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Minor Types of Lexical Opposition (Shortened Words)

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MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF
UZBEKISTAN

GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY

The English and Literature department

Halimova Muborak’s qualification work on speciality 5220100, English
philology on the theme:

“Shortened words Minor types of lexical opposition”

Supervisor:

Gulistan-2006

CONTENTS

I. Introduction.

1.1. Common characteristics of the qualification work

2.1. General definition of homonyms

II. The Main Part

1.2. Shortening of spoken words

2.2. Graphical abbreviations and acronyms

3.2. Abbreviations as the major type of shortenings

4.2. Secondary ways of shortening: sound interchange and sound imitating

5.2. Blendening of words

6.2. Back formation

7.2. Back formation as a source for shortening of words

III. Conclusion

1.3. Total review of the subject discussed

2.3. The ways of applying of the work

IV. Bibliography

Introduction

1.1 Common characteristics of the qualification work

The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Type of
shortening and their function in Modern English” This qualification work
can be characterized by the following:

The actuality of this work caused by several important points. We seem
to say that the shortening of the words is one of the main trends in
development of Modern English, especially in its colloquial layer,
which, in its turn at high degree is supported by development of modern
informational technologies and simplification of alive speech. So the
significance of our work can be proved by the following reasons:

a) Shortening of words is one of the developing branches of lexicology
nowadays.

b) Shortening reflects the general trend of simplification of a
language.

c) Shortening is closely connected with the development of modern
informational technologies.

d) Being a developing branch of linguistics it requires a special
attention of teachers to be adequated to their specialization in
English.

Having based upon the actuality of the theme we are able to formulate
the general goals of our qualification work.

a) To study, analyze, and sum up all the possible changes happened in
the studied branch of linguistics for the past fifty years.

b) To teach the problem of shortening to young English learners.

c) To demonstrate the significance of the problem for those who want to
brush up their English.

d) To mention all the major of linguists’ opinions concerning the
subject studied.

If we say about the new information used within our work we may note
that the work studies the problem from the modern positions and analyzes
the modern trends appeared in this subject for the last ten years. In
particular, the shorten language of computer chats was taken into
consideration.

The practical significance of the work can be concluded in the following
items:

a) The work could serve as a good source of learning English by young
teachers at schools and colleges.

b) The lexicologists could find a lot of interesting information for
themselves.

c) those who would like to communicate with the English-speaking people
through the Internet will find a shortened language of chats in our
qualification work.

Having said about the linguists studied the material before we can
mention that our qualification work was based upon the investigations
made by a number of well known English, Russian and Uzbek lexicologists
as A.I. Smirnitsky, B.A. Ilyish, N. Buranov, V.V. Vinogradov, O.
Jespersen and some others.

If we say about the methods of scientific approaches used in our work we
can mention that the method of typological analysis was used.

The novelty of the work is concluded in including the language of charts
to one of the chapter of the qualification work.

The general structure of our qualification work looks as follows:

The work is composed onto three major parts: introduction, main part and
conclusion. Each part has its subdivision onto the specific thematically
items. There are two points in the introductory part: the first item
tells about the general content of the work while the other gives us the
general explanation of the lexicological phenomenon of shortening in a
language. The main part bears the eight points in itself. The first
point explains the shortening of spoken words in particular. The second
item analyzes the phenomenon of graphical abbreviations and acronyms. In
the third point we study abbreviations as the major way of shortening.
In the fourth paragraph of the qualification work we deal with the
secondary ways of shortening: sound interchange and sound imitation. The
fifth paragraph takes into consideration the question of Blendening of
words. The sixth item shows us the back formation examples. The last
paragraph of the main part analyzes the homonymy influence onto the
appearing of shortening.

The conclusion of the qualification work sums up the ideas discussed in
the main part (the first item) and shows the ways of implying of the
qualification work (in the second item).

2.1 General definition of homonyms

Word-building processes involve not only qualitative but also
quantitative changes. Thus, derivation and compounding represent
addition, as affixes and free stems, respectively, are added to the
underlying form. Shortening, on the other hand, may be represented as
significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken
away. The spoken and the written forms of the English language have each
their own patterns of shortening, but as there is a constant exchange
between both spheres, it is sometimes difficult to tell where a given
shortening really originated.

SHORTENING OF WORDS AND MINOR WAYS OF WORD-FORMING

The shortening of words consists in sub-of words Graphical a part for a
whole. The process оf shortening is not confined only to words; many
word-groups also become shortened in the process of communication.
Therefore, the term “shortening of words” is to be regarded as
conventional, as it involves the shortening of both words and
word-groups.

Distinction should be made between shortening of words in written speech
and in the sphere of oral intercourse. Shortening of words in written
speech results in graphical abbreviations which are, in fact, signs
representing words and word-groups of high frequency of occurrence in
various spheres of human activity; note, for instance, RD for Road and
St for Street in addresses on envelopes and in letters; to for tube, are
for aerial in Radio Engineering literature, etc. English graphical
abbreviations include rather numerous shortened variants of Latin and
French words and word-groups, e. g. a. m. (L. ante meridian)—’in the
morning, before noon’; p. m. (L. post meridian)—’in the afternoon,
afternoon’; i.e. (L. widest)—’that is’; R. S. V. P. (Fr. Repondez sil
vous plait) — ‘reply please’, etc.

The characteristic feature of graphical abbreviations is that they are
restricted in use to written speech, occurring only in various kinds of
texts, articles, books, advertisements, letters, etc. In reading many of
them are substituted by the words and phrases that they represent, e.
g., Dr.-doctor, Mr.-mister, Oct.-October, etc., the abbreviations of
Latin and French words and phrases being usually read as their English
equivalents. It is only natural that in the course of language
development some graphical abbreviations should gradually penetrate into
the sphere of oral intercourse and, as a result, turn into lexical
abbreviations used both in oral and written speech. That is the case,
for instance, with M. P. Member of Parliament, S.O.S. Save our Souls,
etc. Lexical Shortened variants of words and shortening, phrases are
used as independent lexical units with a certain phonetic shape and a
semantic structure of their own. Some of them occur both in oral and
written speech, others only in oral colloquial speech, cf. bus, mike,
phone, on the one hand, and trig, math’s, sis, on the other.

In most cases a shortened word exists in the vocabulary together with
the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same
lexical meaning1 differing only in emotive charge and stylistic
reference. The question naturally arises whether the shortened forms and
the original forms should be considered separate words. Some linguists
hold the view that as the two units (e. g. exam and examination) do not
differ in meaning but only in stylistic application, it would be wrong
to apply the term word to the shortened unit. In fact, the shortened
unit is a word-variant (e. g. exam is a word-variant of the word
examination).

Other linguists contend that even when the original word and its
shortened form are generally used with “a difference in the implied tone
of feeling” they are both to be recognized as two distinct words. If
this treatment of the process of word-shortening is accepted, the
essential difference between the shortening of words and the usual
process of word-formation (such as affixation, compounding, etc.) should
be pointed out. It will be recalled that words built by affixation, for
instance, are of a more complex character both structurally and
semantically, cf. teach—teacher, develop—s- development, usual-unusual,
etc. It is not the case with word-shortening; shortened words are
structurally simple words and, as was mentioned above, in most cases
have the same lexical meaning as the longer words from which they are
derived. Another peculiarity of word-shortening if treated as a
derivational process is that there are no structural patterns after
which new shortened words could be coined. At any rate, linguistic
research has failed to establish any so far.

Among shortenings of the lexical type distinction should be made between
lexical abbreviations and clippings- Lexical abbreviations are formed by
a simultaneous operation of shortening and compounding, which accounts
for the Russian term сложно-сокращенные слова universally applied to
them in Soviet linguistic literature. They are made up of the initial
sounds or syllables of the components of a word-group or a compound word
usually of a terminological character. There are two ways to read and
pronounce such abbreviations:

(1) As a succession of the alphabetical readings of the constituent
letters, e. g.

(2) В. В. С,[‘bi:’bi:si:] = British Broadcasting Corporation; -T.V.
[‘ti:’vi:] television; etc.

(3) as a succession of sounds denoted by the constituent letters, i. e.
as if the abbreviations were ordinary words, e.g. UNO [‘ju:noy] = United
Nations Organization; NATO [‘neitou] = North Atlantic Treaty
Organization; laser

(4) [‘leiza] light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation;
etc.

As a rule, lexical abbreviations do not include functional words
(prepositions, articles, etc.). although there are some exceptions, e.
g. R. and D. [ ‘a:rsn’di:] research and development program.

In some cases only the first component of a two-member word-group or the
first two components of a three-member group are shortened, the last one
undergoing no change at all, e. g. V-day r’vi: ‘dei]Victory Day; H-bomb
r’eitj ‘bnm] hydrogen Domb; V.J.-Day [‘vi’dgei’dei] = Victory over Japan
Day, etc.

As a general rule, lexical abbreviations first make their appearance in
written speech, mostly in newspaper style and in the style of scientific
prose, and gradually find their way into the sphere of oral intercourse.
Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979
pp.72-82

Clipping consists in the cutting off of one or several syllables of a
word. In many cases the stressed syllable is preserved, e. g. sis from
sister, Jap from Japanese, doc from doctor, etc. Diminutives of proper
names are often formed in this way, e. g. AH from Alfred, Ed from
Edward, Sam from Samuel, etc. Sometimes, however, it is the unstressed
syllable that remains e. g. phone from telephone, plane from airplane,
dome from aerodrome, etc. Traditionally clippings are classified into
several types depending on which part of the word is clipped:

1) Words that have been shortened at the end—the so called apocope
[‘opokop]—апокопа, е. g. ad from advertisement, lab from laboratory,
etc.

2) Words that have been shortened at the beginning—the so-called
aphaeresis [a’fiansisj — аферезис, е. g. car from motor-car, phone from
telephone, etc.

3) Words in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the
middle—the so-called syncope [‘sinkapi] — синкопа, е.g. math’s from
mathematics, pants from pantaloons specs from spectacles, etc.

4) Words that have been clipped both at the beginning and at the end, e.
g. flu from influenza, tic from detective, frig from refrigerator, etc.

It is typical of word-clipping in Modern English that in most cases it
is the nouns that are shortened. There are very few clipped adjectives
all of them belonging to jargonize, e. g. add from ardent, dilly from
delightful and some others. As for clipped verbs it is usually a case of
conversion from clipped nouns, e. g. to taxi from taxi, to phone from
phone, to perm from perm—’a permanent wave’, etc.

1) When performing in the sentence some peculiarities the syntactical
functions of ordinary of Clipped words and lexical Abbreviations,
abbreviations take on grammatical inflections, e. g. exams, M. P. s
(will attack huge arms bill), (Tory) M. P.’s (concern at), etc.

2) These two categories of shortened words may be used with the definite
and the indefinite article, e. g. the В. В. С, a bike, the radar, etc.
Buranov, Muminov Readings on Modern English Lexicology T. O’qituvchi
1985 pp. 34-47

3) They may be combined with derivational affixes and also be used in
compounding, e. g. Y. С L.-er— ‘member of the Y.C.L.’; M.
P.-ess—’woman-member of Parliament’; hanky from handkerchief, nighttime
from nightdress (with the diminutive suffix -ie); radar man—оператор
радиолокационой станции, etc.

4) Clipped words are characteristic of colloquial speech. The number of
clipped words used in everyday speech is rather considerable and newly
clipped words keep entering the vocabulary.

In the course of time many clipped words find their way into the
literary language losing their stylistic coloring, though not
infrequently they still preserve the stamp of colloquial words and, as a
result, are restricted in use.

The term blending is used to de-§ 39. Blending signage the method of
merging parts of words (not morphemes) into one new word; the result is
a blend, also known as a portmanteau word. The noun smog is an example
in point. It is composed of the parts of the nouns smoke and fog
(smoke-Hog). Thus blending is in fact compounding by means of clipped
words. The result of blending is an unanalyzed, simple word, for the
parts of words blended by the word-coiner (for instance, sin and go in
smog) are not morphemes at all in terms of the English language.
Therefore a blend is perceived as a simple word unless speakers have
received the extra-linguistic information about its composition. Many
blends are short-lived. A fair proportion, however, have become
established in the vocabulary, e. g. clash—clap H-crash or dash; flush =
flash blush; brunch—breakfast-Ь lunch; 5language=slang-language; amaze
smoke haze, etc. In most cases blends belong to the colloquial layer of
words sometimes bordering on slang, e. g. amaze, brunch, language,
politician pollute politician—грязный политикан, etc. There are numerous
blends, however, in the terminological sector of the vocabulary, e.g.
recon=radar beacon—радиолокационный маяк; transceiver =
transmitter-receive—приемное-передающая станция; transistor=transfer
resistor—транзистор, etc.

In considering the diachronic and the formation synchronic approach to
language study (see ‘Introduction’, § 2) reference was made, in
particular, to the verb to beg derived from the noun beggar borrowed
from Old French. The noun beggar was later presumed to have been derived
from a shorter word on the analogy of the derivative correlation of the
“speak—speaker” type. This process of word-formation is called
backformation (or back-derivation) and has diachronic relevance only. It
does not affect the derivative correlation for present-day speakers who
do not feel any difference between the relationship “speak— speaker”, on
the one hand, and “beg—beggar”, on the other. Examples of backformation
are numerous: to burgle from burglar; to edit from editor; to enthuse
from enthusiasm; to sculpt from sculptor, to liaise from liaison, etc.
At the present time backformation combined with conversion seems to be
active in the formation of verbs from compound nouns mostly of a
terminological character, e.g. to blood-transfuse from blood-trans
fusion — переливание крови; to rush-develop from rush-development —
быстрое проявление пленки; to finger-print from finger-printing — взятие
отпечатков пальцев; to baby-sit from baby-sitter= приходящая няня, etc.

Sound-interchange is the gradation of e.g. Sound- and stress- sounded
occupying one and the same interchange. Place in the sound-form of one
and the same morpheme in various cases of its occurrence. Both sound and
stress-interchange may be regarded as ways of forming words only
diachronically because in Modern English not a single word can be coined
by changing the root-vowel of a word or by shifting the place of the
stress. Sound-interchange as well as stress-interchange is absolutely
non-productive and in fact has turned into a means of distinguishing
between different words, primarily between words of different parts of
speech and as such is rather wide-spread in Modern English, e.g. to
sing—song, to live—life, to breathe—breath, etc. It also distinguishes
between different word-forms, e.g. man—men, wife—wives, to know—knew, to
leave—left, etc.

Sound-interchange naturally falls into two groups: vowel-interchange and
consonant-interchange.

By means of vowel-interchange we distinguish different parts of speech,
e.g. full—to fill, food—to feed, blood-to bleed, etc. In some cases
vowel-interchange is combined with affixation, e.g. long—length,
strong—strength, broad— breadth; nature—natural, nation—national, etc.
Intransitive verbs and corresponding transitive ones with a causative
meaning also display vowel-interchange, e.g. to rise—to raise, to sit—to
set, to He—to lay, to fall—to fell.

The type of consonant-interchange typical of Modern English is the
interchange of a voiceless fricative consonant in a noun and the
corresponding voiced consonant in the corresponding verb, e.g.: use—to
use, mouth—to mouth, house-to house, advice—to advise, etc.

There are some particular cases of consonant-interchange: [k]—[tj]: to
speak—speech; to break—breach; [s]—[dj:] defense—to defend; offence—to
offend; [sj—ft]: evidence-evident; importance—important; etc.
Consonant-interchange may be combined with vowel-interchange, e.g.
bath—to bathe; breath—to breathe; life—to live, etc.

Many English verbs of Latin-French origin are distinguished from the
corresponding nouns by the position of stress. Here are some well-known
examples of such pairs of words: ‘export «—to export o; ‘import n—to
import v; ‘conduct n—to conduct v; ‘present n—to present v; ‘contrast n—
to contrast u; ‘increase n—-to increase v, etc.

Stress-interchange is not restricted to pairs of words consisting of a
noun and a verb. It may also occur between other parts of speech, for
instance, between adjective and verb, cf. ‘frequent adj—to frequent v,
‘absent ad— to absent v, etc.

Relationship Sound-interchange in English is often Between sound
(stress)- combined with a difference only in the interchange paradigm.
Hence the question arises and conversion. Of the relativistic between
sound-interchange and conversion. To investigate the problem the
following three types of relations should be distinguished:

1) Breath—to breathe

As far as cases of this type are concerned, sound-interchange
distinguishes only between words; it does not differentiate word-forms
of one and the same word. Consequently it has no relation to the
paradigms of the words. Hence, cases of this type cannot be regarded as
conversion.

2) Song—to sing

In the given example the vowel in song interchanges with three different
vowels, the latter interchanging with one another in the forms of the
verb to sing: Buranov, Muminov Readings on Modern English Lexicology T.
O’qituvchi 1985 pp. 34-47

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Like the previous type, the words song—to sing is not related by
conversion: song differs from to sing (sang, sung) not only in the
paradigm, its root-vowel not occurring in the word-forms of the verb and
vice versa.

3) House—to house

In such cases the type of sound-interchange used to distinguish the two
words (verb and noun) is the same as that which distinguishes the
word-forms of the noun, cf. house [haus]—houses [hauziz] and to house
[hauz]. Consequently, the only difference between the two words lies in
their paradigms, in other words, word-pairs like house—to house are
cases of conversion. It is fairly obvious that in such cases as
present—to present, accent—-to accent, etc. which differ in the position
of stress the latter does not distinguish the word-forms within the
paradigm of the two words. Thus, as far as cases of this type are
concerned, the difference in stress is similar to the function of
sound-interchange in cases like breath—to breathe. Consequently, cases
of this type do not belong to conversion.

1. Shortening of words and word summary groups is typical of present-day
English a one occurring in various spheres of oral and written
intercourse. Graphical abbreviations are restricted in use to written
speech. Lexical abbreviations and especially clippings are peculiar to
the sphere of oral communication

2. The result of blending which is a compounding of clipped words is
always a simple word. In most cases blends belong to the colloquial
layer of words. There are, however, numerous blends in the
terminological section of the vocabulary.

3. The process of back formation is of diachronic relevance only.

4. The function of sound-interchange and stress-inter change in Modern
English is to distinguish between different words and word-forms.
Sound-interchange is often accompanied by affixation.

The Main Part

1.2 SHORTENING OF SPOKEN WORDS

As a type of word-building shortening of spoken words, also called
clipping or curtailment, is recorded in the English language as far back
a& the 15th century.1 It has grown more and more productive ever since.
This growth becomes especially marked in many European languages in the
20th century, and it is a matter of common knowledge that this
development is particularly intense in English.

Newly shortened words appear continuously; this is testified by numerous
neologisms, such as dub v, a cinema term meaning ‘to make another
recording of sound-track in a film in a different language’ (from
double); frig or fridge n from refrigerator; mike n from microphone;
tellie, telly or T. V. n from television set; vacun from vacuum cleaner,
etc.

Many authors are inclined to overemphasize the role of “the strain of
modern life” as the mainspring of this development. This is, obviously,
only one of the reasons, and the purely linguistic factors should not be
overlooked. Among the major forces are the demands of rhythm, which are
more readily satisfied when the words are monosyllabic.

When dealing with words of long duration, one will also note that a high
percentage of English shortenings are involved into the process of loan
word assimilation. Monosyllabic goes farther in English than in any
other European language, and that is why shortened words sound more like
native ones than their long prototypes. Curtailment may therefore be
regarded as caused, partly at least, by analogical extension, i.e.
modification of form on the basis of analogy with existing and widely
used patterns. Thus, the three homonyms resulting from abbreviation of
three different words, van ‘a large covered vehicle’, ‘a railway
carriage’, the short for caravan (by aphesis1); van ‘the front of an
army’, the short of vanguard which in its turn is a clipping of the
French word avant-garde; and van — a lawn tennis term, the short for
advantage, all sound quite like English words. Cf. ban n and v, can,
fan, man, ran (Past Tense of run), tan, etc.

Shortening of spoken words or curtailment consists in the reduction of a
word to one of its parts (whether or not this part has previously been a
morpheme), as a result of which the new form acquires some linguistic
value of its own.

The part retained does not change phonetically, hence the necessity of
spelling changes in some of the examples above (dub:: double, mike ::
microphone, etc.).

The change is not only quantitative: a curtailed word 2 is not merely a
word that has lost its initial, middle or final part. Nor is it possible
to treat shortening as just using a part for the whole as Hackett
suggests, because a shortened word is always in some way different from
its prototype in meaning and usage. Moreover, every kind of shortening
differs’ from derivation, composition and conversion in being not a new
arrangement of existing morphemes, but often a source of new ones.

Shortening may be regarded as a type of root creation because the
resulting new morphemes are capable of being used as free forms and
combine with bound forms. They can take functional suffixes: “Refs
Warning Works Magic” (the title of a newspaper article about a football
match where the referee called both teams together and lectured them on
rough play). Cf. Sing. — bike, bod, 1 PI. — bikes, bodes, Inf. — to vac,
2 Part. I — vacking, Past Tense and Part. II — vacked. They also serve
as basis for further word-formation: fancy n (from fantasy), fancy v,
fancier n, fanciful adj, fancifully adv, fancifulness n, fancy-ball n,
fancy-dress n, fancy-work n, etc.

It is interesting in this connection to compare the morphemes “tele” in
television and telecast. They are homonymous but not identical. Tele- in
television is derived from “Grtele far”, it is a combining form used to
coin many special terms denoting instruments and processes which produce
or record results at a distance, such as telecommunication,
telemechanics, telepathy, telephone, telescope and television itself.
Tele- in telecast does not mean ‘far’, it is a new development — the
shortened variant of television rendering a special new notion. This
becomes obvious from the following simple transformations: television –
vision at a distance, tele(broad)”cast HO a broadcast at a distance,3
tele (broad) cast a television broadcast. In this new capacity tele-
enters many combinations: telefilm, tele-prompter (an electronic device
that slowly unrolls the speaker’s text, in large print out of sight of
the audience), televiewer ‘one who uses a television set’, telestar
(Anglo-American satellite used as television relay station).

The correlation of a curtailed word with its prototype is of great
interest. Two possible developments should be noted:

1. The curtailed form may be regarded as a variant or a synonym
differing from the full form quantitatively, stylistically and sometimes
emotionally, the prototype being stylistically and emotionally neutral,
e. g. doc :: doctor; exam :: examination. Also in proper names: Becky::
Rebecca, Frisco :: San Francisco, Japs :: the Japanese. The missing part
can at all times be supplied by the listener, so that the connection
between the prototype and the short form is not lost. The relationship
between the prototype and the curtailment belongs in this case to the
present-day vocabulary system and forms a relevant feature for
synchronistic analysis. Much yet remains to be done in studying the
complex relations between the prototype and the clipping, as it is not
clear when one should consider them two separate synonymous words and
when they are variants of the same word.

2. In the opposite extreme case the connection can be established only
etytnologically. The denotative or lexico-grammatical meaning, or both,
may have changed so much that the clipping becomes a separate word.
Consequently a pair of etymological doublets1 comes into being. Cf.
chap:: chapmen ‘a peddlers’, fan ‘an enthusiastic devotee’ :: fanatic,
fancy :: fantasy, miss -.-.mistress. A speaker who calls himself a
football fan would probably be offended at being called a fanatic. A
fanatic is understood to have unreasonable and exaggerated beliefs and
opinions that make him socially dangerous, whereas a fan is a harmless
devotee of a specified amusement. The relationship between curtailed
forms and prototypes in this second group is irrelevant to the
present-day vocabulary system, and is a matter of historic, i. e.
diachronistic study.

In both types the clipped forms (doc, exam, chap, fan, etc.) exist in
the language alongside their respective prototypes. The difference,
however, is that whereas words belonging to the first group can be
replaced by their prototypes and show in this way a certain degree of
interchangeability, the doublets are never equivalent lexically as there
are no contexts where the prototype can replace the shortened word
without a change of meaning.

The possibility of substitution in case of variants may be shown by the
following example: if a newspaper article about a certain musician2 is
entitled “The Boss of the Tenor Sax”, there is nothing very unusual in
substituting saxophone for sax (“The Boss of the Tenor Saxophone”). The
prototype is stylistically neutral and therefore it can stand for the
curtailed word. A similar example is furnished by the following heading
of a brief newspaper note about the prescription of eyeglasses for
racing horses in Chicago. It runs as follows: “Racehorses Are Fitted
with Specs”. The substitution of spectacles for specs would make the
heading a little less lively but not unacceptable.

This substitution, as a rule, can go only one way. It would be, for
instance, impossible to use mug for magazine in the following passage of
literary criticism: The public he [Ch. Dickens] wrote for was largely a
new public brought to consciousness by the industrial revolution, a
public for which magazine proprietors had not catered before 1832… (W.
ALLEN) The specific stylistic character of the clipped form greatly
limits the possibilities of usage.

The semantic status of the group of variants (or synonyms) and that of
the group of doublets is also different. Curtailed words of the first
group (variants) render one of the possible meanings of the prototype
creating by this very novelty a greater expressiveness, a colloquial or
slangy shade and often emotional coloring as well. The following extract
will illustrate this coloring: “Still, I suppose you want to find your
room. I wonder where they’ve put you. Half a mo — /’// come down and
look on the board. You go and make the co//, Con” she called back as she
came downstairs, “1 shan’t be a jiff.” Everything with her was an
abbreviation. Striking a match by the notice board, she searched for the
number of my room. “Presuming the Ass Mat’s remembered” “The who?”
“Assistant Matron, old Fanny Harriman…” (M. DICKENS)

It is typical of the curtailed words to render only one of the secondary
meanings of a polysemantic word. For instance the verb double may mean
‘to multiply by two’, ‘to increase twofold’, ‘to amount to twice as
much’; when used by musicians it means ‘to add the same note in a higher
or a lower octave’. In a military context the meaning is ‘to move in
double time or run’. As a nautical term it is synonymous to the
expression ‘to get round headland’, etc. Dub, on the contrary, renders
only one of the specific meanings (see p. 110).

The curtailed words belonging to this type are mostly mono-semantic as,
for example, lab, exam, and fan. Also they are often homonymous: compare
van and vac as treated above, also gym for gymnastics and gym for
gymnasium, or vet for veteran and veterinary. Most of these by
conversion produce verbs: to phone, to vac, to vet, etc., in which the
semantic relationship with the prototype remains quite clear.

Between the two groups of well-defined extreme cases, namely variants or
synonyms and doublets, there exist numerous intermediate cases, where
the classification is difficult. The appearance of a more complex
semantic structure in a word is a step towards its acquiring greater
independence and thus becoming not a variant but a doublet of the
prototype. This intermediate state is illustrated by the word polio
which means not only the illness but also a person suffering from
poliomyelitis, although the phrases a polio case or a polio victim are
more often used.

The second extreme group, the etymological doublets, may develop
semantic structures of their own. Very complex semantic cases like fancy
with its many meanings and high valiancy are nevertheless rare.

It has been specified in the definition of the process that the clipped
part is not always a complete morpheme, so that the division is only
occasionally correlated with the division into immediate constituents.
For instance, in phone for telephone and photo for photograph the
remaining parts are complete morphemes occurring in other words. On the
other hand in ec or eco (from economics) the morphological structure of
the prototype is disregarded. All linguists agree that most often it is
either the first or the stressed part of the word that remains to
represent the whole. An interesting and convincing explanation for this
is offered by M. M. Segal, who quotes the results of several
experimental investigations dealing with informal! Vine parts of words.
These experiments carried out by psychologists have proved very
definitely that the initial components of words are imprinted in the
mind and memory more readily than the final parts. The signaling value
of the first stressed syllable, especially when it is at the same time
the root syllable, is naturally much higher than that of the unstressed
final syllables with their reduced vowel sounds.

As a rule, but not necessarily, clipping follows the syllabic principle
of word division, e. g. pep (si.) ‘vigour’, ‘spirit’ from pepper, or
plane from aero plane. In other instances it may be quite an arbitrary
part of the prototype, e.g. prep (school.) ‘Homework’ is from
preparation.

Unlike conversion, shortening produces new words in the same part of
speech. The bulk of curtailed words is constituted by nouns, Verbs are
hardly ever shortened in present-day English, Rev from revolve and tab
from tabulate may be considered exceptions. Such clipped verbs as do
occur are in fact converted nouns. Consequently the verbs to perm, to
phone, to taxi, to vac, to vet and many others are not curtailed words
diachronically hut may be regarded as such by right of structure, from
the synchronic point of view. As to the verbs to pent, to mend, to tend
and a few others, they were actually coined as curtailed words but not
at the present stage of language development.

Shortened adjectives are very few and mostly reveal a combined effect of
shortening and suffixation, e. g. comfy ‘.: comfortable, dilly ::
delightful, imposes :: impossible, muzzy :: miserable, which occur in
schoolgirl slang. As an example of a shortened interjection Shun! ::
attention, the word of command may be mentioned,

Various classifications of shortened words have been or may he offered.
The generally accepted one is that based on the position of the clipped
part. According to whether it is the final, initial or middle part of
the word that is cut off we distinguish final clipping (or apocopate),2
initial clipping (or aphesis) 3 and medial clipping (or syncope)
Jespersen ,Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford,
1982 pp.246-249

SHORTENED WORDS

1. Final clipping in which the beginning of the prototype is retained,
is practically the rule, and forms the bulk of the class: e. g. ad,
advert :: advertisement, coke :: coca-cola, ed -.-.’editor, -fab :;
fabulous, gym :: gymnastics or gymnasium, lab :; laboratory, mac ::
mackintosh, vegs :: vegetables and many others.

2. Initial-clipped words retaining the final part of the prototype .are
less numerous but much more firmly established as separate lexical units
with a meaning very different from that of the prototype and
stylistically neutral doublets, e. g. cute adj, n (Am) :: acute, fend v
:: defend, mend v :: amend, story n :: history, sport n :: disport, tend
v :: attend. Cases like cello:: violoncello and phone :: telephone where
the curtailed words are stylistically synonyms or even variants of their
respective prototypes are very rare. Neologisms are few: e. g. chute::
parachute. It is in this group that the process of assimilation of loan
words takes place.

Final and initial clipping may be combined and result in curtailed words
with the middle part of the prototype retained. These are few and
definitely colloquial: e. g. flu :: influenza, frig ox fridge ::
refrigerator, tec :: detective. It is worthy of note that what is
retained is the stressed syllable of the prototype.

3. Curtailed words with the middle part of the word left out are equally
few. They may be further subdivided into two groups: (a) words with a
final-clipped stem retaining the functional morpheme: math::
mathematics, specs :: spectacles; (b) contractions due to a gradual
process of elision under the influence of rhythm and context. Thus
fancy:: fantasy, ma’am :: madam may be regarded as accelerated forms.

It is also possible to approach shortened words on the basis of the
structure characterizing the prototype. Then the two mutually exclusive
groups are cases correlated with words and those correlated with
phrases. The length of the word giving rise to a shortening might result
from its being a derivative, a compound or a borrowing. The observation
of language material, however, can furnish hardly any examples of the
second type (compounds), all the word prototypes being derivatives,
either native or borrowed, as is shown by all the examples quoted in the
above paragraphs.

The few exceptions are exemplified by tarmac, a technical term for
tar-macadam, a road surface of crushed stone and tar originally named
after the inventor (J. L. Mc Adam, d. 1836); also cabbie for cabman. But
then -man in such cases is most often a semi-affix, not a free form,
and, besides, the process of shortening is here combined with derivation
as in mightier for nightdress.

The group we have opposed to the curtailed forms of words is based on
clipped phrases, chiefly set expressions. These differ severable from
word clippings as they result from a combined effect of curtailment,
ellipsis and substantiation.

E11ipsis is defined as the omission of a word or words considered
essential for grammatical completeness but not for the conveyance of the
intended lexical meaning, as in the following example: Police summonses
are being served in an effort to stop the big sit down planned for
September 17 (“Daily Worker”), where sit-down stands for sit down
demonstration, S. Ullmann following Broal emphasizes the social causes
for these. Professional and other communities with a specialized sphere
of common interests are the ideal setting for ellipsis. Open on for open
fire on, and put to sea for put ship to sea are of wartime and navy
origin, and bill for bill of exchange comes from business circles; in a
newspaper office daily paper and weekly paper were quite naturally
shortened to daily and weekly. It is clear from the above examples that
unlike other types of shortening, ellipsis always results in a change of
lexico-gravimetrical meaning, and therefore the new word belongs to a
different part of speech. Various other processes are often interwoven
with ellipsis. For instance: finals for final examinations are a case of
ellipsis combined with substantiation of the first element, whereas
prelims for preliminary examinations results from ellipsis,
substantivation and clipping. Cf. also modes (from Modern jazz). Other
examples of the same complex type are perm :: permanent wave, pop ::
popular music,2 prom :: promenade concert, i. e. a concert at which at
least part of the audience is not seated and can walk about, pub ::
public house —an inn or tavern, taxi :: taxi-cab, itself formed from
taximeter-cab. Inside this group a subgroup with prefixed derivatives as
first elements of prototype phrases can do distinguished, e. g. co-ed ‘a
girl student at a co-educational institution’, co-op ‘co-operative store
or society’, non-com ‘a noncommissioned officer’, prefab ‘a
prefabricated house or structure’; to prefabricate means ‘to manufacture
component parts of buildings prior to their assembly on a site’.

It has already been mentioned that curtailed words from compounds are
few; cases of curtailment combined with composition set off against
phrasal prototypes are slightly more numerous, e. g. ad-lib v ‘to speak
without notes or preparation’ from the Latin phrase add labium meaning
‘at pleasure’; sub chaser n from submarine chaser. A curious
derivational compound with a clipping for one of its stems is the word
teen-ager ‘a person between 13 and 19’, i. e. ‘a person in his or her
teens’. The-jocular and ironical name Lib-Labs (Liberal and Labor Party
members) illustrates clipping, composition and ellipsis and imitation of
reduplication all in one word.

Among these formations there is a specific group that has attracted
special attention of several authors and was even given several
different names: blends, bleu dings, fusions airport an tea words. The
last term is due to Lewis Carroll, the author of “Alice in Wonderland”
and “Through the Looking Glass”. One of the most linguistically
conscious writers, he made a special technique of using blends coined by
himself, such as chortle v < chuckle + snort, missy adj < miserable -j- flimsy, galumph v < gallop -j- triumph, slither adj < slimy -- lithe.1 Humpty Dumpy explaining these words to Alice says: "You see it's like a portmanteau — there are two meanings packed up into one word." The process of formation is also called telescoping because the words seem to slide into one another like sections of a telescope.Compare also snob which may have been originally an abbreviation for sine nobilities, written after a name in the registry of fashionable English schools to indicate that the bearer of the name did not belong to nobility. One of the most recent examples is bit, the fundamental unit of information, which is short for binary digit.The analysis into immediate constituents is helpful in so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first constituent represented by a stem whose final part may be missing, and the second constituent by a stem of which the initial part is missing. The second constituent when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a suffix. A new suffix on is, for instance, well under way in such terms as nylon, rayon, salon, formed from the final element of cotton.Depending upon the prototype phrases with which they can be correlated two types of blends can be distinguished. One may be termed additive, the second restrictive. Both involve the sliding together not only of sound but of meaning as well. Yet the semantic relations who are at work are different. The first, i.e. additive type is transformable into a phrase consisting of the respective complete stems combined by the conjunction and: e.g. smog < smoke and fog 'a mixture of smoke and fog1. The element may be synonymous, belong to the same semantic field or at least "be members of the same lexico-grammatical class of words: (smoke) + (fog) > smog; cf. also a new coinage amaze [ smog + haze: A Weath er
Bureau official described the condition as a kind of smog-like haze.
“Call it amaze,” he said.1 Pakistan was made up of elements taken from
the names of the five western provinces: the initials of Panjab,
Afghanis, Kashmir, and Singh, and the final part of Baluchistan. Other
examples are: brunch breakfast and lunch; transceiver transmitter and
receiver, Niffles – Niagara Falls.

The restrictive type is transformable into an attributive phrase, where
the first element serves as modifier of the second: cinematographic
panorama Cinerama. Other examples are: positron < positive electron; telecast < television broadcast. An interesting variation of the same type is presented by cases of superposition, formed by pairs of words having similar clusters of sounds, which seem to provoke blending, e.g. a motel < motorists' hotel: the element -ot- is present in both parts of the prototype. Further examples are: shampoo < sham bamboo (imitation bamboo); egomaniac < atom maniac; language changed its meaning, it is used now in the function and with
the meaning of the whole word-group.

Semantic changes have been classified by different scientists. The most
complete classification was suggested by a German scientist Herman Paul
in his work «Prinzipien des Sprachgeschichte)). It is based on the
logical principle. Me distinguishes two main ways where the semantic
change is gradual (specialization and generalization), two momentary
conscious semantic changes (metaphor and metonymy) and also secondary
ways: gradual (elevation and degradation), momentary (hyperbole and
litotes).

SPECIALIZATION

It is a gradual process when a word passes from a general sphere to some
special sphere of communication, e.g. «case» has a general meaning
«circumstances in which a person or a thing is». It is specialized in
its meaning when used in law (a law suit), in grammar (a form in the
paradigm of a noun), in medicine (a patient, an illness). The difference
between these meanings is revealed in the context.

The meaning of a word can specialize when it remains in the general
usage. It happens in the case of the conflict between two absolute
synonyms when one of them must specialize in its meaning to remain in
the language, e.g. the native word (meat) had the meaning (food), this
meaning is preserved in the compound «sweetmeats)). The meaning (edible
flesh)) was formed when the word «food)), its absolute synonym, won in
the conflict of absolute synonyms (both words are native). The English
verb «starve) was specialized in its meaning after the Scandinavian verb
«die» was borrowed into English. «Die» became the general verb with this
meaning because in English there were the noun «death)> and the
adjective «dead». «Starve) got the meaning «to die of hunger» meanings:
in Russian we say, in English we use the verb «come» in this case. In
English we use the verb «go» in the combinations: «to go by bus», «to go
by train» etc. In Russian in these cases we use the verb.

The number of meanings does not correspond to the number of words;
neither does the number of notions. Their distribution in relation to
words is peculiar in every language. The Russian has two words for the
English «man»: « мужчина» and «человек». In English, however, «man»
cannot be applied to a female person. We say in Russian: In English we
use the word «person»/ She is a good person»/ Development of lexical
meanings in any language is influenced by the whole network of ties and
relations between words and other aspects of the language. Dubenets E.M.
Modern English Lexicology (Course of Lectures)M., Moscow State Teacher
Training University Publishers 2004 pp.17-31

POLYSEMY

The word «polysemy» means «plurality of meanings» it exists only in the
language, not in speech. A word which has more than one meaning is
called polysemantic.

Different meanings of a polysemantic word may come together due to the
proximity of notions which they express. E.g. the word «blanket» has the
following meanings: a woolen covering used on beds, a covering for
keeping a horse warm, a covering of any kind /a blanket of snow/,
covering all or most cases /used attributively/, e.g. we can say «a
blanket insurance policy».

There are some words in the language which are monosemantic, such as
most terms, /synonym, molecule, bronchitis, some pronouns /this, my,
both/, numerals.

There are two processes of the semantic development of a word: radiation
and concatenation. In cases of radiation the primary meaning stands in
the centre and the secondary meanings proceed out of it like rays. Each
secondary meaning can be traced to the primary meaning. E.g. in the word
«face» the primary meaning denotes «the front part of the human head»
Connected with the front position the meanings: the front part of a
watch, the front part of a building, the front part of a playing card
was formed. Connected with the word «face» and it itself the meanings:
expression of the face, outward appearance is formed.

In cases of concatenation secondary meanings of a word develop like a
chain. In such cases it is difficult to trace some meanings to the
primary one. E.g. in the word «crust» the primary meaning «hard outer
part of bread» developed a secondary meaning «hard part of anything /a
pie, a cake/)), then the meaning harder layer over soft snow» was
developed, then «a sullen gloomy person)), then «impudence)) were
developed. Here the last meanings have nothing to do with the primary
ones. In such cases homonyms appear in the language. It is called the
split of polysemy.

In most cases in the semantic development of a word both ways of
semantic development are combined.

HOMONYMS

Homonyms are words different in meaning but identical in sound or
spelling, or both in sound and spelling.

Homonyms can appear in the language not only as the result of the split
of polysemy, but also as the result of leveling of grammar inflexions,
when different parts of speech become identical in their outer aspect,
e.g. (care from «caru» and «care» from «carried). They can be also
formed by means of conversion, e.g. (to slini) from «slim)). «(to waten)
from (water) ». They can be formed with the help of the same suffix from
the same stem, e.g. «reader))/ a person who reads and a book for
reading/.

Homonyms can also appear in the language accidentally, when two words
coincide in their development, e.g. two native words can coincide in
their outer aspects: (to bean) from (beram)/to carry/ and «bear» from
(bera) /an animal/. A native word and a borrowing can coincide in their
outer aspects, e.g. «fair» from Latin (feria) and (fair) from native
(fager) /blond/. Two borrowings can coincide e.g. «base» from the French
«base) /Latin basis/ and «base» /low/ from the Latin «bas» /Italian
«basso»/.

Homonyms can develop through shortening of different words, e.g. «cab»
from «cabriolet», «cabbage), «cabin».

Walter Skeat classified homonyms according to their spelling and sound
forms and he pointed out three groups: perfect homonyms that is words
identical in sound and spelling, such as : «school» – «косяк рыбы» and
«школа» homographs, that is words with the same spelling but pronounced
differently, e.g. «bow» -/bau/ – «поклон)) and /bou/ – homophones that
is words pronounced identically but spelled differently, e.g. «night» –
«ночь» and «knight» – «рыцарь».

V.N. Comissarov in his dictionary of antonyms classified them into two
groups: absolute or root antonyms /»Late» – «early»/ and derivational
antonyms / «to please1 – «to displease»/. Absolute antonyms have
different roots and derivational antonyms have the same roots but
different affixes. In most cases negative prefixes form antonyms / un-,
dis-, non-/. Sometimes they are formed by means of suffixes -ful and
-less.

The number of antonyms with the suffixes full- and -less is not very
large, and sometimes even if we have a word with one of these suffixes
its antonym is formed not by substituting -full by less-, e.g.
«successful» -» unsuccessful)), «selfless» – «selfish». The same is true
about antonyms with negative prefixes, e.g. «to mam) is not an antonym
of the word «to unman», «to disappoint» is not an antonym of the word
«to appoint)).

The difference between derivational and root antonyms is not only in
their structure, but in semantics as well. Derivational antonyms express
contradictory notions; one of them excludes the other, e.g.
«active»-«inactive». Absolute antonyms express contrary notions. If some
notions can be arranged in a group of more than two members, the most
distant members of the group will be absolute antonyms, e.g. «ugly» ,
«plain», «good-looking)), «pretty», «beautiful», the antonyms are «ugly»
and «beautiful». Dubenets E.M. Modern English Lexicology (Course of
Lectures)M., Moscow State Teacher Training University Publishers 2004
pp.21-24

Leonard Lipka in the book «Outline of English Lexicology)) describes
different types of oppositeness, and subdivides them into three types:

a) complementary, e.g. male -female, married -single,

b) antonyms, e.g. good -bad,

c) converseness, e.g. to buy – to sell. Dubenets E.M. Modern English
Lexicology (Course of Lectures)M., Moscow State Teacher Training
University Publishers 2004 pp.34-42

In his classification he describes complimentarily in the following way:
the denial of the one implies the assertion of the other, and vice
versa. «John is not married)) implies that «John is single)). The type
of oppositeness is based on yes/no decision. Incompatibility only
concerns pairs of lexical units.

Antonym is the second class of oppositeness. It is distinguished from
complimentarily by being based on different logical relationships. For
pairs of antonyms like good/bad, big/small only the second one of the
above mentioned relations of implication holds. The assertion containing
one member implies the negation of the other, but not vice versa. «John
is good» implies that «John is not bad)), but «.Ton is not good» does
not imply that «John is bad». The negation of one term does not
necessarily imply the assertion of the other.

An important linguistic difference from complementariness is that
antonyms are always fully gradable, e.g. hot, warm, tepid, and cold.
Dubenets E.M. Modern English Lexicology (Course of Lectures)M., Moscow
State Teacher Training University Publishers 2004 pp. 51-53

Converseness is mirror-image relations or functions, e.g. husband/wife,
pupil/teacher, precede /follow, above/below, before/after etc.

«John bought the car from Bill)) implies that «Bill sold the car to
John)). Mirror-image sentences are in many ways similar to the relations
between active and passive sentences. Also in the comparative form: »Y
is smaller than X, and then X is larger than Y». L. Lipka also gives the
type which he calls directional opposition up/down, consequence
opposition learn/know, antipodal opposition North/South, East/West, (it
is based on contrary motion, in opposite directions.) The pairs come/go,
arrive/depart involve motion in different directions. In the case
up/down we have movement from a point P. In the case come/go we have
movement from or to the speaker.

L. Lipka also points out non-binary contrast or many-member lexical
sets. Here he points out serially ordered sets, such as scales / hot,
warm, tepid, cool, cold/ ; color words / black, grey, white/ ; ranks
/marshal, general, colonel, major, captain etc./ There are gradable
examination marks / excellent, good, average, fair, poor/. In such sets
of words we can have outer and inner pairs of antonyms. He also points
out cycles, such as units of time /spring, summer, autumn, winter/ . In
this case there are no «outermost)) members.

Not every word in a language can have antonyms. This type of opposition
can be met in qualitative adjectives and their derivatives, e.g.
beautiful- ugly, to beautify – to uglify, beauty – ugliness. It can be
also met in words denoting feelings and states, e.g. respect – scorn, to
respect – to scorn, respectful – scornful, to live – to die, alive –
dead, life – death. It can be also met among words denoting direction in
space and time, e.g. here – there, up – down, now – never, before –
after, day – night, early – late etc.

If a word is polysemantic it can have several antonyms, e.g. the word
«bright» has the antonyms «dim», «sad».

CONCLUSION

1.3 Having analyzed the problem of shortening of words in Modern English
we could do the following conclusions:

a) The problem of shortened words in Modern English is very actual
nowadays.

b) There are several kinds of shortening: shortening proper, blending,
abbreviations.

c) A number of famous linguists dealt with the problem of shortening of
words in Modern English. In particular, Profs. Ullmann and Broal
emphasized the social reasons for shortening, L. Lipka pointed out
non-binary contrast or many-member lexical sets and gave the type which
he called directional opposition, V.N. Comissarov and Walter Skeat
proved the link of homonymy influence with the appearing of shortened
words, etc.

d) The problem of shortening is still waits for its detail
investigation.

2.3. Having said about the perspectives of the work we hope that this
work will find its worthy way of applying at schools, lyceums and
colleges of high education by both teachers and students of English. We
also express our hopes to take this work its worthy place among the
lexicological works dedicated to the types of shortening.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979
pp.72-82

2.Buranov, Muminov Readings on Modern English Lexicology T. O’qituvchi
1985 pp. 34-47

3. Arnold I.V. The English Word M. High School 1986 pp. 143-149

4. O. Jespersen. Linguistics. London, 1983, pp. 395-412

5. Jespersen ,Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language.
Oxford, 1982 pp.246-249

5. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford 1964.,
pp.147, 167, 171-172

6.V.D. Arakin English Russian Dictionary M.Russky Yazyk 1978 pp. 23-24,
117-119, 133-134

7.Abayev V.I. Homonyms T. O’qituvchi 1981 pp. 4-5, 8, 26-29

8.Smirnitsky A.I. Homonyms in English M.1977 pp.57-59,89-90

9. Dubenets E.M. Modern English Lexicology (Course of Lectures) M.,
Moscow State Teacher Training University Publishers 2004 pp.17-31

10. Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1972 pp. 59-66

12. Burchfield R.W. The English Language. Lnd. ,1985 pp45-47

13. Canon G. Historical Changes and English Wordformation: New
Vocabulary items. N.Y., 1986. p.284

14. Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980. p.311

15. Halliday M.A.K. Language as Social Semiotics. Social Interpretation
of Language and Meaning. Lnd., 1979.p.53,112

16. Potter S. Modern Linguistics. Lnd., 1957 pp.37-54

17. Schlauch, Margaret. The English Language in Modern Times. Warszava,
1965. p.342

18. Sheard, John. The Words we Use. N.Y..,1954.p.3

19. Maurer D.W. , High F.C. New Words – Where do they come from and
where do they go. American Speech., 1982.p.171

20. Aпресян Ю.Д.Лексическая семантика. Омонимические средства языка.
М.1974. стр.46

21. Беляева Т.М., Потапова И.А. Английский язык за пределами Англии. Л.
Изд-во ЛГУ 1971Стр. 150-151

22. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка.М. Высшая
школа 1959. стр.212-224

23. . Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография. Избранные труды. М.
1977 стр 119-122

24. Bloomsbury Dictionary of New Words. M. 1996 стр.276-278

25. Hornby The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Lnd.
1974 стр.92-93, 111

26 . Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Longman. 1981pp.23-25

27. Трофимова З.C. Dictionary of New Words and New Meanings. Изд.
‘Павлин’ ,1993. стрю48

28. World Book Encyclopedia NY Vol 8 1993 p.321

29 Internet: http://www.wikipedia.com/English/articles/homonymy.htm

30. Internet: http://www mpsttu.ru/works/english philology/ Э. М.
Дубенец. Курс лекций и планы семинарских занятий по лексикологии
английского языка.htm

31. Internet:http://www.freeessays.com/english/M.Bowes Quantiitive and
Qualitive homonymy.htm

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