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Основные особенности вариантов английского языка

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NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea

1. Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea

1.1 Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai
ycuea

1.2 Iniiaiua eaene/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai
ycuea

2.Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea

2.1 Iniiaiua a?aiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea

2.2 Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa

aiaeeeneiai ycuea

3.Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe iiaicaeaiaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea

3.1 iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe iiaicaeaiaeneiai aa?eaioa

aiaeeeneiai ycuea

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiea

3

AAAAeAIEA

Auai? oaiu aeeieiiiie ?aaiou i?aaeii?aaeaeai oai aieiaieai, eioi?ia
oaeaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeaia ycueiaie aa?eaoeaiinoe. Ia niaio
oi?iuaiiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth i ycuea eae aaeeiiio iiiieeoiiio
ia?aciaaieth i?eoei iiieiaiea aaoa?iaaiiinoe ycueiaie no?oeoo?u,
iaoneiaeaiiie eeiaaenoe/aneeie e yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie.

Iaaeinoaoi/iay eco/aiiinoue eae aioo?eno?oeoo?iie aa?eaoeaiinoe
(ionoonoaea eciii?oecia iaaeaeo ieaiii niaea?aeaiey e ieaiii
au?aaeaiey), oae e aa?eaoeaiinoe, naycaiiie n aeaenoaeai aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia e i?iyaeythuaeny a iiiaiia?acee oi?i nouanoaiaaiey ycuea, aai
nioeeaeueiie e oa??eoi?eaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, i?eciaaony
ioa/anoaaiiuie e ca?oaaaeiuie eeiaaenoaie.

Ia iniaie aeooaeueiinoe i?iaeaiu aa?eaoeaiinoe ycuea, aucaaiiie
nioeeaeueiuie, ooieoeeiiaeueiuie e oa??eoi?eaeueiuie oaeoi?aie,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oeaeue ?yae ?aaio a ioa/anoaaiiii e ca?oaaaeiii
ycueiciaiee (A.A. Aae, A.E. Aeiiaoiaa, A.I. AEe?ioineee, E.E. Iaethaei,
A.A. I?eia, A.A. Iuaieiaa, E.A. Iiiiaa, I.A. Naiaiaoe, I.I. Naiaithe,
A.E. Nie?ieoeeee, A.A. Noaiaiia, A.Ae. Oiiaoei, A.E. *a?aaeie/aiei,
A.Ae. Oaaeoea?, A.I. ss?oeaaa, R. Bailey, D. Crystal, W. Labov, G.
Turner). Eioa?an e aii?inai aa?eaoeaiinoe aiaeeeneiai ycuea iauyniyaony
iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth e neiaeiinoueth aai ninoaaa, iniaaiiinoyie aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a ?acee/iuo ycueiauo neooaoeeyo e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
a?aaeao.

Aiaeiycu/iue a?aae eae iauaeo eeiaaenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeaiu
aa?eaoeaiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eneeth/eoaeueiia yaeaiea. Aiaeeeneee
ycue yaeyaony ioeoeeaeueiui ycueii iiiaeo ainoaea?noa, n?aaee eioi?uo
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, NOA, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey. Ia
eneeth/eoaeueii oe?ieii ?ani?ino?aiaiee aiaeeeneiai ycuea aiai?yo oaeea
oeeo?u: i?eia?ii 1,6 ieeeea?aea ethaeae, o.a. ii/oe iaeia o?aoue
ianaeaiey anaai caiiiai oa?a aiai?eo ia aiaeeeneii ycuea, oioy
aiaeeeneee ycue yaeyaony ?iaeiui ycueii oieueei aeey 380 ieeeeiiia
ethaeae. Eiaiii ia yoii ycuea ecaeaaony aieueoay /anoue eiea, aeo?iaeia,
aacao. Aia?eeaineia ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea, iniaaiii aeieaanoa?u
niinianoaotho ?ani?ino?aiaieth ia oieueei aia?eeaineie eoeueoo?u, ii e
ycuea. Niaeanii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui aieaa 80% niaea?aeaiey eioa?iaoa
– ia aiaeeeneii ycuea, oioy 44% iieueciaaoaeae aiai?yo ia ae?oaii ycuea
[28].O?oaeii noaeeoue i iieiaeeoaeueiuo eee io?eoeaoaeueiuo iiiaioao
aeiaaeecaoeee aiaeeeneiai ycuea, ii iaeuecy ia niaeaneoueny n oai, /oi a
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa aua ie iaeei ycue ia aue ianoieueei ?ani?ino?aiai e
iiioey?ai.

Ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua eeiaaenou, ?aaioathuea a iaeanoe aiaeeeneie
aa?eaioieiaee, caieiathony oaeeie i?iaeaiaie, eae aicieeiiaaiea noiaenoa
e ?acee/ee iaaeaeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuie aa?eaioaie ia ?acee/iuo ycueiauo
o?iaiyo, acaeiiaeeyiea aa?eaioia, iniaaiiinoe eeiaaenoe/aneie neooaoeee
a aiaeiaiai?yueo no?aiao. ?yae enneaaeiaaiee aue iinayuai iniaaiiinoyi
ioaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aa?eaioia. Oae, a ?aaioao A.Ae. Oaaeoea?a
aue i?iaeaeai aeoaieee e ananoi?iiiee aiaeec oiiaoe/aneeo, eaene/aneeo e
a?aiiaoe/aneeo /a?o, niaoeeoe/iuo aeey aia?eeaineiai aiaeeeneiai,
au?aaioaiu iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao e iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai auee iieiaeaiu a iniiao eco/aiey iniaaiiinoae aiaeeeneiai
ycuea e a ae?oaeo a?aaeao.

Eaaeaeue oa??eoi?eaeueiue aa?eaio yaeyaony ia oieueei i?ino?ainoaaiiie
i?iaeoeeae ycuea, a oaeaea i?iaeoeeae nioeeaeueiie, eoeueoo?iie e
enoi?e/aneie. Iiyoiio i?aaeeueiay ioeaiea anao yoeo oaeoi?ia iiaeao
i?ieeoue naao ia neiaeiinoue e naiiauoiinoue eeiaaenoe/aneie neooaoeee a
Iiaie Caeaiaeee e a Eaiaaea, aaea i?ienoiaeeo niaoaiea aeaoo ?acee/iuo
ycueiauo nenoai. Niaoaiea ycueia «yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii ycueiauo
eciaiaiee» e i?iyaeyaony a «noieeiiaaiee aeaoo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii» [17].

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth ycuea yaeyaony aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a ycueiaii
iauanoaa a oneiaeyo aeeeiaaecia, eioi?ue yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iniaie
eeiaaenoe/aneie neooaoeee a Iiaie Caeaiaeee, Eaiaaea e Aano?aeee. Aai
*aeeiei ni?aaaaeeeai ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue –
i?iaeoeo ycueiaiai eiioaeoa [1]. Aiaeey au?inea e ie?aiea, auoea ia
aieueoie ?uiie iiae iacaaieai «aeiaaeueiay aea?aaiy», eciaiea e ?uiie, e
naie ycue. I/ooeaoenue a iiauo, iaciaeiiuo eiioaenoao – yeieiae/aneii,
eoeueoo?iii, eeiaaenoe/aneii, – ycue ia/ae i?eia?aoaoue eiua /a?ou.
Aa?eaiou aiaeeeneiai, ia eioi?uo aiai?yo a no?aiao, aaea aiaeeeneee ycue
eiaao noaoon ioeoeeaeueiiai e aaea aiaeeeneei ycueii aeaaeatho eae
aoi?ui, iacuaathony «iiauie aa?eaioaie aiaeeeneiai ycuea» [31].

Oeaeue aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey:

1) ?anniio?aiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aa?uee?iaaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea a
Iiaie Caeaiaeee, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeee, n o/aoii nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneeo e
yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia;

2) oeacaoue iniaaiiinoe iiaicaeaiaeneiai, aano?aeeeneiai, eaiaaeneiai e
eiaeeeneiai aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea;

A niioaaonoaee n yoie oeaeueth iniiaiuie caaea/aie ?aaiou
yaeythony:

1) aiaeec e iienaiea iieeiaoeeiiaeueiuo aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea;

2) naeaeaoue iiiuoeo aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue iiiyoey «?aciiaeaeiinoue» e
«aa?eaio» aiaeeeneiai ycuea;

3) eco/aiea iniiaiuo i?iaeai caeinoaiaaiee eiiycu/iiai yeaiaioa;Iauai
i?iaiaeece?iaaiiiai iaoa?eaea ninoaaee aieaa 500 no?aieoe.

Oaeaea auee eniieueciaaiu yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea, eeiaaino?aiiaaae/aneea,
oieeiaua e enoi?e/aneea neiaa?e ii Iiaie Caeaiaeee, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeee,.

Iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony oeaeyie e caaea/aie ?aaiou.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiuo auoa caaea/ a aeeieiiiie ?aaioa
eniieuecoaony eiiieaeniue iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey. Ii aeeth/aao
iienaoaeueiue, enoi?eei-n?aaieoaeueiue e o?iiieiae/aneee iaoiaeu, a
oaeaea ?acee/iua i?eaiu aiaeeca a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo caaea/
eaaeaeie /anoe ?aaiou: eeanneoeeaoeey, yeaiaiou naiaioe/aneiai e
noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey eiatho oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.
A oai?aoe/aneii ieaia aeeieiiiay aiineo aeeaae a eco/aiea
oa??eoi?eaeueiie aa?eaoeaiinoe e oeiieiaee ycueiauo ninoiyiee,
aeiiieiyao nouanoaothuea a eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a naaaeaiey
ioiineoaeueii iauaaiaeeeneiai ycuea e aai ?acee/eoaeueiuo /a?o, auyaeyao
caeiiiia?iinoe e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iiaicaeaiaeneiai, eaiaaeneiai,
aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

I?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue aeeieiiiie caeeth/aaony a aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey auaiaeia e oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea enneaaeiaaiey a
i?aiiaeaaaiee eaeneeieiaee, no?aiiaaaeaiey, oeiieiaee ycueia, a
niaoeeo?nao ii ycueiaui eiioaeoai e ?aaeiiaeueiie aa?eaoeaiinoe.

No?oeoo?a ?aaiou ii?aaeaeyaony iinoaaeaiiuie a iae enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie
caaea/aie. Aeeieiiiay ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, /aou?ao aeaa, caeeth/aiey, e
nienea eeoa?aoo?u e neiaa?ae. Ai aaaaeaiee ?ane?uaaaony aeooaeueiinoue
oaiu, ii?aaeaeythony oeaee e caaea/e ?aaiou, iienuaaaony iaoa?eae e
iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey, iainiiauaaaony oai?aoe/aneay e i?aeoe/aneay
oeaiiinoue aeeieiiiie.

A ia?aie, aoi?ie e o?aoueae aeaaao eceaaathony iniiaiua enoiaeiua
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey e iiiyoey, eanathueany aa?eaoeaiinoe ycuea,
ycueiaiai ieaie?iaaiey e iniaaiiinoae ycueiaie neooaoeee e ycueiauo
ioiioaiee a Iiaie Caeaiaeee, Eaiaaea e Aano?aeee.

A caeeth/aiee niaea?aeaony iniiaiua auaiaeu, naeaeaiiua a ?acoeueoaoa
aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey e oi?ie?othony iaeioi?ua iai?aaeaiey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eaeae aeaiiie aeenna?oaoeee.

1. Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Aiaeeeneee ycue, yaeythueeny, ia?yaeo n o?aioeocneei, ioeoeeaeueiui
ycueii Eaiaaeu, n naiiai ia/aea i?aaenoaaeye niaie aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia
yaeaiea. A ioee/ea io o?aieieaiaaeoeaa, aiaeiycu/iia iauanoai
neeaaeuaaeinue a iinoiyiiii ananoi?iiiai eiioaeoa e eiiea?aoeee ni
noi?iiu enoi?e/aneie ?iaeeiu -Aaeeeia?eoaiee e aiaeiycu/iuo NOA. Iaaeaeo
oai, iniiaie aiaeieaiaaeneie iaoeee a eiioea 19 aaea noaee «eiyeenou»,
eiiea?e?iaaaoea ec NOA, eioi?ua ai a?aiy aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue
Naaa?iie Aia?eee inoaeenue i?aaeaiiuie a?eoaineie a?iee, a iinea a?
ii?aaeaiey canaeeee naiaiaeiua oa??eoi?ee a inoaaoaeny ca A?eoaineie
eiia?eae Eaiaaea. Eo aeeyiea ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aiaeeeneiai ycuea a
Eaiaaea, ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo o/?iuo, ieacaeinue ia?ainoaiaiiui. A yoio
aea ia?eiae oaaee/eaaeinue /enei eiiea?aioia ec Aiaeee, E?eaiaeee,
Oioeaiaeee, eioi?ua aiai?eee ia ?acee/iuo a?eoaineeo aeeaeaeoao, /oi
inoaaeei ioia/aoie ia eaiaaeneii aiaeeeneii [Iiiiaa E.A. 1978, 75].
Oaeei ia?acii, a neeo niaoaiey aeaoo iioieia eiiea?aoeee a ?a/ue
aeeoaeae Eaiaaeu i?iieeaao iaiaei ?acee/eoaeueiuo yeaiaioia ?aciuo
aeeaeaeoia aiaeeeneiai ycuea, ia eioi?uo aiai?eee, n iaeiie noi?iiu –
eiyeenou – a iniiaiii, aeeoaee naaa?iuo ?aeiiia NOA, i?eeaaathueo e
eaiaaeneie a?aieoea, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiiea?aiou ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee.
Aeaeueiaeoay enoi?ey ?acaeoey Eaiaaeu iieacuaaao, /oi, ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi Eaiaaea inoaaaeanue n 1867 a. aeiieieiiii Aaeeeia?eoaiee, iia
iaoiaeeeanue, i?aaeaea anaai, iiae iieeoe/aneei e yeiiiie/aneei aeeyieai
NOA. I?eieiay ai aieiaiea iniaaiiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?annaeaiey, a
oaeaea oaeoi?u iieeoe/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
oa?aeoa?a, i?aeoe/anee ana o/?iua – enneaaeiaaoaee Eaiaaeu –
i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey, /oi ii naiae oiiaoeea, eaeneea e i?oia?aoee
eaiaaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo a?eoaineei («ienoi?aeneei») e aia?eeaineei.Ii a iniiaiii
i?aiaeaaeaao oei i?ieciioaiey, iacuaaaiue General American. Oa??eoi?ey
?ani?ino?aiaiey eaiaaeneiai aiaeeeneiai iauyaeyaony «ciiie, a eioi?ie
iao /?oeie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, aaea ne?aueaathony iniaaiiinoe aa?eaioia»
[A?icaeiae/ Ae. 1967,17]. Aieaa eiae/iie e oaaaeeoaeueiie
i?aaenoaaeyaony oi/ea c?aiey oaaaeneiai aa?iaienoa N.-A. Aiaea?naia.
Aiai?y i oii, /oi aeaeaei ia anaaaea niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou
iaoeeiiaeueii-iaaiiiaaiiuo ycueia i?iyaeythony aeinoaoi/ii ?aeueaoii,
aaoi? iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi «eiaaony oeaeay oeaea oaeeo aiciiaeiinoae,
iaeei eiiaoe eioi?ie ?aaai ii/oe ioeth, o. a. iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
?aciiaeaeiinoyie iaeiiai ycuea ii/oe iao ieeaeeo ?acee/ee, a ae?oaie
eiiaoe yoie oeaeu iaicia/aao iaee/ea aiieia noi?ie?iaaaoeony
iaoeeiiaeueii niaoeeoe/aneeo aa?eaioia eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea» [Andersson
1983, 259 oeeo. ii [Aeiiaoiaa A.E. 2000, 297]]. A yoii neo/aa,
eaiaaeneee aiaeeeneee iiaeii iiianoeoue a ia/aei oaeie «oeaeu», oiaaea
eae a?eoaineay e aia?eeaineay ?aciiaeaeiinoe ieaaeoony ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiii eiioea «oeaeu» ii noaiaie eioaineaiinoe ?acaeoey a ieo
niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o. A naaoa auoaeceiaeaiiiai, aiaeeeneee, eioi?ui
iieuecoaony ianaeaiea Eaiaaeu, i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui n/eoaoue
aa?eaioii aiaeeeneiai ycuea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eaiaaeneiio aa?eaioo
aiaeeeneiai ycuea i?enoue naie ii?iuii A.I. ss?oeaaie, «aa?eaiou
aiaeeeneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea yaeythony ii?iie aeey no?ai, aaea iie
oiio?aaeythony» [ss?oeaaa A.I. 1969, 250]. Aneaae ca E. A. Iiiiaie,
iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue, /oi ?aoaiea aii?ina i noaoona nia?aiaiiiai
eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea aiciiaeii eeoue ia iniiaa
eco/aiey aai ?acee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia ia anao o?iaiyo — oiiieiae/aneii,
ii?oieiae/aneii e eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii [Iiiiaa E.A. 1978,8].

1.1Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Eaiaaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea ?acaeaaeny a oneiaeyo aeeyiey
aia?eeaineiai aiaeeeneiai n iaeiie noi?iiu e a?eoaineiai aa?eaioa — n
ae?oaie. Iiyoiio eaiaaeneee aiaeeeneee ianao ia naaa ioia/aoee iaaeo
ii?i i?ieciioaiey, a eaeeo-oi neo/ayo – a?eoaineie, a eaeeo-oi –
aia?eeaineie. Ii a iniiaiii i?aiaeaaeaao oei i?ieciioaiey, iacuaaaiue
General American.Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Oeie/iie eaiaaeneie /a?oie, ii iiaieth ?. A?yaa, yaeyaony ionoonoaea
?acee/aiey aeieaiou e e?aoeinoe aeaniiai: a eaiaaeneii aa?eaioa «iao
iinoiyiiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo ea/anoaii e aeieaioie aeaniiai,
iaoiaeyuaainy iiae ioiineoaeueii neeueiui oaea?aieai; o?aaeeoeeiiii
e?aoeea aeaniua /anoi oaeeeiythony, iniaaiii a nayce n eciaiaieai auniou
oiia, iai?eia?, iaaeaieai e iiaeu?iii auniou a eiioea auneacuaaiey»
[29]. Aeieaea aeaniua a ?a/e iiaoo nie?auaoueny, io/aai oa?yaony
?acee/ea a i?ieciioaiee oaeeo neia, eae cot – caught, sod – sawed e ae?.
I?e oaeeeiaiee aeaniiai ioia/aaony oaiaeaioeey anoaaeyoue
aeiiieieoaeueiue aeaniue, iiyoiio nicaea?ony aia/aoeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai neiaa.

Aeeooiia [ae] ia?aae aeooei niaeaniui a neiaao oeia house, out
i?ieciineony a Eaiaaea eae [Ee], oi anoue n ia?aui yeaiaioii aieaa
aunieiai iiaeu?ia. Ia?aae caiieei niaeaniui e a eiioea neiaa yoio
aeeooiia i?ieciineony, eae e a NOA, oi anoue [au]: down [daun], cow
[kau].

A neiaao oeia news, dew, tune, student, aaea iinea aeueaaiey?iiai
niaeaniiai a?eoaineiio [ju] ioaa/aao aia?eeaineia [e:], a?eoaineay ii?ia
iieuecoaony a Eaiaaea aieueoei i?anoeaeai, ca eneeth/aieai neiaa suit, a
eioi?ii 83% eioi?iaioia i?ieciineee [e]. O. Aaen [25] ioiaoee, /oi
i?ieciioaiea yoeo neia n iiiiooiiaii iaaethaeaeinue /aua o aiai?yuee
aieaa ieceiai eoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy, a oi a?aiy eae i?anoeaeiinoue [ju]
eiaea neaaenoaeai ?ani?ino?aiaiea aai ia i?ieciioaiea aeaaea oaeeo neia,
eae moon, noon, too [25]. A Iioa?ei i?ieciioaiea duke [duk], news [nuz]
iiiaeie iineoaeyie ?anoeaieaaeinue eae «iae?aneaia» (inelegant).

A iaeiineiaeiuo neiaao oeia tooth, food, root, roof, hoof, a eioi?uo a
n?aaeiaaiaeeeneee ia?eiae ei?iaaay aeaniay cao/aea [y:], eaiaaeoeu
i?aeiouanoaaiii i?ieciinyo a? eae [e:]; a neiaao soot, foot, look
ei?iaaay aeaniay cao/eo e?aoei: [e].

A neiaao oeia class, dance, bath, aaea a aia?eeaineii ycueiaii aa?eaioa
oiio?aaeyaony aeaniue [ac], a a a?eoaineii – [a:], aeey eaiaaeneiai
i?ieciioaiey aieaa oa?aeoa?iie yaeyaony aia?eeaineay oaiaeaioeey. Eiaiii

yoi, ii iiaieth O. Aaena [41] , ia?yaeo ni niaoeeoeeie i?ieciioaiey [a],
e i?eaea?o ?a/e eaiaaeoeaa oeie/ii «aia?eeaineoth» ie?aneo. Oieueei a
nouanoaeoaeueiuo aunt e drama aieaa aunieiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy
iie iau/ii i?ieciinyony n [a:].

Neiai zebra aieaa iieiaeiu eaiaaeoeaa i?ieciinyo n [a] a ia?aii neiaa,
oiaaea eae a NOA caeanue i?ieciineony [i:]. Oi?ia been a eaiaaeneii
i?ieciioaiee eiaao aeaniue [i:], a aia?eeaineii [I]; a ia?a/ee again
iiaeiaii a?eoaineie ii?ia i?ieciineony iiae oaea?aieai aeeooiia [el], a
oi a?aiy eae a NOA iau/ii [a]. A ia?aii oaea?iii neiaa nouanoaeoaeueiuo
oeia process, progress aieueoeinoai eaiaaeoeaa i?aaeii/eoaao aeeooiia
[ie], a ia [y], eae a NOA. A aiaeiae/iie iiceoeee a nouanoaeoaeueiii
produce aieueoeinoai eaiaaeoeaa oiaea i?eaea?aeeaaaony a?eoaineiai
i?ieciioaiey n [y], a oi a?aiy eae a NOA i?ieciinyo [ie]. Neiai vase –
aia?eeaineia [velz] – a Eaiaaea cao/eo i?aeiouanoaaiii [va:z ].

Oaeaea a?eoaineee oei i?ieciioaiey i?aiaeaaeaao o eaiaaeoeaa a neiaao
oeia docile, senile, virile, missile, projectile, futile, aaea a eiioea
i?ieciineony [a1], oiaaea eae a NOA caeanue iau/ii cao/eo [I] eee [y].
Eneth/aieai yaeyaony neiai fertile, eioi?ia eioi?iaiou ec Iioa?ei /aua
i?ieciineee n [I] eee [y] a iaoaea?iii eiia/iii neiaa.

I?aoeenu anti-, semi-, multi-, eioi?ua a aia?eeaineii aa?eaioa
i?ieciinyony n [al], aieueoeinoai eaiaaeoeaa i?ieciineo ii-a?eoainee n
[I]. Iiyoiio iiae?inoee a iia?aie/iuo ianoiinoyo Eaiaaeu iacuaatho naieo
aia?eeaineeo naa?noieeia «semis» [‘semalz].

Aeaaieueiay oi?ia i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie shone i?ieciineony aieueoeinoaii
eaiaaeoeaa n [y:] a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aia?eeaineiio [ie]. Aoeaa z a
Eaiaaea iacuaaaony ii-a?eoainee [zed], a ia ii-aia?eeainee [zi:].

Aeaienoaaiiia i?ieciioaiea neia: leisure eae [‘1acy’] eee [‘I:cy’] e
neither n aeaniui [i:] eee [al] i?aeoeeoaony e n?aaee eaiaaeoeaa, oioy a
ia?aii neo/aa aieueoeinoai ioaea?o i?aaeii/oaiea a?eoaineie oi?ia n [a],
a a ae?oaii

– aia?eeaineie n [i:]. Nouanoaeoaeueiia tomato oiio?aaeyaony n
aia?eeaineei oaea?iui [el], a?eoaineia [a:] ano?a/aaony eeoue ec?aaeea.

Cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ?anoiaeaeaiee a iaeanoe niaeaniuo. Oeie/iie /a?oie
eaiaaeneiai i?ieciioaiey yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiia «eio?oceaiia» [a],
aiineiia ii aiaeiaee. Iai?eia?, neiai khaki i?ieciineony [‘ka:rkl] [n?.
aia?. [‘ka:ki], a?eo, [‘hsekl]]. Yoi [a] iau/ii iiyaeyaony iinea
aeieaiai aeaniiai ia?aae niaeaniui a neiaao, aaea enoi?e/anee aai ia
aeieaeii auoue; n?. poach [‘pourtj], eioi?ia i?aa?auaaony a iiioii
nouanoaeoaeueiiai porch, e wash [warj]. Eaiaaeoeu, eae e aia?eeaioeu,
i?ieciinyo [a] a eiioea neia e ia?aae niaeaniuie a neiaao oeia car,
cart. Ano?a/aaony oaeaea a Eaiaaea aia?eeaineay oiiaoe/aneay /a?oa –
iiyaeaiea [h] ia?aae eieoeeaeueiui [w] a neiaao oeia whether, whine,
whale, ii aieueoa o?aoe aiai?yueo ia i?eaea?aeeaaaony yoiai i?aaeea
iineaaeiaaoaeueii, a au? ieiei o?aoe aiiaua a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo [h] ia
oiio?aaeyao. O. Aaen ia io?eoeaao oaeoa ionoonoaey iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
a oiio?aaeaiee [h] aeeoaeyie Iioa?ei, iaeiaei n/eoaao aa?eaiou n [hw]
aeiieie?othueie. A. A. Aeai, iaiai?io, iaoiaeee o anao eaiaaeneeo
eioi?iaioia a yoie iiceoeee ionoonoaea anie?aoeee. Ii oaeaea eae
oeie/ioth eaiaaeneoth /a?oo anneieeyoeeth ia/aeueiiai aeaeaea aeeooiiaia
[o] eee [ju] n i?aaeoanoaothuei aeueaaiey?iui niu/iui, aneaaenoaea /aai
ia?acoaony aooeeaoa, iai?eia?: Tuesday – a?eo. [tju:zdi], aia?.
[‘tjuwzdij], naa. aia?. [‘tuwzdij] – eai. [‘tjuzdij] ; tube – a?eo,
[tjub], aia?. [tjub, tuwb] – eai. [tjuwb].

Aia?eeaineia caiieia i?ieciioaiea aeooiai [t] a iaaeaieaeueiie iiceoeee
?ani?ino?aiaii a Eaiaaea, iiyoiio ia?u bleating – bleeding, butter
-budder iiaoo auoue ii/oe iiioiiiuie. Ii ieiei iieiaeiu eaiaaeoeaa
i?ieciinyo a oaeeo ia?ao ?aciua caoee.

A neiaa drought eiia/iue niaeaniue a Eaiaaea [-t], a ia [0], eae a NOA.
Ii a neiaa greasy i?ieciineony aeooie [s], eae a NOA, a ia a?eoaineia
[z]. Ia/aeueiue niaeaniue a neiaa schedule a Eaiaaea i?ieciineeny [J],
eae a NOA, ii a 50-a aiaeu ?ani?ino?aieeinue a?eoaineia i?ieciioaiea
[sk], /oi iauyniytho aeeyieai ?aaeei.

A iiiaineiaeiuo neiaao oeia dictionary, ordinary, obligatory,
reformatory a eaiaaeneii aa?eaioa iau/ii iaaethaeaaony naeoiaea?iia
oaea?aiea ia noooeena, a oi a?aiy eae a a?eoaineii i?ieciioaiee yoe
neiaa eiatho oieueei iaeii oaea?aiea ia ei?ia e neiae neeaathony,
cia/eoaeueii oi?iuay no?oeoo?o neiaa.

1.2. Iniiaiua eaene/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai
ycuea.

Oi, /oi niaoeeoe/aneea i?eciaee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aa?eaioa ycuea
nin?aaeioi/aiu, i?aaeaea anaai, eiaiii ia aai eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii
o?iaia, aiieia caeiiiia?ii. Yoio aniaeo ycueiauo nenoai yaeyaony
iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiui ei anyeei ia?aiaiai a eiiioieeaoeaiii iauanoaa
e aai ie?oaeaiee.

Aaoi?u «Neiaa?y eaiaaeeciia» ii?aaeaeytho eaiaaeeci eae «ethaie
eeiaaenoe/aneee i?eciae (feature), iai?eia?, a i?ieciioaiee, ii?oieiaee,
neioaenena, eaeneea, i?aaiienaiee, yaeythueeny oa?aeoa?iui aeey
aiaeeeneiai ycuea Eaiaaeu» [39]. Yoi ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony iai
aiieia i?eaieaiui, iineieueeo «oa?aeoa?iue» icia/aao «niaoeeoe/aneee,
naiaia?aciue, yaeythueeny ioee/eoaeueiui». A ae?oaii ianoa iie
iauaaeeiytho aaiaoe/aneee e?eoa?ee n e?eoa?eai ooieoeeiiaeueiui (oai
aea, XIII), /oi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue niaoeeoe/aneea ioee/ey eaeneee
eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea Enoeiiua eaiaaeeciu.

«I?aaenoaaeytho niaie eeai eaene/aneea aaeeieoeu, eioi?ua iieiinoueth,
ai anae niaieoiiinoe au?aaeaaiuo cia/aiee, yaeythony i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth
aiaeeeneiai ycuea a Eaiaaea (iieiua eaiaaeeciu), eeai neiaa e onoie/eaua
neiaini/aoaiey, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a eaiaaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea a
iaeiii ec cia/aiee (/anoe/iua eaiaaeeciu). A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia i?eaaae?i
nouanoaeoaeueiua Grit – /eai eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee Eaiaaeu» [14,n.39-40].

A oiiiyiooie eieaa E. A. Iiiiaie [14] i?iaaaeaii niiinoaaeaiea ?yaea
eaiaaeeciia n niioaaonoaothueie aaeeieoeaie aia?eeaineiai e
a?eoaineiai aa?eaioia, ?anniio?aiu ?acee/iua oeiu yoeo
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee e naeaeaia iiiuoea ii?aaeaeeoue oaeaeueiue aan a
ycuea Eaiaaeu aia?eeaieciia, a?eoeoeeciia e iauaaiaeeeneeo eaene/aneeo
aaeeieoe. Aaoi? oaeaeee aieueoia aieiaiea niiniaai ia?aciaaiey
niaoeeoe/aneeo (?acee/eoaeueiuo) yeaiaioia eaiaaeneie eaeneee,
ii?aaeaeaieth ianoa eaiaaeeciia a neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiuo ia?aaeeciao,
?iee aaa?aaeaoo? e eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai neiaiia?aciaaiey. Ianeieueei
iaiueoa inaauaiu i?ioeannu iiiieiaiey eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai
ycuea ioo?i caeinoaiaaiey ec ae?oaeo ycueia.

A iiiia?aoee I. I?eeia [35] ioaaaeaii iiiai ianoa caeinoaiaaieyi e
ianoiie iiiianoeea, aieaa iiaa?oiinoii ?anniio?aiu aeeaeaeoeciu e neaia.
Iaeiaei e iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiui eaiaaeeciai aiaeeeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aaoi? ioiineony n iaeioi?ui i?aiaa?aaeaieai: «Oioy eiee/anoai
eaiaaeeciia ieacuaaaony aieaa iaeeueiui, /ai iiaeii auei
i?aaeiieaaaoue…, – caeeth/aao ii, – i?aaaeie yaeyaony, ii-aeaeeiiio,
oi, /oi eaiaaeoeu ia ethayo nicaeaaaoue iiaua neiaa, aeiaieuenoaoynue
aeaaiui ia?acii caeinoaiaaieai aia?eeaineeo e a?eoaineeo iaicia/aiee»
[35,n.69]. I. Nea?aeaeee a noaouea i eaene/aneeo iniaaiiinoyo
aiaeeeneiai ycuea i?iaeioeee Aeueaa?oa i?ea?e naie iaaethaeaiey iaae
?a/ueth oa?ia?ia, a /anoiinoe, iieacae ianoiua iniaaiiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oa?ieiieiaee [38]. A oeaeii iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi
enneaaeiaaiea aiaeeeneie eaeneee Eaiaaeu oieueei ia/eiaaony.

Eco/aiea eeiaaenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae oiai eee eiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aa?eaioa ycuea aeieaeii aeaoue ioaao ia aii?in ia oieueei i oii, a eaeii
neio?iiiii niioiioaiee n ae?oaeie aa?eaioaie yoiai ycuea ii iaoiaeeony,
ii e i oii, eae noi?ie?iaaeenue aai ioee/ey, eaeie noaiaie aeeaa?aaioeee
ii aeinoea, eaeiau oaiiu ?acaeoey oao i?ioeannia aeeooa?aioeee, eioi?ua
aai iainiaeee. Aieaa eee iaiaa oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii iiaeii
iieo/eoue ec aeaiiuo neiaa?y O. Aaena.[25] A i?i nia?aiu ii?yaeea10600
eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey Eaiaaeu, /anoue ec ieo yaeythony
eaene/aneeie aa?eaioaie. Anoue a?oiia eaiaaeeciia, a?aiy ia?aie
oeenaoeee eioi?uo iiea au? ia onoaiiaeaii. Anee eneeth/eoue ?ac?yaeu
eaene/aneeo eaiaaeeciia ec ?anniio?aiey, oi inoaaoeany 9153 aaeeieoeu ii
a?aiaie naiaai aicieeiiaaiey ?ani?aaeaeythony neaaeothuei ia?acii: XVI
aae – 26 [0,3%], XVII aae – 142 [1,5%], XVIII aae – 1124 [12,3%], XIX
aae – 3340 [36,5%], 1900-1965 aiaeu-4521 [49,4%].

XVI aae. Yoi a?aiy ia?aiai iinaeaiey aiaeiycu/iuo eiiea?aioia a Eaiaaea,
ii a cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa iie noaee i?eauaaoue eeoue a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey aaea [ioeoeeaeueii ia?aui aiaeeeneei aeaaeaieai ia
oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae Eaiaaeu noae ino?ia Iuethoaoiaeeaiae a 1583 aiaeo].
Iiaua oneiaey aeecie o?aaiaaee i?eniiniaeaiey ycuea e eciaieaoaeny
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiyoiio eiiiaaoeee a eaeneea, oioy e
iaiiiai/eneaiiua, oaea ioia/athony a yoi a?aiy. Ec 26 eaiaaeeciia XVI
aaea 10 auei caeinoaiaaii ec ae?oaeo ycueia: aai?eaaiiiai yneeiinneiai
[kayak, oomiak -yneeiinneay eiaeaiay eiaeea, tupek – eaoiyy iaeaoea ec
oeo?, atigi – ieaeiyy ?oaaoea ec oeo? iaoii aiaioo?ue], o?aioeocneiai –
ycuea aieaa ?aiiae eaiaaeneie eiiea?aoeee [cache – niaoeeaeueiue neeaae
aeey i?iaeiaieuenoaey, iaoia e ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, buff – /anoue i?iaeioeee
Eaaaae iaaeaeo 48 e 51 a?aaeonaie naaa?iie oe?iou] e ae?.

N?aaee aaeeieoe aiaeeeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey – neiaa, iiaeaa?aoeany
niaoeeaeecaoeee cia/aiey, iai?eia?: sled A A «naie» – E A «niaa/uee
ia?ou», rat AA «e?una» – EA «iiaeao?a». Iaeioi?ua eaiaaeeciu yaeythony
iaicia/aieyie iauaeoia, aeey eioi?uo a iauaaiaeeeneii ycuea nouanoaiaaee
ae?oaea iaeiaiiaaiey, iai?eia? AA aie – EA penguin, AA float, buoy – EA
floater, AA blackcock, black grouse – EA partridge. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo
iiaua iaeiaiiaaiey nicaeathony a aeaea onoie/eauo neiaini/aoaiee
iiieiaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, iai?eia?: black fox «?aaeei ano?a/athuayny
iniaue /??iie ianoe naaa?iaia?eeaineie ?uaeae eenu», cat of mountain
«?unue», Eskimo dog «ii?iaea niaae Canis familiaris borealis,
eniieuecoaiay yneeiinaie aeey ?aaiou a niaa/ae oi?yaeea», sea unicorn
(ciie.) «ia?aae» e ae?.

A XVII aaea n?aaee eaiaaeeciia iiyaeyaony ianeieueei aeaaieia, eioi?ua
yaeeenue naiaioe/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie eneiiii aiaeeeneeo aaeeieoe
(n?., iai?eia?, eaiaaeneea cia/aiey aiaeeeneeo aeaaieia: track -oyiooue
ae/aaie eiaeeo eee aa?aeo, shoot – ieuoue a eiaeea (ia ieioo) ii
no?aiieia eee /a?ac ii?iae, raft – ieuoue ia ieioo, pitch – ia?aacaeaoue
io iaeiiai ianoa noiyiee e ae?oaiio, trade – iaiaieaaoue iaoa ia
oiaa?u). Oceii?ioanneiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea auei oa?aeoa?ii aeey
eaiaaeeciia rind «i/euaoue aea?aai io ei?u» e pack «i?anniaaoue iaoa a
othee aeey ioi?aaee».

N?aaee eaiaaeeciia ioia/aaony e ianeieueei i?eeaaaoaeueiuo: rotten
«noa?ue, iicae?aaaoue (e?ae)», staget «ooaeoee (ii ea/anoao)» (i iaoao)
e ae?.

Iaeiineiaiua eaiaaeeciu iiiieiytho oaiaoe/aneea a?oiiu, iacaaiiua ?aiaa
– iaicia/aiey oei?u e oaoiu, i?aaeiaoia iaeaaeaeu, n?aaenoa
ia?aaeaeaeaiey, iaicia/aiey ?aeueaoa e iniaaiiinoae aaia?aoe/aneie
n?aaeu, oa?ieiia eoeeia?ee, iacaaiee nii?oaeaiee e o.ae. Aicieeatho
oaeaea iiaua noa?u nin?aaeioi/aiey eaiaaeeciia, iaicia/athuea:

a) iacaaiey i?ioannee: furrier «ioioiee ia iooiiai caa?y», Northman
«ioioiee, ooiaeyuee ia ceiiaeo», sealer «ioioiee ia otheaiae», trader
«oi?aiaaoe iooieiie»;

a) iacaaiey aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe: agent «i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue /eiiaieeii
aeaeai eiaeaeoeaa», governor «ia/aeueiee oaeoi?ee», master
«noa?oeeneoaeauee iooiie eiiiaiee»;

a) iacaaiey aeeoaeae ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa eee
i?ienoiaeaeaieth:Mountaineer «eiaeaaoe ec ainoi/iiai Eaaaaea eee
Eaa?aaei?a», French «o?aieieaiaaeaoe», settler «iiaiiinaeaiaoe»;

a) aeaeu eueaea eee niaaa: barricade «eaaeyiie caoi? o ?a/iiai aa?aaa»,
candles «eaaeyiua noieaeee, ia?aciaaaoeany io oayiey iiaa?oiinoe
eueaea», crust «iano», jam «eaaeyiie caoi? iiia??e ?aee», pan «ieaao/ay
eueaeeia» e ae?.

?acaeoea ioioie/ueaai oicyenoaa io?aceeinue a oaeeo eaiaaeeciao, eae,
iai?eia?, iacaaiey ioioie/ueeo i?oaeee: collar, deadfall, deathfall,
hap, slip, stopper.

Eaiaaeeciu aiaeeeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iiyaeaoeany ia i?ioyaeaiee XIX
aaea, ninoaaeee iniiaioth ianno eaene/aneiai iiiieiaiey ycuea – 2941
aaeeieoea [88,8%]. Ec ieo ieiei 1200 i?aaenoaaeyee niaie neiaa, ia?aaeei
ni niauaieai cia/aiey (n?., snow – ni?o iicaeiaai yaeiea, packer
-iineeueuee, bag – eiaeaiue iaoie aeey iaiieeaia, rye – ?aeaiia aenee,
dust -cieioie ianie, leader – niaaea-aiaeae a oi?yaeea). Iie
i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe?youe i?aaeiea oaiaoe/aneea a?oiiu. Iai?eia?, a
iaicia/aiee oaoiu aioei 32 aaeeieoeu, oei?u – 17, n?aaenoa
ia?aaeaeaeaiey – 22, nii?oaeaiee – 15, i?oaeee o?oaea – 15 e o.ae.
Iiauie oaiaoe/aneeie a?oiiaie, iio?aaiaaaoeie a yoio ia?eiae iiiieiaiey
eaiaaeeciaie, ieacaeenue:

a) iacaaiey ?iaeia aeayoaeueiinoe (20 aaeeieoe: bronco-busting
«iauacaeea aeeeie eioaaee», fur-hunting «eiaey eaieaiaie iooiiai caa?y»,
portaging «ia?aiinea a?oca n iaeiie ?aee ia ae?oaoth»;

a) iieeoe/aneea oa?ieiu: Confederation «iauaaeeiaiea naie i?iaeioeee a
aeiieieii Eaiaaea», Confederate, Confederationist «noi?iiiee
eiioaaea?aoeee»;

a) nii?o (10 aaeeieoe): rugby, puck, hockeyist, defenseman;

a) oa?ieiu ec iaeanoe i?inaauaiey: collegiate «aeae n?aaeiaeoeieu»,
trustee «/eai oeieueiiai niaaoa»;

ae) cieioieneaoaeuenoai: colo(u)r «neaaeu cieioa a ii?iaea»,
dust«cieioie ianie», gold-hunter «cieioieneaoaeue», washing «eiee/anoai
cieioa,aeiauoiai ca iaeio i?iiuaeo», pay-gravel «cieioiiiniue a?aaee»,
Klondiker,stampeder «o/anoiee cieioie eeoi?aaeee a Eeiiaeaeea» e ae?.

Iiiieiyeanue a?oiia iacaaiee aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe (14 aaeeieoe):
road-master «/eai ioieoeeiaeeoaoa, ioaaonoaaiiue ca aei?iaeiia
oicyenoai», bencher «auai?iue noaeaaiue canaaeaoaeue», reeve «ao?aiieno?
naeaiey», warden «neoaeauee eiiiaiee, aaaeathuee ioaaaeaieai caiee iiae
cano?ieeo».

Eaiaaeeciia – onoie/eauo neiaini/aoaiee iiieiaoeaiiai cia/aiey a XIX
aaea aicieeei 1734. Oaiaoe/anee iie ioiinyony e oai aea a?oiiai, /oi e
iaeiineiaiua eaiaaeeciu. Oae, iacaaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae eaiaaeneie oei?u
n?aaee ieo 54, oaoiu – 50, i?aaeiaoia iaeaaeaeu – 15 e o.ae. A nayce n
?anoe?aieai a no?aia aei?iaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa iiyaeeny ?yae ianoiuo
oa?ieiia a yoie iaeanoe: bush road, cross road, corduroy road, road
camp, road grader, railway town, railway village.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ycueiaiai ?acaeoey Eaiaaeu a yoi a?aiy yaeyaony
?aceia ?anoe?aiea nii?oeaiiai neiaa?y (67 iiauo eaiaaeeciia), a oaeaea
oneeaiea caeinoaiaaiee ec neaiaa (128 aaeeieoe). I?ioanneiiaeueiua
eaiaaeeciu yoiai a?aiaie ninoaaeytho 184 aaeeieoeu.

A naiaioe/aneii ioiioaiee eaene/aneea eaiaaeeciu iiaiai a?aiaie
/?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciu. Iie iaicia/atho:

a) iacaaiey i?oaeee o?oaea e eino?oiaioia: Swede saw «aeae ieeu»;

a) iacaaiey iaoaieciia e iaoei;

a) iacaaiey i?ioannee;

a) iacaaiey caiyoee.

Aaeeinoaaiiia nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea eaiaaeneie a?aiiaoeee io a?eoaineie
ninoieo a i?aeoe/anee iieiii eneeth/aiee ec oiio?aaeaiey a?aiaie Past
Perfect Continuous. Aai ianoi caiye Past Perfect Simple.

Eoae, eaiaaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea, aoiaeyuee a
naaa?iaia?eeaineee a?aae ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea, ?acaeeny ia
iniiaa aiaeeeneiai ycuea Aaeeeia?eoaiee XVIII aaea, ia?aian?iiiai a
Eaiaaeo aiaee/aiaie, oioeaiaeoeaie e e?eaiaeoeaie a ia?eiae
ia?aiia/aeueiiai ianniaiai ia?anaeaiey XIX aae.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey iu iiaeai naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

1) ia oiiaoe/aneii o?iaia iu aeaeei cia/eoaeueiua ?anoiaeaeaiey:

– a ionoonoaee aeieaiou e e?aoeinoe aeaniiai;

– i?ieciioaiea ii?aaeae?iiuo aeeooiiaia ia?aae iaeioi?uie niaeaniuie;

– iaeioi?ua ?anoiaeaeaiey eaiaaeneiai aiaeeeneiai a iaeanoe niaeaniuo.

2) Ia a?aiiaoe/aneii o?iaia:

– nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua ioeeiiaiey a ia?aciaaiee neeueiuo oi?i;

– a iino?iaiee aii?ineoaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ni neacoaiui have eee have
got;

– oiaiueoaiea /anoiou eniieueciaaiey ia?oaeoiuo oi?i.

3) Ia eaeneei-naiaioe/aneii o?iaia:

– iiyaeaiea iiauo eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe (eaiaaeeciia), eiee/anoai eioi?uo
aic?anoaao;

– aeoeaiue i?ioeann nicaeaiey iaieiaeciia a eaiaaeneii aiaeeeneii;

An? yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeeciaiiinoe yoiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai
ycuea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeaeueiaeoae aeeaa?aaioeee aai eae io
a?eoaineiai oae e io aia?eeaineiai aiaeeeneiai.

2. Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

2.1.Iniiaiua a?aiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Aano?aeeeneee aiaeeeneee iiyaeyaony n ia/aeii eieiiecaoeee
Aano?aeeeneiai eiioeiaioa aiaee/aiaie a XVIII aaea. N iinoaiaiiui
oie/oiaeaieai ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey aiaeeeneee ycue caie aeaaainoaothuoth
iiceoeeth ia iaoa?eea. Iaeiaei a nayce n oaeaeaiiinoueth io iao?iiieee a
iai ia/aee iiyaeyoueny ioee/ey io SE, i eioi?uo iu nae/an e iiaiai?ei.

?acee/ey iiyaeeenue a nenoaia eiaiiuo oi?i, naycaiiuo n eaoaai?eae
/enea. Iai?eia?, a a?eoaineii aa?eaioa neiai “data” – «aeaiiua,
eioi?iaoeey» eiaao eae iiiaeanoaaiiia /enei, oae e aaeeinoaaiiia
(“datum”). A Aano?aeee “data” oiio?aaeyaony oieueei ai iiiaeanoaaiiii
/enea, ii n aeaaieii a aaeeinoaaiiii /enea :”Data is ready for
processing.”

Iiyaeeenue oaeaea ioee/ey a oiio?aaeaiee aeaaieia shall – will, should –
would, a eiaiii: “shall” inoaaony a oiio?aaeaiee eeoue a iiaoaeeoaeueiuo
e aii?ineoaeueiuo oi?iao: Shall we go? You shall do that!

“Would” caiaiee “should” i?aeoe/anee aacaea: “I wouldn’t be so sure of
that,”- Susan replied, (aianoi ” I shouldn’t be so sure of that”)

“What for would I do that, Susie?” – George demanded, (aianoi “What for
should I do that, Susie?”).

Auoaaeoea ec oiio?aaeaiey a Aiaeee oi?iu whilst – amongst aei neo ii? a
oiaeo a Aano?aeee ia?yaeo n aiaeiae/iuie ei, ii aieaa nia?aiaiiuie while
– among.

Around = round a cia/aiee « a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee, i?eaeeceoaeueii, ai
anao iai?aaeaieyo».

Aiciiaeiu iaa oi?iu: disinterested/uninterested.

Flammable/inflammable oiio?aaeythony a iaeiii cia/aiee.

Eae e a A?eoaiee, different oiio?aaeyaony n to/from. Farther/further
-oaeaea aiciiaeiu iaa oi?iu.

2.2. Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe aano?aeeeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Iniiaiua caia/aiey, eanathueany i?ienoiaeaeaiey aano?aeeeneiai
i?ieciioaiey, auee naeaeaiu aano?aeeeneeie eeiaaenoaie Ieo/aeeii e
Aeaea?eaeaeai [12],eioi?ua i?iaeaeaee cia/eoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey a
iaeanoe aano?aeeeneiai i?ieciioaiey. Iie iinooee?otho neaaeothuaa: 1)
aano?aeeeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth
yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiui «ai?iaeneei» ycueii, iineieueeo ia?aua
ia?anaeaioeu-iineoaee ycuea auee a iniiaiii ec ai?iaeia; 2) yoi,
i?aaeaea anaai, ycue ?aai/aai eeanna, ycue a aieueoeinoaa naiai
iaia?aciaaiiuo e aaaeiuo ethaeae; 3) aano?aeeeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai
ycuea aeeth/aao a naay iniaaiiinoe ycuea iiiaeo /anoae Aiaeee,
Oioeaiaeee, Oyeuena e E?eaiaeee.

Aaoi?u aeaeatho auaiae, /oi ana yoe oi?iu ycuea auee i?eaacaiu a
Aano?aeeth, e aano?aeeeneee aa?eaio yoi ie /oi eiia, eae iaiauaiea e
ieaaee?iaaiea anao ycueiauo iniaaiiinoae i?eaacaiiuo aeeaeaeoia.

Niiinoaaeyy aano?aeeeneee e a?eoaineee aa?eaiou aiaeeeneiai ycuea,
enneaaeiaaoaee aaeeiiaeooii ioia/atho, /oi iaeaieueoea ?anoiaeaeaiey
i?iyaeythony a iaeiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iai?eioaeaeaiiie onoiie ?a/e
iianaaeiaaiiai auoiaiai iauaiey e a iaeanoe oiiaoe/aneiai no?iy e
neiaa?iiai ninoaaa aeaoo aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea. A?aiiaoe/aneea
?anoiaeaeaiey iaiiiai/eneaiiu.

Niaeanii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe i?ieciioaiey, aano?aeeeneee
aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea ioee/aaony n?aaieoaeueiie iaeii?iaeiinoueth.
Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee iieaaatho, /oi a Aano?aeee iao ianoiuo aeeaeaeoia.
A naiae ?aaioa Oa?ia? ieoao: «I?eia/aoaeueia iaeii?iaeiinoue
aano?aeeeneiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. I?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii iaeoe
aaia?aoe/aneee ?aaeii, aaea ycueiaua ?acee/ey auee au noieue iaeu.»
[17]. ?acee/ey a i?ieciioaiee nei?aa caaenyo io iiea, aic?anoa e
nioeeaeueiiai noaoona iineoaeae ycuea, /ai io aaia?aoe/aneiai ?aaeiia
Aano?aeee.

A aano?aeeeneii aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iiaeii
auaeaeeoue o?e aa?eaoeee i?ieciioaiey: iauee (General),
eoeueoeae?iaaiiue (Cultivated) e i?inoi?a/iue (Broad). Yoe aa?eaoeee
i?ieciioaiey ia eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiie aaia?aoe/aneie eieaeecaoeee, o ieo
iao /aoei auaeaeaiiuo eoeueoo?iuo ia?aie/aiee iaaeaeo neiyie ianaeaiey,
yoe aa?eaoeee a i?ieciioaiee iiaeii iaaethaeaoue a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai
ai?iaea eee aeaaea iaeiie naiuee. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie aeey Aano?aeee
aa?eaoeeae yaeyaony iauay (General), ia iae aiai?eo aieaa iieiaeiu
ianaeaiey, a oii /enea /eaiu ia?eaiaioa, e i?aiiaeaaaoaee oeie e ae?oaeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, nouanoaoao o?e i?ieciineoaeueiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoe GAu,
BrAu e CAu. Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiiai e yaeythuaainy ii?iaoeaiui aeeaeaeoa BrAu.

1. A aeeooiiaa [ei] ia?aue caoe o?acaaony ii/oe aei iaeo?aeueiiai
aeaniiai.

2. Aeaeae [a] a [ai] ianeieueei oe?a, /ai a a?eoaineii aa?eaioa.

3. Nouanoaoao oiiaia [aa],ionoonoaothuay a a?eoaineii aa?eaioa. Iia
caiaiyao eiiaaea aeaniue a oaea?iie iiceoeee.

4. [ai] e [ei] ii/oe ia ?acee/athony e niunei?acee/eoaeueioth ooieoeeth
ia auiieiytho.

5. [a] oaeaea aieaa oe?ieee e ianeieueei aieaa auaeaeioo aia?aae.

6. Aeaniue ?10 e [a] – ii/oe ia ?acee/athony ai anao aeeaeaeoao.

7. Iaeo?aeueiue aeaniue caiaiyao [i] a eiioea neia “arches”, “horses”
etc. [i] ii/oe ia ano?a/aaony a /enoii aeaea ie a iaeiii ec aeeaeaeoia:
a GAu

yoi /aua anaai aeeooiiaiece?iaaiiue [E],a BrAu – a ni/aoaiee n
iaeo?aeueiui, eae e a NAe.Oae /oi “feel” neuoeony a ?a/e iineoaey BrAu
eae [f3il]. A oeaio?e?othuee aeeooiia [i3] i?aa?auaaony a o?eooiia [3i3]
– “beer” [Uec1c]. Aano?aeeeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai aanueia
iiiaiia?acai, e ianao a naaa /a?ou e aia?eeaineiai, e a?eoaineiai
aa?eaioia. E?iia oiai, i?iaeaia ineiaeiyaony iaee/eai o?ao ?acee/iuo
?aaiii?aaiuo oeiia i?ieciioaiey. Oioy a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoa
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ia i?eaiaeeo e oneiaeiaieth eiiioieeaoeaiiai
i?ioeanna, a yaeyaony eeoue e?eoa?eai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai
noaoona.

Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee iieaaatho, /oi o?e oeia aano?aeeeneiai
i?ieciioaiey iaoneiaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneeie i?e/eiaie, e
/oi ii e?aeiae ia?a 30% iineoaeae ycuea aeaaeatho anaie o?aiy oeiaie e
iiaoo, a caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee iauaiey, iaiyoue oei i?ieciioaiey.

Ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey, nouanoaothuea iaaeaeo o?aiy aa?eaoeeyie
aano?aeeeneie ?a/e, iie ia?acotho aaeeioth nenoaio, ioee/athuothny a
oeaeii io a?eoaineiai i?ieciineoaeueiiai noaiaea?oa. Iaeaieaa ?acei
ioee/aaony Broad, aeeaea anaai e iaio – Cultivated. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai e
o/eouaay iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey aiaeeeneiai ycuea a Aano?aeee, iaeioi?ua
enneaaeiaaoaee auaeaeioee aeiioaco i oii, /oi ia?ae/iie aeey Aano?aeee
oi?iie i?ieciioaiey yaeyaony eiaiii i?inoi?a/iay oi?ia – ?acoeueoao
neeyiey e yaiethoeee i?inoi?a/ee, aeeaeaeoia e aea?aiiia, ia
eioi?uo aiai?eee ia?aua aaeua iinaeaioeu Aano?aeee, i /ai aiai?eeinue
auoa. Broad e iniaaiii Cultivated aicieeee eae aieaa «i?anoeaeiua» oi?iu
iooai naeaaeeaaiey iniaaiiinoae i?inoi?a/ey e naeeaeaiey n RP [13].

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aeaniuo GAus e RP iieacuaaao, /oi iauaa /enei
aeaniuo oiiai a iaieo aa?eaioao aiaeeeneiai ycuea iaeeiaeiaia.

A oiiaiaoe/aneie nenoaia aano?aeeeneiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea 12 i?inouo
aeaniuo, 8 aeeooiiaia e 24 niaeaniuo, /oi a oeaeii niaiaaeaao n
a?eoaineei aa?eaioii aiaeeeneiai ycuea. A ioiioaiee aano?aeeeneeo
niaeaniuo nouanoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae ia ioia/aii. Iaeiaei ?anoiaeaeaiey a
nenoaia aeaniuo cia/eoaeueiu e iinyo oa?aeoa? nenoaiiiai naeaeaa.
?acee/ey i?iyaeythony a iiceoeee aeaniuo e eo ea/anoaa.

GAusPRAeaniua ia?aaeiaai ?yaeaO [1] [a] [aa] [a] [E]O [1]
[a] [aa]Aeaniua n?aaeiaai ?yaea[c:] [y][c:] [y]

;o* Iauoth oaiaeaioeeth naeaeaa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae aeaeaeaiea a
noi?iio aieaa cae?uouo e aieaa ia?aaeieo caoeia. A aeeooiiaao
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e iiiiooiiaecaoeee, e ineaaeaieth aeaeaea e
oaeeeiaieth yae?a. E?iia oiai, nouanoaotho ?acee/ey a aeeno?eaooeee e
/anoioiinoe ioaeaeueiuo caoeia. Neeaaeuaaaony eioa?aniay oiiieiae/aneay
neooaoeey, eiaaea oiiaiaoe/aneea nenoaiu aeaoo ycueia niaiaaeatho, ii
«oiiaoe/aneee noano?ao», a eioi?ii oiiaiaoe/aneea aaeeieoeu
?aaeecothony, eiaao aeonoeei-a?oeeoeyoeeiiiua ?acee/ey. I?e yoii ia
i?ienoiaeeo niaoaiey oiiaiaoe/aneeo aaeeieoe.

?eoi aano?aeeeneie ?a/e i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea aieaa ?iaiiai ec-ca
aieaa io/aoeeaiai, /ai a a?eoaineii aa?eaioa, i?iecianaiey aacoaea?iuo
aeaniuo e aeeooiiaia, e ec-ca oiaiueoaiey eiio?anoa iaaeaeo oaea?iuie e
aacoaea?iuie neiaaie.

Eioiiaoeey aano?aeeeneiai aiaeeeneiai oaeaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaiaa
?aceeie iiauoaieyie e iiieaeaieyie oiia a i?aaeaeao auneacuaaiey,
aeaaiaea?y /aio eioiiaoeey a?eoaineiai aa?eaioa i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaaea a
auneacuaaieyo iaeiiai oeia a oeaeii aieaa aeeaie e yiioeeiiaeueiie, ii
n?aaiaieth n aieaa ?iaiie e iiiioiiiie aano?aeeeneie. Nouanoaotho
?acee/ey eioiiaoeee e a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeiao aii?inia, a iaeioi?uo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?ioeao, ii yoe yaeaiey aua oieueei ia/eiatho na?ueacii
eco/aoueny. A eioiie?iaaiee noaiaea?oiuo o?ac oeia Good-bye now. Is that
so? e oiio iiaeiaiuo o?ac, eioiiaoeeiiiue eiioo? eioi?uo niaiaaeaao n
aia?eeaineei aiaeeeneei ycueii, enneaaeiaaoaee aeaeyo ?acoeueoao aeeyiey
aia?eeaineiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea [7].

Aeey oiai, /oiau iauynieoue, ii/aio iineoaee GAus aiai?yo iaaeeaiii e
iaiaa yiioeeiiaeueii, /ai iineoaee RP auei i?aaeeiaeaii iiiaeanoai
oai?ee. Noi?iiieee iaeiie ec oaeeo oai?ee auaeaeaatho i?aaeiieiaeaiea,
/oi ia eioiiaoeeth e oaii ?a/e iineoaeae GAus ieacaee aeeyiea ycuee
aano?aeeeneeo aai?eaaiia. A i?ioeaiaan yoie oai?ee auaeaeaaaony oio
oaeo, /oi eoeueoo?iue o?iaaiue aano?aeeeneeo aai?eaaiia aue neeoeii
ieceei, /oiau cia/eoaeueii iiaeeyoue ia eoeueoo?o e ycue aaeuo
iinaeaioeaa. E?iia oiai, aneaaenoaea n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeie enoi?ee
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iinaeaioeaie e aai?eaaiaie, ycue iineaaeieo ia iia
ieacaoue caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia ?a/ue iinaeaioeaa. Naith ?ieue a
?acaeaeaiee ycueia aai?eaaiia e iinaeaioeaa oaeaea nua?aea iieeoeea
naa?aaaoeee, i?iaiaeeiay aaeuie iinaeaioeaie n iiiaioa eieiiecaoeee.

Neaaeothuay oai?ey cao?aaeaaao aii?in aeeyiey eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee ia
oaii ?a/e e eioiiaoeeth aiai?yueo. Nouanoaoao i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey iiaoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia a?oeeoeyoeeth iineoaey
ycuea. Iai?eia?, ethaee, aeeaouea a oieiaeiii eeeiaoa neeiiiu e aieaa
eioaineaiie a?oeeoeyoeee a ioee/ea io ethaeae, aeeaoueo a oaieii eee
aea?eii eeeiaoa. Yoa oai?ey iauyniyao ?acee/ey a oaiia e eioiiaoeee ?a/e
iaaeaeo iineoaeyie GAus e iineoaeyie RP oaieui eeeiaoii Aano?aeee.
Iiiiiaiou yoie oai?ee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi oaeia aeeyiea ia eiaao ianoa,
iineieueeo, iai?eia?, iiiaia eaiaaeoeu, aeeaouea ia naaa?a, aiai?yo
caiaoii iaaeeaiiaa, /ai aeeaouea ia thaa. [13].

A ?annoaiiaea oaea?aiee a i?aaeeiaeaiee oiaea anoue ?acee/ey. Iineoaee
GAus ecaaaatho aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aacoaea?iuo neiaia a i?iiaaeooea
iaaeaeo aeaoiy oaea?iuie. Aicieeaao aoi?e/iia oaea?aiea eee aacoaea?iia
a RP neiai noaiiaeony oaea?iui a GAus. A ?acoeueoaoa /enei oaea?iuo
neiaia a i?aaeeiaeaii a GAus eae i?aaeei aieueoa, /ai a RP.

A ea/anoaa iniaaiiinoae a?oeeoeyoeeiiiie aacu aano?aeeeneiai aiaeeeneiai
ycuea iacuaatho ioiineoaeueii neaaoth ?aaioo aoa, /oi i?eaiaeeo e aieaa
neaaie eaaeaeecaoeee aano?aeeeneeo caoeia ii n?aaiaieth n
niioaaonoaothueie a?eoaineeie, a oaeaea aieaa /anoia eniieueciaaiea
iiniaiai ?aciiaoi?a i?e i?iecianaiee aeaniuo (twang)

Ana naiaia?aciua /a?ou aano?aeeeneiai aiaeeeneiai iaeaieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iyaeythony a i?inoi?a/iie oi?ia i?ieciioaiey,
ni/aoaynue n iiiai/eneaiiuie nie?auaieyie.

3.Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe iiaicaeaiaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

A neo/aa eco/aiey iieeiaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, ianeoaeeaathuaai ianeieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iauiinoae, iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao eco/aiea anae
nenoaiu nouanoaiaaiey ycuea – io eeoa?aoo?iiai aei aeeaeaeoa. Naaiaeiy
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai eco/aiey ycuea a nayce n
?acaeoeai iauanoaa, aeoaieei eco/aieai eoeueoo?u ia?iaea-iineoaey ycuea
yaeyaony iauai?eciaiiie. Ia?yaeo n ecaanoiui i?eioeeiii «iaeei ycue —
iaeia iaoeey» a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iu ano?a/aainy aeiaieueii /anoi n
ycueiauie neooaoeeyie, eiaaea aeaa e aieaa iaoeee
(iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiua iauiinoe) eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ioeoeeaeueiiai (ainoaea?noaaiiiai) ycue, eioi?ue a
eeiaaenoe/aneii ieaia, o.a. n oi/ee c?aiey nouiinoe naiae no?oeoo?u e
noanoaioeee, yaeyaony aaeeiui. N?aaee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia iuia e
iei ioiineony aiaeeeneee ycue a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, NOA, Eaiaaea, Aano?aeee,
Iiaie Caeaiaeee. I?eciaiea ia?eoaoa ioaeaeueiuo aa?eaioia iaeiiai ycuea
aeaeaao niaa?oaiii caeiiiia?iui o?aaiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u
?a/e, ioaa/athuae iauae caaea/a eae ycueiaiai, oae e iaoeeiiaeueiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa a no?aiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeaiiiai ycuea. Iaaeaeo oai,
?aaeecaoeey yoiai i?eioeeia iiaeao iaoaeeeaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?oaeiinoe, aicieeathuea ia?aaeei ii i?e/eiai ia noieueei
eeiaaenoe/aneiai, neieueei yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneiai, eae i?aaeei,
eoeueoo?ii-iieeoe/aneiai naienoaa. Yoi iaaethaeaeinue, a /anoiinoe a
Iiaie Caeaiaeee, aaea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy a i?ioeii a naiie no?aia e ca
aa i?aaeaeaie noaaeeny iiae niiiaiea nai oaeo nouanoaiaaiey
naiinoiyoaeueiiai iiaicaeaiaeneiai aa?eaioa aiaeeeneiai ycuea. N ?inoii
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey iinoaiaiii oe?aieyeinue iiieiaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iauaeoeaiiai e iao/iiai iiaeoiaea e aeaiiie i?iaeaia, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ni noi?iiu iiaicaeaiaeneeo eeiaaenoia, ienaoaeae,
aeayoaeae eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey, /oi iineoaeeei ia/aeii ninoaaeaiey
?acee/iuo oeiia neiaa?ae.

3.1.Iniiaiua oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe iiaicaeaiaeneiai aa?eaioa
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

1. [1]. A iniiaiii ?aca?aie/aiea naaoeiai e oaiiiai aeeioiiia oaeia aea,
eae a a?eoaineii aa?eaioa. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao oaiaeaioeey i?ieciineoue
yoio caoe i?e ineaaeaiiii eiioaeoa eii/eea ycuea n aeueaaiey?iuie
aoa?aie, eioi?ue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie neaaaa, /ai, iai?eia?, a
i?ieciioaiee eieie.

2. A iiaicaeaiaeneii aiaeeeneii aeaeaaony /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo
neiaaie, ia/eiathueieny n w e wh, i?e/ai

wh i?eaeeaeaaony e ia?aoiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe caoeia, o.a. e [h+w], a
?acoeueoaoa /aai [w] iaeooaaony.

3. [j] iaeaoaeecoaony. Yes iiaicaeaiaeoeu i?ieciinyo eae fjies].

4. Iaeo?aeueiue aeaniue a iiaicaeaiaeneii aa?eaioa i?aaenoaaeyaoniaie
aieaa oeaio?aeeciaaiiue aeeioii[1], e /anoi iaiyao aai a oaea?iuoneiaao,
eae e a Aano?aeee.

5. [ie] ia?aoiaeeo a o?eooiia [iec].

6. [i] -> [c1], eae e a Aano?aeee.

7. [a:] aieaa ia?aaeiee, /ai a A?eoaiee.

8. [ie] —> [i] a iiceoeee ia?aae [1].

9. [ac]. Ia?aue yeaiaio aeaiiiai caoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony i/aiue aunieie
noaiaiueth cae?uoinoe e iiyoiio [ac] i?eaeeaeaaony e iiiiooiiao.

A?aiiaoe/anee iiaicaeaiaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai i/aiue noiae n
aano?aeeeneei aa?eaioii, iiyoiio iia i?aaenoaaeyaony iaoeaeaniia?aciui
?anniao?eaaoue aeaiiue iiiaio.

Caeeth/aiea.

A aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee auee ?anniio?aiu ?acee/ey iaaeaeo eaiaaeneei,
aano?aeeeneei, iiaicaeaiaeneei, eiaeeeneei e a?eoaineei aa?eaioaie
aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia i?eia?a . Caoai aue naeaeai aiaeec eco/aiiie
eeoa?aoo?u, eioi?ue iicaieyao i?ineaaeeoue ?acaeoea anao yoeo aa?eaioia
aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaiiie ?aaioa aeieacaii neaaeothuaa:

1. Yoe aa?eaiou aiaeeeneiai ycuea yaeyaony eeoue ianoiui aa?eaioii, a ia
naiinoiyoaeueiui ycueii. Eae auei iieacaii a ?aaioa, yoe aa?eaiou
aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia eiaao ie naiaai iniaiai neiaa?iiai ninoaaa, ie
naiaai iniaiai a?aiiaoe/aneiai no?iy.

2. A oeaeii, aeey yoeo aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea oa?aeoa?ii oi?iuaiiia
iaienaiea (iai?eia?, ono?aiaiea ecauoi/iuo ciaeia, i?eia? ono?aiaiey
eneeth/aiee ec i?aaee, oiio?aaeaiea iaiaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a?aoe/aneeo
aa?eaioia neia aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie). Ii a oi aea a?aiy, ana aeaiiua
i?ioeannu inouanoaeythony ia iaoa?eaea eiaiii aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa auea aeinoeaiooa oeaeue enneaaeiaaiey, a eiaiii:
auyaeaiu ?acee/ey a eaeneea a?eoaineiai e aano?aeeeneiai, eaiaaeneiai,
iiaicaeaiaeneiai e eiaeeeneiai aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey auee ?aoaiu:

1) Eco/aii ninoiyiea i?iaeaiu a iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a.

2) I?aaeinoaaeaiu ?acee/ey aa?eaioia aiaeeeneiai ycuea ia
i?eia?a.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U.

1. Aai *aeeiei. sscueiciaiea. 1998-N.41.

2.O. I. Aaeyaaa e A. Iioaiiaa. Aiaeeeneee ycue ca i?aaeaeaie Aiaeee.
-E., 1961-n. 47-51.

3. Ai?eniaa E.A.,Iaoethe A.A Oai?aoe/aneay oiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea.
-Iineaa, «Aunoay oeiea», 1980.

4. A?iciae/ Ae. Neaayineea noaiaea?oiua ycuee e n?aaieoaeueiue iaoiae
/Aii?. ycueiciaiey, 1967.

5. Aeeeooeia I.E. Oiiaoeea aiaeeeneiai ycuea. -Iineaa, «Ecaeaoaeuenoai
eeoa?aoo?u ia eiino?aiiuo ycueao», 1952.

6. TH. A. AEeoeoaiei. Eaiaaeneee aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea e
ii?aaeaeaiea eaiaaeecia. – A ei.: Enneaaeiaaiey ii ?iiaineie e
aa?iaineie oeeinioee. Eeaa. Ecae-ai i?e E. oi-oa, 1975 – n. 94 – 98.

7. Aa?eaiou iieeiaoeeiiaeueiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo ycueia./ Iiae ?aae. TH. A.
AEeoeoaiei, Eeaa. «Iaoeiaa aeoiea», 1981 – n. 45 – 73.

8. AEeoeoaiei TH. A. Nioeeaeueiay eeiaaenoeea e iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea.
-Eeaa, 1988.

9. Eeue/oe I. E. I iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iiouaiey aniiiiaaoaeueiiai aeaaiea
have a ia?oaeoa nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea Eaiaaeu. – A ei.: Aii?inu
no?oeoo?u aa?iaineeo ycueia. Iine, 1976 – n. 124 – 130.

10. Eanaoeeia O. E. I iaeioi?uo oaiaeaioeeyo oiio?aaeaiey
nineaaaoaeueiiai iaeeiiaiey I a aiaeeeneii ycuea Eaiaaeu. – A ei.:
Aii?inu eeiaaenoeee. ss?ineaaeue, 1974 – n. 14 – 26.

11. Eanaoeeia O. E. I noaiaie aeeyiey aia?eeaineiai aiaeeeneiai ia
aiaeeeneee ycue Eaiaaeu. – A ei.: Aii?inu eeiaaenoeee. ss?ineaaeue, 1973
– n. 59 – 64.

12. Eanaoeeia O. E. Oiio?aaeaiea nineaaaoaeueiiai iaeeiiaiey I a
?acee/iuo noaiaiyo a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea Eaiaaeu. – A ei.:
Aii?inu eeiaaenoeee. ss?ineaaeue, 1973 – n. 65 – 73.

13. I?eia A.A. Nia?aiaiiue aiaeeeneee ycue a Aano?aeee. -Iineaa,«Aunoay
oeiea», 1978. 4.

13.Ue Iuaieiaa A.A. Ae?aooea Ia Aano?aeee e Iiaie Caeaiaeee. «Eeno» 2000

14. Iiiiaa E. A. Eaeneea aiaeeeneiai ycuea a Eaiaaea. – I.: Aunoay
oeiea,1978.

15. Iiiiaa E. A. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe iaeeoa?aoo?iie eaeneee
eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – A ei.: Aii?inu
aiaeeeneie oeeieiaee e iaoiaeeee i?aiiaeaaaiey aiaeeeneiai ycuea. Iine,
1976-n. 21-26.

16.Iiiiaa E. A. Iaeioi?ua eaene/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaiaaeneiai aa?eaioa
nia?aiaiiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. 1974 – 26 n.

17. Noaiaiia A. A. E i?iaeaia ycueiaiai aa?uee?iaaiey. – I.: Iaoea, 1979
-328 n.

18. Nioeeaeueiay eeiaaenoeea e iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea/ aeieo. oeeie. iaoe
i?io. I. A. Naiaioea. – Eeaa.: Auua oeiea, 1988 – n. 64 – 82.

19 . Oaaeoea? A. Ae. Eeoa?aoo?iue aiaeeeneee ycue a NOA e Aiaeee.-I.,
1971

20. Oaaeoea? A. Ae. Nia?aiaiiay nioeeieeiaaenoeea, oai?ey, i?iaeaiu,
iaoiaeu. – I., 1976.

21. Oaaeoea? A. Ae. Aia?eeaineee aa?eaio eeoa?aoo?iiai aiaeeeneiai
ycuea:iooe oi?ie?iaaiey e nia?aiaiiue noaoonO/Aii?inu ycueiciaiey,
1995,?6,no?. 3-17. noaoon.//Aii?inu ycueiciaiey, 1995,?6,no?. 3-17.
22.Oonoeeiaa E.E., Iuaieiaa A.A. E?aoeee aiaei-?onneee
eeiaaino?aiiaaae/aneee neiaa?ue: Aaeeeia?eoaiey, NOA, Eaiaaea,
Aano?aeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey. «Ae?ioa» 2006

23. A. N. Uo?. I eeiaaenoe/aneie neooaoeee a Oioeaiaeee / Nioeeaeueiay e
ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey eeoa?aoo?iuo ycueia / Ioa. ?aae. A.
E. ss?oeaaa. -I., 1977.

24. ss?oeaaa A. E. Enoi?ey aiaeeeneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea IX – XV
aaeia. -I., 1985.

Eeoa?aoo?a ia aiaeeeneii ycuea.

25. Avis W. S. The English language in Canada // Current trends in
linguistics / Ed. by Th. A. Serbek. The Hague; Paris, 1973.

26. Bloomfield M. W. Canadian English and its relation to eighteenth
century American speech // Canadian English. Origins and structures /
Ed. by J. K. Chambers. Toronto, 1975.

27. Driestly F. E. Canadian English // British and American English
since 1900 /Ed. by E. Partridge, J. W. Clark. London, 1951.

28.Fishman A. Statistic, 1998. 29. Gregg R. Canadian English//? London,
1957.

30. Hornby A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English: In 2 vol. Moscow; Oxford, 1982.

31. Dictionary Kandiah, London, 1998a p. 6.

33. Mencken H. L. The American Language. An inquiry into the development
of English in the United States. New York, 1957.

34. Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use. – Cambridge University
Press, 1997.

35. Orkin M. M. Speaking Canadian English. London, 1971. 36. Viktoria
Oschepkova, Kevin McNocholas. Macmillan Guide to Country Studies.
Macmillan Oublishers Limited 2005

37.Pringle I. Attitudes to Canadian English // The English Language
Today / Ed. by S. Greenbaum. Oxford; New York; Toronto, etc., 1985.

38. Scargill M. N. A short history of Canadian English. Victoria, 1977.

39. The Canadian Dictionary 1962 // Iiae ?aae. AE. Aeiyy. Dictionary of
Canadian English a 3-o auioneao. (1962 – 1967).

40. A Dictionary of Americanisms of Historical principles, 1951. 41.
Dictionary of Canadisms of Historical principles W. S. Avis. Toronto,
1967

I?eeiaeaiea.

Nie?auaiey.

BrE – a?eoaineee aiaeeeneee.

GAu -Great Australian (English)

CAu – Cultural Australian(English)

BrAu – Broad Australian (English)

SE – Standard English, eeoa?aoo?iue aiaeeeneee noaiaea?o.

1 .Auaeaeeoa neiaa ioiinyueany e eaiaaeneiio aa?eaioo aiaeeeneiai ycuea,
acknowledgement*, acknowledgment balk banister*, bannister among*,
amongst archaeology*, archeology analyze*, analyse catalogue behaviour*,
behavior demeanour*, demeanor burnt* Caesarian*, behoove burette*, buret
blond*, blonde burned*, burnt* Cesarean, Cesarian dispatch encyclopedia
calibre cheque colour*, color

cancelled checkered candour*, candor capitalize catalyze*, catalyse
centre*, center cigarette counsellor*, counselor aging, ageing dialogue
doughnut, donut inquiry*, enquiry dreamt*, dreamed flutist*, flautist
fuelling enrol*, enrol

2.You are from Russia,you learn New Zeland and Indian English to
understand the English Language better. Please translate from Russian to
New Zeland and Indian English.

noii/ea

eeoo

oaeaoiiiayaoaeea

ia?aue yoaae – — –

32

caiieieoue — –

oaieeey

iicaiieoue – – -—

caiyoi

ii/oiaue yuee

aioaea

ecaeieoa

ooaeao

ath?i iaoiaeie -—

niaaeeiyoue-

oaeaa?aiia —

iaiaieaaoue aeaiueae

ii/oiaue eiaeaen

noaiiaeoueny a i/a?aaeue

3.Eaeie aa?eaio aiaeeeneiai ycuea iaicia/ai a neaaeothueo i?eia?ao.

Aggro:aggressive. Amber or Amber fluid: Beer

Arvo: Afternoon Act: Pretending to be something you’re not.

Aggro: Aggressive. Alf: Stupid person. Amber or Amber fluid: Beer. Apple

Eater: Resident of Tasmania. Arvo: Afternoon Aussie (pronounced

‘Ozzie’):.Aussie (pronounced ‘Ozzie’): Bail out: Leave. Bail up: Hold
up, rob,

earbash. BYO (Bring your own) meat and drinks. Battler: Hard trier,

struggler. Beaut, beauty, bewdie: Very good. Excellent. Belt up!: Shut
up!

Berko: Angry. Bickie: Dollar. Bludger: Lazy person.Booze: Alcohol,
usually

beer. Cask: Wine box. Chook: Chicken.

Clobber: Clothes; to hit. Counter meal, countery: Pub meal.Cut lunch:

Sandwiches. Daks: Trousers. Dillybag: Small bag to carry things.Duco:
Car

paint. Dunny: Outdoor lavatory. Earbash: Non-stop talk. Enzedder: New
Zealander. Evo: Evening. Flog: Sell; steal. Garbo: Garbage collector.
Good on ya!: Well done! Grizzle: To complain.Hooley: Wild party. Hoon:
Idiot, hooligan, yahoo. How are ya?: Standard greeting. Hump: To carry.
Icy-pole: Frozen lolly water or ice cream on a stick. Identity:
Celebrity. Journo: Journalist. Jumbuck: Sheep. Kafuffle: Argument. Kanga
or kangaroo: Shoe. Keen as mustard: Enthusiastic. Kip: Sleep or nap.
Lob: Arrive. Lollies: Candy or sweets. Lolly: Money.

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