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Eo?niaay ?aaioa ii aeenoeeieeia

«Aeieoiaioiay eeiaaenoeea»

ia oaio:

Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue. I?iaeaia aeaeinoe e eciai/eainoe ycueiaie ii?iu.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Eacaiue, 2006

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea.

Aeaaa 1. Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue

Aeaaa 2. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii?iu

Aeaaa 3. Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?i ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea

Aeaaa 4. Aeaeu eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea.

Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aacen, iniiao anaai ?onneiai
ycuea. Eiaiii ii yaeyaony ia?acoeii, iineoaeai eeoa?aoo?iie ii?iu.

sscueiaay ii?ia – yoi ia?acaoe, yoi oi, eae i?eiyoi aiai?eoue e ienaoue
a aeaiiii ycueiaii iauanoaa a aeaiioth yiioo. Ii?ia ii?aaeaeyao, /oi
i?aaeeueii e /oi – iao, iia ?aeiiaiaeoao iaeie ycueiaua n?aaenoaa e
niiniau au?aaeaiey e cai?auaao ae?oaea. sscueiaua ii?iu iauaeoeaii
neeaaeuaathony a i?ioeanna ycueiaie i?aeoeee /eaiia iauanoaa. Ii?iu
iiaoo eciaiyoueny n oa/aieai a?aiaie, ii ana aea ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iie noaaeeueiu. Niaethaeaiea ii?i iaeaa/aao
eniieueciaaiea eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Ii?iu i?iiecuaatho ana y?onu
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.

Aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea n/eoaaony aai ii?iaoeaiinoue,
eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony eae a aai ienueiaiiie, oae e a onoiie oi?ia.
Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe ii?iu eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea: ioiineoaeueiay
onoie/eainoue; ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue; iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiinoue;
iauaiaycaoaeueiinoue; niioaaonoaea oiio?aaeaieth, iau/ath e
aiciiaeiinoyi ycueiaie nenoaiu.

sscueiaua ii?iu ia auaeoiuaathony o/aiuie. Iie io?aaeatho caeiiiia?iua
i?ioeannu e yaeaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a ycuea, e iiaeaea?aeeaathony ?a/aaie
i?aeoeeie. E iniiaiui enoi/ieeai ycueiaie ii?iu ioiinyony i?iecaaaeaiey
ienaoaeae-eeanneeia e nia?aiaiiuo ienaoaeae, n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, iauai?eiyoia nia?aiaiiia oiio?aaeaiea, aeaiiua aeeaiai e
aieaoiiai ii?inia, iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey o/aiuo–ycueiaaaeia.

Ii?iu iiiiaatho eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo nio?aiyoue naith oeaeinoiinoue e
iauaiiiyoiinoue. Iie caueuatho eeoa?aoo?iue ycue io iioiea aeeaeaeoiie
?a/e, nioeeaeueiuo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?ai, i?inoi?a/ey. Yoi iicaieyao
eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo auiieieoue naith iniiaioth ooieoeeth – eoeueoo?ioth.

Eeoa?aoo?iay ii?ia caaeneo io oneiaee, a eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony ?a/ue.
sscueiaua n?aaenoaa, oianoiua a iaeiie neooaoeee (auoiaia iauaiea),
iiaoo ieacaoueny iaeaiui a ae?oaie (ioeoeeaeueii-aeaeiaia iauaiea).
Ii?ia ia aeaeeo n?aaenoaa ycuea ia oi?ioea e ieioea, a oeacuaaao ia eo
eiiioieeaoeaioth oeaeaniia?aciinoue.

Aeaaa 1. Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue

Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue – iaaeaeeaeaeoiay iiaenenoaia (oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey)
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeeie /a?oaie, eae
ii?iaoeaiinoue, eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiinoue, iieeooieoeeiiaeueiinoue,
noeeenoe/aneay aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue, aunieee nioeeaeueiue i?anoeae a
n?aaea iineoaeae aeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea. Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue
yaeyaony iniiaiui n?aaenoaii, ianeoaeeaathuei eiiioieeaoeaiua
iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa; ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeai iaeiaeeoeoee?iaaiiui
iiaenenoaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea – oa??eoi?eaeueiui aeeaeaeoai,
ai?iaeneei eieia (ai?iaeneiio i?inoi?a/eth), i?ioanneiiaeueiui e
nioeeaeueiui aea?aiiai. Iiiyoea eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny eae ia iniiaa eeiaaenoe/aneeo naienoa, i?enoueo aeaiiie
iiaenenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, oae e iooai ioa?aie/aiey niaieoiiinoe
iineoaeae yoie iiaenenoaiu, auaeaeaiey aa ec iauaai ninoaaa ethaeae,
aiai?yueo ia aeaiiii ycuea. Ia?aue niinia ii?aaeaeaiey –
eeiaaenoe/aneee, aoi?ie – nioeeieiae/aneee. I?eia?ii eeiaaenoe/aneiai
iiaeoiaea e auyniaieth nouiinoe eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea iiaeao neoaeeoue
ii?aaeaeaiea, aeaiiia I.A.Iaiiaui: «Anee a iaeiie ec neio?iiiuo
?aciiaeaeiinoae ycuea aeaiiiai ia?iaea i?aiaeieaaaaony
iaooieoeeiiaeueiia iiiaiia?acea aaeeieoe (iii iaiueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo
?aciiaeaeiinoyo), oi yoa ?aciiaeaeiinoue neoaeeo eeoa?aoo?iui ycueii ii
ioiioaieth e ae?oaei». A yoii ii?aaeaeaiee io?aaeaiu oaeea aaaeiua
naienoaa eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, eae aai iineaaeiaaoaeueiay
ii?ie?iaaiiinoue (ia oieueei iaee/ea aaeeiie ii?iu, ii e aa
niciaoaeueiia eoeueoeae?iaaiea), iauaiaycaoaeueiinoue aai ii?i aeey anao
aiai?yueo ia aeaiiii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea, eiiioieeaoeaii oeaeaniia?aciia
eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa (iii auoaeaao ec oaiaeaioeee e eo
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ?aca?aie/aieth) e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Ii?aaeaeaiea
iaeaaeaao aeeooa?aioee?othuae neeie: iii ioa?aie/eaaao eeoa?aoo?iue ycue
io ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ycuea. Iaeiaei aeey ?aoaiey iaeioi?uo caaea/ i?e enneaaeiaaiee ycuea
nianoaaiii eeiaaenoe/aneee iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
auaaao iaaeinoaoi/ai. Iai?eia?, ii ia aeaao ioaaoa ia aii?in, eaeea neie
ianaeaiey iaaei n/eoaoue iineoaeyie aeaiiie iiaenenoaiu, e a yoii niunea
ii?aaeaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia /enoi eeiaaenoe/aneeo niia?aaeaieyo,
iaiia?aoeeiiaeueii. Ia yoio neo/ae eiaaony eiie, «aiaoiee» i?eioeei
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey «eeoa?aoo?iue ycue» – /a?ac niaieoiiinoue aai
iineoaeae. A niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eioeeiii eeoa?aoo?iue ycue – yoi oa
iiaenenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, ia eioi?ie aiai?yo eeoea,
iaeaaeathuea neaaeothueie o?aiy i?eciaeaie: aeaiiue ycue yaeyaony aeey
ieo ?iaeiui; iie ?iaeeeenue e/eee aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy (anth aeeciue eee
aieueooth aa /anoue) aeeaoo a ai?iaea; iie eiatho aunoaa eee n?aaeiaa
ia?aciaaiea, iieo/aiiia a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo n i?aiiaeaaaieai anao
i?aaeiaoia ia aeaiiii ycuea. Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea niioaaonoaoao
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth i eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea eae ycuea
ia?aciaaiiie, eoeueoo?iie /anoe ia?iaea. Iieaaeai ia i?eia?a
nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, ianeieueei nouanoaaiiu
oeacaiiua i?eciaee aeey auaeaeaiey niaieoiiinoe iineoaeae eeoa?aoo?iie
oi?iu iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea. Ai-ia?auo, eeoea, aeey eioi?uo ?onneee ycue
ia ?iaeiie, aeaaea a oii neo/aa, eiaaea aiai?yuee aeaaeaao ei naiaiaeii,
iaia?oaeeaatho a naiae ?a/e /a?ou, a oie eee eiie noaiaie iaoneiaeaiiua
aeeyieai ?iaeiiai ycuea. Yoi eeoaao enneaaeiaaoaey aiciiaeiinoe n/eoaoue
oaeeo ethaeae iaeii?iaeiuie a ycueiaii ioiioaiee n eeoeaie, aeey eioi?uo
?onneee ycue – ?iaeiie. Ai-aoi?uo, aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi ai?iae
niinianoaoao noieeiiaaieth e acaeiiiio aeeyieth ?aciiaeeaeaeoiuo ?a/aauo
noeoee, niaoaieth aeeaeaeoia. Aeeyiea ycuea ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiey,
i?annu, ?a/e ia?aciaaiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey a ai?iaea i?iyaeyaony ai?acaei
eioaineaiaa, /ai a aea?aaia. E?iia oiai, a aea?aaia eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo
i?ioeainoieo i?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia iaeiiai aeeaeaeoa (oioy e – a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo – cia/eoaeueii ?anoaoaiiay aicaeaenoaeai
eeoa?aoo?iie ?a/e), a a ai?iaea – naiaai ?iaea eioa?aeeaeaeo,
ninoaaeythuea eioi?iai iaoiaeyony iaaeaeo niaie a iaonoie/eauo,
iaiythueony ioiioaieyo. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ieaaee?iaea aeeaeaeoiuo ?a/aauo
/a?o eee e eo eieaeecaoeee (n?. «naiaeiua ycuee») eeai e iieiiio eo
auoaniaieth iiae aeaaeaieai eeoa?aoo?iie ?a/e. Iiyoiio ethaee, oioy e
?iaeeaoeany a aea?aaia, ii anth naith niciaoaeueioth aeeciue aeeaouea a
ai?iaeao, oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue aeeth/aiu, ia?yaeo n ei?aiiuie
ai?iaeaiaie, a iiiyoea «aeeoaee ai?iaeia» e, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo,
a iiiyoea «iineoaee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea». A-o?aoueeo, e?eoa?ee «aunoaa
eee n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea» aaaeai iioiio, /oi aiaeu o/aiey a oeiea e aoca
niinianoaotho aieaa iieiiio, aieaa niaa?oaiiiio iaeaaeaieth ii?iaie
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, ono?aiaieth ec ?a/e /aeiaaea /a?o, i?ioeai?a/aueo
yoei ii?iai, io?aaeathueo aeeaeaeoiue eee i?inoi?a/iue ocon. Anee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue o?ao oeacaiiuo auoa i?eciaeia a ea/anoaa niaieoiiiai
e?eoa?ey aeey auaeaeaiey iauiinoe aiai?yueo ia eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea eae
aoaeoi ia iiaeao aucaaoue niiiaiee, oi eo aeinoaoi/iinoue o?aaoao aieaa
aeaoaeueiuo iainiiaaiee. E aio ii/aio. Eiooeoeaii niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi
aioo?e oaeei ia?acii auaeaeaiiie iauiinoe aeiaieueii aaeeee ?acee/ey a
noaiaie aeaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?iie ii?iie. A naiii aeaea, oieaa?neoaoneee
i?ioanni? – e ?aai/ee ni n?aaeiei ia?aciaaieai, aeo?iaeeno eee
ienaoaeue, i?ioanneiiaeueii eiathuea aeaei ni neiaii, – e caaiaeneie
eiaeaia? eee aaieia, i?ioannee eioi?uo ia iniiauaathony ia
eniieueciaaiee ycuea, o/eoaeue-neiaaniee – e oioa? oaene, ei?aiiie
iineae/ – e auoiaeaoe ec eino?iineie aea?aaie, n aeaonoaa aeeaouee a
noieeoea, – ana yoe e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee ?acii?iaeiuo nioeeaeueiuo,
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo a?oii ieacuaathony iauaaeeiaiiuie a
iaeio niaieoiiinoue «iineoaee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea». A iaaeaeo oai
i/aaeaeii, /oi aeaaeatho iie yoei ycueii ii-?aciiio e ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey
eo ?a/e e eaeaaeueii eeoa?aoo?iie aanueia ?acee/ia. Iie ?aniieaaathony
eae au ia ?aciii ?annoiyiee io «ii?iaoeaiiai yae?a» eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea:
/ai aeoaaea ycueiaay eoeueoo?a /aeiaaea, /ai i?i/iaa aai
i?ioanneiiaeueiay naycue ni neiaii, oai aeeaea aai ?a/ue e yoiio yae?o,
oai niaa?oaiiaa aeaaeaiea eeoa?aoo?iie ii?iie e, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oai
iainiiaaiiaa niciaoaeueiua ionooieaiey io iaa a i?aeoe/aneie ?a/aaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. *oi aea iauaaeeiyao noieue ?acii?iaeiua e a
nioeeaeueiii, e a i?ioanneiiaeueiii, e a eoeueoo?iii ioiioaiee a?oiiu
ethaeae, iiieii auaeaeioouo iaie o?ao i?eciaeia? Ana iie a naiae ?a/aaie
i?aeoeea neaaeotho eeoa?aoo?iie ycueiaie o?aaeeoeee (a ia, neaaeai,
aeeaeaeoiie eee i?inoi?a/iie), i?eaioe?othony ia eeoa?aoo?ioth ii?io.
Enneaaeiaaoaee ioia/atho iaeii aaaeiia naienoai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea iaoeo aeiae: a ioee/ea io oaeeo ycueia, eae, iai?eia?, eaoeineee,
eniieueciaaaoeeny a ea/anoaa eeoa?aoo?iiai a ?yaea no?ai n?aaeiaaaeiaie
Aa?iiu, a oaeaea io eneonnoaaiiuo ycueia oeia ynia?aioi, eioi?ua
ecia/aeueii eeoa?aoo?iu e ia eiatho aaoaeaiey ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua eee
nioeeaeueiua iiaenenoaiu, – ?onneee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue aaoa?iaaiai (yoi
naienoai i?enoua e iiiaei ae?oaei nia?aiaiiui eeoa?aoo?iui ycueai).
Eaaeaony, /oi yoio auaiae i?ioeai?a/eo aeaaiie aeneiia, naycaiiie ni
noaoonii eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, – aeneiia i aaeeinoaa e
iauaiaycaoaeueiinoe ii?iu aeey anao aiai?yueo ia eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea, i
aai eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiinoe eae ia iaeiii ec iniiaiuo naienoa. Iaeiaei a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e iacaaiiay aeneiia, e naienoai aaoa?iaaiiinoe ia
oieueei oaeeaathony aianoa, ii e aeiiieiytho, iiaeaea?aeeaatho ae?oa
ae?oaa. A naiii aeaea, ?anniio?aiiia n nianoaaiii ycueiaie,
eiiioieeaoeaiie e nioeeaeueiie oi/ae c?aiey, naienoai aaoa?iaaiiinoe
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea iai?a/eaaaony oaeeie oa?aeoa?iaeoeie aeey iaai
yaeaieyie, eae aa?eaoeaiua niiniau au?aaeaiey iaeiiai e oiai aea niunea
(ia yoii iieieony nenoaia ia?eo?ace?iaaiey, aac eioi?ie iaiuneeii
iiaeeeiiia aeaaeaiea ethaui anoanoaaiiui ycueii), iiiaeanoaaiiinoue
?aaeecaoeee nenoaiiuo iioaioeee, noeeenoe/aneay e eiiioieeaoeaiay
a?aaeaoeey n?aaenoa eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, eniieueciaaiea iaeioi?uo
?ac?yaeia ycueiauo aaeeieoe eae n?aaenoa nioeeaeueiiai neiaieecia (n?.
nioeeaeueiua ?acee/ey a niiniaao i?iuaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaaaiuo ii?iie
nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea: io nioeeaeueii ia
ia?ee?iaaiiiai aei naeaeaiey aei i?inoi?a/iiai iiea e aea?aiiiuo oii e
/ai) e o.i. Ii?ia eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, iaeaaeay naienoaii aaeeinoaa e
iauaiaycaoaeueiinoe, ia cai?auaao, a i?aaeiieaaaao ?acee/iua,
aa?eaoeaiua niiniau ?a/e. E n yoie oi/ee c?aiey aa?eaoeaiinoue – eae
iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee aieaa iauaai naienoaa aaoa?iaaiiinoe – anoanoaaiiia,
ii?iaeueiia yaeaiea a eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea. Aaoa?iaaiiinoue eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea i?iyaeyaony oaeaea a aai eieaeueii e nioeeaeueii iaoneiaeaiiie
aa?eaoeaiinoe: i?e iauai e aaeeiii iaai?a n?aaenoa eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
(oiiaoe/aneeo, eaene/aneeo, a?aiiaoe/aneeo) e i?aaee eo eniieueciaaiey
yoe n?aaenoaa ?acee/athony /anoioiinoueth oiio?aaeaiey eo ?aciuie
a?oiiaie aiai?yueo. Aaoa?iaaiiinoue eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea eiaao eae
nioeeaeueiua, oae e ycueiaua i?iyaeaiey; iia io?aaeaaony a o?ao iniiaiuo
oi?iao: 1) a iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ninoaaa iineoaeae – noano?aoiay
aaoa?iaaiiinoue; 2) a aa?uee?iaaiee ycueiauo n?aaenoa a caaeneiinoe io
nioeeaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aiai?yueo (aic?anoa, nioeeaeueiie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, i?ioannee, o?iaiy ia?aciaaiey, oa??eoi?eaeueiie
oa?aeoa?enoeee e ae?.) – nioeeaeueiay, eee no?aoeoeeaoeeiiiay,
aaoa?iaaiiinoue; 3) a aa?uee?iaaiee ycueiauo n?aaenoa a caaeneiinoe io
eiiioieeaoeaiuo e noeeenoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia – ooieoeeiiaeueiay
aaoa?iaaiiinoue. *eaiaiea eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a
ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneii ioiioaiee «nooiai/aoi»: ia?aia, iaeaieaa
i/aaeaeiia, – yoi aeeoioiiey eieaeii-ienueiaiiiai e ?acaiai?iiai ycueia.
Iacuaay yoi ?acaeaeaiea eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea ia aeaa ooieoeeiiaeueiua
?aciiaeaeiinoe «naiui iauei e naiui aannii?iui», Ae.I.Oiaeaa ienae ii
yoiio iiaiaeo: «Ia anao yoaiao ?acaeoey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, aeaaea i?e
i?aiaeieaiee oae eee eia/a i?iyaeyaoaeny io/oaeaeaiiinoe ycuea
ienueiaiiinoe, i?e iiooneiaiee i?aiea i?inoi a?aiioiinoe e aeaaeaiey
iniaui eieaeiui ycueii, o aiai?yueo a iauai ieeiaaea ia en/acaao
iuouaiea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oai, «eae iiaeii neacaoue», e oai, «eae
neaaeoao iaienaoue»». Eieaeiue ycue – aeinoeaeaiea e aeinoiyiea
eoeueoo?u. Ii yaeyaony iniiaiui iineoaeai e ia?aaeao/eeii eoeueoo?iie
eioi?iaoeee. Ana aeaeu iai?yiiai, aeenoaioiiai iauaiey inouanoaeythony
n?aaenoaaie eieaeiiai ycuea. Iao/iua o?oaeu, ooaeiaeanoaaiioth
eeoa?aoo?o, aeaeiaoth ia?aieneo, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
aacaoii-aeo?iaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth e aeaaea oaeea onoiua ii oi?ia, ii a
oeaeii no?iai eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua noa?u eniieueciaaiey eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea, eae ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea, iaaiciiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue aac
eieaeiiai ycuea. Nia?aiaiiue eieaeii-eeoa?aoo?iue ycue – yoi iiuiia
n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee. A ioee/ea io ae?oaie ?aciiaeaeiinoe –
?acaiai?iiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea (e oai aieaa a ioee/ea io oaeeo
iiaenenoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, eae aeeaeaeou e i?inoi?a/ea), ii
iieeooieoeeiiaeai: i?eaiaeai aeey eniieueciaaiey a naiuo ?aciuo noa?ao
iauaiey, aeey ?aciuo oeaeae e aeey au?aaeaiey naiiai ?aciiia?aciiai
niaea?aeaiey. Ienueiaiiay oi?ia eae iniiaiay oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee eieaeiiai
ycuea iaoneiaeeaaao aua iaeii aaaeiia aai naienoai: ienueii «oaeeeiyao
a?aiy aeecie eaaeaeiai oaenoa (onoiay o?aaeeoeey iinoaiaiii iaiyao
oaeno); oai naiui iii oneeeaaao niiniaiinoue eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea auoue
naycueth iaaeaeo iieieaieyie. Ienueii noaaeeece?oao ycue, caiaaeeyao aai
?acaeoea – e yoei aai oniaa?oainoaoao: aeey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
iaaeeaiiia ?acaeoea – aeaai» (I.A.Iaiia).

?acaiai?iay ?aciiaeaeiinoue eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea – yoi naiinoiyoaeueiay e
naiiaeinoaoi/iay nenoaia aioo?e iauae nenoaiu eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, ni
naiei iaai?ii aaeeieoe e i?aaeeaie eo ni/aoaiey ae?oa n ae?oaii,
eniieuecoaiay iineoaeyie eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a oneiaeyo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai, ca?aiaa ia iiaeaioiaeaiiiai iauaiey i?e
iaioeoeeaeueiuo ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aiai?yueie. ?acaiai?iue eeoa?aoo?iue
ycue ia eiaeeoeoee?iaai: a iai, aaconeiaii, aeaenoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua
ii?iu (aeaaiaea?y /aio, iai?eia?, eaaei ioee/eoue onoioth ?a/ue iineoaey
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea io onoiie ?a/e iineoaey aeeaeaeoa eee i?inoi?a/ey),
ii yoe ii?iu neiaeeeenue enoi?e/anee e ieeai niciaoaeueii ia
?aaoee?othony e ia cae?aieythony a aeaea eaeeo-eeai i?aaee e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Oai naiui eiaeeoeoee?iaaiinoue / iaeiaeeoeoee?iaaiiinoue
– aua iaeei, i?e/ai aanueia nouanoaaiiue, i?eciae, ?acee/athuee
eieaeioth e ?acaiai?ioth ?aciiaeaeiinoe eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.
Neaaeothuoth nooiaiue /eaiaiey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea ninoaaeyao aeaeaiea
eaaeaeie aai ?aciiaeaeiinoe – eieaeiiai e ?acaiai?iiai ycueia– ia
ooieoeeiiaeueiua noeee. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa,
ooieoeeiiaeueiue noeeue – yoi «iauanoaaiii iniciaiiay e ooieoeeiiaeueii
iaoneiaeaiiay, aioo?aiia iauaaeeiaiiay niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia
oiio?aaeaiey, ioai?a e ni/aoaiey n?aaenoa ?a/aaiai iauaiey a noa?a oiai
eee eiiai iauaia?iaeiiai, iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, niioiineoaeueiay n
ae?oaeie oaeeie aea niiniaaie au?aaeaiey, eioi?ua neoaeao aeey eiuo
oeaeae, auiieiytho eiua ooieoeee a ?a/aaie iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeea
aeaiiiai ia?iaea». Ei?ioei aiai?y, aa?eaiou eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea,
iaoneiaeaiiua ?acee/iuie noa?aie iauaiey, e anoue ooieoeeiiaeueiua
noeee. A nia?aiaiiii ?onneii eieaeiii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea ooieoeeiiaeueiua noeee: iao/iue, ioeoeeaeueii-aeaeiaie,
ioaeeoeenoe/aneee, ?aeeaeicii-i?iiiaaaeie/aneee. Eiiaaea e
ooieoeeiiaeueiui noeeyi ioiinyo e ycue ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. Ii
yoi iaaa?ii: a i?icae/aneii eee iiyoe/aneii oaenoa iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny eae yeaiaiou anao oeacaiiuo noeeae eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea,
oae e aaeeieoeu iaeiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo iiaenenoai – aeeaeaeoia,
i?inoi?a/ey, aea?aiiia (n?., iai?eia?, i?ico E.Y.Aaaaey, I.I.Ciuaiei,
A.I.Anoaoueaaa, A.I.Aenaiiaa, iaeioi?ua noeoioai?aiey A.A.Aaoooaiei,
A.A.Aicianaineiai e ae?.). Ioai? e oiio?aaeaiea yoeo n?aaenoa ienaoaeue
iiae/eiyao ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e ynoaoe/aneei oeaeyi, eioi?uo ii no?aieony
aeinoe/ue a naiai i?iecaaaeaiee. ?acaiai?iue ycue ia /eaieony noieue aea
ii?aaeaeaiii ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua noeee, /oi aiieia iiiyoii: eieaeiue
ycue niciaoaeueii eoeueoeae?oaony, iauanoai a oeaeii e ?acee/iua aai
a?oiiu e einoeooou caeioa?aniaaiu a ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeaeinoe eieaeiiai
ycuea (aac yoiai iaaiciiaeii yooaeoeaiia ?acaeoea oaeeo noa?
iauanoaaiiie aeecie, eae iaoea, caeiiioai?/anoai, aeaeii?iecaiaenoai,
ianniaay eiiioieeaoeey e ae?.); ?acaiai?iue aea ycue ?acaeaaaony
niiioaiii, aac iai?aaeythueo oneeee ni noi?iiu iauanoaa. Iaeiaei e
caeanue iiaeii iaaethaeaoue iaeioi?ua ?acee/ey, ii?aaeaeyaiua (a) noa?ie
i?eiaiaiey ?acaiai?iiai ycuea, (a) eiiioieeaoeaiuie oeaeyie ?a/e, (a)
nioeeaeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aiai?yuaai e neooathuaai e
ineoieiae/aneeie ioiioaieyie iaaeaeo ieie, a oaeaea iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie
ia?aiaiiuie. Oae, ?acee/athony naiaeiua ?acaiai?u e aeeaeiae
nineoaeeaoeaa; ?acaiai? n ?aaaieii e iauaiea ac?ineuo; ?a/aaua aeou
inoaeaeaiey eee oi?aea e ?a/aaua aeou i?inueau eee oaauaaaiey e o.ae.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiua noeee /eaiyony ia ?a/aaua aeai?u. ?a/aaie aeai?
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue ?a/aauo i?iecaaaeaiee (oaenoia eee
auneacuaaiee), iaeaaeathuoth, n iaeiie noi?iiu, niaoeeoe/aneeie /a?oaie,
ioee/athueie aeaiiue aeai? io inoaeueiuo, a n ae?oaie – ii?aaeaeaiiie
iauiinoueth, eioi?ay iaoneiaeaia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth iaeioi?ie a?oiiu
aeai?ia iaeiiio ooieoeeiiaeueiiio noeeth. Oae, a i?aaeaeao iao/iiai
noeey auaeaeythony oaeea ?a/aaua aeai?u, eae noaouey, iiiia?aoey,
o/aaiee, ?aoeaicey, iaci?, aiiioaoeey, ?aoa?ao, iao/iue eiiiaioa?ee
oaenoa, eaeoeey, aeieeaae ia niaoeeaeueioth oaio e ae?.
Ioeoeeaeueii-aeaeiaie noeeue ?aaeecoaony a oaenoao oaeeo ?a/aauo
aeai?ia, eae caeii, iinoaiiaeaiea, oeac, ?aciethoeey, aeeieiiaoe/aneay
iioa, eiiithieea, ?acee/iua aeaeu th?eaee/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee: eneiaia
cayaeaiea, i?ioieie aeii?ina, iaaeieoaeueiia caeeth/aiea, aeo
yenia?oecu, eannaoeeiiiay aeaeiaa e ae?.; oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiatho
oaeea aeai?u ioeoeeaeueii-aeaeiaiai noeey, eae cayaeaiea, ni?aaea,
iauynieoaeueiay caienea, io/ao, iauyaeaiea e o.i. Ioaeeoeenoe/aneee
noeeue aeeth/aao oaeea ?a/aaua aeai?u, eae ei??aniiiaeaioeey a aacaoa,
i/a?e, ?aii?oaae, iaci? ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oaiu, eioa?aueth, nii?oeaiue
eiiiaioa?ee, aunooieaiea ia nia?aiee e o.i. A
ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneeo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo ?acaiai?iiai ycuea
?a/aaua aeai?u ia noieue /aoei i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ae?oa ae?oao, eae
?a/aaua aeai?u ycuea eieaeiiai. E?iia oiai, aeai?iai-noeeenoe/aneia
iiiaiia?acea ?acaiai?iie ?a/e aua iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aii. Eiathueany aea
a yoie iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee ?acoeueoaou iicaieytho auaeaeyoue
neaaeothuea ?a/aaua aeai?u ?acaiai?iiai ycuea. Ii /eneo aiai?yueo e
oa?aeoa?o eo o/anoey a iauaiee auaeaeytho ?anneac, aeeaeia e iieeeia
(o.a. «?acaiai? ianeieueeeo eeoe»: aeaiiue oa?iei aiciee ia iniiaa
ioeai/iiai au/eaiaiey a caeinoaiaaiiii ec a?a/aneiai neiaa «aeeaeia»
/anoe ni cia/aieai «aeaa» e, niioaaonoaaiii, iiieiaiee aai eae
«?acaiai?a aeaoo eeoe»). Ii oeaeaaie iai?aaeaiiinoe, oa?aeoa?o neooaoeee
e nioeeaeueiui ?ieyi o/anoieeia iauaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeea
?aciiaeaeiinoe, eae naiaeiue ?acaiai? ca iaaaeaiiui noieii, aeeaeia
nineoaeeaoeaa ia auoiaua e ia i?ioanneiiaeueiua oaiu, auaiai? ac?ineiai
?aaaieo, ?acaiai? /aeiaaea n aeeaioiui (iai?eia?, n niaaeie),
ia?aa?aiea, ?aciiia?aciua aeai?u ?a/aaie eiaaeoeau e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.
Eoae, eeoa?aoo?iue ycue oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie naienoaaie,
ioee/athueie aai io ae?oaeo iiaenenoai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea:

1) ii?ie?iaaiiinoue; i?e yoii eeoa?aoo?iay ii?ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
ia oieueei ycueiaie o?aaeeoeee, ii e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie eiaeeoeeaoeee,
cae?aieyaiie a a?aiiaoeeao e neiaa?yo;

2) iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoue n?aaenoa
e naycaiiay n yoei iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuay oaiaeaioeey e
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ?aca?aie/aieth aa?eaioia;

3) iieeooieoeeiiaeueiinoue: eeoa?aoo?iue ycue niiniaai ianeoaeeaaoue
eiiioieeaoeaiua iio?aaiinoe ethaie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe;

4) eiiioieeaoeaiay oeaeaniia?aciinoue; yoi naienoai anoanoaaiiui ia?acii
auoaeaao ec /eaiaiey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua noeee e
?a/aaua aeai?u;

5) noaaeeueiinoue e ecaanoiue eiina?aaoeci eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, aai
iaaeeaiiay eciaiyaiinoue: eeoa?aoo?iay ii?ia aeieaeia ionoaaaoue io
?acaeoey aeeaie ?a/e (n?. ecaanoiue aoi?eci A.I.Iaoeianeiai: «Ii?iie
i?eciaaony oi, /oi auei, e io/anoe oi, /oi anoue, ii ioithaeue ia oi,
/oi aoaeao»). Yoi naienoai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea eiaao eneeth/eoaeueiia
eoeueoo?iia cia/aiea: iii iaania/eaaao naycue iaaeaeo niaiythueie ae?oa
ae?oaa iieieaieyie iineoaeae aeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, eo
acaeiiiiieiaiea.

A nioeeaeueiii e eiiioieeaoeaiii ioiioaieyo iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo naienoa
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea yaeyaony aai aunieay nioeeaeueiay i?anoeaeiinoue:
aoaeo/e eiiiiiaioii eoeueoo?u, eeoa?aoo?iue ycue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oaeoth eiiioieeaoeaioth iiaenenoaio iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, ia eioi?oth
i?eaioe?othony ana aiai?yuea, iacaaeneii io oiai, aeaaeatho iie yoie
iiaenenoaiie eee eaeie-eeai ae?oaie.

Aeaaa 2. Ii?aaeaeaiea ii?iu.

Oa?iei “ii?ia” ii ioiioaieth e ycueo i?i/ii aioae a iaeoiae e noae
oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai eoeueoo?u ?a/e. Aeaaeaiee A.A. Aeiia?aaeia noaaee
eco/aiea ii?i ycuea ia ia?aia ianoi n?aaee aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ ?onneiai
ycueiciaiey a iaeanoe eoeueoo?u ?a/e.

A nia?aiaiiie eeiaaenoeea oa?iei “ii?ia” iiieiaaony a aeaoo cia/aieyo:
ai-ia?auo, ii?iie iacuaatho iauai?eiyoia oiio?aaeaiea ?acii-ia?aciuo
ycueiauo n?aaenoa, ?aaoey?ii iiaoi?ythuaany a ?a/e aiai?yueo
(aini?iecaiaeeiia aiai?yueie), ai-aoi?uo, i?aaeienaiey, i?aaeea,
oeacaiey e oiio?aaeaieth, caoeene?iaaiiua o/aaieeaie, neiaa?yie,
ni?aai/ieeaie. A enneaaeiaaieyo ii eoeueoo?a ?a/e, noeeenoeea,
nia?aiaiiiio ?onneiio ycueo iiaeii iaeoe ianeieueei ii?aaeaeaiee ii?iu.
Iai?eia?, o N.E. Iaeaaiaa neacaii: “Ii?ia – yoi niaieoiiinoue iaeaieaa
i?eaiaeiuo (“i?aaeeueiuo”, “i?aaeii/eoaaiuo”) aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
iauanoaa n?aaenoa ycuea, neeaaeuaathuayny eae ?acoeueoao ioai?a ycueiauo
yeaiaioia (eaene/aneeo, i?ieciineoaeueiuo, ii?oieiae/aneeo,
neioaene/aneeo) ec /enea ninouanoaothueo, iaee/anoaothueo, ia?acoaiuo
aiiaue eee ecaeaeaaiuo ec ianneaiiai caiana i?ioeiai a i?ioeanna
nioeeaeueiie, a oe?ieii niunea, ioeaiee yoeo yeaiaioia”. A
yioeeeeiiaaeee “?onneee ycue” /eoaai “Ii?ia (ycueiaay), ii?ia
eeoa?aoo?iay – i?eiyoua iauanoaaiii-?a/aaie i?aeoeea ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae i?aaeea i?ieciioaiey, a?aiiaoe/aneea e ae?oaea ycueiaua
n?aaenoaa, i?aaeea neiaioiio?aaeaiey”. Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eei
ii?aaeaeaiea: “…ii?ia – yoi nouanoaothuea a aeaiiia a?aiy a aeaiiii
ycueiaii eieeaeoeaa e iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao /eaiia eieeaeoeaa ycueiaua
aaeeieoeu e caeiiiia?iinoe eo oiio?aaeaiey, i?e/ai yoe iaycaoaeueiua
aaeeieoeu iiaoo eeai auoue aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiuie, eeai aunooiaoue a
aeaea ninouanoaothueo a i?aaeaeao eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea aa?eaioia”. Aeey
oiai /oiau i?eciaoue oi eee eiia yaeaiea ii?iaoeaiui, iaiaoiaeeiu (ii
iaiueoae ia?a) neaaeothuea oneiaey: ?aaoey?iay oiio?aaeyaiinoue
(aini?iecaiaeeiinoue) aeaiiiai niiniaa au?aaeaiey; niioaaonoaea yoiai
niiniaa au?aaeaiey aiciiaeiinoyi nenoaiu eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea (n o/aoii
aa enoi?e/aneie ia?ano?ieee); iauanoaaiiia iaeia?aiea ?aaoey?ii
aini?iecaiaeeiiai niiniaa au?aaeaiey (i?e/ai ?ieue noaeuee a yoii neo/aa
auiaaeaao ia aeieth ienaoaeae, o/aiuo, ia?aciaaiiie /anoe iauanoaa).
I?eaaaeaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey eanathony ycueiaie ii?iu. sscueiaua ii?iu
aaeeiu aeey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a oeaeii, iie iauaaeeiytho ana
ii?iaoeaiua aaeeieoeu iacaaeneii io niaoeeoeee eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.
Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue niaaeeiyao iieieaiey ethaeae e iiyoiio aai ii?iu,
iaania/eaathuea i?aainoaaiiinoue eoeueoo?ii-?a/aauo o?aaeeoeee, aeieaeiu
auoue eae iiaeii aieaa onoie/eauie, noaaeeueiuie. Ii?io, oioy iia
io?aaeaao iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea ycuea, ia neaaeoao iaoaie/anee
auaiaeeoue ec ycueiaie yaiethoeee. sscueiaay ii?ia, iiieiaaiay a aa
aeeiaie/aneii aniaeoa, anoue “iaoneiaeaiiue nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/anee
?acoeueoao ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe, cae?aieythuae o?aaeeoeeiiiua
?aaeecaoeee nenoaiu eee oai?yuae iiaua ycueiaua oaeou a oneiaeyo eo
nayce eae n iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie nenoaiu ycuea, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, oae e ?aaeeciaaiiuie ia?acoeaie – n ae?oaie”. sscueiaay ii?ia –
enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeaiiay niaieoiiinoue iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiuo ycueiauo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea i?aaeea eo ioai?a e eniieueciaaiey, i?eciaaaaiua
iauanoaii iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuie a eiie?aoiue enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae.
sscueiaay ii?ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii eieeaeoeaiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
ycuea, ii iniiauaaaony ia /anoiii, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii oiio?aaeaiee
ycueiauo n?aaenoa a i?ioeanna ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai iineoaey
ycuea a ioaeaeueiinoe. Ionthaea i?ienoaeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiioeeeoa
iaaeaeo «niiioaiiui oiio?aaeaieai» e «ycueiaie ii?iie». A neo/aa, anee
niiioaiiia oiio?aaeaiea ycueiauo n?aaenoa ?acee/iuo iineoaeae aeaiiiai
ycuea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eaeaioe/iinoueth, aiai?yo i ycueiaie ii?ia,
neiaeeaoaeny anoanoaaiiui ia?acii. Anee eaeaioe/iinoe iao, ii?io
ii?aaeaeytho oeaeaiai?aaeaiii (eneonnoaaiii). Eneonnoaaiiua ii?iu
onoaiaaeeaathony a ?acoeueoaoa ii?iioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ycueiaaaeia iooai iiaeaioiaee e ecaeaiey aaoi?eoaoiuo neiaa?ae e
ni?aai/ieeia (e aeaaea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia — ni. ?acaeae «Nnueee»)
ii ?acee/iui aniaeoai oiio?aaeaiey ycuea. Onoaiiaeaiea ii?iu iau/ii
inouanoaeyaony iaeiei ec neaaeothueo niiniaia:

– i?aaeii/oaiea iaeiiai ec aa?eaioia niiioaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey ia iniiaa
aieueoae /anoioiinoe aeaiiiai aa?eaioa ii n?aaiaieth n aeueoa?iaoeaiuie;

– i?aaeii/oaiea iaeiiai ec aa?eaioia niiioaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey ia iniiaa
auyaeaiiiai ycueiaaaeaie aai niioaaonoaey aioo?aiiei caeiiiia?iinoyi
aeaiiiai ycuea;

– i?eciaiea ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia niiioaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey
«niioaaonoaothueie ycueiaie ii?ia» (a yoii neo/aa aiai?yo i iiaeaeaeiie
ii?ia).

Iiieii oeacaiiuo auoa iniiaiuo niiniaia, eiiaaea eniieuecothony e
ae?oaea iniiaaiey aeey onoaiiaeaiey oie eee eiie ycueiaie ii?iu, a oii
/enea ynoaoe/aneea, yoe/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e ae?. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
iiaeoiaeu e onoaiiaeaieth ii?iu, n?aaee eioi?uo iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa
iniiaiuo:

– aeane?eioeaiue (iienaoaeueiue), i?e eioi?ii onoaiiaeaiea ii?iu
inouanoaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iniiaa aiaeeca oaeoe/aneiai
oiio?aaeaiey oao eee eiuo ycueiauo yaeaiee iineoaeyie ycuea;

– i?ane?eioeaiue (i?aaeienuaathuee), i?e eioi?ii onoaiiaeaiea ii?iu
inouanoaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iniiaa aaoi?eoaoiiai caeeth/aiey
eeiaaenoia i i?aaeeueiinoe eee iai?aaeeueiinoe oiai eee eiiai
oiio?aaeaiey.

Oioy a /enoii aeaea ie oio, ie ae?oaie iiaeoiaeu, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia
eniieuecothony, oai ia iaiaa ycueiaua o?aaeeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aiu
ioaeatho iau/ii i?aaeii/oaiea iaeiiio ec iiaeoiaeia a oua?a ae?oaiio.
I?ane?eioeaiia ii?iioai?/anoai iau/ii i?aaeiieaaaao i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiia
ioiioaiea e aeeaeaeoai e eiui ?aaeiiaeueiui eee nioeeaeueiui aa?eaioai
ycuea, iaee/ea aeanoeeo e ?acaeouo i?oia?aoe/aneeo e ioieooaoeeiiiuo
i?aaee, oieoeoee?iaaiiinoue oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu ii ycueo e o. ae. A oi
aea a?aiy, aeane?eioeaiue iiaeoiae /anoi au?aaeaaony a ionoonoaee
aeanoei onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee ii iaeioi?ui aniaeoai ycuea (iai?eia?, a
ioieooaoeee), eiyeueiii ioiioaiee e aeeaeaeoai, oeenaoeee aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia oiio?aaeaiey a neiaa?yo e o. i.

sscueiaua ii?iu (ii?iu eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, eeoa?aoo?iua ii?iu) – yoi
i?aaeea eniieueciaaiey ycueiauo n?aaenoa a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae
?acaeoey eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, o.a. i?aaeea i?ieciioaiey, i?aaiienaiey,
neiaioiio?aaeaiey, a?aiiaoeee. Ii?ia – yoi ia?acaoe aaeeiiia?aciiai,
iauai?eciaiiiai oiio?aaeaiey yeaiaioia ycuea (neia, neiaini/aoaiee,
i?aaeeiaeaiee). sscueiaia yaeaiea n/eoaaony ii?iaoeaiui, anee iii
oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeeie i?eciaeaie, eae: niioaaonoaea no?oeoo?a ycuea;
ianniaay e ?aaoey?iay aini?iecaiaeeiinoue a i?ioeanna ?a/aaie
aeayoaeueiinoe aieueoeinoaa aiai?yueo; iauanoaaiiia iaeia?aiea e
i?eciaiea. sscueiaua ii?iu ia i?eaeoiaiu oeeieiaaie, iie io?aaeatho
ii?aaeaeaiiue yoai a ?acaeoee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea anaai ia?iaea. Ii?iu
ycuea iaeuecy aaanoe eee ioiaieoue oeacii, eo iaaiciiaeii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue
aaeieieno?aoeaiui iooai. Aeayoaeueiinoue o/aiuo-ycueiaaaeia, eco/athueo
ii?iu ycuea, caeeth/aaony a ae?oaii – iie auyaeytho, iienuaatho e
eiaeeoeoee?otho ycueiaua ii?iu, a oaeaea ?acuyniytho e i?iiaaaiaee?otho
eo. E iniiaiui enoi/ieeai ycueiaie ii?iu ioiinyony: i?iecaaaeaiey
ienaoaeae-eeanneeia; i?iecaaaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo ienaoaeae,
i?iaeieaeathueo eeanne/aneea o?aaeeoeee; ioaeeeaoeee n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee; iauai?eiyoia nia?aiaiiia oiio?aaeaiea; aeaiiua
eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie ycueiauo ii?i
yaeythony: ioiineoaeueiay onoie/eainoue; ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue;
iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiinoue; iauaiaycaoaeueiinoue; niioaaonoaea
oiio?aaeaieth, iau/ath e aiciiaeiinoyi ycueiaie nenoaiu.

Ii?iu iiiiaatho eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo nio?aiyoue naith oeaeinoiinoue e
iauaiiiyoiinoue. Iie caueuatho eeoa?aoo?iue ycue io iioiea aeeaeaeoiie
?a/e, nioeeaeueiuo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aea?aiiia, i?inoi?a/ey. Yoi
iicaieyao eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo auiieiyoue iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee –
eoeueoo?ioth. ?a/aaie ii?iie iacuaaaony niaieoiiinoue iaeaieaa
onoie/eauo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?aaeecaoeee ycueiaie nenoaiu, ioia?aiiuo e
cae?aieaiiuo a i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiie eiiioieeaoeee. Ii?ie?iaaiiinoue
?a/e – yoi aa niioaaonoaea eeoa?aoo?ii-ycueiaiio eaeaaeo. Oeacaiiia
naienoai ii?iu auei ioia/aii i?ioanni?ii A.I. Iaoeianeei, eioi?ue ienae:
“Nouanoaiaaiea ycueiaiai eaeaaea  o aiai?yueo, – aio aeaaiay
ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa eeoa?aoo?iiai ia?a/ey n naiiai ia?aiai iiiaioa aai
aicieeiiaaiey, /a?oa, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a nicaeathuay   naiia yoi
ia?a/ea e iiaeaea?aeeaathuay aai ai ana a?aiy aai nouanoaiaaiey”.
I?ioanni? N.E. Iaeaaia iiae/a?eeaae nioeeaeueioth noi?iio iiiyoey ii?iu,
neeaaeuaathuaeny ec ioai?a ycueiauo yeaiaioia iaee/iuo, ia?acoaiuo
aiiaue e ecaeaeaaiuo ec ianneaiiai caiana. N.E. Iaeaaia ia?auae aieiaiea
ia oi, /oi ii?iu iiaeaea?aeeaathony iauanoaaiii-?a/aaie i?aeoeeie
(ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?ie, noeaie/aneie ?a/ueth, ?aaeeiaauaieai). A
60-80-a aa. OO a. eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey e ?aaeeiia?aaea/e
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaee neoaeeoue ia?acoeii ii?iaoeaiiai oiio?aaeaiey. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue neooaoeey eciaieeanue. Ia anyeia eeoa?aoo?iia
i?iecaaaeaiea e ia anyeay ia?aaea/a ii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth iiaoo
neoaeeoue a ea/anoaa ia?acoea ii?iaoeaiiai oiio?aaeaiey ycuea. Noa?a
no?iaiai neaaeiaaiey ii?iai ycuea cia/eoaeueii noceeanue, eeoue
iaeioi?ua ia?aaea/e e ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
eae i?eia?u eeoa?aoo?ii-ii?ie?iaaiiie ?a/e. I?ioanni? A.I. Aieiaei
ii?aaeaeye ii?io eae ooieoeeiiaeueiia naienoai ciaeia ycuea: “Ii?ia –
yoi naienoai ooieoeeiie?othuae no?oeoo?u ycuea, nicaeaaaaiia
i?eiaiythuei aai eieeaeoeaii aeaaiaea?y iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuae
iio?aaiinoe a eo/oai acaeiiii iiieiaiee”.

Aeaaa 3. Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?i ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiieiaoue oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n ?onneei ycueii
naaiaeiy, /oiau i?aaeeueii ioeaieaaoue iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie ?onneie
?a/e, iaaei i?aaenoaaeyoue yoaiu ?acaeoey ycuea. Nia?aiaiiay ii?ia
aicieeea ia ia ionoii ianoa, iia noi?ie?iaaeanue a i?ioeanna
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A Eeaaneie ?one.

Enoi?ey ii?iu ?onneiai ycuea ai iiiaii naycaia n aai i?ienoiaeaeaieai.
Aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea ia ?one aeinoaoi/ii
neiaeai. Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue – ia?aaioaiiay, ii?ie?iaaiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea, i?e/ai ii?ia yoa aeieaeia auoue caoeene?iaaia
eeai a neiaa?yo e a?aiiaoeeao, eeai a «ia?acoeiauo» oaenoao.
Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue aiciee iinea e?auaiey ?one a nayce n nicaeaieai
iaoeeiiaeueiie ienueiaiiinoe (aei yoiai ae?aaia?onneee ycue — ycue
ainoi/iuo neaayi — nouanoaiaae eeoue a onoiie oi?ia). Niaoeeoeea yoiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea caeeth/aeanue, i?aaeaea anaai, a oii, /oi a ea/anoaa
ycuea oea?eiaiuo e /anoe/ii naaoneeo i?iecaaaeaiee eniieueciaaeny ia
naie nianoaaiiue ycue, a /oaeie, oioy e ?iaenoaaiiue, — noa?ineaayineee,
eee oea?eiaiineaayineee, ia eioi?ue oaea auee a IX aaea ia?aaaaeaiu n
a?a/aneiai iiiaea oaenou (iaiiiiei, /oi eiaiii a nayce n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aaiaea oea?eiaiuo eiea e eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey n?aaee
neaayi aue nicaeai Ee?eeeii e Iaoiaeeai neaayineee aeoaaeo —
ee?eeeeoea). Noa?ineaayineee ycue aue neiaeeaoeiny ycueii ni naiae
nenoaiie ii?i. A oi aea a?aiy a onoiie e ienueiaiiie, iniaaiii aeaeiaie,
ia/e ia ?one eniieueciaaeny nianoaaiii ?onneee, ainoi/iineaayineee ycue.
Eiiaaea enneaaeiaaoaee ieooo i oea?eiaiineaayinei-?onneii aeaoycu/ee,
eiay a aeaeo oi, /oi a Eeaaneie ?one nouanoaiaaei aeaa eeoa?aoo?iuo
ycuea: oea?eiaiineaayineee e ?onneee, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a
caaeneiinoe io noa?u oiio?aaeaiey ycuea e aeai?a oaenoa. Oai ia iaiaa,
anoue ana iniiaaiey aiai?eoue i aaeeiii ae?aaia?onneii eeoa?aoo?iii
ycuea, iineieueeo iniiaiua ?acee/ey oea?eiaiineaayineiai e nianoaaiii
?onneiai ycuea auee a iaeanoe oiiaoeee, a a?aiiaoe/aneea ii?iu e ii?iu
oiio?aaeaiey neia o noa?ineaayineiai e ainoi/iineaayineiai ycuea
ioee/aeenue iacia/eoaeueii. Aei neo ii? a ?onneii ycuea nio?aieeenue oae
iacuaaaiua neaayieciu – neiaa, ii naiaio i?ienoiaeaeaieth naycaiiua ni
noa?ineaayineei ycueii e eiathuea ii?aaeaeaiiua, i?aaeaea anaai
oiiaoe/aneea, i?eciaee. Ii?iu ae?aaia?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
cia/eoaeueii ioee/aeenue io nia?aiaiiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i e a iaeanoe
i?ieciioaiey, e a iaeanoe oiio?aaeaiey neia, e a iaeanoe a?aiiaoeee. A
oea?eiaiuo, aeaeiauo e naaoneeo iaiyoieeao ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u
io?aaeaeenue eae iniaaiiinoe aeeaie ainoi/iineaayineie ?a/e, oae e ii?iu
oea?eiaiineaayineiai ycuea. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai iaoanoaey e
oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe oeaio? ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa ia?aiauaaony
n thaa (Eeaaneay ?onue) e naaa?o, a Iineao, eioi?ay noaiiaeony ianoii,
aaea oi?ie?oaony iiaay ycueiaay ii?ia. Ia yoo ii?io aeeyei, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, a?aiy, n ae?oaie — aeeaeaeou caiaeue, iaoiaeeaoeony e naaa?o io
Iineau. Iiyoiio ?onneee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?aaia?onneei cia/eoaeueii eciaiyaony. I?e yoii
oi?ie?oaony eeanne/aneay nenoaia aeaoycu/ey – neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie a
iauanoaa eniieuecothony aeaa eeoa?aoo?iuo ycuea. A /anoe oaenoia
nio?aiyaony oiiaoe/aneay, ii?oieiae/aneay, neioaene/aneay e eaene/aneay
ii?ia ae?aaia?onneiai ycuea, eiiaaea aeaaea a?oaece?iaaiiay. A ae?oaeo
i?iecaaaeaieyo, aieaa aeeceeo ii ycueo e ?acaiai?iiio, iu aeaeei ii?iu,
oaea noiaeiua n ii?iaie nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea: oo?a/eaathony
ae?aaiea oi?iu aeaienoaaiiiai /enea e caaoaeueiiai iaaeaaea; nenoaia
iaaeaaeae nouanoaeoaeueiiai naeeaeaaony n nia?aiaiiie; aianoi
iaii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu aeaaiea n noooeenii -OE e oi?iu aoi?iai eeoea
aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea n ieii/aieai -OE eniieuecothony nia?aiaiiua oi?iu n
noooeenii -OUe e ieii/aieai ia -OUe, ana /aua oiio?aaeyaony iaeia oi?ia
i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie n noooeenii -E-, aicieeoay ec auaoae oi?iu
i?e/anoey. A XVII aaea ana aieueoa ?onneeo ethaeae ia/eiatho aiai?eoue e
ienaoue ia ia aeeaeaeoao e ia ia oea?eiaiineaayineii ycuea, a ii-?onnee.
A eeoa?aoo?o i?eoiaeyo aaoi?u ec iinaaeia (oi?aiai-?aianeaiiuo ?aeiiia
ai?iaea). A nayce n yoei i?ienoiaeeo aeaiie?aoecaoeey ?onneiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Oi?ie?oaony iiaay ii?ia. Ana aieaa nie?auaaony
oiio?aaeaiea a?oae/aneeo oi?i, nio?aieaoeony ni a?aiai Ae?aaiae ?one. A
ycuea auoiauo iiaanoae e naoe?e/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee eniieuecoaony ana
aieueoa neia aeeaie ?acaiai?iie ?a/e, a oii /enea iacuaathueo i?aaeiaou
e yaeaiey iauaeaiiie aeecie (iaoooea, aeiiea, ayeaoue, iaeinoueyoue,
iueyieoea, eaaae, ae?iaa, oaino, eioaaeue, ae?iaie, ooe, aeioe, eaioe).

Iao?ianeay yiioa.

Iao?ianeay yiioa (ia?aay o?aoue XVIII aaea) auea ia?aeiiiie aeey ?innee
ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo: eciaieeanue ainoaea?noaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay
nenoaia, ?acaeaaeenue iaoea, oaoieea e ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?a e auo
naeeceeenue n aa?iiaeneeie. Iniaaiiinoue ?onneiai ycuea yoie yiioe
ninoieo, i?aaeaea anaai, a ionoonoaee aaeeiuo ycueiauo e noeeenoe/aneeo
ii?i, a aeoeaiuo i?ioeannao caeinoaiaaiey. Eiee/anoai caeinoaiaaiee a
oio ia?eiae iiaeii n?aaieoue oieueei n nia?aiaiiui. Eiaiii a Iao?ianeoth
yiioo i?iecioei e cia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea a?aoe/aneie ii?iu: ec aeoaaeoa
auee ono?aiaiu iaeioi?ua aoeau (? – ine, ? – iiaaa, thn aieueoie e thn
iaeue), aaaaeaiu aoeau a e y. Anee oaenou aeiiao?ianeie yiioe iao
nia?aiaiiee, ia eiathuee niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee, /eoaoue ia iiaeao,
oi oaenou iao?ianeiai a?aiaie aio aiieia iiaoo auoue iiiyoiu. *oi
eanaaony ii?oieiae/aneeo ii?i, oi a onoiie e ienueiaiiie ?a/e
oiio?aaeyeenue eae onoa?aaoea, a?oae/aneea ii?iu, oae e iiaua. Iiaay
nenoaia ii?oieiae/aneeo ii?i eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea neeaaeuaaaony oaea e
na?aaeeia XVIII aaea, e nenoaia yoa ai iiiaii auea i?eaioe?iaaia ia
aeeaoth ?acaiai?ioth ?a/ue. Ia?iiioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee
ii?oieiae/aneeo ii?i nua?aea ecaeaiiay a 1757 aiaeo «?inneeneay
a?aiiaoeea» I. A. Eiiiiiniaa ia?aay ?onneay iao/iay a?aiiaoeea. A iae
auee /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiu e ocaeiiaiu eae aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiua ii?iu
nianoaaiii ?onneiai, a ia oea?eiaiineaayineiai oi?iioiio?aaeaiey,
neiaeeaoeany e oiio a?aiaie. Ii?oieiae/aneea ii?iu ?onneiai ycuea,
noi?ioee?iaaiiua a «?inneeneie a?aiiaoeea», ai iiiaii niaiaaeatho n
nia?aiaiiuie. Iai?eia?, oi?iu neeiiaiey nouanoaeoaeueiuo e ni?yaeaiee!
aeaaieia, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a a?aiiaoeea Eiiiiiniaa, niaiaaeatho n
i?eaaaeaiiuie a «?onneie a?aiiaoeea» 1980 aiaea. Oai?ey o?ao noeeae,
oaeaea nicaeaiiay I. A. Eiiiiiniaui e ?acaeaeyaoay eeoa?aoo?iue ycue ia
o?e noeey – aunieee, n?aaeiee e ieceee, auea aaaeia aeey ?acaeoey ycuea
a oeaeii: iia ia?aie/eea oiio?aaeaiea onoa?aaoeo, a?oae/aneeo
oea?eiaiineaayineeo neia, eioi?ua /anoi auee iaiiiyoiu oaea
nia?aiaiieeai Eiiiiiniaa (naaia — e?iia, ieiaaea — eiiaaea e o. ae.).
Eiia/ii, noeeenoe/aneay nenoaia Eiiiiiniaa auea aua aeaeaea io
noeeenoe/aneie nenoaiu nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea,
iaeiaei aa ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee yoie nenoaiu aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea. Oioy
ycueiaua iniaaiiinoe aunieiai, n?aaeiaai e ieceiai noeey a ii?iao
nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea ii/oe ia nio?aieeenue, eiaiii ia iniiaa ii?i
neiaioiio?aaeaiey e a?aiiaoeee n?aaeiaai (i?inoiai) noeey, auaeaeaiiiai
Eiiiiiniaui, oi?ie?oaony a aeaeueiaeoai ii?ia ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea. Eciaiaiey a neiaa?iii ninoaaa ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea iaoee
io?aaeaiea a «Neiaa?a Aeaaeaiee ?inneeneie», eioi?ue ecaeaaaeny a
1789—1794 aiaeao. A neiaa?ue aioei aieaa 43 ouny/ neia, eioi?ua, eae
n/eoaee ninoaaeoaee, aeieaeiu auee oiio?aaeyoueny a ?onneii ycuea.
Iaeiaei a eo /enei auei aeeth/aii oieueei ieiei 100 caeinoaiaaiee ec
o?aioeocneiai ycuea e iaiaa 80 — ec iaiaoeeiai «Neiaa?ue Aeaaeaiee
?inneeneie» naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi noeeenoe/aneay ii?ia oiai a?aiaie
cia/eoaeueii ioee/aeanue io nia?aiaiiie.

Aeeaae I.I. Ea?aiceia.

I/aiue aaaeiie a aeaeueiaeoai noaiiaeaiee ii?i neiaioiio?aaeaiey
?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea auea ?ieue auaeathuaainy ?onneiai ienaoaey
e enoi?eea I. I. Ea?aiceia: ii ia oieueei oai?aoe/anee noi?ioee?iaae, ii
e i?aeoe/anee aiieioee a naieo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo e
«Enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai» i?eioeeiu oiio?aaeaiey neaayieciia,
ia?iaeii-?acaiai?iie eaeneee e caeinoaiaaiee. Ea?aicei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
oea?eiaiineaayieciu – neiaa ?iaenoaaiiiai, ii ia ?onneiai, ycuea e /oi
iie iiaoo oiio?aaeyoueny a ?onneii ycuea, ii iaycaoaeueii n eaeie-eeai
oeaeueth. Neiaa ia?iaeiua, ii iiaieth Ea?aiceia, aeieaeiu oiio?aaeyoueny
ia oieueei a ieceii noeea (iai?eia?, a aaniyo eee eiiaaeeyo), ii e a
i?iecaaaeaieyo ethaiai aeai?a aeey iaeiaiiaaiey ?aaeee, naycaiiuo n
aeeciueth, auoii e iiiyoeyie ia?iaea. Iaeiaei ienaoaeue-naioeiaioaeeno,
eae enoeiiue nui naiaai a?aiaie, i?aaeeaaae eniieueciaaoue oieueei oa
ia?iaeiua neiaa, eioi?ua e?aneau e ia annioeee?othony n /ai-eeai
iaynoaoe/iui. «I?e?iaeiue ycue aeey ian aaaeiaa o?aioeocneiai», — ienae
Ea?aicei, neaaeoy i?aaeeo oiio?aaeyoue eiino?aiiua neiaa oieueei oai,
aaea yoi iaiaoiaeeii. Yoio ienaoaeue oiio?aaeyao a iniiaiii neiaa, oaea
aioaaeoea a ycue e na?aaeeia XVIII aaea, i?e/ai ioae?aao eo n oaeei
aeonii e /oanoaii ia?u, /oi aieueoeinoai oiio?aaeyaiuo ei neia
nio?aieeenue a ?onneii ycuea aei neo ii?. Ia?iiii cia/aiea ea?aiceineeo
i?aia?aciaaiee a iaeanoe neioaenena. Aeey oi?ie?iaaiey neioaene/aneeo
ii?i ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea I. I. Ea?aicei naeaeae
i/aiue iiiai: i?aaeeiaeaiey a i?iecaaaeaieyo yoiai aaoi?a no?iyony ii/oe
oae aea, eae yoi i?aaeienuaatho i?aaeea nia?aiaiiiai neioaenena. Ana
i?aaeeiaeaiey a oaenoao Ea?aiceia ioee/athony /aoeie niuneiaie e
a?aiiaoe/aneie naycueth /anoae. Eioa?aniie n oi/ee c?aiey oi?ie?iaaiey
ii?iu ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea auea iieaieea caueoieeia noa?iai
neiaa e noi?iiieeia iiaiai neiaa, ?acaa?ioaoayny a ia?aii aeanyoeeaoee
XIX aaea. Oae iacuaaaiua caueoieee noa?iai neiaa, eee a?oaenou, eioi?uo
ii eiaie eo eaeaeiiai aaeioiiaeoaey, aaeie?aea, ieieno?a ia?iaeiiai
i?inaauaiey, eeoa?aoi?a e i?aceaeaioa Aeaaeaiee ?inneeneie A. N.
Oeoeiaa, iacuaatho oeoeiaenoaie, i?eaea?aeeaaeenue oi/ee c?aiey, /oi
anyeia ?acaeoea ycuea ii?oeo aai, a ycue ?onneee — oio aea ycue
neaayineee. Iiyoiio ioaa?aaeinue anyeia iaiiaeaiea ycuea, anyeia
eciaiaiea aai ii?iu, a oii /enea oiio?aaeaiea caeinoaiaaiiuo neia. I. M.
Ea?aicei a iieaieea ia o/anoaiaae, ii i?ioeaieeia A. N. Oeoeiaa iacuaaee
eiaiii ea?aiceienoaie, iineieueeo iie a naieo auneacuaaieyo neaaeiaaee
aeooo oai?/anoaa Ea?aiceia. Ea?aiceienou niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai
ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi anyeee ycue — yaeaiea ?acaeaathuaany, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eciaiaiea aai ii?i e aaaaeaiea a iaai iiauo neia
iaiaoiaeeii, /oi «i?aaeei ia aiineoue a ycue ie/aai /oaeiai e ethaiaue e
ioa/anoao aeieaeiu eiaoue i?aaeaeu», ioaeii oieueei «ia iano?eoue ycuea
aac e?aeiae inoi?iaeiinoe». Ea?aiceienou n/eoaee aiieia ii?iaeueiui ia
oieueei iiyaeaiea a ycuea iiauo neia (eae ia?aciaaaoeony a naiii ycuea,
oae e caeinoaiaaiiuo), ii e eciaiaiea cia/aiee nouanoaothueo neia,
iiyaeaiea o ieo iiauo cia/aiee. *anoi iiyaeaiea iiauo cia/aiee neia a
eiioea XVIII e ia/aea XIX aaea i?ienoiaeeei iiae aeeyieai o?aioeocneiai
ycuea, ecaanoiiai anai ia?aciaaiiui ethaeyi oiai a?aiaie. A ia/aea XIX
aaea i?iaeaia aaaaeaiey, a ii?iaoeaiue ycue ia?iaeiuo neia e au?aaeaiee
noaiiaeony aanueia aeooaeueiie. Ana aieueoaa eiee/anoai ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae i?eciatho aiciiaeiinoue oiio?aaeaiey a ii?iaoeaiii, eeoa?aoo?iii
ycuea neia, au?aaeaiee e eiino?oeoeee ec ia?iaeiie ?a/e.

Ieii/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey A.N. Iooeei.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a ieii/aoaeueiii oi?ie?iaaiee nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea nua?ae A.N.Iooeei. Eiaiii a aai oaenoao
neeaaeuaaaony iiaay ii?ia neiaioiio?aaeaiey, ioaa/athuay i?eioeeio
«ni?acia?iinoe e niia?aciinoe». Neiaa ec ia?iaeii-?acaiai?iie ?a/e
oiio?aaeythony a iiyoe/aneeo e i?icae/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo ienaoaey
?yaeii ni neiaaie eieaeiuie, oea?eiaiineaayineeie, anee yoi iaiaoiaeeii
aeey au?aaeaiey niaea?aeaiey, aaoi?neeo iuneae. Eiaiii a oaenoao Iooeeia
ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeanue noeeenoe/aneay ii?ia, i?aaeienuaathuay
?acee/aoue aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea – eieaeioth e
?acaiai?ioth. Ia/eiay ni a?aiaie Iooeeia, a iniiaiuo /a?oao nenoaia
ycuea niioaaonoaoao nia?aiaiiie, iiyoiio iu iiaeai aiai?eoue i
nia?aiaiiii ?onneii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeyo /anoiua
eciaiaiey ii?iu. Eaeneea – iaeaieaa aeeiaie/iay /anoue ycuea, iiyoiio a
na?aaeeia XIX – ia/aea XX aaea i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey, i?aaeaea anaai a
neiaa?iii ninoaaa ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Yoi inaiaiea iiauo
eiiycu/iuo neia a ?aciuo noa?ao aeecie e aiaea/aiea a ycue iiauo neia,
aeeaii ia?iaeiie ?a/e, eioi?ua noaiiayony ii?iaoeaiuie, iaeo?aeueiuie.
Eaene/aneay ii?ia io?aaeaaony a neiaa?yo, eioi?uo ecaeaaony aeiaieueii
iiiai: «Neiaa?ue oea?eiaiineaayineiai e ?onneiai ycuea», «Oieeiaue
neiaa?ue aeeaiai aaeeei?onneiai ycuea» A. E. Aeaey, «Neiaioieeiaaoaeue
30 000 eiino?aiiuo neia, aioaaeoeo a ninoaa ?onneiai neiaa?y». Eciaiaiey
a a?aiiaoe/aneeo ii?iao ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea na?aaeeiu XIX –
ia/aea XX aaea auee iacia/eoaeueiu e eanaeenue, i?aaeaea anaai,
neioaene/aneie ii?iu. ?acaeoea ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea a niaaoneee
ia?eiae auei naycaii n eciaiaieai ii?iu a iaeanoe neiaioiio?aaeaiey a
nayce n nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie. Yoi e ia?aciaaiea neia, iaicia/athueo
iiaua iiiyoey niaaoneie aeecie: eiiniiieaoe, niaoic. Yoi e eciaiaiea
cia/aiey neia: ieiia?, oeaeeia. Yoi – oaeaea eciaiaiea noeeenoe/aneie
ie?anee iaeioi?uo neia: neiaa aa?ei, eaeae aei ?aaiethoeee auee
niaa?oaiii iaeo?aeueiu, a iinea iaa noaee iaicia/aoue io?eoeaoaeueiua
iiiyoey. Iiieii yoiai, ii?ia neiaioiio?aaeaiey iaiyaony a nayce n
aeoeaiui ?acaeoeai iaoee e oaoieee, /oi o?aaoao iiauo neia, oaeeo, eae
aethieia, einiiae?ii, oa?iiyaea?iue, aoiiioiae, oaeaaeaeaiea,
i?eeoiaiea, eiiiuethoa?. A ycuea 20-50uo aiaeia ninouanoaiaaee
?aciiiai?aaeaiiua oaiaeaioeee: n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaiie?aoecaoeey a
iaeanoe neiaioiio?aaeaiey, naycaiiay n aoiaeaeaieai a eeoa?aoo?iue ycue
neia i?aaeaea iaeeoa?aoo?iuo – i?inoi?a/iuo, aeeaeaeoiuo,
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo (aainueea, aooaiea, aaoiee, iaoaaoea, i?ineieea,
i?i?aaioaoue eiai-eeai, o/aaa, oeaai?ia, caaeae, ioaea/a), n ae?oaie –
ai?ueaa ca /enoioo ?onneiai ycuea a 30-a aiaeu, iaeaaeaiea ii?iie
oiio?aaeaiey neia e a?aiiaoe/aneeo eiino?oeoeee aanueia cia/eoaeueiie
/anoueth ianaeaiey, oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiauo caeinoaiaaiee
(aaoiea?, aeaaeaia, aeeniao/a?, eiiaaei, naeoa?, niaeia?, an,
aeeniaina?, eiiaeiacii, iao?i, ?aii?oaae, aaoiaon, ieeoiaio, ?aaeei).

Cia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaiee a ii?oieiaee ycuea XX aaea ia i?iecioei. Iiaeii
oeacaoue eeoue ia iiyaeaiea o nouanoaeoaeueiuo ioaeneiai ?iaea,
iaicia/athueo eeoe ioaeneiai iiea ii ?iaeo caiyoee, niiniaiinoe
iaicia/aoue eeoe aeaineiai iiea (a?a/ i?eoea, aooaaeoa? neacaea),
oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa neia n ieii/aieai -a ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea
(i?ioanni?a, iiia?a), aiciiaeiinoue oiio?aaeaiey ioeaaiai ieii/aiey
?iaeeoaeueiiai iaaeaaea, iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea a iai?eioaeaeaiiie onoiie
?a/e a oao neiaao, a eioi?uo ?aiaa yoi auei iaaiciiaeii (iyoue
eeeia?aii, yuee iiieaei?). A iaeanoe neioaenena eciaiaiee oaeoe/anee ia
auei; iiaeii aiai?eoue oieueei i iiauoaiee «noaiaie ?acaiai?iinoe»
eieaeiiai neioaenena: oi?iuaaony no?oeoo?a e nie?auaaony aeeeia
i?aaeeiaeaiey, oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai i?inouo i?aaeeiaeaiee,
oiaiueoaaony oiio?aaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee n iainiaeaieai. I/aiue aaaeiui
aeey oi/iiai oi?ioee?iaaiey e ianniaiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ii?iu auei
nicaeaiea aeaaeaie/aneeo a?aiiaoee, eioi?ua iiaeuoiaeeee aieaa /ai
aaeiaia ?acaeoea ?onneiai ycuea: «A?aiiaoeea ?onneiai ycuea» (1952),
«A?aiiaoeea nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea» (1970), «?onneay
a?aiiaoeea» (1980).

A 60-a aiaeu i?ienoiaeeo noaaeeecaoeey, e aeaaea iaeioi?ay eiina?aaoeey
ii?iu ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, iiiuoee eciaiaiey eioi?ie eae a
ioeoeeaeueii-aeaeiaie e iao/iie, oae e a ioaeeoeenoe/aneie ?a/e
?aoeoaeueii i?anaeathony. A 70 – 80-a aiaeu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ii?iu
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea onaaeaathony oe?ieeie iannaie e aeinoaoi/ii no?iai
niaethaeathony a iao/iuo, aeaeiauo e ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo oaenoao, n
ae?oaie – ia ?a/ue ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae ieacuaaao aeeyiea ?a/ue aeeoaeae
aea?aaie, ia?anaeythueony a aieueoea ai?iaea, ?ani?ino?aiyaony neaia a
?a/e iieiaeaaee, iaeeoa?aoo?iay aeeaay ?acaiai?iay ?a/ue aeoeaii aeeyao
ia ?acaiai?iue eeoa?aoo?iue ycue. Ana yoi, ia?yaeo n nioeeaeueiuie
oaeoi?aie, iiaeaioiaeei i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeeaoea a ?onneii eeoa?aoo?iii
ycuea eiioea, 80-90-o aiaeia: nieaeaiea iauae ?a/aaie eoeueoo?u,
aoi?aeaiea a eeoa?aoo?iua oaenou e onoioth ?a/ue aeaaea ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae i?inoi?a/iuo., a?oai-i?inoi?a/iuo e aea?aiiiuo neia (o?aiei,
iaeo?aaoee, ae?aoue, oanoa?ea, eiaeei), yeniainey caeinoaiaaiee.
Eciaiythony cia/aiea e noeeenoe/aneay ie?anea iaeioi?uo neia. Eciaiaiey
ii?iu e aa aa?eaoeaiinoue io?aaeathony a neiaa?yo 90-o aiaeia;
cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a ?onneie eaeneea i?aaenoaaeaiu a «Oieeiaii
neiaa?a ?onneiai ycuea» N. E. Iaeaaiaa e I. TH. Oaaaeiaie (1992 e
iineaaeothuea ecaeaiey), a «Aieueoii oieeiaii neiaa?a» (1999), a
«Oieeiaii neiaa?a ?onneiai ycuea eiioea XX aaea. sscueiaua eciaiaiey»
(1998). Iaeiaei a?aiiaoe/aneay ii?ia ?onneiai ycuea a oeaeii nio?aiyao
naith onoie/eainoue (ca eneeth/aieai ii/oe eaoano?ioe/aneiai iieiaeaiey
a iaeanoe aeaaeaiey ii?iie neeiiaiey neiaeiuo e ninoaaiuo
/eneeoaeueiuo). A i?eioeeia, ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ia ?aciuaaiea a?aieoeu
iaaeaeo ii?iaoeaiuie e iaii?iaoeaiuie yaeaieyie, iiiyoea ii?iu ?onneiai
ycuea i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue, oioy ia neaaeoao caauaaoue i
nouanoaiaaiee aa?eaioia ii?iu, eioi?ua iiaoo oiio?aaeyoueny a ycuea eeai
eae ?aaiii?aaiua (iai?eia?, aiaeu e aiaea, noaaiy e noaaaiue, eoeeia’?ey
e eoeeia?e’y), eeai eae ioiinyueany e no?iai ii?ie?iaaiiiio
eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo e e ?acaiai?iie, i?ioanneiiaeueiie eee aea?aiiiie
?a/e (iai?eia?, a?a’aeae e a?a’aaeue, ?aeuen e ?aeuena, aei’aiao e
aeiaia’o). Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa eee iaiaa aeieaiai a?aiaie neooaoeey n
ii?iaoeaiuie e iaii?iaoeaiuie aa?eaioaie iiaeao eciaiyoueny: aa?eaio,
eioi?ue aue iaii?iaoeaiui, iiaeao noaoue aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui: oae
i?iecioei n oaea?aieai a neiaa oieueaa’, eioi?ia ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee
iacaae ii?iaoeaii aeieaeii auei cao/aoue eae oi’eueaa. Iiyoiio iu
aeieaeiu aiai?eoue i nia?aiaiiie ii?ia ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.

Aeeiaie/iinoue ?acaeoey ycuea e eciai/eainoue ii?i

“sscueiaay nenoaia, iaoiaeynue a iinoiyiiii eniieueciaaiee, nicaeaaony e
aeaeieciaiyaony eieeaeoeaiuie oneeeyie oao, eoi aa iieuecoaony… Iiaia a
?a/aaii iiuoa, ia aienuaathuaany a ?aiee nenoaiu ycuea, ii ?aaioathuaa,
ooieoeeiiaeueii oeaeaniia?aciia, aaaeao e ia?ano?ieea a iai, a eaaeaeia
i/a?aaeiia ninoiyiea ycueiaie nenoaiu neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey n?aaiaiey
i?e iineaaeothuae ia?a?aaioea ?a/aaiai iiuoa. Oaeei ia?acii, ycue a
i?ioeanna ?a/aaiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?acaeaaaony, eciaiyaony, e ia
eaaeaeii yoaia yoiai ?acaeoey ycueiaay nenoaia n iaecaaaeiinoueth
niaea?aeeo a naaa yeaiaiou, eioi?ua ia caaa?oeee i?ioeann eciaiaiey.
Iiyoiio ?acee/iua eieaaaiey, aa?eaiou iaecaaaeiu a ethaii ycuea”.
Iinoiyiiia ?acaeoea ycuea aaaeao e eciaiaieth eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i. Oi, /oi
auei ii?iie a i?ioeii noieaoee e aeaaea 15-20 eao iacaae, naaiaeiy
iiaeao noaoue ioeeiiaieai io iaa. Oae, iai?eia?, a niioaaonoaee n
“Oieeiaui neiaa?ai ?onneiai ycuea” (1935-1940) neiaa caeoni/iay,
ea?ooa/iue, aoei/iay, aoaeie/iue, ia?i/ii, ii?yaei/ii, neeai/iue,
yaei/iue, ye/ieoea i?ieciineeenue ni caoeaie [oi]. Ii aeaiiui
“I?oiyie/aneiai neiaa?y ?onneiai ycuea” (1983) oaeia i?ieciioaiea a
ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiie (no?iai iaycaoaeueiie) ii?iu nio?aieeinue oieueei
a neiaao ia?i/ii, ye/ieoea. A neiaao aoei/iay, ii?yaei/ii ia?yaeo n
o?aaeeoeeiiiui i?ieciioaieai [oi] i?eciaii aeiionoeiui iiaia
i?ieciioaiea [/i]. A neiaao aoaeie/iue, yaei/iue iiaia i?ieciioaiea
?aeiiaiaeoaony a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai aa?eaioa, a noa?ia aeiioneaaony a
ea/anoaa aiciiaeiiai aa?eaioa. A neiaa neeai/iue i?ieciioaiea [oi]
i?eciaaony oioy e aeiionoeiui, ii onoa?aaoei aa?eaioii, a a neiaao
caeoni/iay, ea?ooa/iue iiaia i?ieciioaiea [/i] noaei aaeeinoaaiii
aiciiaeiui ii?iaoeaiui aa?eaioii. Ia yoii i?eia?a oi?ioi aeaeii, /oi a
enoi?ee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea aiciiaeiu: nio?aiaiea noa?ie ii?iu;
eiieo?aioeey aeaoo aa?eaioia, i?e eioi?ie neiaa?e ?aeiiaiaeotho
o?aaeeoeeiiiue aa?eaio; eiieo?aioeey aa?eaioia, i?e eioi?ie neiaa?e
?aeiiaiaeotho iiaue aa?eaio; ooaa?aeaeaiea iiaiai aa?eaioa a ea/anoaa
aaeeinoaaiii ii?iaoeaiiai. A enoi?ee ycuea eciaiythony ia oieueei
i?oiyie/aneea, ii e ana ae?oaea ii?iu. I?eia?ii eciaiaiey eaene/aneie
ii?iu iiaoo neoaeeoue neiaa aeeieiiaio e aaeoo?eaio. A 30-40-a aa. OO a.
neiai aeeieiiaio iaicia/aei nooaeaioa, auiieiythuaai aeeieiiioth ?aaioo,
a neiai aeeieiiiee auei ?acaiai?iui (noeeenoe/aneei) aa?eaioii neiaa
aeeieiiaio. A eeoa?aoo?iie ii?ia 50-60-o aa. i?iecioei ?aca?aie/aiea a
oiio?aaeaiee yoeo neia: neiaii aeeieiiiee noaee iacuaaoue nooaeaioa a
ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee e caueou aeeieiiiie ?aaiou (iii oo?aoeei
noeeenoe/aneoth ie?aneo ?acaiai?iiai neiaa), a neiai aeeieiiaio noaei
oiio?aaeyoueny aeey iaeiaiiaaiey iiaaaeeoaeae eiieo?nia, niio?ia,
ni?aaiiaaiee, ioia/aiiuo aeeieiiii iiaaaeeoaey. Neiai aaeoo?eaio a
30-40-a aa. OO a. oiio?aaeyeinue eae iaicia/aiea oao, eoi ieai/eaae
n?aaeithth oeieo, e oao, eoi iinooiae a aoc, oae eae iaa yoe iiiyoey ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo ioiinyony e iaeiiio e oiio aea eeoeo. A 50-a aa. OO a. ca
ieai/eaathueie n?aaeithth oeieo cae?aieeinue neiai auioneiee, a neiai
aaeoo?eaio a yoii cia/aiee auoei ec oiio?aaeaiey. Eciaiythony a ycuea e
a?aiiaoe/aneea ii?iu. A eeoa?aoo?a XIX a. e ?acaiai?iie ?a/e oiai
a?aiaie oiio?aaeyeenue neiaa aai?aeia, caea, ?iyey – yoi auee neiaa
aeaineiai ?iaea. A nia?aiaiiii ?onneii ycuea ii?iie yaeyaony
oiio?aaeaiea yoeo neia eae neia ioaeneiai ?iaea – aai?aei, cae, ?iyeue.
I?eia?ii eciaiaiey noeeenoe/aneeo ii?i yaeyaony aoiaeaeaiea a
eeoa?aoo?iue ycue aeeaeaeoiuo e i?inoi?a/iuo neia, iai?eia? caaeyea,
iuoee, iiaeiieaea, naenoiieynea, ooieoa. Eae ieoao i?ioanni? TH.A.
Aaeue/eeia, “aeey ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea oa?aeoa?ii eioaineaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea n i?inoi?a/eai (iinoiyiiia iiiieiaiea aeaaiui ia?acii
eaeneee e o?acaieiaee, au?aceoaeueiuo, neiiieie/aneeo n?aaenoa)…
Ecaanoiay /anoue caeinoaiaaiee ec ia?iaeii-?acaiai?iiai ycuea
i?aaie/anee aeeth/aaony a eaeneei-o?acaieiae/aneee ninoaa eeoa?aoo?iie
?a/e, a aai noeeenoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o, noaiiaynue aeinoiyieai ia oieueei
?acaiai?iie, ii e eieaeiie ?a/e”. Eaaeaeia iiaia iieieaiea iie?aaony ia
oaea nouanoaothuea oaenou, onoie/eaua iai?iou ?a/e, niiniau ioi?ieaiey
iunee. Ec ycuea yoeo oaenoia iii auae?aao iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuea neiaa e
iai?iou ?a/e, aa?ao ec au?aaioaiiiai i?aaeoanoaothueie iieieaieyie
aeooaeueiia aeey naay, i?eaiiny naia, /oiau au?aceoue iiaua eaeae,
i?aaenoaaeaiey, iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a. Anoanoaaiii, iiaua iieieaiey
ioeacuaathony io oiai, /oi eaaeaony a?oae/iui, ia nicao/iui iiaie iaia?a
oi?ioee?iaaoue iuneue, ia?aaeaaaoue naie /oanoaa, ioiioaiea e ethaeyi e
niauoeyi. Eiiaaea iie aica?auathony e a?oae/iui oi?iai, i?eaeaaay ei
iiaia niaea?aeaiea, iiaua ?aeo?nu iniuneaiey. A eaaeaeoth enoi?e/aneoth
yiioo ii?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiia yaeaiea e nouanoaoao a
aeiaieueii iai?inouo oneiaeyo. Ia yoii ienae aua a 1909 a. A.E.
*a?iuoaa: “A ycuea anyeie ii?aaeaeaiiie yiioe aeey aa nia?aiaiieeia
iiiai iayniiai: neaaathuaainy, ii ia neiaeeaoaainy, auie?athuaai, ii ia
auia?oaai, aoiaeyuaai aiiaue, ii ia ooaa?aeeaoaainy”.

Aeaaa 4. Oeiu eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i.

A eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea ?acee/atho neaaeothuea oeiu ii?i: ii?iu ienueiaiiie
e onoiie oi?i ?a/e; ii?iu ienueiaiiie ?a/e; ii?iu onoiie ?a/e. E ii?iai,
iauei aeey onoiie e ienueiaiiie ?a/e, ioiinyony: eaene/aneea ii?iu;
a?aiiaoe/aneea ii?iu; noeeenoe/aneea ii?iu. Niaoeeaeueiuie ii?iaie
ienueiaiiie ?a/e yaeythony: ii?iu i?oia?aoee; ii?iu ioieooaoeee. Oieueei
e onoiie ?a/e i?eiaieiu: ii?iu i?ieciioaiey; ii?iu oaea?aiey;
eioiiaoeeiiiua ii?iu. Ii?iu, iauea aeey onoiie e ienueiaiiie ?a/e,
eanathony ycueiaiai niaea?aeaiey e iino?iaiey oaenoia. Eaene/aneea
ii?iu, eee ii?iu neiaioiio?aaeaiey, – yoi ii?iu, ii?aaeaeythuea
i?aaeeueiinoue auai?a neiaa ec ?yaea aaeeieoe, aeeceeo aio ii cia/aieth
eee ii oi?ia, a oaeaea oiio?aaeaiea aai a oao cia/aieyo, eioi?ua iii
eiaao a eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea. Eaene/aneea ii?iu io?aaeathony a oieeiauo
neiaa?yo, neiaa?yo eiino?aiiuo neia, oa?ieiieiae/aneeo neiaa?yo e
ni?aai/ieeao. Niaethaeaiea eaene/aneeo ii?i – aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea
oi/iinoe ?a/e e aa i?aaeeueiinoe. Eo ia?ooaiea i?eaiaeeo e eaene/aneei
ioeaeai ?aciiai oeia: iai?aaeeueiue auai? neiaa ec ?yaea aaeeieoe, a oii
/enea niaoaiea ia?iieiia, iaoi/iue auai? neiiieia, iai?aaeeueiue auai?
aaeeieoeu naiaioe/aneiai iiey (einoyiie oei iuoeaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ienaoaeae, ieeieaaaneay aa?anney, ?inney
ia?aaeeaaea a oa aiaeu iiiai eaconia ai aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeea);
ia?ooaiea ii?i eaene/aneie ni/aoaaiinoe (noaaei caeoeaa, iiae aiaoii
aoiaiiinoe, oaeiue caiaaan, caei?aiaeua onoie, i?ioae ana noaaeee
?acaeoey /aeiaaea); i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo caiuneii aiai?yuaai e
yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iuie eiiiioaoeeyie neiaa (Iooeei i?aaeeueii aua?ae
aei?iao aeecie e iioae ii iae, inoaaeyy ianiuaaaiua neaaeu; Ii aian
iaiineeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea ?innee); oiio?aaeaiea aiao?iieciia
(Eiiiiinia iinooiee a einoeooo, ?aneieueieeia o/eeny a aoca); niaoaiea
eeiaaieoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo ?aaeee (Eiiiiinia aeee ca nioie ieeue io
noieeoeu); iaaa?iia oiio?aaeaiea o?acaieiae/aneeo iai?ioia (Iieiaeinoue
aeea ec iaai eeth/ii; Iaaei auaanoe aai ia naaaeoth aiaeo).
A?aiiaoe/aneea ii?iu aeaeyony ia neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua, ii?oieiae/aneea
e neioaene/aneea. A?aiiaoe/aneea ii?iu iienaiu a “?onneie a?aiiaoeea”
(I., 1980, o. 1-2), iiaeaioiaeaiiie Aeaaeaieae iaoe, a o/aaieeao
?onneiai ycuea e a?aiiaoe/aneeo ni?aai/ieeao. Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua
ii?iu ii?aaeaeytho ii?yaeie niaaeeiaiey /anoae neiaa, ia?aciaaiey iiauo
neia. Neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiie ioeaeie yaeyaony oiio?aaeaiea
ianouanoaothueo i?iecaiaeiuo neia aianoi nouanoaothueo i?iecaiaeiuo neia
n ae?oaeo aooeenii, iai?eia?: iienuaaiea oa?aeoa?a, i?iaeaaeie/anoai,
aani?inaao, i?iecaaaeaiey ienaoaey ioee/athony aeoaeciie e
i?aaaeeainoueth. Ii?oieiae/aneea ii?iu o?aaotho i?aaeeueiiai ia?aciaaiey
a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i neia ?aciuo /anoae ?a/e (oi?i ?iaea, /enea, e?aoeeo
oi?i e noaiaiae n?aaiaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiuo e ae?.). Oeie/iui ia?ooaieai
ii?oieiae/aneeo ii?i yaeyaony oiio?aaeaiea neiaa a ianouanoaothuae eee
ianiioaaonoaothuae eiioaenoo neiaieciaieoaeueiie oi?ia
(i?iaiaeece?iaaiiue ia?ac, oea?yueany ii?yaeee, iiaaaea iaae oaoeciaie,
iacaae Iethoeeia i?i?aoii). Eiiaaea iiaeii oneuoaoue oaeea
neiaini/aoaiey: aeaeaciiaei?iaeiay ?aeuena, eiii?oiay oaiioiue, caeaciie
aaiaea?ieue, eaee?iaaiiue oooaeue. A yoeo neiaini/aoaieyo aeiiouaia
ii?oieiae/aneay ioeaea – iai?aaeeueii ioi?ieai ?iae eiai
nouanoaeoaeueiuo. Neioaene/aneea ii?iu i?aaeienuaatho i?aaeeueiia
iino?iaiea iniiaiuo neioaene/aneeo aaeeieoe – neiaini/aoaiee e
i?aaeeiaeaiee. Yoe ii?iu aeeth/atho i?aaeea niaeaniaaiey neia e
neioaene/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, niioianaiey /anoae i?aaeeiaeaiey ae?oa n
ae?oaii n iiiiuueth a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i neia n oie oeaeueth, /oiau
i?aaeeiaeaiea auei a?aiioiui e iniuneaiiui auneacuaaieai. Ia?ooaiea
neioaene/aneeo ii?i eiaaony a neaaeothueo i?eia?ao: /eoay aa, aicieeaao
aii?in; Iiyia oa?aeoa?ai neioac ee?e/aneiai e yie/aneiai ia/ae; Aueaey
caioae ca aai a?aoa, ieeoi ec aeaoae ia ?iaeeeny aeeaui. Noeeenoe/aneea
ii?iu ii?aaeaeytho oiio?aaeaiea ycueiauo n?aaenoa a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiaie aeai?a, iniaaiiinoyie ooieoeeiiaeueiiai noeey e – oe?a – n
oeaeueth e oneiaeyie iauaiey. Iaiioeae?iaaiiia oiio?aaeaiea a oaenoa
neia ae?oaie noeeenoe/aneie ie?anee aucuaaao noeeenoe/aneea ioeaee.
Noeeenoe/aneea ii?iu caoeene?iaaiu a oieeiauo neiaa?yo a ea/anoaa
niaoeeaeueiuo iiiao, eiiiaioe?othony a o/aaieeao ii noeeenoeea ?onneiai
ycuea e eoeueoo?a ?a/e. Noeeenoe/aneea ioeaee ninoiyo a ia?ooaiee
noeeenoe/aneeo ii?i, aeeth/aiee a oaeno aaeeieoe, ia niioaaonoaothueo
noeeth e aeai?o oaenoa. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie noeeenoe/aneeie ioeaeaie
yaeythony: noeeenoe/aneay iaoianoiinoue (caoeeeeeaaaony, oea?neee
aani?aaeae, iioeaeno, ethaiaiue eiioeeeo ia?eniaai ai anae e?ana – a
oaenoa ni/eiaiey, a aeaeiaii aeieoiaioa, a aiaeeoe/aneie noaouea);
oiio?aaeaiea a?iiicaeeeo, iaoaea/iuo iaoaoi? (Iooeei e Ea?iiioia – aeaa
eo/a naaoa a oaiiii oea?noaa; Yoei oeaaoai – iineaiieeai i?e?iaeu –
iaaaaeiii, /oi ca aoeiia na?aeoea aueaony a a?oaee iiae eaiaiiuie
ieeoaie; Eiae ee ii i?aai io?acaoue yoo ieoi/eo aeecie, eioi?oth ia nai
iiaeaanee?); eaene/aneay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue (Iaiy aei aeoaeiu aieioao
yoio aii?in); eaene/aneay ecauoi/iinoue (Ii eo aoaeeo, /oiau iie
i?inioeenue; Iaaei ia?aoeoueny e ia?eiaeo eo aeecie, oi anoue oiio
ia?eiaeo a?aiaie, eiaaea iie aeeee; Iooeei – iiyo n aieueoie aoeau yoiai
neiaa); aeaoniuneaiiinoue (Ai a?aiy oiai, eae Iaeiiia niae, iiiaea
aioiaeeenue e aai i?iaoaeaeaieth; Aaeeinoaaiiia ?acaea/aiea Iaeiiiaa –
Caoa?; Anaiei, nio?aiyy o?aaeeoeee, ii eae-oi ia oae ethaeo i?ae?aniue
aeaineee iie; Ana aeaenoaey e ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Ieueaie e Iaeiiiaui auee
iaiieiuie). Ii?iu i?oia?aoee – yoi i?aaeea iaicia/aiey neia ia ienueia.
Iie aeeth/atho i?aaeea iaicia/aiey caoeia aoeaaie, i?aaeea neeoiiai,
aeaoeniiai e ?acaeaeueiiai iaienaiey neia, i?aaeea oiio?aaeaiey
i?iieniuo (caaeaaiuo) aoea e a?aoe/aneeo nie?auaiee.Ii?iu ioieooaoeee
ii?aaeaeytho oiio?aaeaiea ciaeia i?aieiaiey. N?aaenoaa ioieooaoeee
eiatho neaaeothuea ooieoeee: ioa?aie/aiea a ienueiaiiii oaenoa iaeiie
neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?u (eee aa yeaiaioa) io ae?oaie; oeenaoeey a
oaenoa eaaie e i?aaie a?aieoe neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?u eee aa yeaiaioa;
iauaaeeiaiea a oaenoa ianeieueeeo neioaene/aneeo no?oeoo? a iaeii
oeaeia. Ii?iu i?oia?aoee e ioieooaoeee cae?aieaiu a “I?aaeeao ?onneie
i?oia?aoee e ioieooaoeee”, aaeeinoaaiiii iaeaieaa iieiii e ioeoeeaeueii
ooaa?aeaeaiiii naiaea i?aaee i?aaiienaiey. Ia iniiaa oeacaiiuo i?aaee
ninoaaeaiu ?acee/iua ni?aai/ieee ii i?oia?aoee e ioieooaoeee, iaeaieaa
aaoi?eoaoiuie n?aaee eioi?uo n/eoaaony “Ni?aai/iee ii i?oia?aoee e
ioieooaoeee” Ae.Y. ?icaioaey, iaiaeiie?aoii ia?aecaeaaaaoeeny, a ioee/ea
io naiiai ioeoeeaeueiiai naiaea i?aaee, ecaeaiiiai aeaaaeaeu – a 1956 e
1962 aa. I?oiyie/aneea ii?iu aeeth/atho ii?iu i?ieciioaiey, oaea?aiey e
eioiiaoeee. Niaethaeaiea i?oiyie/aneeo ii?i yaeyaony aaaeiie /anoueth
eoeueoo?u ?a/e, o.e. eo ia?ooaiea nicaeaao o neooaoaeae iai?eyoiia
aia/aoeaiea i ?a/e e naiii aiai?yuai, ioaeaeaao io aini?eyoey
niaea?aeaiey ?a/e. I?oiyie/aneea ii?iu caoeene?iaaiu a i?oiyie/aneeo
neiaa?yo ?onneiai ycuea e neiaa?yo oaea?aiee. Eioiiaoeeiiiua ii?iu
iienaiu a “?onneie a?aiiaoeea” (I., 1980) e o/aaieeao ?onneiai ycuea.

Caeeth/aiea

sscueiaua ii?iu – yaeaiea enoi?e/aneia. Eciaiaiea eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i
iaoneiaeaii iinoiyiiui ?acaeoeai ycuea. Oi, /oi auei ii?iie a i?ioeii
noieaoee e aeaaea 15–20 eao iacaae, naaiaeiy iiaeao noaoue ioeeiiaieai
io iaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

– ?onneee ycue e Eoeueoo?a ?a/e. A.E. Aeoiaa e ae?. iiae ?aae. *a?iye
A.Ae. I.2002 a.

– ?onneee ycue e Eoeueoo?a ?a/e (o/aaiia iiniaea). E.A. Aieoa I. 2002a.

– Ii?iu nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Ai?aa/aae/ E.N. I.,
1981.

– Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau eoeueoo?u ?a/e. Neai?oeia E.E., I., 1990a.

– Aaoiooiaa A.A. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e. Ecae.-a 2 eni?. E aeii. – Eacaiue,
ecae.-ai Eacaineiai oi.-oa, 1964. – 200 no?.

– Aii?inu noeeenoeee onoiie e ienueiaiiie oi?iu ?a/e. / Iiae ?aae. I.A.
Ne?ioeieia. – Na?aoia, ecae.-ai Na?aoianeiai oi.-oa, 1989. – 183 no?.

– Eeoa?aoo?iay ii?ia e i?inoi?a/ea. / Iiae ?aae. E.E. Neai?oeiaa. – I.:
Iaoea, 1977. – 254 no?.

– Aii?inu noeeenoeee onoiie e ienueiaiiie oi?iu ?a/e. / Iiae ?aae. I.A.
Ne?ioeieia. – Na?aoia, ecae.-ai Na?aoianeiai oi.-oa, 1989. – 183 no?.

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