.

Осуществление интеграции Украины в ЕС

Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1377
Скачать документ

Контрольная работа

на тему:

“ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЕ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ УКРАИНЫ В ЕС”

Особой стратегии требуют отношения Украины с крупнейшим интеграционным
объединением в Европе – Европейским Союзом. Это объясняется тем, что
образ современной Европы в основном определяется интеграционными
процессами, которые объединяют 15 государств в европейское сообщество.
Аналогов ЕС в мире не существует. За своим статусом, функциями и правами
Евросоюз отличается от обычных международных организаций тем, что
государства-члены наделили его законодательными полномочиями и
исполнительной властью наднационального характера. А это в значительной
мере превышает компетенцию других международных организаций.

С??ня Е????? Союз ???? в ??й э?п ?????. П???дят ????е ????я в ?????ях
????? ????х ???, ????е ?к??????, ???а ??ая ?лю? – ??. В ?? ряд с
э??????и ???я?я ??т???е, ????? и э?????? ????, ???? ?? ???? и ??л?ы
??????. Р?ь ?? о ???? в ????е ?? ? ??? э??????о и ?лю??о, ? и ??????о
?ю? э?х ??н. Т.е., ???я ? ??ю?? ?????о?і?ь ???ия Е?????о Сою?, а ??? с
э?м – и ????е ?о ?? и ??а в гл???? э????.

Понятно, что это объединение очень привлекательное для Украины как
молодого европейского государства. Поэтому одним из наиболее актуальных
задач Украины выступает ассоциированное членство в Европейском Союзе.

Направляя свои взгляды в Европу, надо помнить, что интеграция страны в
мировую экономику – это последовательное решение задач, которые
обеспечивают в первую очередь общенациональные интересы страны в целом.
Эта проблема не может решаться без учета внешнеполитических интересов и
внутриэкономических ориентиров. И только после того, как будут довольно
четко определенные основные элементы национальной внешней и внутренней
экономической политики, можно будет определить масштабы интеграции в
мировое хозяйство.

Основываясь на единстве экономических и политических интересов Украины,
уже сделанных ею реальных шагов, можно говорить о целиком определенной
тенденции расширения и развития ее интеграции в европейские структуры.

Стратегия Украины состоит в приближении к общеевропейским структурам
двумя параллельными курсами – непосредственно и через членство в
центральноевропейских учреждениях.

При этих условиях особого значения приобретает задачу отладки отношений
с такими международными экономическими организациями и группировками,
как Европейский Союз (ЕС), Европейский банк реконструкции и развития
(ЄБРР), Совет Европы (СЕ), Центральноевропейская инициатива (ЦЕИ),
Организация из безопасности и сотрудничества в Европе (ОБСЕ),
Экономическая комиссия ООН для Европы, Международный валютный фонд
(МВФ), Мировой банк (СБ).

Интеграция в Европейский Союз ускорит и усовершенствует процесс
экономической трансформации в Украине, который очевидно подернулся, а
членство в ЕС принесет не только значительные экономические выгоды, но и
положительно повлияет на безопасность страны.

В отношениях с ЕС Украина надеется на:

– ???????ую ??е?? ? ???ы ЕС и ?о ??н-??? в ???е ??????я У??? к Г?????у
С????ю о ???х и ???? ГАТТСОТ, ????е ???а к О?? ???е ??е??ій ЕС;

– решение вопросов относительно присоединения Украины к отдельным
европейским программам, в частности в области энергетики, транспорта,
науки и техники, охраны окружающей среды, образования и т.п.;

– ?????е ?????????? ???а ???? ???в э???а У??? ? ??и ЕС;

– ?????ю ????? и ?????й ??? ??н ЕС У??? и т.п..

Р????м ??ы У??? в ????е ее ????? в ????ы Е?????о Сою?.

У????? ????в, ???????х ???й?м ????м ЕС, ??? ???, э???ка ???х ??т ????
??о ?????? ???иям. К???? в ??ы ЕС ??? ???? ??м ????иям, ??я?м С??? ЕС в
ию? 1993 ?? в К?????. К??я ???, ???я ??? ? ?? ??я?й, ??? ???и ?????ь
з???ь ????ию и ???? ?????о ???и, ????ию ???? ?? ????, ??? ?н???в. К??
??, ????? ???е ?????ую?й ???? э????, а ??е ???н?? ????ь ???? ???? ?л ???
?ю?. Ч???о ???т от ????а ??е ??я? ?е ?я?????, ???е ???ют ? ???я ? ??? в
э?н?????, а и в ?лю?? и ?????? ?ю?.

С??ня в У??? ????е я??ия в ?????? э????, ????? ???? ?? ???ят ? ?????е ?
?? ???? ???. За ????и э??????и ????ля? ???иям Е?????о Сою? У?а?а ? ????.
Н? ?е ??о ???ся ?????ся к ????????? э??????, ?????о-?????? и ?????
?????. Но ?????? ???ы в ?????и ????? ?????й ????? ??ают с??ня ???о ???і?
??, ?м э????с?е. И э?м ?? ???????я, ?к э? ???и в ?? ??я э?????и ???
Б???я и Р??ия, ???е ??? ????ию “в ??д” – ?????? п??.

Во всяком случае Украина имеет реальные перспективы развития отношений с
Европейским Союзом. Наша страна первая среди бывших республик СССР
парафіювала Соглашение с ЕС о партнерстве и сотрудничестве в марте 1994
года. А с 1 марта 1998 года настоящее соглашение приобрело силу.
Соглашение охватывает три сферы взаимодействия – политический диалог,
экономическое и культурное сотрудничество.

П??????е ???? ??оя?? С????я ?я У??? – ????? ????? с ?????? и ????????и?
?????и. И??о ??з ?????й ??к ? ??? ???? ???? ?????, с ???ю ???х ??м
????я? ????ю, ?????????ю ? ??? Е??ы, А?и, ??н СНГ. Н?о ????ь, ?о ?р????
??к – э? ??е 500 ?н. ???иа??х ??????, ???е ?еют ???ю ????????? и ?е ????
??и ?? и ?я ????? ??????????. П???м ??т ??ь ??? – ??? ??ы РЕВ, ???е ?
????е 10 ?т ??? ????????ь ?? э???? ? ??? ?тр????? с ЕС.

На выполнение настоящего Соглашения Указом Президента Украины от 11 июня
1998 года была утверждена Стратегия интеграции Украины к Европейскому
Союзу. Эта стратегия определяет основные направления сотрудничества
Украины с Европейским Союзом и основные приоритеты деятельности органов
исполнительной власти на период до 2007 года, на протяжении которого
должны быть созданы предпосылки, необходимые для обретения Украиной
полноправного членства в Европейском Союзе.

С???ия ????? У??? к ЕС ??? ????? ????е ?????а к ?????? ??????у, эк??????
и ????о ?????? и ??ч?? ? э?й ??? ???а ???????? ??а ЕС, ?о ?? ???м
???-???ч??м ?????м У??? в ??????м ?м??ии.

В ???? ????? У??? в э??м???е ?????? Е?????о Сою? ????т ?????ь ???я ря?
????? ??ч “????у Е??е”. Р?ь ?? ??? ??о о ????????? ???ия? и ?к ?????н
??, ?к ?щ ????и ????? ???-????к, ?????? и ?? ????, ????? ???к ????? ????
??р ? ????к ??к

С?? ???? ?????й ???????о ???? – э?????ая ????ия и ???? ???? ????й ??у
У???й и ЕС. В э?????? ??????? С????е ???ля? ???й ?? ?? ?я ???н???а ??у
Е????? Сою?м и У???й. Ц?ью э?? я?я?ся ????а ???? э?????? ??? и ??????? и
??оя??о ???ия ????? э????. Для э?х ??й С????е ???ля? 28 ????, в ???х
Е????? Союз и У??? ?тят ????ь и ????ь ?? ????ч??о, ??и ???х ???????, ???
и ????я ?????, ???????? и ?р??я ???????, ??а и ???а и т.п..

С??д???? ?е ????. Т?, ????, в ??е э???? ?????е э???ы ???ют с ?????и
????и ? ?р??е ?у-?у в ??е ????ия ???ия? и ?????? и ?????я????й ?????. В
???и ??и и ?????я ???????ся ??н ???й ?????и, п?????ля? и ????? и ??ряю?я
??е ???ы. С??????о в ???ях ????ия ?????я в ??х ???, ?к ???н?е ?? и ??? с
??????ю, ???и?я ??н ?????и ??у ?????? в ??х ?хн???х ???, ?к ?а?????я и
?????. З?????е ??ы ????? ???в ??ляю?я ? ???????а?е я??? ?????? и ? ???е
?о??, ?я??? ? ????я? Ч?????? ???.

Но еще многое может быть сделано. Совет с сотрудничества отрабатывает
рекомендации относительно дальнейшего развития сотрудничества во всех
этих сферах. Европейский Союз и Украина согласились, что особое внимание
будет предоставляться тем мероприятиям, которые могут оказывать
содействие сотрудничеству Украины с соседними государствами .

Е????? Союз и ?о ?????а-??ы ??ают ?????ую ?? в ??????? ????? и ?????й
??? У???. Е????? Союз ?? ??н? ??????м ???м У???, ???я ? ??? 1991-1997 ?т
п????? ??? ? ??ю ??у 4061 ?н. экю в ??е ????к? ???, э????х ????, ??? и
г??і??ї ???. На ?о ?лю ????ся ??ь ??? ??? ?я?х ?????х ?????. ЕС ????т
??? ? ????й ?р??м ????м У?аи?, ???? о???? ?? Р??я.

Значительным событием в отношениях Украины с Европейским Союзом стало
принятие общей стратегии Европейского Союза относительно Украины,
которое состоялось на очередному самміті ЕС 11 декабря 1999 года в
Хельсинки. Принятая стратегия ЕС относительно Украины – документ,
который расширяет рамки Соглашения о партнерстве и сотрудничестве обеих
сторон, передовсім в области внешней политики и безопасности, юстиции,
внутренних дел. Она выступает новым инструментом отношений между
Украиной и ЕС.

Документ определяет такие стратегические цели Европейского Союза
относительно Украины:

– оказывать содействие созданию в Украине стабильной и открытой
демократии с верховенством закона и созданием условий для нормального
функционирования рыночной экономики в интересах народа;

– ?????? с У?а?? в ?? ?????я ?????? и ?????? в Е??е и в ???у ??;

– ???ь э??????, ?????? и к????е ??????? с У???й, ??????? в ???и ю??? и
????? ?л.

В ????и ЕС ???н ?????? ????л к ???ию э?? ????а, ?э?? ??я ????я ЕС, в ???
? ???а?и, ??т ?? ??? к ??????о ?в?у ???? ????й У??? и ЕС.

За ??й ??ю ????я я?я?ся ????? д????м ЕС, ???й ???? ???е Е??ою?м ?о ????й
с У???й. О???о, ?о Е????? Союз ? ??? ??ья ? ?бя ?я????? ???? ??ь ??д
У???й, ??? с ?м ?е р? ??????, ?о ??????т У??? ?к ?????о, к??? ???о
?????й ??р и ????я? ????? ????я ??????ся к Е??е. Т?? ???м, ? ???????м
???? У??? в ЕС ?? ?о ? ????я ???.

Кроме этого, надо сознавать, что политика Европейского Союза сегодня во
многом определяется усилением проблем безопасности, которые вызваны
политической нестабильностью на европейском континенте, существующими и
потенциальными региональными конфликтами. Поэтому при этих условиях
целиком естественный интерес ЕС к Украине имеет большей частью
политический характер, а самая Украина рассматривается, прежде всего,
как стратегический плацдарм на европейском континенте.

На пути Украины к Европейскому Союзу возникают определенные проблемы.
Так, Европейская Комиссия и Всемирный банк провели в Брюсселе
конференцию стран-доноров и международных организаций (общим объемом –
больше 20), что принимают участие в сотрудничестве с Украиной.
Критически оценив ситуацию в стране и политике макроэкономической
стабилизации, которая ее проводит правительство, участники конференции
подтвердили свою готовность продолжать финансовую помощь Украине, но при
условии, которое ее руководство возьмет на себя обязательства
осуществлять среднесрочную программу реформ в области государственного
управления, энергетики, бюджетной и налоговой политики, развития
частного сектора, реорганизации систем социального обеспечения и
здравоохранения.

Э? ???????т о ???и ?????? ??????? э?????ую ???ию в У???, ?вя??? ?м ??
???е ???м и ?? ? ???я. Но э? ? ????, ?о ?м ?? ????ся ? ????? ? Е??ою?.
Э??м???е ??????? ??у У???й и Е????? Сою?м ???? ????, и ?? ?????? и ????ь
э? ????ю. В ?т ? ??я ???т ????ь, ?о ??? ? ???????, ????е и ??????е ????я
????я в ЕС. Поэ?? ?????ая ????я ??????? с ?ю?м ????я в ????? ???????о
а???.

Торговые возможности и трудности, которые существуют между Украиной и
ЕС, состоят в несоответствии к требованиям Соглашения о партнерстве и
сотрудничестве, которая парафирована 23 марта 1994 г. обеими сторонами.
Соглашение вступило в силу с 1 марта 1998 г. В период ко вступлению в
силу данного соглашения существовала только Временное соглашение о
торговле по вопросам, связанных с торговлей, в том виде, в котором она
была принята Советом министров ЕС 4 декабря 1995 г. Это временное
соглашение возымело силу в части, которая касается вопросов торговли.

Э???ы ????? ????ия. С??????о ????ию о ???? ??у ЕС и У???й ???о в ????
??е ????я:

– ??м ?????о ????ия ??у ????и – ?????и ????, ?к э? ????но в ?. 1 Г?????о
????ия ? ???м и ????. Т? ? ??е ? 31 ???я 1998 p., ?и с ???а ??????я
У??ны к COT ?а ??т ??о ?????ся ???м, ??е ????я?? в ???? ? ???? СНГ, ?м
э? ??????о ?????м ??у У???й и ЕС;

– ???, ???е ????ую?я ? ??? ??? ? ???????, ?????аю?я ?к ?????? ??? ??????
???е?я ?? ??в ????? ???в;

– ???яю?я ???я ???? ????х ??? ГАТТ ?????? ???в ? ??? ??н, с ???? ??
???????:

* ?ря?к ?????о ????ия ??????? ?. 7;

* ???ь ???ия ? ??????? ???? и ????? (?. 8);

* ?я????? ?????? ?????ь ?е ???????е ?? и ??????я, ???е ??ю?я ????, ?
???я? ???х ???? ??в ????о д???я, ??е э?????, ?м ????? ???я, ???е ???? в
?? ??д ??я?? ??х ???й, ?????ь ????о ????а ????, ?я??? с ?????и ????и (?.
10);

– ???яю?я ???? ???????е ?? в ???? ??у ?????и ????и;

– ??о ???я? ???????е ?и ?м?????? ???ия?я ? ???? ГАТТ ?н????о ???? с ????
????;

– ??? ?м ???? ?????ь, ????? ????ь ?? ?я ????ия ??????? ???й;

– ??о п???? ?? ?я ??? ???ья ???н, ??????о ?ря?а и ???? (э?? ???ия?я? ?
???т ?????ля? с ????????й ??ю);

– ?????е ????ия ??я?е ?????? ???? ????м и ???й, ? ???? ???я? с ??оя??,
?о ???ают ?д Е????? ????? ?ля и ??оя??, о ???? я???и ?????и;

– ?е ???ы, ???е ??ю?я ???? ??у ????и – ?????и ????, ??т ?????я в ????
???????? ?лю?;

– ????? ???ы ???? ????ь ?е ?? ?я ??, ??ы ??у ??ую?? ????и ?????а ???я
?????я.

К?? ??, ?????аю?я и ????яю?я ?????? ???ия?я ??? ?????я ?????и; ???ют
???ы ???? ?я ?????? ???в, ??е ??я, ?и ?я ??????ия ??г, ???е ???ают
?н???ию в ???? ??у ?????и ???а?; в ??? ???а ???ы ????уют о?а ?? о ???е
??????ия ?и о ??????х ???????х ???иях; ???ы ?????ю?я ?????? ????и
???????й ???? и ?????? ?????я ????? ? ??я??и ?? ?т ?с? ????ия ???о
????ия ??????и ???н ????? ???; ? ??я??и ?? ?т ??е ????ия в ?? ??оя??
????ия ?????? ?????? п???я?й, ???е ?еют ??ю????е ??а, ??????ся ???ия
?????ия ??х-??? ???? ?и ?????й, ???е ???ают ?????ю ?и ??сят ??б ???????й
????? ???е; ??я ???ия ??во?, ???й ?????я в ????? ?????, ??т ?? ?????? ?
???ию ???.

М?? ??е ?????я ?????? ?????? ??? ????й ?????и и ??ш?? ?. С??няю?я ?е ??а
? ?????? ???ия?й ??? ?????й ?????и, ???е ?????? ГАТТ. У??? ?я?е?я ????
???я ??ю??я ???? о ??? ???????? ??????и с ?м, ??ы ??е ????я пя????о ??а
???ь ??ня ??? э?х ??, ???й ?щ???т в Е????? Сою?.

С????? ????, ???й ???ля?ся к С????ю, ???? ??? ?????? ?????? в ?????
????? ???ия?й ??????и ???? ??н, ???е ?????ю?я. С??????о ??оя?? ????
У?а?е ??????я ??м ?иб???о ????ия. Т? ? ??е ЕС ?????ня? ? У??? ?????о
??т, ???????х ??????? О?? ???е ?????й (л???х ???в) ?я ??н, ???е ???аю?я.
С??????о э?й ???е ??т У??? ??т э??????ь у ст?? ЕС ??????ы и ?? ??????
???, ? ??ю??? ???й с ??оя??, ? ????м ???? ???м ?и ??? ?з ???????я ? ??;
?????е ??? ?ю?я и ?я ?????я????й ????и (??е 400 ??????). На ??яже?и 1993
г. ??? в Ге??? ??х ??т ? ?? ??????х ???в ?? ??????о ? ??у ??е 20 ?н ????
??к. В 1995 г. э? ??а ???? ?е 100 ?н ???? ??к. П???? Г???я ??? е???о
??????? ??ь ???а ЕС, то э?т ????? ?я ??н С????? ???ля? ??и 300 ?н ????
??к, ?и ??е 200 ?н ??. США.

Д??? ? э???е ???ля ? У??ны у ??? ЕС ?? ????о 1 я??я 1993 p., а ???л в ??
с 5 ?я 1993 p., ????у ?о ????? ?ло ????? в ?я? с ??я?? в ЕС ??х
????а^-????-??н-???? (Ф?ля??, Ш??и и А??ии). К?-?о ???е, 9 ?я?я 1995 г.
?о ???? ?? ????? ??????? ? ??? ? 1996 ? 1999 г. Д??? о ????х ???ля ????
т?? ????е ??н??ия ??а У???й ? ????ию ??н ЕС ????х ??в ???ля и ???.
С????т ???й ???? ? ??ю??? ?д?? ???в ? ?? (??). С??????о ???? У??? ?я??
???? э????е ????, а в ???р??х – ??ах ЕС ??? ????ся ?????ую?е ????е ????.
Для ?????и ?????? ???ля в ???ю ??? ???????е ??л?? ???? в ???? ???х ??.
С??????о ??? ???? ????ию 1993 г. ??х ?? ?? 33. К?? ??, ???я?? ?????е ?
?????ь ??в ????и. Н??я?е ????? о ???? ????? 28 ?? ? э???а и 13 ?????й ?
?????у в ??? ?т???в, ???е ???ают ? ЕС. С?????н? ??оя?? ????ию ????г??я
????? ??, ???? ???, ??????? ? 4,5 % ????. Со ??й ???ы, У??? ?????я ?
?????ь ???а ? ??и и ???я ??? и ? ???ь и???? ?? ? э? ?? ????и ? ?? ???
???ия ???о ?????? ????ия. А????? ????? ?? ????о и ? ???ях с ??оя??, э???
???х ? У??? у ??? ЕС ????н ??????? ? 200 ?с. т ? ?д.

П??????о ??е ???????ь ???????е ???ия?я в ??? ГАТТ ?????но ???? ??у У???й
и ЕС. Т?? ???м ?????я ???ия ?????? ряд ???????х ??й ?????? У???. В ?????
С?? ????в ЕС в 8 ??аях ??я? ???????е ?? ?????? У???. С??????о ????? ???у
Е????? ???? ? ???????й ???? ???????е ???ия?я ?? ??? ?????? 8 % ???
?????? ???? ?ж? У???й и ???? ЕС. П????е ???????х ???? ??т ????ь ?д ???
???лю ???? ?????; ???????е ???ия?я ? ??? ??аях ?о?е ??т ??????ь ????
????я.

В???? ????? ?????ся ? ??? ?я У??? ???ях Г????? ??? ? ???в и ???? (ГАТТ)
и ??ь ??ая ?я ?????я ??? ?????? ????, а ??е ?????о ??и??я, ???????ня
???ия ???в, ????и ?????? ??т и ????? ?? ??? ?????х ??????й ?????? ???я
???? ????, ????? ???в, ?т?? ????ют ???лю, ?ря?а ? ????ия и ?????е в ??,
а ??е ???????х и ???????х ???ия?й.

Д??е ???ия?я ря?м ? ??ья? об “????м ???”, о ???е ??а ??е ????? ??ы
?????? ??в ???ля и ???й с ??оя?? ?я ЕС ??е о?????е В???? ?????м.
С??????о ??оя?? С????ю У??? ??т ? ?бя ??й ряд ?я????в, ????? ?и ???? ?м,
?о ?а ??? ??т ?я? ? ?бя в ??? ????ия п?????м ??? к ГАТТ/СОТ. К ??у ??х
?я??л?? ?????т и ????? ??????? ????иям ЕС ??н?????а ?????? ??? ????????
??????и. Для ????ия ???????х ?т? в ?????? к ????иям ЕС ????? ?????ую?й
??н – С???ая ???ия, ?е и ??т ?? ???? ?е ???е ???ы, ???е ??ю?я ???я ????
????.

П????ия ЕС, ?о ????ся ? В?м??м ?????, ?????, ?сят ???????й ????. ЕС
????? ?е ?????и ?я ??, ??ы ????? ?? у ??? С????а ??х ???в, ?к ??и, ???я
???, ????я ??????й ???????, ???ря ? ??оя?? ?? ??са ? э? ???. П??? ??
?????, ?о У??? ??а ??? ?????ь ?о????ь ?????? ????х ?????й ? ?? ??х ???в
к ???м ЕС. В??е с ?м ????? ???ь, ?о ?????? ????, ?????е ? ??я??и ??, ?
??и ? ?????ся ?????? ? ???? э?? ???? ???в. Е?????, ?о в ??? ??? ?????й ?
??мы ??и ? ?????? о??? ????.

А??????ая ???? ЕС ???? ???я и ????ая, ?а ?е ??а ?? о???? в ????х
???????х ??х, п?ня?х У???й, и ????т ??? ??????м ?я ?????о э???а. В?? ??е
???ь, ?о ???????е ???и ?одя?я ?? в ?м ???, ?? ?????? ??? ?? ? ?????й
???????х ???.

В ?я? с ?м, ?о ?????ую ?с? э????? ????? У??? ????ляют ???? ?????я?????
?????ва, а ??е ???ая ???? ЕС ?????? э?й ??? ???в, ??о ???ь, ?о ?????ы
У??? ? ?????я????м ??е ??н ЕС ??ядят ???? ???????и. П?????? У??? ?
?????е ??и ?????я????х ???в ??ет ????м ??? в ??? ????ия в ?? в ??? ???
?????, ??я?х ? ??я У?????о ???.

П?? ????ия в ?? 1 ??а 1998 г. С????я о ?????е и ???????, ???????? ????и
– ?????и ????, ??оя?е ?л ?ж? ????ся ???? ???м, и Е??а, в ??е ???, ???т
?ою ??ь ?я У???.

Дальнейшее развитие отношений с ЕС нуждается в:

– разработки национальной концепции сотрудничества и интеграции Украины
в европейское экономическое пространство, которое должно предусматривать
мероприятия по развитию экспортного потенциала, формированию
благоприятного інвести-ційного климата, углублению производственной
кооперации;

– ????????? ?с?? ?лю??о ??????я э????-????х ???ий ????в ???э??????
?я?л???, ??? ? ???? ??????? ?н??ия ??а ???а;

– ?? ?????? ????х ??н ЕС, ???? ???і???? ????й, в ????и, ? ??и ЧЕС;

– ????????? ???ы ???????й в о??? ????я ?????? ??????, ?????е ?????
?????? к р??ию ря? ????? ???м ???ия ??п???о ?????.

Особого внимания заслуживает проблема открытости украинской экономики.
Не унижая значение открытости экономики как необходимой составляющей на
пути Украины к европейской интеграции, надо сознавать: открытость, как и
любое явление, включает не только конструктивные, но и деструктивные
элементы. Ускоренное открытие украинской экономики за ее сегодняшней
деформованості и кризисного состояния может привести к достаточно
серьезным следствиям.

Вообще следует учитывать, что мировое хозяйство, интернациональные рынки
– это область жестокой конкурентной борьбы, которая нуждается в
экономических силах, большом опыте, четкой организации. Ничего подобного
в Украине еще нет. Продлевается падение производства, уменьшается его
эффективность, отсутствующий необходимый предпринимательский опыт,
который дал бы возможность противостоять опытным западным и восточным
конкурентам.

В?р? ????я У???, ?к и лю?й ???, к ЕС – ??ь ???я ?????я ????. П??? ?с???я
Е?????о Сою? ??????? ?????и ?е ??ы ?о ?я????и, ?, ??? ??о, ?ия? ?
??????е ????? ???? Сою?. П?? ?в? ??? ?к ?и ??е ?я?н с ??????ью ????ия
???в ? ???ы ???? ???? ??н, и ????? ???в ??? ???? ????. Т?, ? ????и
???а?, ??м в Е??оюз ??н В???? Е??ы ??л ? ?у ??????? 66 ??. ??. ? ?д,
т.е. ???? ? ????ия бю??а ЕС ??е и ??з ? ??????ия ??? ?????? ????. По
д??м ???м, ?я ??? в ЕС ??х ч??в ??????о ?????я 150 ??. ??. на ?д, ???й
?? ?? ????? ????в.

Именно поэтому рядом с приверженцами расширения ЕС (Германия, Франция,
Италия) есть довольно сильная оппозиция этому процесса (Испания,
Португалия, Ирландия). Так, некоторые страны – члены ЕС грозятся
заблокировать процесс расширения, если им не предоставят гарантий
сохранения объемов нынешней финансовой помощи.

Не ?????я ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??у У???й и ???? Е?????о Сою?, ???т
о???ь, ?о ????ия в ?????е ???у? ? в ?? ??? ? ??? ???ч??ь ??ш?ия ? ????
СНГ и ???и ???? ??. Ч? ??е ???? и ????і?і?? ?? ???-э?????? ?язи, ?м, ??т
??е ??оя?? э???? и э?????ая ?????? ???.

И????я У??? в ??????е ????? ??????ся ?т??м ???????м с ??????? ?????я?,
???и ????, ???????? и ???? ????ия? ?????х ?????. П? э?м ????? ???ают
???? ????ия ?????? ?т??? и э?????? ?????? У???, ???е ??аю?я в ??м ???и,
а ?? ???ия и ????? ???а.

Особая роль в этом процессе принадлежит состоянию взаимоотношений
Украины с международными финансовыми организациями, в частности,
Международным валютным фондом. Мировым банком, Европейским банком
реконструкции и развития.

После провозглашения государственного суверенитета Украина стала на путь
радикальных экономических реформ. Тем не менее трансформационные
процессы в Украине с самого начала начали тормозиться глубоким системным
кризисом. Уже в первые года независимости Украина имела крайне
разбалансированную финансовую и денежную системы. За годы независимости
экономический кризис еще больше углублял, переплетаясь со структурной,
платежной и энергетическими кризисами. Инфляция приобрела свою
наиразрушительную форму – гиперинфляции.

Катастрофически возрастал внешний долг: за два года (1992- 1994) он
увеличился более чем вдвое. В тот же время валовой внутренний продукт
неуклонно сокращался: в 1992 и 1993 годах он сокращался на 17%, в 1994
году – на 23%, в следующие года ВВП каждый год сокращался приблизительно
на 10%. Начала возникать реальная угроза экономической безопасности
страны.

В этой ситуации Правительством Украины был осуществлен комплекс
мероприятий по получению Украиной финансовой помощи со стороны
международных финансовых организаций и других официальных кредиторов.

Использованная литература

1. Б????? Ю. Р??и ?і???????х ????в и ??о в ?х У??? // Э???? У??ны. –
2003. – №1. -с.70-75.

2. Б?? О.В. М?????? ??ж У???: ??й ? и ?м ??? // Т???. -2004. -№1-2.
-с.12.

3. Э?????ая ????: ???е ???е ?д ?д. Буя? И.В. -????ь: ТАНГ, 2000.

4. В??еэ??м???я ????. М??? ?зя??о // Р?????й ???. -2001. -№4. -с.46.

5. К??н??й К. И??????е ???? и ?р???ия ???э?????? ???? У??? в ?зя????м
????е // Ф????я ?????ия. – 2000. – №43. -с.13.

6. Л??н В. В??яя ???? У???: 2003-2004 // В?е. – 2004. – №2. -с.20-37.

1. П???ы э???ч??й ????? У??? в Е?о???й Союз: ??????? ???ы: М???? 4-ї
??????й ???й ?????и. 13-15 ??я?я 1999. -я?а. – 314 с.

Special strategy is demanded with the attituderelation of Ukraine with
the largest integration association in the Europe – the European Union.
It speaks that the image of the modern Europe basically is
defineddetermined by integration processes which unite 15 states in the
European community. Analogues of EU in the world does not exist. Behind
the status, functions and the rights the European Union differs from the
usual international organizations by that the states-members have
allocated with itshis legislative powers and executive authority
???????? character. And it appreciably exceeds the competence of other
international organizations.

Today the European Union enters a new stage of integration. There are
serious changes in directions of unification of tax systems,
rapproachement of legislations, the uniform currency – euro is entered.
In one numberline with economic there are political, social and
environmental problems, problems of human rights and problems of safety.
It is a question of creation in the nearest year not only economic and
currency, but also the political union of these countries. I.e., today
we observe ????????ь developments of the European Union, and together
with itthis is also increase of itshis role and a place in global
economy.

It is clear, that this association very attractive to Ukraine as young
European state. Therefore as one of the most actual tasks of Ukraine
acts ???????е membership in the European Union.

Directing the sights to the Europe, it is necessary to remember, that
integration of the country into economic is a consecutive solving of
problems which provide first of all national interests of the country as
a whole. This problem cannot be solved without taking into account
foreign policy interests and intraeconomic reference points. And only
after there will be precisely enough certain basic elements of national
external and internal economic policy, it will be possible to determine
scales of integration into the world economy.

When based on unity of economic and political interests of Ukraine
already made its real steps, it will be possible to speak about entirely
certain tendency of expansion and development of its integration into
the European structures.

Strategy of Ukraine lays in approach of the all-European structures two
parallel rates – directly and through membership in the Central European
establishments.

Under these conditions of special value there appears a problem of
debugging of relations with such international economic organizations
and groupings, as the European Union (EU), the European Bank of
Reconstruction and Development (ЄБРР), European Council (СЕ), Central
European Iitiative (ЦЕИ), the Organization for Safety and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE), the Economic Commission of the United Nations Europe, the
International Currency Fund (IMF), the World Bank (СБ).

Integration into the European Union will accelerate and will improve
process of economic transformation in Ukraine which obviously was
covered, and membership in EU will bring not only significant economic
gains, but also will positively influence safety of the country.

In relations of with EU Ukraine hopes on:

– Consecutive support from EU and its countries-members in a question of
connection of Ukraine to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;

– The decision of questions concerning connection of Ukraine to separate
European programs, particularly in the field of power, transport,
science and technical equipment, preservation of the environment,
education, etc.;

– Maintenance of not discriminative access of the basic goods of export
of Ukraine to the markets of EU;

– Activization of the financial and technical help of the EU countries
to Ukraine and etc.

Let’s examine chances of Ukraine in a context of its integration into
structures of the European Union.

Participants of the processes stipulated by the further development of
EU, become the countries which economy of which answer precisely certain
criteria. Candidates for members of EU should meet the common
requirements accepted by the European Council in June, 1993 in
Copenhagen. Each country which wishes to be accepted should finish
ability to protect democracy and the law, realization of guarantees of
human rights, protection of minorities. Besides presence of functioning
market economy, and also ability to sustain pressure of the market
forces inside of the union is obligatory. Membership demands from the
candidate also to accept all obligations which follow from participation
not only in economic, but also the currency and political union.

Today in Ukraine there is a crisis phenomena in national economy,
absence of legal base brake its promotion on the way to market reforms.
Behind present economic parameters Ukraine does not answer criteria of
the European Union. We should still long try to approach West-European
economic, political and social standards. But political factors in
definition of prospects of the European integration will play today much
more important role, than economic. And this should be an advantage, as
it was made in due time by economically weak Bulgaria and Romania which
have begun integration “around” – political by.

Anyway Ukraine has real prospects of development of relations with the
European Union. Our country the first among former republics USSR that
accepted the Agreement from EU about partnership and cooperation in
March, 1994. And since March, 1st, 1998 the true agreement has got
force. The agreement covers three spheres of interaction – political
dialogue, economic and cultural cooperation.

Basic value of the true Agreement for Ukraine – a deepening of
integration with the European and transatlantic structures. Through the
European market we can receive the newest technologies by means of which
we shall producemake production,

Competitive in the markets of the Europe, Asia, the CIS countries. It is
necessary to consider, that the European market is from above 500
million potential consumers which have high solvency and where probably
to find a niche for the Ukrainian commodity producers. An example can
become the countries – former members the ROAR which for last 10 years
could reorient the economy on close cooperation with EU.

On performance of the true Agreement by the Decree of the President of
Ukraine from June, 11th, 1998 Strategy of integration of Ukraine to the
European Union has been approved. This strategy defines the basic
directions of cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and the
basic priorities of activity of enforcement authorities for the period
till 2007 during which the preconditions necessary for finding by
Ukraine of a full membership in the European Union should be created.

Strategy of integration of Ukraine to EU should provide ocurrence of the
state to European political, economic both legal space and reception on
this basis of the status of the associated member of EU that is the main
externally-political priority of Ukraine in intermediate term
measurement.

During integration of Ukraine into economic space of the European Union
there is a requirement of the decision of some specific targets ”
towards to the Europe “. The politician promotion of Ukrainian goods on
European market is the first question.

Among the basic directions of integration process – economic integration
and development of trade relations between Ukraine and EU. In economic
cooperation the Agreement definesdetermines the broad audience of
spheres for cooperation between the European Union and Ukraine. The
purpose of itthis is support of process of economic reforms and
restoration and constant development of the Ukrainian economy. For these
purposes the Agreement definesdetermines 28 areas in which the European
Union and Ukraine wish to increase and expand the cooperation, among
which the industry, protection and encouragements of investments,
???????? and the raw industry, a science and technicstechnical equipment
and т.п..

Cooperation has already begun. So, for example, in sphere of economy the
European expertsauditeurs work with the Ukrainian colleagues on transfer
of a know-how to sphere of management of the companies and industrial
and agricultural technology. In the field of a science and
formationeducation the exchange scientific workers, teachers and
students is organized and the generalcommon projects take root.
Cooperation in areas of management develops in such spheres as customs
business and struggle against criminality, is spent an exchange of
documents between a managementmanual in such technical spheres as
standardization and statistics. The significant sums of financial grants
are allocated for improvement of nuclear safety and on the decision of
the problems connected with consequencesinvestigations of Chernobyl
failureaccident.

But still much can be made. Advicecouncil from cooperation fulfils
recommendations concerning the further development of cooperation in all
these spheres. The European Union and Ukraine have agreed, that the
special attention will be given to those actions which can assist
cooperation of Ukraine with the next states.

The European Union and itshis states-members will play a significant
role in granting the financial and technical help to Ukraine. The
European Union is the main international donor of Ukraine which for the
period of 1991-1997 has given to the help for a total sum 4061 million
экю in the form of the technical help, export credits, loans and ?????
the help. On itshis share it is necessary third of total amount of
direct foreign investments. EU acts as the trading partner of Ukraine
second behind size which is advanced only by Russia.

Significant event in attitudesrelations of Ukraine with the European
Union became acceptance of the generalcommon strategy of the European
Union concerning Ukraine which took place on next ??і? EU on December,
11th, 1999 in Helsinki. The accepted strategy of EU concerning Ukraine –
the document which expands frameworks of the Agreement on partnership
and cooperation of both partiessides, ????ім in the field of foreign
policy and safety, justice, internal affairs. Itshe acts as the new tool
of attitudesrelations between Ukraine and EU.

The document definesdetermines such strategic purposes of the European
Union concerning Ukraine:

– To assist creation in Ukraine to the stable and open democracy with
leadership of the law and creation of conditions over normal functioning
market economy in interests of people;

– To cooperate with Ukraine in business of maintenance of stability and
safety in the Europe and in ???у the world;

– To strengthen economic, political and cultural cooperation with
Ukraine, cooperation in the field of justice and internal affairs.

In strategy of EU the certain potential to development of this document,
therefore the strategy of EU, in case of itsher realization is
incorporated, can give a push to essentially new quality of
attitudesrelations of Ukraine and EU.

Behind the essence strategy is the internal document of EU which beats
off vision by the European Union of itshis attitudesrelations with
Ukraine. It is obvious, that the European Union does not hastenhurry
brothers on obligation to open a door before Ukraine, at the same time
once again confirms, that considersexamines Ukraine as the state which
has made the European choice and congratulates the Ukrainian intentions
to join the Europe. Thus, about а??????? membership of Ukraine in EU
meanwhile it is not spoken in general.

Besides it is necessary to understand, that the policypolitics of the
European Union today in many respects is defineddetermined by
strengtheningamplification of problems of safety which are caused by
political instability on the European continent, existing and potential
regional conflicts. Therefore under these conditions entirely natural
interest of EU to Ukraine has mostly political character, and the
Ukraine is consideredexamined, first of all, as strategic jumping-off
place on the European continent.

On a way of Ukraine to the European Union there are certain problems.
So, the European Commission and the World bank have lead in Bruxelles
conference of the countries-donors and the international organizations
(total amount – more than 20), that take partparticipate in cooperation
with Ukraine. Critically having estimatedappreciated a situation in the
country and the politicianpolicy;politics of macroeconomic stabilization
which ither spends the government, participants of conference have
confirmed the readiness to continue the financial help to Ukraine, but
under condition of, which itsher managementmanual will incur obligations
to carry out the intermediate term program of reforms in the field of
the government, power, budgetary and a tax policy, development of a
private sector, reorganization of systems of social security and public
health services.

It testifies to desire of eurostructures to supervise an economic
situation in Ukraine, to impose to us the vision of problems and ways of
their decision. But it does not mean, that we should refuse integration
up to the European Union. Economic cooperation between Ukraine and the
European Union typescollects turnsturnovers, and it is necessary to
supportmaintain and develop this tendency. In the same time should be
understood, that together from positive, possibleprobable and negative
consequencesinvestigations of ocurrence in EU. Therefore the national
concept of cooperation with the union requires carrying out of the
additional analysis.

Trading opportunities and difficulties which exist between Ukraine and
EU, consist in discrepancy to requirements of the Agreement on
partnership and cooperation which is paraphed on March, 23rd, 1994 by
both partiessides. The agreement has come into force since March, 1st,
1998 During to coming into force of the given agreement there was only a
Temporal agreement on trade concerning, connected with trade, in that
kind in which itshe has been accepted by Ministerial council of EU on
December, 4th, 1995 This temporal agreement has come into force
regarding which concernstouches questions of trade.

Elements of the temporal agreement. According to the agreement on trade
between EU and Ukraine it is put into operation such positions:

– A mode of the greatest assistance between the partiessides –
participants of the contract as it is certain in item 1 of the General
agreement under tariffs and trade. Nevertheless till December, 31st 1998
p., or from the moment of connection of Ukraine to COT itshe has the
right to use a mode more favorable in trade with the CIS countries, than
it is stipulated by the agreement between Ukraine and EU;

– The goods which are imported from other country under the arrangement,
are consideredexamined as the national goods concerning application of
all kinds of internal taxes;

– Treaty provisions of some clausesarticles ГАТТ concerning the goods
from other countries with which there is an arrangement are applied:

* the order customs ????ия according to item 7;

* a level of assembly for granting of licenses and registration (item
8);

* the obligation in due time to publish all acts and decisions which
concerntouch trade, to not apply any trading certificatesacts of return
action, less effective, than contractual conditions which have come into
force before acceptance of new decisions, an opportunity of judicial
viewing of the actions connected with customs questions (item 10);

– The focused prices in trade between the contractual partiessides are
applied market;

– The right to apply antidumping or compensatory actions by rules ГАТТ
concerning trade with the third countries;

– Before to start to operatework, it is necessary to putapply forces for
achievement of constructive decisions;

– The right to take a measure for protection of health of citizens, a
public order and culture (these actions should not be abused with the
protectionist purpose);

– Special agreements accepted concerning trade in textiles and clothes,
on trade in products about constants that fall under the European
agreement of coal and constants, about trade in nuclear materials;

– All calculations which concerntouch trade between the partiessides –
with participants of the contract, can be spent in freely converted
currency;

– The contractual partiessides agree to putapply all forces that between
trading partiessides the fair competition dominated.

Besides the certain actions against restriction of a competition are
establishedinstalled and used; payment of grants for manufacture of the
goods, except for raw material, or for granting services which lift a
competition in trade between the contractual partiessides avoid; in case
of inquiry of the partyside inform one one on system of subsidizing or
about the specific guaranteed grants; the partiessides agree concerning
monopoly of the state trade and concerning maintenance of liquidation
during three years after signing the given agreement of discrimination
of citizens of the contractual partiessides; during three years after
coming into force of the presenttrue agreement concerning the public
enterprises which have exclusive rights, the guarantee of non-use of any
actions or restrictions which lift a competition is provided or damage
to the opposite contractual partyside; Time of action of the contract
which is mentioned in the previous paragraphs, can be continued under
the consent of the partiessides.

Consultations concerning rules of a free competition and their
infringements can be spent also. The rights from the use of actions
against restrictions of a competition which contradict ГАТТ are kept
all. Ukraine undertakes to improve conditions of observance of the
contract on protection of intellectual property so that after the
expiration of five years’ term to reachachieve a level of protection of
these rights which exists in the European Union.

The special report which increases to the Agreement, contains
itemspoints concerning mutual aid in carrying out of customs actions by
competent bodies of the countries which agree. According to the
presenttrue contract to Ukraine the mode of the greatest assistance is
guaranteed. Nevertheless EU distributes the majority of the privileges
given according to the GeneralCommon system ?????й (reduced rates) for
the countries which develop to Ukraine. According to this system of
privileges Ukraine can export at the EU country semifinished items and
Gotha the industrial goods, except for products about constants, under
the lowered tariff rates or in general without the taxation on import;
similar privileges are given and for agricultural production (more than
400 names). During 1993 only in Germany such privileges for import of
the various goods it has been given for the sum more than 20 million DM.
In 1995 this figure has reachedachieved already 100 million DM. As
Germany imports annually approximately third of import of EU this
parameter for the countries of Commonwealth makes almost 300 million DM,
or near 200 million US dollar.

The contract about export of textiles from Ukraine at the EU country it
has been signed on January, 1st 1993 p., and has come into force since
May, 5th 1993 p. as ithe was necessary for finishing in connection with
acceptance in EU of ^-participants-countries-participants new the
participant (Finland, Sweden and Austria). Something later, on November,
9th, 1995 itshis action has been continued accordingly for the period
from 1996 on 1999 the Contract about deliveries of textiles contains
also some restrictions of import by Ukraine on territory of the EU
countries of some kinds of textiles and clothes. There is a double
control over observance of annual limits on import (quotas). According
to the contract Ukraine is obliged to give out export licenses, and in
the states – members of EU correspondingmeeting import licenses should
stand out. For processing the European textiles in ready-to-wear clothes
the stipulated separate deliveries within the limits of annual quotas.
According to the first to annual agreement 1993 of such quotas was 33.
Besides were applied restriction on sixteen kinds of production. The
presenttrue agreement on textiles ????? 28 quotas from export and 13
restrictions on processing in clothes of materials which act from EU.
According to the presenttrue agreement the increase in quotas, according
to demand, approximately on 4,5 % annually is supposed. From its part,
Ukraine agrees to not increase the dutytax by fabrics and ready-to-wear
clothes and to not enter import quotas on these kinds of production for
all period of action of the given textile agreement. The similar
agreement has been signed and about products about constants, which
export from Ukraine at the EU country is limited approximately up to 200
thousand т for a year.

Preliminary also antidumping actions within the limits of ГАТТ
concerning trade between Ukraine and EU were consideredexamined. Thus
the European commission initiated a numberline of antidumping
actionsshares concerning Ukraine. As a result Ministerial council of EU
in 8 cases has taken antidumping measures concerning Ukraine. According
to the annual report of the European commission on the antidumping
policypolitics antidumping actions it has been begun concerning 8 % of
volume of bilateral trade between Ukraine and the EU countries. Carrying
out of antidumping procedures can call into question trade in ready
products; antidumping actions in many cases in general can suspend trade
relations.

The temporal agreement is based on the important conditions for Ukraine
the General transaction from tariffs and trade (ГАТТ) and very important
for maintenance of bilateral trade, and also customs ????ия, ???????ня
movements of the goods, costs of license privileges and performance of
all other necessary formalities concerning conducting trading
operations, publications of laws which adjustregulate trade, the order
of their application and the appeal in court, and also antidumping and
compensatory actions.

Other actions by a numberline with clausesarticles about ”
possibleprobable refusal “, about an interdiction of import over the
allocated quota of the certain kinds of textiles and products about
constants for EU also certain by the Temporal agreement. According to
the presenttrue Agreement Ukraine incurs a lot of the obligations
identical or similar that itshe should incur in case of the introduction
the full member to ГАТТ/СОТ. To number of such obligations reduction
requirements of EU of the legislation concerning protection of
intellectual property belongs also. For reduction of acts conformity to
requirements of EU there is a correspondingmeeting body – the Mixed
commission where there can be questions at issue solved all which
concerntouch conducting trading operations.

Offers of EU that contain in the Temporal agreement, undoubtedly, have
restrictive character. EU uses all opportunities to limit import at the
country of Community of such goods, as fabrics, ready-to-wear clothes,
production of a steel industry, despite of constant growth of demand for
this goods. The last experience shows, that Ukraine could only try to
protest concerning some restrictions on import of the goods to the EU
countries. At the same time it is necessary to specify, that the
bilateral checks lead during year, should be designated negatively on
trade in these groups of the goods. It is natural, that in case of a
cancelling of restrictions itsher volumes could significally ????.

The antidumping policypolitics of EU complexdifficult enough and
labour-consuming, itshe has already found the reflection in some acts
accepted by Ukraine, and acts as the powerful terminator for the
Ukrainian export. It is important to specify also, that antidumping
sanctions are entered even in the event that raisedexcited only one of
parameters of antidumping rules.

In connection with that the significant part of an export potential of
Ukraine is represented with products of an agricultural production, and
also considering a policypolitics of EU concerning this group of the
goods, it is possible to tell, that prospects of Ukraine in the
agricultural market of the EU countries lookappear pessimistically
enough. Penetration of Ukraine on the European markets of the
agricultural goods becomes possibleprobable only in case of coming into
force in full the agreements accepted during the Uruguayan round.

After coming into force on March, 1st, 1998 Agreements on partnership
and the cooperation, ratified by the partiessides – participants of the
contract, the state of affairs can change radically, and the Europe,
eventually, will open the door for Ukraine.

The further development of attitudesrelations from EU requires in:

– Development of the national concept of cooperation and integration of
Ukraine into the European economic space which should provide actions on
development of an export potential, to formation favorable і???-???о a
climate, to a deepening of industrial cooperation;

– Improvement of system of currency regulation of export-import
transactions of subjects of foreign trade activities, refusal of
policypolitics of artificial understating a dollar exchange rate;

– The account of features of the separate EU countries, development
???і???? attitudesrelations, in particular, on line ЧЕС;

– Improvement of system of mutual relations in the field of improvement
of professional skill of experts, attraction of the Ukrainian experts to
the decision of some actual problems of development of the European
continent.

The special attention is deserved with a problem of an openness of the
Ukrainian economy. Not humiliating value of an openness of economy as a
necessary component on a way of Ukraine to the European integration, it
is necessary to understand: the openness, as well as any phenomenon,
includes not only constructive, but also destructive elements. The
accelerated opening of the Ukrainian economy for itsher today’s ???????
and a crisis condition can lead to serious enough
consequencesinvestigations.

In general it is necessary to consider, that the world economy, the
international markets are an area of severe competitive struggle which
requires economic forces, wide experience, the precise organization.
Anything similar in Ukraine still is not present. Falling manufacture is
prolonged, itshis efficiency, absent necessary enterprise experience
which would enable to resist to skilled western and east competitors
decreases.

Question of ocurrence of Ukraine, as well as any country, to EU – very
complexdifficult complex problem. Process of expansion of the European
Union transforms practically all spheres of itshis activity, but, first
of all, influences distribution of internal resources of the Union.
Reception of new members is anyhow connected with necessity of increase
in payments from the most developed countries, and reduction of volumes
of the help by the least developed. So, behind the western calculations,
reception in the European Union of the countries of the East Europe
would cost to ithim approximately 66 billion dollars for a year, i.e.
would demand increase in the budget of EU twice and refusal of financing
many priority projects. By other estimations, for reception in EU of new
members 150 billion dollars for a year, which above all previous
forecasts in addition is required.

For this reason near to adherents of expansion of EU (Germany, France,
Italy) is strong enough opposition to itthis of process (Spain,
Portugal, Ireland). So, some countries – members of EU are threatened to
block process of expansion if to them will not give guarantees of
preservation of volumes of the present financial help.

Not underestimating value concerning the generalcommon future between
Ukraine and the countries of the European Union, it is necessary to
note, that integration into the European structures should not limit the
attituderelation with the CIS countries at all and other countries of
the world. The wider and ????і?і?? is externally-economic relations,
the, there will be more constant an economy and economic safety of the
country.

Integration of Ukraine into the international community is accompanied
by active cooperation with the international organizations, other
countries, the state and privateindividual establishments of the foreign
states. Thus by all means there are problems of preservation of national
interests and economic safety of Ukraine which require the decision, and
so attention and the detailed analysis.

The special role in this process belongs to a condition of mutual
relations of Ukraine with the international financial organizations, in
particular, the International currency fund. Worldglobal bank, the
European bank of reconstruction and development.

After declaration of the state sovereignty Ukraine has followed the road
of radical economic reforms. Nevertheless ????????е processes in Ukraine
have from the very beginning started to be braked by deep system crisis.
Already in the independence first year Ukraine had the extremely
debalanced financial and monetary systems. For years of independence the
economic crisis deepened even more, interwining with structural, payment
and energy crisises. Inflation has got the ????????ю the form –
hyperinflations.

Catastrophically the external dutydebt increased: for two years (1992
1994) it has increased more than twice. In the same time the total
internal product was steadily reduced: in 1992 and 1993 ithe was reduced
to 17 %, in 1994 – on 23 %, in the following of year of gross national
product every year was reduced approximately to 10 %. Real threat of
economic safety of the country has started to arise.

In this situation the Government of Ukraine had been carried out a
complex of actions on reception of the financial help by Ukraine from
the international financial organizations and other official creditors.

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019