Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English
syllabus for secondary school
1.1 Methodology as a science
1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary
1.1.2 Current concepts in secondary school graduates EFL
Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences
2.1 Gardner’s theory
2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
2.1.2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligene
2.1.3 Intrapersonal Intelligence
2.1.4 Interpersonal Intelligence
2.1.5 Musical Intelligence
2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence
2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence
2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory
Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation
3.1 Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior
forms of secondary school
3.1.1 Development of students’ speaking and pronunciation skills
3.1.2 Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school
3.1.3 Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates
The theme of the present university degree thesis is “ Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.
The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in
and intercultural communication etc., caused by the development of
The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students .
Methods of the research:
-experience of noted scholars,
-research of literature.
The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the
research in the EFL teaching.
The practical value – a good opportunity of using at the
lessons of English on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best
results in teaching English.
The structure of the paper:
The paper consists: The Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered
“Methodology as a science” , Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple
And Chapter 3 “Learning environment in teaching English conversation”,
in the end of the paper I’ve done the conclusions of the research , and
used the certain literature.
Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory
The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based
upon his study of Howard Gardner’s theory:
-Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
-Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
-Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals.
-All intelligences are dynamic.
-Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
-Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the
multiplicity of intelligences.
-The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another
-Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge,
beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.
-All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities
to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance.
-A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
-Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
-Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about
According to Howard Gardner, as presented in his book Frames of Mind:
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the
-Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.
-The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other
-An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations.
-A Distinctive Developmental History, along with a Definable Set of
Expert “End-State” Performances.
-An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility.
-Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.
-Support from Psychometric Findings.
-Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.
Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new
syllabus for secondary school
Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for
schools one can clearly see some differences.
Let’s begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old
syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational
purposes of English learning and end-goals of learning language
(listening, speaking, reading and writing). The introductory part of
new syllabus includes:
2.Levels of speech competence.
3.The principles of the programme.
4. Educational purposes.
5. Grounds of content.
6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning
7. Control and essessment.
Criteria of essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels:
middle,sufficient, high) have a special place in the new syllabus. Such
information is not included into the old syllabus.
According to the new sullabus teaching English starts from the
Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus
gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil
His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new
syllabus provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About
myself, My Family and Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man,
The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form.
Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and
examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus, which are
not mentioned in the old syllabus.
Language competence includes vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in
both syllabi, but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in
form is fixed.
Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence
are not defined in the old syllabus.
At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils
(listening, monologue, dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the
In general, the new syllabus is much but specific wider.
1.1. Methodology as a science
The term “методика” has several correspondences in English:
methodology, methods and methodics. The word methodology will be
used for “методика” and “методологія” of teaching English as
foreign language [TEFL].
There are several definitions of this term:
Methodology (from Greek methodos – спосіб, шлях дослідження або
пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення) is a framework of organization
of teaching which relates linguistic theory to pedagogical
principles and techniques.[37,p.5]
Methodology is a branch of pedagogy which dealing with
peculiarities of teaching a certain subject.[38,p.12]
Methodology of FLT is a body of scientifically tested theory
concerning the teaching of foreign languages in school and
other education institutions.[37,p.17]
Methodology is a system of principles and ways of organization
and construction of theoretical and practical activity as well
as teaching about this system .[37,p.14]
Methodology is a science which studies aims, contents, means,
principles, techniques and methods of a system of instruction
Methodology is a branch of didactics which relates a
linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.
The scholars’ve considered the relation of methodology of FLT to other
sciences ( supplement 1).
The objective of the present research is integrating some
aspects of knowledge of English, didactics, psychology,
linguistics to formulate basic professional and pedagogical
habits and skills. In G. Rogova’s opinion, methodology covers
three main points:
aims of TEFL;
content of TEFL;
methods ( supplement 2), principles and techniques of TEFL.
But it becomes evident that the three components do not
constitute the whole teaching/learning process. The activities of
learners and teachers, their interaction (symmetrical or
assymetrical) and the role of instruction materials are the
outstanding constituents. The task of methodology is to integrate
the relationships among them and to draft requirements for
each of them.
Teaching a subject is viewed here not simply as the delivery
of prescribed formulate, imparting a certain amount of knowledge,
but also developing habits and skills, but also as activity.
To attain these aims in the most effective way constitutes the
main subject of any methodology. The methodology determines the
laws, principles, aims, content, methods, techniques and means
(media) of teaching. The actual teaching of a language may
differ in the analysis of what is to taught, in the planning
of lessons, in the teaching techniques used, in the type and
amount of teaching done thought mechanical means and finally, in
the testing of what has been learned.
Basic Categories Of Methodology
The methodology of TEFL seems to embody such basic categories
on which there is general agreement among those who have
studied the subject: methods, principles, techniques, aims and means
There is no unanimity regarding the term method either. In G.
Rogova’s et. al. view “method is a technological operation,
structural and functional component of the teacher’s and
learner’s activity, realized in techniques and principles of
instruction. A method is a model of instruction based on
definite theoretical provision, principle, techniques and aims of
A method is also a specific set of teaching techniques and
materials generally backed by stated principles.
A method determines what and how much taught (selection), the
order in which it is taught (gradation), and how the meaning
and form are conveyed (presentation). Since presentation, drill
and repetition may also be the concern of the teacher, the
analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first determine
how much is done by the method and how much by the teacher.
Aim is a direction or guidance to establish a course or
procedure to be followed. The teacher should formulate long-term
goals, interim aims and short-term objectives. What changes he
can bring about in his pupils at the end of the week, month,
year, course, and each particular lesson. Hence, aims are planned
results for pupils learning a FL. The aims are stipulated by
syllabus and other official directives. They are: practical,
instructional, educational and developing (formative).
Practical aims cover habits and skills which pupils acquire in
using a foreign language. A habit is an automatic response to
specific situation, acquired normally as a result of repetition
A skill is a combination of useful habits serving a definite
purpose and requiring application of certain knowledge.
Instructional aims developed the pupils mental capacities and
intelligence in the process of FLL (foreign language learning).
Educational aims help the pupils extend their knowledge of the
world in which they live.
Formative or developing aims help develop in learns sensual
perception, motor, kinesthetic, emotional and motivating spheres.
Principles are basic underlying theoretical provisions which
determine the choice of methods, techniques and others means of
Technique in the methodology of TEFL is the manner of
presentation, demonstration, consolidation and repetition.
Means is something by the use or help of which a desired
goal is attained or made more likely.
1.1.1. Present-day issues of TEFL
A critical review of methods currently employed in TEFL/TESL
has shown no consensus on the effective way to facilitate and
accelerate English learning. A shift has been made from
teacher-centered activity to student-centered, some methodologists
even claim that learning is more important than teaching
(Michael West, Humanistic Approach, Silent Way).
Though many young teachers still teach the way they had been
taught, it can’t be denied that current thinking in methodology
constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about language
One of the conventional methods of TEFL is the
Grammar-Translation method (G-TM):
The goal of foreign language (FL) study, using this method, is
to learn a language in order to read its literature or to
benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development
that result from FL study. G-TM is a way of studying language
that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of
its grammar rules, followed by application of the knowledge to
the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of
the target language. The first language is maintained as the
reference system in the acquisition of the second language.
Reading and writing are the major focus: little or no
systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.
In a typical G-T text, the grammar rules are presented and
illustrated, a list of vocabulary items is presented with their
translation equivalents, and translation exercise a prescribed.
the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language
practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences
into and out of the target language, and it is this focus on
the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method.
of grammar rules, which are then practised through translation Accuracy
is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standarts
in translation, because of “the high priority attached to
meticulous standards of accuracy which was a prerequisite for passing
the increasing number of formal written examinations that grew up
during the century”
Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by presentation and study
The student’s native language is the medium of instruction. It is used
to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL
and the student’s mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s
to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues to be widely used in
some parts of the world today).
In the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually
developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was
referred to, laid the foundations for the development of a new way of
language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the
From the 1880s, however, practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet
in England, Wilhelm Victor in Germany and Paul Passy in France began to
promote their intellectual leadership needed to give reformist ideas
greater credibility and acceptance.
The main principles of their theory were:
the study of the spoken language;
an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar;
teaching new meanings through establishing associations within the
target language rather than by establishing associations with the
translation should be avoided, although the mother tongue could be used
in order to explain new words or to check comprehension.
The idea put forward by members of the Reform Movement had a role to
play in developing principles of FLT out of naturalistic approach to
language learning. This led to what has been termed ‘natural method’ and
ultimately led to the development of what came to be known as the Direct
In the 1920s and 1930s H.E.Palmer, A.S.Hornby and other British
linguists developed an approach to methodology that involved systematic
principles of selection (the procedures by which lexical and grammatical
content was chosen), gradation (principles by which the organization
and sequencing of content were determined), and presentation (techniques
used for presentation and practice of items in a course). Their general
principles were referred to as the oral approach to language teaching.
The characteristic feature of the approach was that new language points
were introduced and practised situationally.
Later the terms Structural Situational Approach and Situational Language
Teaching came into common usage.
Like the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching (SLT) adopts an
inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. The meaning of words or
structures is not to be given through translation in either the native
tongue or the target language but is to be induced from the way the form
is used in the situation. H.Palmer believed that “if we give the meaning
of a new word, either by translation into the home language or by an
equivalent in the same language, as soon as we introduced it, we weaken
the impression which the word makes on the mind”.
Explanation is therefore discouraged, and the learner is expected to
deduce the meaning of a particular structure or vocabulary item from the
situation in which it is presented.
In 1939 the university of Michigan developed the first English Language
Institute in the United States. It specialized in the training of
teachers of English as a foreign language and in teaching English as a
second or foreign language.
The approach to FLT became known as the Audio-Lingual Method. According
to this method FL was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation
and by intensive oral drilling of its basic sentence patterns.
The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed
Audio-lingualism (Charles Fries, William Moulton) believed that the use
of the student’s native language should be forbidden at early levels .
Translation as a teaching device may be used where students need or
benefit from it. It was one of the principles of Communicative Language
Teaching the origins of which are to be found in the changes
in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late
Looking back from the vantage point of 1990’s we can see that
the Direct Method, Audio-Lingual and Communicative Methods have
their rationale and supporters, yet they are not equally
efficient for all learners, and for all teachers, and for all
The methodology must be flexible and electric, based on a
careful selection of facets of various methods and their
integration into a cohesive, coherent procedure. Of central
importance are positive attitudes of learners and teachers; they
should permeate all stages of teaching/learning process, make
every learning hour a stimulating, motivating experience leading
to pleasure and success in language acquisition.
The teacher’s pivotal responsibility is to imbue students with
confidence and self-esteem, emotional security and a
well-integrated personality that will make them life-long
The emerging “paradigm shift” in teaching strategies needs new
generalizations which will lead to improved attitudes, and better
results in teaching/learning process, which will be beneficial
both for learners and teachers alike.
It is difficult to predict whether the Communicative Method
will last any longer than its predecessors but it can’t be
denied that the work of the innovators constitutes a challenge
to convention thinking about language teaching, which is
unfortunately “stubbornly” adhered by many classroom teachers and
What is current methodology? Do we have to abandon all we have
learned of the Audio-Lingual method, the Direct Method (DM), and
start anew? Thus far, the suggestions for change have been
gentle, but we have not been left with a vacuum to be filed.
Judging from techniques and trends of the past few years, we
can see that current thinking methodology seems to be in the
direction of: – relaxation of some extreme restrictions of A-LM
and DM; – development of techniques requiring a more active use
of the students mental detail.
Let us examine these two trends in some detail.
Teachers have found that a close adherence to the
listening-speaking-reading-writing order has not always been
effective and brought the desired results.
On the other hand a lack of such adherence has not proved
harmful. They has also called into question the theory that
speech is primary and reading and writing are secondary
manifestations. Such theoretical and experimental rethinking has
resulted in the current trend toward teaching and testing the
various language skills in more integrated way. The close
procedure provides an interesting and thought-provoking exercise,
which trains the students to look carefully at all structural
clues and to range around within a semantic field for related
concerts. It is a good preparation for careful reading and a
useful overall written test.
The teachers no longer feel the need to defer or widely
separate reading and writing lessons from listening and speaking
Similarly the prohibition against using the student’s native
language has been considerably relaxed. It is just more
efficient to give explanations and instructions in the native
language because it affords more time for really meaningful
practice in English.
Notable among current trends is the more practical recognition
of the varying needs of learners. If, for instance, a learner
needs a reading knowledge of English above all else, then
reading must have priority, and the learner must learn this
skill through specific guided practice in reading.
Another question is whether the teacher should polish learner’s
structure so as to exclude a change of making a mistake. That
“prohibition” of errors way largely due to the fear that
mistakes would contribute to the creation of a bad habit. Now
that the “habit theory” of language acquisition has been
challenged and creative aspects of language learning emphasised,
the teacher is freed from this fear. Student’s creative
involvement is more important to the learning process than the
mere avoiding of errors (this doesn’t mean that the teacher
should not correct the student and provide necessary drill when
Teachers for some time have felt a need of moving from A-LM
(with its rigid structure pattern) to a less controlled
situation in which the student can communicate his own ideas.
Classroom activities may be grouped into four categories:
Examples of completely manipulative activity would be:
a) a drill in which the students merely repeat sentences after the
b) a simple substitution drill ( by showing a picture or explaining a
scene from the students experience). The latter exercise could be made
into a predominantly manipulative drill, that is it would include a
small element of communication).
In a more advanced class the students retell a story the teacher has
given them. Finally, an example of pure communication would be a free
conversation among the members of the class, such as a role-playing,
Cognitive Code-Learning Theory (CC-LT) or the Trend toward Cognitive
The trend toward a more active use of the students’ mental powers
probably represents the most important effort of the cognitive theory of
language acquisition. Advocates of the A-LM often advised the teacher to
keep students “active” – since, they said, when a student is active he
is learning. They advised him to have all his students saying things
aloud in English during as much of the class period as possible. This
was the chief reason for doing so much choral work. In this way the
greatest number of
students could be actively participating – “using the language” as it
was called .
Language learning is viewed as rule acquisition, not habit formation.
Instruction is often individualized: learners are responsible for their
own learning. Reading and writing are once again as important as
listening and speaking; errors are viewed as inevitable.
But the utility of such “active” use of the language has been challenged
by proponents of CC-LT. They point out that the mere mechanical
repetition of language forms is in reality passive rather than active
learning, for it is primarily – sometimes almost entirely – a physical,
mechanical sort of activity. It does not begin to engage the student’s
full mental powers. CC-LT, as a FLT method, is based on the following
1. language is a system of signs, governed by its own rules;
2. CC-LT implies recognition of form, perception of meaning, relations
of universals and particulars, generalisation and analogy;
3. the assimilation of material is directly proportional to the degree
of its comprehension;
4. language is more than a system of habits which can be formed through
5. language learning is a creative process, therefore the student should
be as mentally active as possible in all assigned work:
6. a) drills and exercises should be meaningful;
b) deductive use of exercises designed to teach grammar structures
(deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior to practice, starting with the
rule and then offering examples to show how this rule applies);
c) rote learning is to be avoided;
d) reading and writing should be taught at early stages along with
listening and speaking;
e) occasional use of student’s native language for explanation of new
grammar and vocabulary is beneficial.
The cognitive principles of learning can conveniently be
summarised under three headings:
1. the need for experience;
2. the process of assimilation;
3. developmental stages.
These three principles are not only suited to adult learners but they
have been readily adopted in the primary school, and the following are
suggestions for practicing cognitive principles in the classroom with
a) Give experience of the language they are learning – teach them
poems, rhymes, songs, tell them stories, talk to them.
b) Give them activities – painting, modeling, playing game, etc.
c) Don’t stick rigidly to a predetermined language syllabus – allow the
activities that take place in the class to range freely and develop
naturally and let the occurrence of stimulating events that happen in
the environment influence the vocabulary and structures that are
introduced and practiced in each lesson.
Viewing language learning as a natural creative process rather than as
habit formation, suggests that the teacher should provide guided
practice in thinking in the language rather than a mere repetition
drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language learning more
enjoyable tor the student, – hence improved attitudes and better
It seems also appropriate to remind ourselves that teaching involves
much more than a knowledge of methods. However well-versed a teacher
may be in psychological and linguistic theories, in techniques and
methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success. An even
more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher’s attitude
toward his students and his work.
We must recognise the teacher’s compassionate, intelligent, individual
approach to his work as the essential factor in successful language
To sum it up, language in CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed
by its own rules; language material is assimilated in blocks, not
discretely i.e. in their constitutive elements; assimilation is directly
proportional to comprehension; frequency of contrast is more important
than frequency of repetition. According to this theory assimilation of
language is achieved by conscious control over phonological,
grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of
conscious learning and analysis.
And, finally, practice and pedagogical experimenting shows that the
priority of a certain methods is not justified. Some specialists believe
that a creative synthesis of provisions of every method (eclecticism)
may yield good results.
1.1.2. Current Concepts in secondary school graduates EFL
While the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to high
school graduates has its own unique terms and concepts, it often draws
from the professional vocabulary of other areas of education such as K-
12, adult basic education, and higher education. This article presents a
selection of such terms and concepts, discussing them as they are
applied in the adult ESL context and citing sources where they are
described with adult immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad,
representing theories or approaches, while others might be more
accurately described as methods or techniques. Most are mutually
supportive and can be integrated in instruction to expand and enrich
learning in any EFL setting.
Authentic or Alternative Assessment
Authentic or alternative assessment describes efforts to document
learner achievement through activities that require integration and
application of knowledge and skills and are based on classroom
instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life
contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a
project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are
criterion referenced, in that
criteria for successful performance are established and clearly
articulated. They focus
on the learning process as well as the products and they include means
self-assessment and reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in
with standardized tests to provide a more complete picture of learner
progress.Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based
assessment, learner self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based
assessment activities require learners to integrate acquired knowledge
and skills to solve realistic or authentic problems, such as taking
telephone messages, completing an application, or giving directions.
Self assessment refers to checklists, logs, reflective journals, or
questionnaires completed by learners that highlight their strategies,
attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments throughout the learning process
Portfolio assessment consists of a systematic collection of the
learners’ work (such as writing samples, journal entries, worksheets,
recorded speech samples, or standardized test results) to show
individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives .
Computer-Assisted Language Learning
The use of computer-based technologies for language instruction is known
as computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Computer software,
including multimedia applications, and the Internet and the World Wide
Web are examples of such technologies at use in language programs today.
Computer technologies can provide a course of instruction, facilitate
activities and tasks, or create opportunities for additional practice .
can also be structured to promoted teamwork and collaboration among the
learners, a necessity for those programs with limited access to
technology . It can be incorporated in instruction as an integral part
of a class, as an option that learners access individually, or in some
combination of class-based and self-access models.
Using technology can sometimes be difficult. The planning
process should involve consideration of at least the following elements:
the needs and goals of the program, instructional focus, staffing,
software and hardware availability or accessibility, learners’ learning
goals; and learners’ and staffs’ experiences with and attitudes toward
computer use .
Critical Literacy Theory
Critical literacy theory expands the discussion of literacy practice
beyond the basic functions of reading and writing. Where traditional
literacy instruction might focus on skills such as decoding, predicting,
or summarizing, critical literacy theory encourages critical examination
of text, especially the social, political, and ideological elements
present. Based in the assumption that literacy practices have the
both reflect and shape the issues and power relationships at play in the
larger society, critical literacy theory seeks to empower learners
through development of critical and analytical literacy skills .
In the general sense, critical literacy theory encourages teachers to
create instructional activities that help learners use analytical skills
to question and respond to such elements as perspective, purpose,
effect, or relevance of what they read and write.
For example, a teacher might prompt learners to distinguish fact from
opinion in a newspaper editorial or to identify an author’s position on
a topic and compare it to their own. The focus is on the learner as
decision maker and active interpreter in reading and writing activities.
Family and Intergenerational Literacy
Family literacy has traditionally described the use of literacy
within the context of the family, often as related to early childhood
development and parental support of children’s school achievement.
Intergenerational literacy broadens that description, recognizing that
relationships between adults and children, both within and outside the
traditional definition of the family unit, affect the literacy use and
development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL
populations generally use family and
family relationships as content and involve at least two generations of
The goals of family and intergenerational literacy programs are
varied. Some focus on the family and school, seeking to increase
parental involvement, improve communication, increase schools’
responsiveness to communities, and support children’s academic
achievement . Others pursue broader objectives, such as furthering
literacy skills development and positive behaviors linked to reading for
both adults and children. Still others focus on facilitating the
reconnection of generations divided by different linguistic and cultural
Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles
Multiple intelligences and learning style preferences both refer to the
ways that individuals approach information processing and learning.
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there
are at least seven different abilities that individuals can develop to
solve problems or create products:
? bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and
? intrapersonal .
Each intelligence is distinguished by its own competencies and skills
and directly influences the way an individual will interpret and utilize
information.Learning styles are the broad preferences that learners tend
to exhibit when faced with new content or problems that need to be
solved. These styles encompass cognitive, affective, and behavioral
elements, and describe learners in terms of their preferences for group
or individual learning contexts, the degree to which they separate
from complex backgrounds (field dependent vs. field independent), or
their affinity for analytic, abstract perspectives as opposed to more
integrated, comprehensive ones (analytic vs. global) .Awareness of
different intelligences and learning styles, and individuals’
preferences for them can help teachers create positive learning
experiences . By varying instructional activities to accommodate
preferences (lectures, visuals, hands-on activities, songs) or by
offering options for responses to instruction (write a paper, create a
model, give a demonstration), teachers can support learners’ access to
and understanding of content.
Practitioner Inquiry, Reflective Teaching, and Action Research
Practitioner inquiry, reflective teaching, and action research refer to
a teacher-centered approach to professional and staff development. Like
the learner-centered approach to instruction, which focuses on the needs
of the learners and respects them as partners in the learning process,
these approaches to professional development put practitioners at the
center of the process defining, investigating, and addressing issues
in their own teaching .
These models require practitioners to become researchers and take a
questioning stance towards their work. Rather than focusing on their
deficits, teachers concentrate on their strengths and interests as means
for enhancing their knowledge and teaching skills . The following steps
are usually part of the process: reflecting upon practice as a means of
identifying a problem or question; gathering information on that problem
or question; examining and reflecting on the data gathered; planning
some action based on the information; implementing the action planned;
monitoring and evaluating the changes that may or may not result
from the action; and collaborating or sharing with colleagues . These
terms and similar variations are often used interchangeably, their
differences typically illustrating the elements emphasized, in other
words, reflective teaching highlights ongoing self-assessment while
action research focuses on planning, implementing, and evaluating actual
changes in the classroom.
Project-based education is an instructional approach that seeks to
contextualize language learning by involving learners in projects,
rather than in isolated activities targeting specific skills.
Project-based learning activities generally integrate language and
cognitive skills, connect to real-life problems, generate high learner
interest, and involve some cooperative or group learning skills . Unlike
instruction where content is organized by themes that relate and
contextualize material to be learned, project-based learning presents
learners with a problem to solve or a product to produce. They must then
plan and execute activities to achieve
their objectives. Projects selected may be complex and require an
investment of time and resources, or they may be more modest in scale.
Examples of projects include a class cookbook, an international food
bazaar, a folktale-based story hour at a local library, a neighborhood
services directory, or a class web page . In the selection of projects
and activities, it is important to include learners’ input, as well as
to consider carefully how the project will fit with overall
instructional goals and objectives .
Chapter 2. Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
2.1. Gardner’s Theory.
Arguing that “reason, intelligence, logic, knowledge are not
synonymous…,” Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a new view of
intelligence that is rapidly being incorporated in school curricula. In
his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded the concept of
intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial relations, and
interpersonal knowledge in addition to mathematical and linguistic
This research discusses the origins of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the
Theory of Multiple Intelligences into the classroom, and its role in
alternative assessment practices.
According to Howard Gardner, as presented in his book Frames of
Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the
-A set of skills that enable a person to resolve genuine problems
encountered in life.
-The Ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is
valued in a culture.
-The Potential for recognizing or creating problems, thereby
establishing the necessity for the new knowledge.
Howard Gardner said in his book: “it becomes necessary to say, once
and for all, that there can never be, a single irrefutable and
universally accepted list of human intelligences.
Though an exhaustive list of every intelligence may not be possible,
identifying intelligences is important for at least two reasons:
-Classification of Human Intellectual Competencies which will allow a
better understanding of humanity.
-Identification of Intellectual Strengths which will enable researchers
to communicate more accurately about the concept of Intellect.
Gardner defines intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or
to fashion product that are valued in one or more cultural setting”.
Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of
seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly
from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two
intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven intelligences Gardner
2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
Linguistic intelligence (or verbal-linguistic) is the ability to use
with clarity the core operations of language. It involves having a
mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to
effectively manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or
poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember
People with linguistic intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning
of words–the capacity to follow rules of grammar, and, on carefully
selected occasions, to violate them. At a somewhat more sensory level–a
sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of
words–that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign tongue
beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of
language–its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey
information, or simply to please.People such as poets, authors,
reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts, politicians, lecturers,
and teachers may exhibit developed linguistic intelligence.
2.1.2 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Logical-Mathematical intelligence is logical and mathematical ability
as well as scientific ability. It consists of the ability to detect
patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is
most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
Abstraction is fundamental, reasoning is complex, and problem-solution
Order and sequence are significant. There is a drive to know causality
as well as the explication of existence.People such as mathematicians,
engineers, physicists, esearchers, astronomers, and scientists may
exhibit developed logical-mathematical intelligence.
2.1.3 Intra-Personal Intelligence
Intra-Personal intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model
of oneself, and to use that model to operate effectively in life. At a
basic level, it is the capacity to distinguish feelings of pleasure from
emotional pain and , on the basis of such discrimination, to become more
involved in or to withdraw from a situation. At the most advanced level,
interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to detect and to
symbolize complex and high differentiated sets of feelings.People such
as some novelists, therapists, sages, psychologists, and philosophers
may exhibit developed intra-personal intelligence.
2.1.4 Inter-Personal Intelligence
Inter-personal intelligence is the ability to notice and make
distinctions among other individuals and, in particular, among their
moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. Examined in its most
elementary form, the inter-personal intelligence entails the capacity of
the young child to detect and discriminate the various moods of
those around them. In an advanced form, it permits a skilled adult to
read the intentions and desires–even when those desires have been
hidden–of many other individuals and, potentially, act upon this
knowledge.People such as politicians, religious leaders, and those in
the helping professions may exhibit developed inter-personal
The last two intelligences are separate from each other. Nevertheless,
because of their close association in most cultures, they are often
2.1.5 Musical Intelligence
Musical intelligence (or Musical-rhythmic) is the ability to use the
core set of musical elements–pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding
the characteristic qualities of a tone). Auditory functions are required
for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone,
but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm. There may be a
hierarchy of difficulty involved in various roles–composition,
People such as singers, composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and
those who enjoy, understand, use, create, perform, and appreciate music
and/or elements of music may exhibit developed musical intelligence.
2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence
Spatial intelligence (or visual-spatial) is the capacity to perceive
the world accurately, and to be able to recreate one’s visual
experience. It gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental
images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to
visual domains–Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed
in blind children. It entails a number of loosely related capacities:
the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the ability to
recognize transformations of
one element in another; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and
then to transform that imagery; the ability to produce a graphic
likeness of spatial information; and the like. A person with a good
sense of direction or the ability to move and operate well in the world
would indicate spatial intelligence.People such as sailors, engineers,
surgeons, sculptors, painters, cartographers, and architects may exhibit
developed spatial intelligence.
2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to use one’s mental
abilities to coordinate one’s own bodily movements and the ability to
handle objects skillfully. This intelligence challenges the popular
belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated. People such as
actors, dancers, swimmers, acrobats, athletes, jugglers,
instrumentalists and artisans may exhibit developed bodily-kinesthetic
2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence
The following definition is an abbreviation and adaptation by J. Keith
Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner’s theory:
Naturalistic intelligence is the ability to understand, relate to,
categorize, classify, comprehend, and explain the things encountered in
the world of nature.
People such as farmers, ranchers, hunters, gardeners, and animal
handlers may exhibit developed naturalistic intelligence.
Although the intelligences are anatomically separated from each other,
Gardner claims that the seven intelligences very rarely operate
independently. Rather, the
intelligences are used concurrently and typically complement each other
as individuals develop skills or solve problems. For example, a dancer
can excel in his art only if he has
1) strong musical intelligence to understand the rhythm and
variations of the music,
2) interpersonal intelligence to understand how he can inspire or
emotionally move his audience through his movements, as well as
3) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to provide him with the agility and
coordination to complete the movements successfully.
Basis for Intelligence
Gardner argues that there is both a biological and cultural basis for
the multiple intelligences. Neurobiological research indicates that
learning is an outcome of the modifications in the synaptic connections
between cells. Primary elements of different types of learning are
found in particular areas of the brain where corresponding
transformations have occurred. Thus, various types of learning results
in synaptic connections in different areas of the brain. For example,
injury to the Broca’s area of the brain will result in the loss of one’s
ability to verbally
communicate using proper syntax. Nevertheless,this injury will not
remove the patient’s understanding of correct grammar and word usage.
In addition to biology, Gardner (1983) argues that culture also plays a
large role in the development of the intelligences. All societies value
different types of intelligences.
The cultural value placed upon the ability to perform certain tasks
provides the motivation to become skilled in those areas. Thus, while
particular intelligences might be highly evolved in many people of one
culture, those same intelligences might not be as developed in the
individuals of another.
2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory
Despite swings of the pendulum between theoretical and applied
concerns, the concept of intelligence has remained central to the field
of psychology. In the wake of the Darwinian revolution, when scientific
psychology was just beginning, many scholars became interested in the
development of intelligence across species. The late 19th and early 20th
centuries were punctuated by volumes that delineated levels of
intelligence across species and within the human species . Francis
Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin) was perhaps the first psychologically
oriented scientist to try to measure the intellect directly. Though
Galton (1870) had a theoretical interest in the concept of intelligence,
his work was by no means unrelated to practical issues. A committed
eugenicist, he sought to measure intelligence and hoped, through proper
“breeding,” to increase the overall intelligence of the population.
During the following half century, many of the most gifted and
psychologists concerned themselves with the nature of human
intelligence. Although a few investigators were interested principally
in theoretical issues, most seasoned their concerns with a practical
orientation. Thus, Binet and Terman developed the first
general-purpose intelligence tests in their respective countries; Yerkes
and Wechsler created their own influential instruments. Even scientists
with a strong
theoretical bent, like Spearman and Thurstone , contributed either
directly or indirectly to the devising of certain measurement techniques
and the favoring of particular lines of interpretation. By midcentury,
theories of intelligence had become a staple of psychology textbooks,
even as intelligence tests were taken for granted in many industrialized
Still, it is fair to say that, within scientific psychology, interest in
issues of intelligence waned to some extent. Although psychometricians
continued to perfect the instruments that purported to measure human
intellect and some new tests were introduced , for the most part, the
burgeoning interest in cognitive matters bypassed the area of
intelligence. This divorce between mainstream research psychology and
the “applied area” of intelligence might have continued indefinitely,
but by the late 70s, there were signs of a reawakening of interest in
theoretical and research aspects of intelligence. With his focus on the
information-processing aspects of items in psychological tests, Robert
Sternberg was perhaps the most important catalyst for this shift,
but researchers from a number of different areas of psychology have
joined in this rediscovery of the centrality of intelligence . The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences A decade ago, Gardner found that his
own research interests were leading him to a heightened concern with
issues of human intelligence. This concern grew out of two disparate
factors, one primarily theoretical, the other largely practical. As a
result of his own studies of the development and breakdown of cognitive
and symbol-using capacities, Gardner became convinced that the
Piagetian view of intellect was flawed. Whereas Piaget had
conceptualized all aspects of symbol use as part of a single “semiotic
empirical evidence was accruing that the human mind may be quite modular
in design. That is, separate psychological processes appear to be
involved in dealing with linguistic, numerical, pictorial, gestural, and
other kinds of symbolic systems .
Individuals may be precocious with one form of symbol use, without any
necessary carryover to other forms. By the same token, one form of
symbol use may become seriously compromised under conditions of brain
damage, without correlative depreciation of other symbolic capacities .
Indeed, different forms of symbol use appear to be subserved by
different portions of the cerebral cortex. On a more practical level,
Gardner was disturbed by the nearly exclusive stress in school on two
forms of symbol use: linguistic symbolization and logical-mathematical
symbolization. Although these two forms are obviously important in a
scholastic setting, other varieties of symbol use also figure
prominently in human cognitive activity within and especially outside of
school. Moreover, the emphasis on linguistic and logical capacities was
overwhelming in the construction of items on intelligence,
aptitude, and achievement tests. If different kinds of items were used,
or different kinds of assessment instruments devised, a quite different
view of the human intellect might issue forth. These and other
factors led Gardner to a conceptualization of human intellect that was
more capacious. This took into account a wide variety of human cognitive
capacities, entailed many kinds of symbol systems, and incorporated as
well the skills valued in a variety of cultural and historical settings.
Realizing that he was stretching the word
intelligence beyond its customary application in educational psychology,
Gardner proposed the existence of a number of relatively autonomous
human intelligences. He defined intelligence as the capacity to solve
problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural
settings, and detailed a set of criteria for what counts as a human
intelligence. Gardner’s definition and his criteria deviated
significantly from established practices in the field of intelligence .
Most definitions of intelligence focus on the capacities that are
important for success in school.
Problem solving is recognized as a crucial component, but the ability
fashion a productto write a symphony, execute a painting, stage a play,
build up and manage an organization, carry out an experimentis not
included, presumably because the aforementioned capacities cannot be
probed adequately in short-answer tests.
Moreover, on the canonical account, intelligence is presumed to be a
universal, probably innate, capacity, and so the diverse kinds of roles
valued in different cultures are not considered germane to a study of
For the most part, definitions and tests of intelligence are empirically
Investigators search for items that predict who will succeed in school,
even as they drop items that fail to predict scholastic success. New
tests are determined in part by the degree of correlation with older,
already accepted instruments. In sharp contrast, existing psychometric
instruments play no role in Gardner’s formulation. Rather, a
candidate ability emerges as an intelligence to the extent that it has
recurred as an identifiable entity in a number of different lines of
study of human cognition. To arrive at his list of intelligences,
Gardner and his colleagues examined the literature in several areas: the
development of cognitive capacities in normal individuals; the breakdown
of cognitive capacities under various kinds of organic pathology; the
existence of abilities in “special populations,” such as prodigies,
autistic individuals, idiots savants, and learning-disabled children;
forms of intellect that exist in different species; forms of intellect
valued in different cultures; the
evolution of cognition across the millennia; and two forms of
psychological evidencethe results of factor-analytic studies of human
cognitive capacities and the outcome of studies of transfer and
generalization. Candidate capacities that turned up repeatedly in these
disparate literatures made up a provisional list of human
intelligences, whereas abilities that appeared only once or twice or
were reconfigured differently in diverse sources were abandoned from
The methods and the results of this massive survey are reported in
detail in Frames of Mind and summarized in several other publications.
Gardner’s provisional list includes seven intelligences, each with its
own component processes and subtypes (see supplement 3). It is
claimed that, as a species, human beings have evolved over the millennia
to carry out at least these seven forms of thinking. In a biological
metaphor, these may be thought of as different
mental “organs” ; in a computational metaphor, these
may be construed as separate information-processing devices . Although
all humans exhibit the range of intelligences, individuals
differ–presumably for both hereditary and environmental reasons–in
their current profile of intelligences.
Moreover, there is no necessary correlation between any two
intelligences, and they may indeed entail quite distinct forms of
perception, memory, and other psychological processes. Although few
occupations rely entirely on a single intelligence, different roles
typify the “end states” of each intelligence. For example, the
“linguistic” sensitivity to the sounds and construction of language is
exemplified by the poet, whereas the interpersonal ability to discern
and respond to the moods and motivations of other people is represented
in the therapist. Other occupations more clearly illustrate the
need for a blend of intelligences. For instance, surgeons require both
the acuity of spatial intelligence to guide the scalpel and the
dexterity of the bodily/kinesthetic intelligence to handle it.
Similarly, scientists often have to depend on their linguistic
intelligence to describe and explain the discoveries made using their
logical-mathematic intelligence, and they must employ interpersonal
intelligence in interacting with colleagues and in maintaining a
productive and smoothly functioning laboratory. The Education and
Assessment of Intelligences Until this point, we have been reviewing the
history of intelligence research,
admittedly from the perspective of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Theory). Since the publication of Frames of Mind , they and their
colleagues have been involved in investigating its implications. On the
one hand, we seek to determine the scientific adequacy of the theory .
On the other hand, in their view, a principal value of the multiple
intelligence perspectivebe it a theory or a “mere” frameworklies in its
contributions to educational reform. In both cases, progress seems to
revolve around assessment.
To demonstrate that the intelligences are relatively independent of
one another and that individuals have distinct profiles of
intelligences, assessments of each intelligence have to be developed. To
take advantage of students’ multiple intelligences, there must be some
way to identify their strengths and weaknesses reliably. Yet MI
Theory grows out of a conviction that standardized tests, with their
almost xclusive stress on linguistic and logical skills, are limited. As
a result, the further development of MI Theory requires a fresh approach
to assessment, an approach consistent with the view that there are a
number of intelligences that are developedand can best be detectedin
culturally meaningful activities . In the remainder of the paper, the
scholars describe their approach to assessment and broadly survey
their efforts to assess individual intelligences at different age
levels. In addition, they report some preliminary findings from one of
their projects and their implications for the confirmation (or
disconfirmation) of MI Theory. If, as argued, each intelligence
displays a characteristic set of psychological processes, it is
important that these processes be assessed in an “intelligence-fair”
manner. In contrast to traditional paper-and-pencil tests, with their
inherent bias toward linguistic and logical skills, intelligence-fair
measures seek to respect the different modes of
thinking and performance that distinguish each intelligence. Although
spatial problems can be approached to some degree through linguistic
media (like verbal directions or word problems), intelligence-fair
methods place a premium on the abilities to perceive and manipulate
visual-spatial information in a direct manner. For example, the spatial
intelligence of children can be assessed through a mechanical
activity in which they are asked to take apart and reassemble a meat
grinder. The activity requires them to “puzzle out” the structure of the
object and then to discern or remember the spatial information that will
allow reassembly of the pieces. Although linguistically inclined
children may produce a running report about the actions they
are taking, little verbal skill is necessary (or helpful) for successful
performance on such a task. Whereas most standard approaches treat
intelligence in isolation from the activities of a particular culture,
MI theory takes a sharply contrasting tack. Intelligences are always
conceptualized and assessed in terms of their cultural manifestation in
specific domains of endeavor and with reference to particular adult “end
states.” Thus, even at
the preschool level, language capacity is not assessed in terms of
vocabulary, definitions, or similarities, but rather as manifest in
story telling (the novelist) and reporting (the journalist). Instead of
attempting to assess spatial skills in isolation, we observe children as
they are drawing (the artist) or taking apart and putting together
objects (the mechanic). Ideally, one might wish.to assess an
intelligence in a culture-independent way, but this goal has proved to
be elusive and perhaps impossible to achieve. Cross-cultural research
and studies of cognition in the course of ordinary activities have
demonstrated that performances are inevitably
dependent on a person’s familiarity and experience with the materials
and demands of the assessments. In our own work, it rapidly became clear
that meaningful assessment of an intelligence was not possible if
had little or no experience with a particular subject matter or type of
material. For example, our examination of bodily-kinesthetic abilities
in a movement assessment for preschoolers was confounded by the fact
that some four-year-olds had already been to ballet classes, whereas
others had never been asked to move their bodies
expressively or in rhythm. This recognition reinforced the notion that
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence cannot be assessed outside of a specific
medium or without reference to a history of prior experiences.
Together, these demands for assessments that are intelligence fair, are
based on culturally valued activities, and take place within a familiar
context naturally lead to an approach that blurs the distinctions
between curriculum and assessment. Drawing information from the regular
curriculum ensures that the activities are familiar;
introducing activities in a wide range of areas makes it possible to
challenge and examine each intelligence in an appropriate manner. Tying
the activities to inviting pursuits enables students to discover and
develop abilities that in turn increase their chances of experiencing a
sense of engagement and of achieving some success in their society.
Putting Theory into Practice In the past
five years, this approach to assessment has been explored in projects at
several different levels of schooling. At the junior and senior high
school level, Arts PROPEL, a collaborative project with the Educational
Testing Service and the Pittsburgh Public School System, seeks to assess
growth and learning in areas like music, imaginative writing, and visual
arts, which are neglected by most standard
measures .Arts PROPEL has developed a series of modules, or “domain
projects,” that serve the goals of both curriculum and assessment. These
projects feature sets of exercises and curriculum activities organized
around a concept central to a specific artistic domainsuch as notation
in music, character and dialogue in play writing, and graphic
composition in the visual arts. The drafts, sketches, and final products
generated by these and other curriculum activities are collected in
(sometimes termed “process-folios”), which serve as a basis for
assessment of growth by both the teacher and the student. Although the
emphasis thus far has fallen on local classroom assessments, efforts are
also under way to develop criteria whereby student accomplishment can be
evaluated by external examiners. At the elementary level, Patricia
Bolanos and her colleagues have used MI theory to design an entire
public school in downtown Indianapolis . Through a variety of special
classes (e.g., computing, bodily/kinesthetic activities) and enrichment
activities (a “flow” center and apprentice-like “pods”), all children in
the Key School are given the opportunity to discover their areas of
strength and to develop the full range of intelligences. In addition,
over the course of a year, each
child executes a number of projects based on schoolwide themes, such as
“Man and His Environment” or “Changes in Time and Space.” These projects
are presented and videotaped for subsequent study and analysis. A team
of researchers from Harvard Project Zero is now engaged in developing a
set of criteria whereby these videotaped projects can be assessed. Among
the dimensions under consideration are project
conceptualization, effectiveness of presentation, technical quality of
project, and originality, as well as evidence for cooperative efforts
and distinctive individual features. A third effort, Project
Spectrum, co-directed by David Feldman of Tufts University, has
developed a number of curriculum activities and assessment options
suited to the “child-centered” structure of many preschools and
At present, there are fifteen different activities, each of which taps
particular intelligence or set of intelligences. Throughout the year, a
Spectrum classroom is equipped with “intelligence-fair” materials.
Miniature replicas and props invite children to deploy linguistic
intelligence within the context of story telling; household objects that
children can take apart and reassemble challenge children’s
spatial intelligence in a mechanical task; a “discovery” area including
natural objects like rocks, bones, and shells enables children to use
their logical abilities to conduct small “experiments,” comparisons, and
classifications; and group activities such as a biweekly creative
movement session can be employed to give children the
opportunity to exercise their bodily-kinesthetic intelligence on a
regular basis. Provision of this variety of “high-affordance” materials
allows children to gain experiences that engage their several
intelligences, even as teachers have the chance unobtrusively to observe
and assess children’s strengths, interests, and proclivities.
More formal assessment of intelligences is also possible. Researchers
can administer specific games to children and apply detailed scoring
systems that have been developed for research purposes. For instance, in
the bus game, children’s ability to organize numerical information is
scored by noting the extent to which they can keep track of the number
of adults and children getting on and off a bus. Adults and children and
on and off constitute two different dimensions. Thus, a child can
one of the following scores:
One dimensions recorded;
1.disorganized recording of one dimension (either adults and children or
on and off);
2.labeled, accurate recording of one dimension;
3.disorganized recording of two dimensions;
4.disorganized recording of one dimension and labeled, accurate
recording of one dimension; or 5labeled, accurate recording of two
dimensions . They have also created a related instrument, the Modified
Spectrum Field Inventory, that samples several intelligences in the
course of two one-hour sessions. Although this inventory does not draw
directly from the curriculum, it is based on the kinds of materials and
activities that are common in many preschools. In addition, related
materials from the Spectrum curriculum can be implemented in the
classroom to ensure that the children will be familiar with the kinds of
tasks and materials used in the inventory. Preliminary Results from
Project Spectrum Although none of these programs is in final form, and
thus any evaluation must be considered preliminary and tentative, the
results so far at the pilot sites seem promising. The value of rich and
evocative materials has been amply documented. In the classrooms in
Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Boston, teachers report heightened
motivation on the part of the students, even as students themselves
appreciate the opportunity to reflect on their own growth and
development. Moreover, our programs with both older and younger children
confirm that a consideration of a broader range
of talents brings to the fore individuals who previously had been
considered unexceptional or even at risk for school failure. As for the
assessment instruments under development, only those of Project Spectrum
have been field tested in classrooms. In 1987-89, they used these
instruments in two different settings to investigate the hypothesis that
the intelligences are largely independent of one another. To examine
this hypothesis, we sought to determine (a)
whether young children exhibit distinct profiles of intellectual
strengths and weaknesses, and (b) whether or not performances on
activities designed to tap different intelligences are significantly
correlated. In the 1987-88 academic year, twenty children from a
primarily white, upper-middle-income population took part in a year-long
Spectrum program. In the 1988-89 academic year, the Modified Spectrum
Field Inventory was piloted with fifteen children in a combined
kindergarten and first-grade classroom. This classroom was in a public
school in a low- to middle-income school district. In the preschool
study, children were assessed on ten different activities (story
telling, drawing, singing, music perception, creative movement, social
analysis, hypothesis testing, assembly, calculation and counting, and
number and notational logic) as well as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence
Scale, Fourth Edition. To compare children’s
performances across each of the activities, standard deviations were
calculated for each activity. Children who scored one or more standard
deviations above the mean were judged to have a strength on that
activity; those who scored one or more standard deviations below the
mean were considered to have a weakness on that activity. This analysis
revealed that these children did not perform at the same level across
activities and suggested that they do have distinct intellectual
profiles. Of the
twenty children, fifteen demonstrated a strength on at least one
activity, and twelve
children showed a weakness on one or more activities. In contrast, only
one child was identified as having no strengths or weaknesses, and her
scores ranged from -.98 to +.87 standard deviations from the mean. These
results were reinforced by the fact that, for the most part, children’s
performances on the activities were independent. Using Spearman
rank-order correlations, only the number activities, both requiring
logical-mathematical intelligence, proved significantly correlated with
one another (r = .78, p
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