?. caia/aiea
I.I.Naeeaa?noiaie i aeeth/aiiinoe “Y-a a i?ia?aiio aoaeoueo aeaenoaee
O-a” [Naeeaa?noiaa 2000: 227]).

Iaeiiaoe, anee neooaoeey Y ieeai ia caieaie?iaaia e ia iacia/aia, iia
ana ?aaii i?aaeaeaeeony, “i?in/eouaaaony” ec enoiaeiie oi/ee,
iaaethaeaoaeth i/aaeaeii, /oi neooaoeey Y iaecaaaeia, /oi iia
iaycaoaeueii i?iecieaeao – ii /ueae-oi aiea eee a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa:

ia?a/aiu ia i?iaae / ia aeaaeue / ia auie?aiea; a?ineoue ia aa?ioth
nia?oue / ia i?iecaie noaeueau; ioaeaoue ia nuaaeaiea aieeai / ia
?anoa?caiea.

Yoa aea “i?in/eoaiiinoue”, i?aaeaeaeaiea aoaeouaai iaia?oaeeaaaony e a
au?aaeaieyo aeaea ia anyeee neo/ae.

Ae?oaay aaaeiay iniaaiiinoue IA – “IONO?AIAIIINOUe”, iaaiaea/aiiinoue
O-a a neooaoeeth Y, eioi?ay yanoaaiii iuouaaony e a eiino?oeoeeyo
IA+I?aaee.: ia iaaae – ia iaaaea; ia niaeoaeeue – ia niaeoaeea (eiia/ii,
a aua aieueoae noaiaie yoa eaeay iaaiaea/aiiinoe-naiaiaeu au?aaeaaony
i?aaeeiaii IAAe, iaeiaei caeanue iia ni/aoaaony n eaeaae aeiieie?iaaiey,
i?aainoiaenoaa (n?. [Iaea?, Ieoiayi 2000: 90; 107]; iiaeiaiay aea eaeay
“aiaoiaai” ioiioaiey, “aiaoiae” nayce (ioiioaiey-i?eaeeaeaiey)
au?aaeaaony i?aaeeiaii E, eioi?ue oiaea iaicia/aao “aiaoithth” iiceoeeth
O?aaeoi?a, eanaiea aiaoieo oi/ae).

A oece/aneie (i?ino?ainoaaiiie) neooaoeee IA iaicia/aao iieiaeaiea aia,
ia aioo?e, nia?oaee. Yoa eaeay “acaeyaea ecaia”, iaoiaeaeaiey O-a ca
i?aaeaeaie, aia neooaoeee Y (oioy au iuneaiii), eaeay, oae neacaoue,
naiaiaeu io Y, i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aao eiaieoeaioth noaio i?aaeeiaa IA
io eiaieoeaiie noaiu i?aaeeiaa A, eioi?ue naycai n eaeaae
“iia?oaeaiiinoe”, aiaea/aiiinoe O-a a neooaoeeth Y, o.a. a eiia/iii
n/aoa – ianaiaiaeu, n?. aaycaeny a ae?aeo; iiiae a ia?aae?yao/a eaaaeo;
aoyioee a aaaioth?o; aeei a enoi?eth; aieaee a iia iieiaeaiea; ionoeeny
a ieyn – aaea O iaoiaeeony “aioo?e” e “ai aeanoe” neooaoeee Y (eiiaaea
aiciiaeiu iaa iiieiaiey iiceoeee O-a – eae “aiaoiae” e eae “aioo?aiiae”:
eaeoe ia aie – a aie; iioae ia ?acaaaeeo – a ?acaaaeeo; ii: a aoaeo –
*ia aoaeo: aoaea – yoi oaea /anoue aiy). ?acoiaaony, a aua aieueoae
noaiaie yoa eaeay ianaiaiaeu e “no?aaeaoaeueiinoe” au?aaeaaony
i?aaeeiaii IIAe: iiiae iiae iano?ae; iiae aeeyieai ieiooiie neaainoe;
iiae a?ocii a?aoia; e o.i.

IA iaicia/aao ia o/anoea, a anaai eeoue i?enoonoaea, Iaee/ea. I?e yoii
“oece/anee” iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue e o/anoea O-a a neooaoeee Y: anee
c?eoaee i?eoee ia niaeoaeeue, iie aoaeoo oieueei i?enoonoaiaaoue
(iaaethaeaoue), ii anee a?oenou i?eoee ia niaeoaeeue, iie, eiia/ii,
aoaeoo o/anoaiaaoue A niaeoaeea (ea?aoue). Iaeiaei i?aaeeia IA
“ioaa/aao” oieueei ca i?enoonoaea, aai naiaioe/aneay aieinoue “ia
aa?ao”, ia ioaaouaaao aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai neooaoeee Y.

E ia neo/aeii, eiia/ii, IA iau/ii ni/aoaaony n iacaaieyie
neooaoeee”-ia?ii?eyoee” (i?aaieciaaiiuo e i?aaiecoaiuo), a A, anee ia
n/eoaoue iaiiiai/eneaiiuo “iaeo?aeueiuo” eiioaenoia oeia o/anoaiaaoue a,
oyaioaao e iacaaieyi “noeoeeiuo” eee ia iieiinoueth eiio?iee?oaiuo
neooaoeee, iaeiio?iee?oaiuo ninoiyiee e o.i. (anooieoue a ai?ueao/a
ea?o/a ia?aa?aieo/a ia?ano?aeeo; a oaeana/a iaieea/a io/ayiee/a
?anoa?yiiinoe; a e?aeiai neo/aa).

Yoa eaeay iono?aiaiiinoe, iaaiaea/aiiinoe, “naiaiaeu”, iaoiaeaeaiey
“aia”, “ia iiaa?oiinoe”, “nia?oaee” Y-a aeaao eioa?aniue yooaeo a
eiino?oeoeeyo n aeaaieii NA e iai?ino?ainoaaiiui Y-ii. O i?eoae ia Y
icia/aao, /oi O iaoiaeeony a ianoa L (ni. auoa), ii ia icia/aao, /oi ii
oaea ia/ae o/anoaiaaoue a neooaoeee Y, n?.: i?eoae ia noaaeeii ® ia
noaaeeiia;

i?eoae a oaao? ® a oaao?a;

i?eoae ia niaeoaeeue ® oaea a oaao?a, ii aua ia ia niaeoaeea.

3) *anoe (o?aaiaiou) aaciaie noaiu

Aeaeaeaiea e I?eaioe?o (oeaee) yaeyaony anaai eeoue caaiii (ionoue e
oeaio?aeueiui) oeaeie oeaii/ee:

(1) O oi/ao Y – (2) O ieaie?oao inouanoaeoue Y (i?eiyoue o/anoea a Y),
“aioiaeony” e Y – (3) O onoaiaaeeaaao ioiioaiea n Y: (3a) a ?acoeueoaoa
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey; (3a) a ?acoeueoaoa iaeioi?iai aeaenoaey – (4) O
“ia?aiauaaony” (“i?eaeeaeaaony” – a i?ino?ainoaa e/eee ai a?aiaie) e Y –
(5) O inouanoaeyao Y

I?aaeeia IA iiaeao iienuaaoue ana caaiuey yoie oeaii/ee:

(1) “Ianneaiia” iaeeaeaiea Y:

iaaeayoueny ia eo/oaa / ia /oaei; ?ann/eouaaoue ia aai iiiiuue;

(2) “Aeoeaiia” iaeeaeaiea Y:

iaoeaeeoueny ia iiaaaeo; iano?ieoueny ia na?ueaciue ?acaiai?

(3a) ?aoaiea: ?aoeeny ia iiaaa; niaeaneeny ia iia?aoeeth

(3a) Ioiioaiea n aoaeouei Y onoaiaaeeaaaony

– aeaenoaeai naiiai O-a: caienaeny ia i?eai e a?a/o;

– aeaenoaeyie ae?oaeo ethaeae: i?eaeaneee ia iaaae; aucaaee ia aeii?in;
iai?aaeee

ia ?aaioo; iineaee ia ia?aaiai?u

(4) Aeaeaeaiea: eaeao ia eaeoeeth / ia eiioea?o / ia nia?aiea …

(5) ?aaeecaoeey Y:

eaeoe ia ooo?i; iieoe ia ?ene / ia eiii?iienn / ia ie?iaoth / ia e?aeiea
ia?u / ia nio?oaeie/anoai / ia ?anoiaeu; anoaoue ia ai?ueao ca naiaiaeo;
i?eeoe ia iiiiuue

Oioy IA + Aei. a ii?ia iaicia/aao niioaaonoaea, niioianaiiinoue aeaoo
ninoiyiee e i?ioioeie/aneei yaeyaony acaeyae ec ia/aeueiie oi/ee (eiaaea
ninoiyiea Y aua ia ?aaeeciaaii), oai ia iaiaa a ?aciuo a?oiiao cia/aiee
iu iaeciaiii iaia?oaeeaaai aa?eaio, eiaaea Y oaea “aeinoeaiooi”,
?aaeeciaaii:

noaeeoue neaoa?oue ia noie – iinoaeeoue neaoa?oue ia noie (O oaea ia
Y-a)

aoaoue ia iaiiue (I?eaioe? “aia?aaee”) – iaoeiooueny ia aea?aai

eaeoe ia eaeoeeth (Y – oeaeue) – i?eeoe ia iiiiuue (?aaeecaoeey Y)

eoieoue 3 iao?a oa?noe ia einothi – ia einothi iioei 3 iao?a

Iaeiaei e a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee Y iniiaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioioeie/aneie
neooaoeee – eaeay niiinoaaeaiey, niioianaiiinoe aeaoo oi/ae (ninoiyiee)
– nio?aiyaony. Niaoeeoeea eiino?oeoeee i?eeoe ia iiiiuue/iieoe ia
?anoiaeu e aa naycue n i?eciaeii i?ioioeie/aneie neooaoeee
“iai?aaeaiiinoue” ninoieo a oii, /oi enoiaeiia ninoiyiea Iaaethaeaoaey
(ii aeaeeo Y, o.a. Y iaoiaeeony a iiea c?aiey e a “iiea niciaiey”)
o?ainoi?ie?oaony a eaeath iniciaiiie ?aaeecaoeee Y, “i?in/eoai-iinoe”
(n?. nai aeaaie ?ann/eouaaoue ia) neooaoeee Y e aa iineaaenoaee – o.a. O
ca?aiaa, aua a enoiaeiie oi/ea ciae, iiieiae (“aeaeae”), /oi oaeia Y, e
niciaoaeueii aua?ae Y. Yoi iniaaiii oi?ioi aeaeii a neo/aa
iaaeaeaoaeueiinoe Y aeey naiiai O-a, n?. iieoe ia ?ene / ia ?anoiaeu.

2. IOIIOAIEA, NIIOAAONOAEA, I?AAeIACIA*AIEA

Eiino?oeoeey O ia Y iiaeao iaicia/aoue niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo O e aoaeouae
caieaie?iaaiiie neooaoeeae Y, eioi?oth noauaeo iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue n
iiiiuueth O, eee i?aaeiaoii Y, eioi?ue ii iiaeao iieo/eoue (ecaioiaeoue,
i?eia?anoe e o.ae.), eniieuecoy O (a yoii cia/aiee IA aeecie e AeEss).

O – ?ANO?N:

a) iaoa?eae: oa?noue (O) ia einothi (Y); iyni ia noi;

a) aeaiueae: aeaiueae ia aeeao; neieueei inoaiaony ia oeaa?

a) a?aiy: aeaee o?e aeiy ia nai?u (i a?aiaie eae ?ano?na ni. [Lakoff,
Johnson : 1980])

O – AeIEOIAIO / I?AAI naeaeaoue Y (iiaeaeueiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo O e
Y):

i?aea? ia iaune, aeeao ia eiioea?o/ia naiieao/ia iaeio iiacaeeo; Au
eiaaoa i?aai ia iaeei caiiie aaeaieaoo; Iaeuecy iacaaoue /aeiaaea
i?anooiieeii aac aaneeo ia oi iniiaaiee.

Aua iaeei aaaeiue oei niioaaonoaey, aeeceiai e iiaeaeueiiio –
niioaaonoaea caaeaiiui O?AAIAAIEssI (“yecaiai”):

aiaeeony ia caiaio; naeae ia oioa?a; ciaao ia iyoue; i?iaa?ea ia
i?i/iinoue

Ae?OAEA AEAeU NIIOAAONOAEss-I?AAeIACIA*AIEss

O iiaeao iaicia/aoue iaeioi?ue “iaoa?eae”, ?ano?n, eioi?ue noauaeo
aeaenoaeoaeueii ec?anoiaeoao ia “ecaioiaeaiea”, i?eia?aoaiea,
inouanoaeaiea Y (oa?noue ia ieaouea), ii iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii,
eioi?ue ia ?anoiaeoaony, a i?inoi eniieuecoaony /aeiaaeii e eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaeiacia/aiea, niioaaonoaoao ii naiei i?eciaeai
(naienoaai)

– ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeee, a eioi?ie ii eniieuecoaony: o?oeou ia
aeana?o;

– ii?aaeaeaiiiio a?aiaie eniieueciaaiey: caianu ia ceio; iaoaue ia eaoi;

– ianoo: caiaaanee ia ieia;

– eiee/anoaaiiiio ia?aiao?o iauaeoa eee neooaoeee: iaeueoi ia iaeue/eea
6-oe eao; eathoa ia aeaieo; iae?uoue noie ia oanoue ia?nii

?ano?n O iiaeao eiaoue eiee/anoaaiiue ia?aiao? (3 iao?a oa?noe ia
einothi; 2 aeiy ia nai?u). Anee e Y i?eia?aoaao eiee/anoaaiiue ia?aiao?,
oi aicieeaao eaeay eiee/anoaaiiiai niioaaonoaey e eiee/anoaaiiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey (e aiiaua aeaeaiey):

3 iao?a oa?noe ia eaaeaeue einothi; ?acaeaeeoue i?iaeoeou ia 6 /aeiaae;

?acaeaeeoue 30 ia 6 (‘/anoae’); Oaeie eeeaio iaeei ia ouny/o;

Iaeei oaeaoii ia yoaae; Auaeatho aeaa eiiieaeoa iai?oaeiaaiey ia ianyoe.

A?AIss

A?aiy iiaeao auoue ?ano?nii, a iiaeao auoue n?ieii. N?ie – yoi
?aciiaeaeiinoue niioaaonoaey. Naii iiiyoea n?iea iiae?acoiaaaao
i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth aeiaiai?aiiinoue, “?aoaiiinoue”, iacia/aiiinoue,
caieaie?iaaiiinoue. A eiino?oeoeeyo O ia Y n?ie iiaeao aunooiaoue a
aeaea eioa?aaea e a aeaea “aeaou”.

CAIEAIE?IAAIIUE N?IE-EIOA?AAE

Lm – eioa?aae:

i?eaoae ia iaaeaeth; caoae ia ieiooo; acye eieao ia a?aiy (iaanaaaea /
ianianai)

Iineieueeo neooaoeey caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?aae, nouanoaoao
anoanoaaiiue ia?aoiae niauoea ® a?aiy (n?. ana nia?aiea – ana o?e /ana –
neaeae iie/a).

CAIEAIE?IAAIIUE N?IE-AeAOA

Tr – niauoea, ia?ii?eyoea; Lm – aeaoa:

Nia?aiea iacia/eee / ia?aianee / ia?aaeaeioee ia iyoieoeo / ia 10 yiaa?y

Caeanue nio?aiyaony eaeay “aeenoaioeee” iaaeaeo ieaie?iaaieai,
onoaiiaeaieai n?iea niauoey e aai ?aaeecaoeeae, n?. *Nia?aiea
auei/aoaeao ia iyoieoeo ® a iyoieoeo (caeanue iyoieoea yaeyaony oaea ia
n?ieii, a a?aiaiai ?aaeecaoeee, oie oi/eie a?aiaie, aaea niauoea
“iaoiaeeony”; a IA oeene?oao iieiaeaiea Iaaethaeaoaey a oie oi/ea, ec
eioi?ie niauoea oieueei ieaie?oaony, “aeaeeony”).

V. “IOIINEOAEUeIUA” (?AEssOEAIUA) CIA*AIEss

Lm – oi/ea:

Ia neaaeothuaa oo?i

Lm – “aeenoaioeey” (eioa?aae):

noa?oa ia aeaa aiaea; iiicaeaoue ia iie/ana; ?anoe?eoue ia 2 iao?a

Caeanue oiaea eiaaony ioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie (ninoiyieyie),
iaaeaeo ia/aeueiie e eiia/iie “oi/eaie” ia?acoaony “aeenoaioeey”,
eioa?aae eae ?acoeueoao ?aaeueiiai eee iaoaoi?e/aneiai aeaeaeaiey,
eciaiaiey e o.i., e Y iaicia/aao eeai yoio “ioiineoaeueiue” eioa?aae,
eeai “ioiineoaeueiue” I?eaioe?, i?e/ai Iaaethaeaoaeue “aeaeeo” I?eaioe?
ec ia/aeueiie oi/ee.

EEOA?AOO?A

Iaea? Ae., Ieoiayi A.A. I?aaeeia iaae: oaeou e eioa?i?aoaoeee //
Enneaaeiaaiey ii

naiaioeea i?aaeeiaia. I., 2000

Naeeaa?noiaa I.I. Naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a i?aaeeiaa ia // Enneaaeiaaiey
ii na

iaioeea i?aaeeiaia. I., 2000

Oeeeiaiei I.A. I?iaeaiu iienaiey i?aaeeiaia a nia?aiaiiuo
eeiaaenoe/aneeo

oai?eyo // Enneaaeiaaiey ii naiaioeea i?aaeeiaia. I., 2000

Lakoff G, Johnson M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago,
1980

Langacker R. Foundations of cognitive grammar. Vol.1: Theoretical
prerequisites.

Stanford: SUP. 1987

Langacker R. Concept, image and symbol: The cognitive basis of grammar.
B.: Mouton

de Gruyter. 1991

Talmy L. Figure and ground in complex sentences // Greenberg et al.
(eds),

Universals of human language. Stanford: SUP, vol.4, 1978

Talmy L. How language structures space // H.Pick, L.Acredolo (eds),
Spacial

orientation: theory, research, and application. N.Y.: Plenum, 1983

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