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Лингвистическое обеспечение искусственного интеллекта

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?AOA?AO

Oaia: eeiaaenoe/aneia iaania/aiea eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea
——————————————————————— 1

2. Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo
———————————————— 2

O Caaea/e eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa
————————————- 2

O Enoi?ey ?ac?aaioee nenoai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ———- 2

O Naycue eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa n ae?oaeie aeenoeeieeiaie—– 3

O Iai?aaeaiey e?eoeee eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa —————– 4

O Eioi?iaoeea a iauanoaa
————————————————- 4

3. Ineoieeiaaenoeea
———————————————————- 5

O Enoi?ey ?acaeoey ineoieeiaaenoeee ———————————- 6

O Iiaeaee oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
————————————– 7

4. Eeiaaiineoieiaey
——————————————————— 8

5. Oai?ey eioa?i?aoaoeee
—————————————————- 9

O Iauea iiiyoey oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee —————————– 9

O Ciaiea eae iniiaa eioa?i?aoaoeee ————————————
11

O I?eioeeiu eioa?i?aoaoeee
———————————————- 12

6. Au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea
—————————————— 13

O Ia?aaioea anoanoaaiiiai ycuea (IAss) —————————– 13

O Enoi?ey IAss
————————————————————– 15

O Nenoaia, «iiieiathuay» anoanoaaiiue ycue ———————– 16

7. Caeeth/aiea
—————————————————————– 19

8. Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a
——————————————– 20

Aaaaeaiea

Eioi?iaoeeae ethaee iia?e?iaaee oaea caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey
eiiiuethoa?ia. Ia/eiay n ae?aaiaai aaaea, aeiaeeaoaai aei iaoeo aeiae a
aeaea eiioi?neeo n/aoia, nicaeaaaeenue i?eniiniaeaiey aeey ia?aaioee
/eneiaie eioi?iaoeee. Iaoaie/aneea ono?ienoaa oeia a?eoiiiao?ia, n/aoiua
yeaeo?e/aneea eeaaeoiua iaoeiu, n/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneay oaoieea e iiiaea
ae?oaea i?eai?u auee iaoeaeaiu ia ?aoaiea oao aea caaea/, eioi?ua a
iieiii iauaia noaee ?aaeeciauaaoueny a eiiiuethoa?ao.

Ii /oiau yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue oaoieeo /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe n
iae «iauee ycue» eee iao/eoue aa aiai?eoue ia naiai.

Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea eeiaaenoe/aneiai
iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

Iauaeoii aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo,
iiyoiio n/eoaaony oeaeaniia?aciui ?anniio?aoue enoi?eth ?acaeoey,
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?ac?aaioee, i?aaei?eieiaaoeany ?aiaa e
i?aaei?eieiaaiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, e iauea aii?inu, eanathueany i?iaeai
nicaeaiey eneonnoaaiiiai ?acoia. Oae eae eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaiaeeiuo a ?aieao oaeie iaoee
eae eioi?iaoeea eee eiiiuethoa?ieiaey, oaeaea yaeyaony caeiiiia?iui
?anniio?aiea acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaiiie iaeanoe ciaiee n ae?oaeie
aeenoeeieeiaie, a /anoiinoe n eeiaaenoeeie e ineoieiaeae.

A ?aaioa aoaeoo oaeaea cao?iioou iauea aii?inu eeiaaenoeee e
ineoieeiaaenoeee, iineieueeo aeaiiua eiaiii yoeo iaoe iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeai eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa. Oaeei ia?acii, oae eae i?iaeaia eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa eaaeeo a iaeanoe ia?ana/aiey oaeeo aeenoeeieei
eae eioi?iaoeea (e ?ac?aaioea eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa a /anoiinoe),
eeiaaenoeea e ineoieeiaaenoeea, aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu oi/ee eo
nii?eeiniiaaiey.

Oaeaea ai aaaaeaiee y n/eoath oeaeaniia?aciui aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiey
iaeioi?uo iniiaiuo oa?ieiia, eioi?ua aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu a aeaiiie
?aaioa:

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo (Artificial Intelligence; Kuenstliche
Intelligenz; intelligence artificielle) – ?acaeae eiiiuethoa?ieiaee /
eioi?iaoeee (computer science), ?ac?aaaouaathuee “?acoiiua”
eiiiuethoa?iua nenoaiu, o.a. nenoaiu, i?iyaeythuea oa?aeoa?enoeee
?acoiiinoe a /aeiaa/aneii iiaaaeaiee (iiieiaiea ycuea, iao/aiea,
?annoaeaeaiea, ?aoaiea caaea/ e o.i., a oaeaea yoe/aneea aniaeou) [Born,
Born-Lechleitner 1987: viii], a oaeaea ?acoeueoao enneaaeiaaiee a
aeaiiie iaeanoe ciaiee (oi anoue niiniaiinoue eiiiuethoa?a inouanoaeyoue
iia?aoeee, aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannai iao/aiey e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee /aeiaaeii
[Webster’s Dictionary]).

Eeiaaenoeea (linguistics, Linguistik, linguistique) – iaoea i ycuea, aai
iauanoaaiiie i?e?iaea e ooieoeeyo, aai aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?a,
caeiiiia?iinoyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, aai enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee e
eeanneoeeaoeee ioaeaeueiuo ycueia.

Ineoieeiaaenoeea (psycholinguistics; Psycholinguistik;
psycholinguistique) – iaoea i ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae a
ineoieiae/aneeo e eeiaaenoe/aneeo aniaeoao, aeeth/ay yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea ineoieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa ii onaiaieth e
eniieueciaaieth nenoaiu ycuea eae i?aaieciaaiiie e aaoiiiiiie nenoaiu.

Eeiaaiineoieiaey – enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoa ineoieiaee (/aeiaa/aneie
iaioaeueiinoe, yiioeee, niciaiee, ia?oeaioeee) eeiaaenoe/aneeie
iaoiaeaie, /a?ac i?ecio iauaeaiiiai ycuea.

Au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea – aeenoeeieeia, caieiathuayny
eiiioieeaoeaiuie i?ioeannaie a iaeaieaa aano?aeoiii aeaea, a ooieoeee
eioi?ie aoiaeeo onoaiiaeaiea iauaai aeaea e iaueo i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey
i?ioeanni?ia anoanoaaiiiai ycuea, aeieacaoaeuenoai oai?ai ioiineoaeueii
?aaiineeueiinoe eee ia?aaiineeueiinoe aeaoo ?acee/iuo oi?iaeueiuo
a?aiiaoee iaeiiai e oiai aea ycuea e o.i.

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo ninoieo a iiaeaee?iaaiee eiaieoeee /aeiaaea, a
aini?iecaaaeaiee /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e /aeiaa/aneie eiaieoeee a
oeaeii e iie?aaony ia enneaaeiaaiea aeieiae/aneeo iniiaaiee ia?a?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii (i?e yoii aeaaiie yaeyaony eiaieoeaiay
aaeaeaaoiinoue), ia iao/iue aiaeec e aaoiiaoecaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
ooieoeee /aeiaaea. A iniiaa eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa eaaeeo
oaaaeaeaiiinoue a i?eioeeieaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe iiaeaee?iaaiey
iaoaieciia /aeiaa/aneie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia YAI. A nayce n yoei
iiiyoea eioaeeaeoa ?anniao?eaaaony eae ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iicaii e
aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, eae aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie ia?a?aaioee ciaiey, i?e eioi?ie aa?aaeueiue aniaeo
ea?aao iniaoth ?ieue: eioaeeaeo ninoieo ia oieueei a oiaiee
iieueciaaoueny iiuoii, ii e ia?aaeaaaoue yoio iiuo ia ycuea (i
o?aaiaaieyo e nenoaiai eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, eniieuecothuei
anoanoaaiiue ycue). Iiyoiio eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo eiiaaea
ioiaeaeanoaeytho n enneaaeiaaieai eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ooieoeee.
Aio?iiiii?oeci eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa caeeth/aaony a no?aieaiee e
aeinoeaeaieth noiaenoaa iaaeaeo iiaeaeueth e /aeiaa/aneeie
i?ioeaaeo?aie. Oae, ii Oaieo, iineieueeo ethaee yaeythony
eiioeaiooaeueiuie, eioaioeeiiaeueiuie e naiaioe/iuie nenoaiaie,
acaeiiaeaenoaothueie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, i?aaeeaaaaiua
iiaeaee oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue iiiyoeeiuie, eioaioeeiiaeueiuie e
naiaioe/iuie (semanticallybased). Iaeiaei eiaiii yoe iaeeaeaiey
enneaaeiaaoaeae aua ia ii?aaaeuaaeenue iieiinoueth.

Iacaaiea «eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo» ioithaeue ia i?aaeiieaaaao n?aaiaiey
anoanoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa n eneonnoaaiiui. Nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa iacuaathony oae ii ae?oaie i?e/eia. Iie i?ecaaiu aeinoeaaoue
?acoeueoaoia, eioi?ua iieo/ee au /aeiaae, anee au auiieiye
eioaeeaeooaeueioth ?aaioo.

Caaea/e eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa – ?acaeoea, iiaeaea?aeea e
eniieueciaaiea oi?iaeueiiai aiia?aoa, eioa?i?aoe?oaiiai eiiiuethoa?ii,
aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiey. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-iieneiaay ia?aaeeaia
eiaieoeaiuo iaoe ninoieo a i?eaioaoeee ia YAI eae ia eino?oiaio
enneaaeiaaiey: iiaeaee?iaaiea (iienaiea e iauyniaiea, a /anoiinoe,
ycueiauo yaeaiee) ia aaca oai?ee eioi?iaoeee e ?aaeecaoeey a oi?ia
?aaioathueo nenoai. Eae ?acaeoea oai?ee eiaieoeaiie ia?a?aaioee e
yenia?eiaiou n eiiiuethoa?iuie ?aaeecaoeeyie yoeo oai?ee, eneonnoaaiiue
eioaeeaeo iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyao i?ioeaaeo?iie noi?iia. Oeaeue
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa – iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey YAI,
iiiyoue i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo iieieony /aeiaa/aneee eioaeeaeo,
eieoe?iaaoue ia eiiiuethoa?a ?acoiiia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea – aai
aini?eyoea, iiieiaiea, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey, iao/aiea e o.i. – eae a
oai?aoe/aneii ieaia, oae e yenia?eiaioaeueii. I?aeoe/aneeie
?aaeecaoeeyie yaeythony yenia?oiua nenoaiu, iino?iaiiua ia iniiaa aac
ciaiee, e nenoaiu iauaiey /aeiaaea e YAI. A iaeanoue eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa aoiaeyo ?acaeaeu eioi?iaoeee (?aniiciaaaiea anoanoaaiiiai
ycuea, aaoiiaoe/aneee ia?aaiae, yenia?oiua nenoaiu, ?aniiciaaaiea
c?eoaeueiuo ia?acia, aaia?aoeey aeieacaoaeuenoa a iaoaiaoeea, oi?aaeaiea
?iaioaie, eiiiuethoa?iua ea?u) e oaoie/aneea nenoaiu ?aoaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo caaea/.

Enoi?ey ?ac?aaioee eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa

Ii a?aiaie aicieeiiaaiey yoi iai?aaeaiea a eioi?iaoeea — naiia iieiaeia.
A?aiy aai iiyaeaiey eae iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu — ia/aei 70-o aa. XX
noieaoey. Ii nae/an, iiaeaeoe, eiaiii eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo
ii?aaeaeyao no?aoaae/aneea iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey aeaiiie iaoee.

Oa?iei “eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo” iiyaeeny a 1956 a., iaeiaei aai iniiau
auee caeiaeaiu cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa: eiaeea Ae. Aoey e iaoeiiia
iiaeaee?iaaiea en/eneaiey o *. Aaaaeaeaea iiaeaioiaeee ii/ao aeey
“oai?ee au/eneaiey” A. Oueth?eiaa e oai?ee eiiioieeaoeee Oaiiiia, a
caoai aeey eeaa?iaoeee I. Aeia?a e oai?ee aaoiiaoia oii Iaeiaiia.

N iiyaeaieai ia?auo YAI noaei ynii, /oi eiaeaia?u e iaoaiaoeee nicaeaee
ia i?inoi auno?i ?aaioathuaa ono?ienoai aeey au/eneaiee, a ia/oi aieaa
cia/eoaeueiia. Ieacaeinue, /oi n iiiiuueth YAI iiaeii ?aoaoue ?acee/iua
aieiaieiiee, eiae/aneea caaea/e, ea?aoue a oaoiaou, nicaeaaaoue ea?iaua
i?ia?aiiu, ni/eiyoue iocueaeueiua iaeiaeee, noeoioai?aiey e aeaaea
neacee. Iiyaeeenue i?ia?aiiu aeey ia?aaiaea n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie,
aeey ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia, aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?ai. Ana yoi i?eaaei e
auaiaeo i oii, /oi n iiiiuueth YAI e niioaaonoaothueo i?ia?aii iiaeii
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue oaeea aeaeu /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
iacuaathony eioaeeaeooaeueiuie e n/eoathony aeinooiiuie eeoue /aeiaaeo.

Ii, ianiio?y ia aieueoia ?aciiia?acea iaau/eneeoaeueiuo i?ia?aii,
nicaeaiiuo e ia/aeo 60o aa., i?ia?aiie?iaaiea a noa?a eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaoiaeeeinue a ai?acaei ooaeoai iieiaeaiee, /ai ?aoaiea
?an/aoiuo caaea/, o.e. iii iie?aeinue ia niioaaonoaothuoth oai?eth —
au/eneeoaeueioth iaoaiaoeeo, ia iniiaa eioi?ie auei ?ac?aaioaii
aeiaieueii iiiai iaoiaeia ?aoaiey caaea/. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai aeey
iaau/eneeoaeueiuo caaea/ ia auei. Ethaay i?ia?aiia auea caeanue
oieeaeueiie, o.e. aua ia auee ioe?uou iaoiaeu aeey ?aoaiey iaeiioeiiuo
iaau/eneeoaeueiuo caaea/. Eiiiuethoa? «ia ioee/ae» au/eneeoaeueiua
i?ia?aiiu io iaau/eneeoaeueiuo, iineieueeo a iaiyoe eiiiuethoa?a ia auei
ciaiee i oii, /oi ii ia naiii aeaea aeaeaao.

Ia eioaeeaeoa eiiiuethoa?a iiaeii auei au aiai?eoue, anee au ii nai, ia
iniiaaiee nianoaaiiuo ciaiee noiae ninoaaeoue oaoiaoioth i?ia?aiio eee,
iai?eia?, neioace?iaae iocueaeueiia eee eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea.

Naycue eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa n ae?oaeie aeenoeeieeiaie

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo oanii naycai ni iiiaei aeenoeeieeiaie, iai?eia?,
n oai?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeie, ioeoaea ii caeinoaiaae iiiaea iiaeaee e
iaoiaeu. Noieue aea i?i/iu nayce yoiai iai?aaeaiey n eeaa?iaoeeie. E
eiia/ii, ?aaiou a iaeanoe nicaeaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nenoai (/ai,
nianoaaiii, e caieiathony niaoeeaeenou, ?aaioathuea a iaeanoe
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa) iaiuneeiu aac ?acaeouo nenoai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

Iniiaiay oeaeue ?aaio a iaeanoe eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa — no?aieaiea
i?iieeiooue a oaeiu oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eo niiniaiinoe e
iaeaaeaieth iaaueaie, ciaieyie e oiaieyie. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
?ane?uoue oa aeoaeiiua iaoaieciu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae niiniaai
iao/eoueny i?aeoe/anee ethaiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee nooue yoeo
iaoaieciia aoaeao ?acaaaeaia, oi anoue iaaeaaeaea ?aaeeciaaoue eo
iiaeiaea a eneonnoaaiiuo nenoaiao, o. a. naeaeaoue eo ii-ianoiyuaio
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie.

Oaeay oeaeue enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa oanii
naycuaaao eo n aeinoeaeaieyie ineoieiaee — iaoee, iaeiie ec caaea/
eioi?ie yaeyaony eco/aiea eioaeeaeoa /aeiaaea. A ineoieiaee nae/an
aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony iniaia iai?aaeaiea — eiaieoeaiay ineoieiaey,
enneaaeiaaiey a eioi?ii iai?aaeaiu ia ?ane?uoea oao caeiiiia?iinoae e
iaoaieciia, eioi?ua eioa?anotho niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa.

E?iia ineoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, a noa?o eioa?ania niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa aoiaeyo oa eeiaaenoe/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua oanii naycaiu n ineoieiaeae. Yoo iia?aie/ioth
iaeanoue aeoeaii enneaaeoao ineoieeiaaenoeea. Aa ?acoeueoaou eanathony
iiaeaee?iaaiey iauaiey ia oieueei n iiiiuueth anoanoaaiiiai ycuea, ii e
n eniieueciaaieai eiuo n?aaenoa (aeanoia, ieieee, eioiiaoeee e o. i.).

Nouanoaoao iiiai niiniaia iienaoue e i?aaenoaaeoue ?aciiia?aciua ciaiey
i ie?a. E anoanoaaiiue ycue eeoue iaeei ec ieo. Niaoeeaeueiay iaoea,
eioi?ay eco/aao iauea naienoaa ?acee/iuo nenoai, niiniaiuo iienuaaoue
yaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a e aai caeiiu, iacuaaaony naieioeeie. Iiiyoii,
/oi e naieioeea niaoeeaeenou ii eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo i?iyaeytho ia
iaiueoee eioa?an, /ai e ineoieiaee eee eeiaaenoeea.

Nia?aiaiiua YAI oaea iaei oaeiaeaoai?ytho niaoeeaeenoia ii
eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo. Iie ia eiatho ie/aai iauaai n oai, eae
ono?iai /aeiaa/aneee iica. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony enneaaeiaaieyi, naycaiiui n nicaeaieai iae?iiiaeiaiuo
eneonnoaaiiuo naoae.

Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo — iaoea ia /enoi oai?aoe/aneay. Iia caieiaaony e
i?eeeaaeiuie aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n iino?iaieai ?aaeueii aeaenoaothueo
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nenoai, iai?eia? ?iaioia.

Iai?aaeaiey e?eoeee eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa:

1. Eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo iieieony ia aeiioaca ia aiaeiaee ciaiey ycuea
e ciaiey aiiaua. Ciaiea aiiaua iie?aaony ia ciaiea aeene?aoiuo aaeeieoe
e ioiioaiee. Iaeiaei ciaiea ycuea ia noieue i?yiieeiaeii. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho o?oaeiinoe a au?aaeaiee. sscueiaia e aiaycueiaia
ciaiey ia naiii aeaea i/aiue ?acee/iu. A /anoiinoe, o ciaiey aiiaua iao
“naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u”. Ii [Herskovits 1986], ieeaeay ec eiioeaioeee,
nouanoaothueo ia aeaiiue iiiaio, ia iauyniyao, eae /aeiaae eniieuecoao
eaene/aneea ciaiey. Ia neo/aeii nouanoaothuea nenoaiu eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa, eniieuecothuea anoanoaaiiue ycue, ia iiaoo i?iaeooee?iaaoue
auneacuaaiea oae, eae yoi aeaeaao /aeiaae: yoe nenoaiu niiniaiu oieueei
a iaeioi?ii niunea “iauaoueny” n /aeiaaeii.

2. Iaioaeueiinoue ia naiaeeony e oi?iaeueiie, “neioaeoe/aneie”,
ia?aaioea, anoue aua e naiaioe/aneea aniaeou – a yoii ninoieo ioee/ea
anoanoaaiiiai ?acoia io eiiiuethoa?a. Iiieiaiea ycuea, a /anoiinoe,
iniiaaii ia eioa?i?aoaoeee neiaieia – /aai iao o eiiiuethoa?a.
“Neeueiue” eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo neaaeoao ioee/aoue io “neaaiai”, eee
inoi?iaeiiai iiaeoiaea, aeey eioi?iai eiiiuethoa? – aeaaiui ia?acii
eino?oiaio enneaaeiaaiey (iicaieythuee oi?ioee?iaaoue e i?iaa?youe
aeiioacu). “Neaaue” eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo ianiiiaiii oeaiai. Ii aeey
“neeueiiai” eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa eiiiuethoa? – iieiia iiaoi?aiea
iuoeaiey, e yoi-oi e aucuaaao niiiaiey: eiiiuethoa? ia iaeaaeaao
eioaioeeiiaeueiinoueth, iioiio ia iiaeao ii iaeaaeaoue e iiieiaieai.
“Neeueiue” eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo iaaiciiaeai, iineieueeo /aeiaae
iiaeao iaeaaeaoue iaeioi?ie i?ia?aiiie aeaenoaee, ia aoaeo/e a
niioaaonoaothueo iaioaeueiuo ninoiyieyo.

3. Ii [Karpatschof 1982], iau/ii a oieona eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa –
i?aaenoaaeaiea (?ai?acaioe?iaaiea) aiaoiaai ie?a e aioo?aiiaai ninoiyiey
naiie nenoaiu, a oaeaea iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea nenoaiu ii oiaeo ?aaiou. Ii
ionoonoaotho /a?ou, i?enouea /aeiaa/aneiio eioaeeaeoo, eae oi:
nioeeaeueiinoue, oeeiaaiaoe/iinoue, enoi?e/iinoue e noaiiaeaiea n
aic?anoii, ii oiaeo ac?ineaiey /aeiaaea.

Eioi?iaoeea a iauanoaa.

Naaiaeiy iu aeeaai a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa, a eioi?ii ia?iiioth ?ieue
ea?atho nenoaiu ?ani?ino?aiaiey, o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.
Oe?ieia aiaae?aiea eiiiuethoa?ia ai ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?yaeo n eniieueciaaieai eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ?iaioia
cia/eoaeueii aeeyao ia o?aaeeoeeiiioth n?aaeo iaeoaiey ethaeae, eciaiyy
aa iiae naie ioaeaeu. ?anoao eiee/anoai ethaeae, i?ioanneiiaeueii
caiyouo nai?ii, iaeiieaieai, ia?aaioeie, ?ani?ino?aiaieai e o?aiaieai
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay yaeyaony oiaa?ii, eiathuei aieueooth oeaiiinoue, a
nayce n /ai eiaeono?ey eioi?iaoeee a iauanoaa noaiiaeony aanueia
cia/eiui yaeaieai.

Ia?niaeoeau iieiiai ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao aucuaatho
ianno i?iaeai nioeeaeueiiai, i?aaiaiai, oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iai?eia?, i?eiaiaiea ?iaioia ia i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaaeao e iieiiio
eciaiaieth oaoiieiaee, eioi?ay a iaoe aeie i?eaioe?iaaia ia o/anoea a
iai /aeiaaea. ?acei eciaieony iiaeaioiaea /eaiia iiaiai iauanoaa e
naiinoiyoaeueiie aeecie. Oaea ia/aou iieneiaua ?aaiou a iaeanoe
nicaeaiey iiauo oi?i iao/aiey, eioi?ua caiaiyo nouanoaothuea
o?aaeeoeeiiiua oi?iu. Iieiinoueth eciaieony iiiaieeaoo?a i?ioannee,
niaoeeaeueiinoae e niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea.

Ineoieeiaaenoeea

Aeaaiue iiiaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee ineoieeiaaenoe/aneee iiaeoiae e ?a/aaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, – yoi oaeoi? /aeiaaea. Ineoieeiaaenoeea aeoeaii aaiaeeo
yoio oaeoi? a iienaiea, a enoiaeiua iinueee naieo iiaeaeae eae oaeoi?
iaycaoaeueiue, ii?aaeaeythuee nooue, oa?aeoa? ia oieueei ?a/e, ii e –
/oi iniaaiii aaaeii – naiiai ycuea. I?e yoii eiaaony a aeaeo ia
aano?aeoiue «/aeiaae aiiaua», a ?aaeueiua ethaee n ?aaeueiie aeeiaieeie
eo iaiyoe, aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae, ee/iiai iiuoa, nenoaiie oeaeae e
iioeaia, nioeeaeueiuo ?ieae e o.i.

Neaaeothuei oaeoi?ii, i?yii auoaeathuei ec ia?aiai, yaeyaony oaeoi?
neooaoeee. *aeiaae anaaaea aiai?eo eee neooaao a eaeie-oi neooaoeee,
i?e/ai ia i?inoi a eaeie-oi eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, ii a neooaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia. *enei oaeeo oeiia aeinoaoi/ii iiaeaeaeiu,
aeeiaie/iu, aa?eaaaeueiu. Iiyoiio, anee i?e eeanne/aneii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee ycuea e ?a/e ana neooaoeaiia ioiineeinue
eneeth/eoaeueii e ?a/aaiio, ieeaceiiaeueiiio, a ycueiaay nenoaia, ocon,
?anniao?eaaeenue ia i?inoi eae ia/oi onoie/eaia, ii e eae iacaaeneiia io
neooaoeaiiai iiiaioa, oi ec ineoieeiaaenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea i?yii
auoaeaao, /oi neiaeiue e aeeiaie/aneee oaeoi? neooaoeee oae aea
i?eioeeieaeueii iaono?aiei ia oieueei ec ?a/e, ii e ec ycuea, eae e
oaeoi? /aeiaaea.

Iaeiiaoe, o?aoee iiiaio – ia i?aeoeea naiue iuooeiue aeey iiieiaiey
niaoeeoeee ineoieeiaaenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey – yoi i?eioeei
yenia?eiaioa. Aeey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ycueiciaiey, eco/athuaai ono?ienoai
nenoaiu ycuea oa?aeoa?ii, eae i?aaeei, neaioe/iia ioiioaiea e
aiciiaeiinoe aa yenia?eiaioaeueiiai eco/aiey. A naiii aeaea, anee
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa niioaaonoaotho oaea eiathueiny aeaiiui i
«ii?ia», oi iie iaei, /oi iiaoo aeiaaaeoue e ciaieyi, iieo/aiiui a
?acoeueoaoa i?eau/iiai iaaethaeaiey iaae eiathueieny a ?anii?yaeaiee
enneaaeiaaoaey oaenoaie. A neo/aa, anee a yenia?eiaioa iieo/aiu
iaiau/iua, iaiaeeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou, o eeiaaenoia n?aco aea aicieeatho
niiiaiey a oii, /oi ia iniiaa yoeo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iiaeii
eae-oi ei??aeoe?iaaoue eiathueany iiaeaee ycuea. Iaaeaeo oai a
ineoieeiaaenoeea yenia?eiaio noaiiaeony nouanoaaiiui i?eioeeiii
enneaaeiaaiey. Ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iiaoo no?ieoueny
ai?acaei aieaa iiuiua e aaeaeaaoiua iiaeaee ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe, /ai
oa, eioi?ua no?iyony aac iii?u ia yenia?eiaio.

Yoe o?e ?anniio?aiiuo iiiaioa iieacuaatho, /oi ineoieeiaaenoeea
aeaenoaeoaeueii ioee/aaony io oiai, /oi naaiaeiy n/eoaaony nianoaaiii
eeiaaenoeeie, ii /oi iia ia naiii aeaea yaeyaony eeoue iaeiei ec
aiciiaeiui aa?eaioia eeiaaenoeee. No?aieaiea e o/aoo e oaeoi?a /aeiaaea,
e oaeoi?a neooaoeee, no?aieaiea iia?aoueny ia aeaiiua yenia?eiaioa
niioaaonoaotho iauei oaiaeaioeeyi nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiuo e aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe. Yoi aiai?eo ia iniaie aeooaeueiinoe
inaiaiey eaeae e iaoiaeia ineoieeiaaenoeee, iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeeth/aiey
ineoieeiaaenoeee a nenoaio eeiaaenoe/aneiai ciaiey.

Ineoieeiaaenoeea yaeyaony eiaieoeaiie aeenoeeieeiie, iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
iieiaeaiee eioi?ie ninoieo a neaaeothuai: ia?aaioea ycuea naycaia n
na?eae “au/eneaiee” (computations), i?iecaiaeeiuo iaae iaioaeueiuie
?ai?acaioaoeeyie eioi?iaoeee, iinooiathuae io i?aaiia /oanoa
(Aeae.Oiaei?). Ineoieeiaaenoeea – iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue a?aiaiiua e
no?oeoo?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acee/iuo oeiia “au/eneaiee” e
?ai?acaioaoeee, o/anoaothueo a ycueiaie ia?aaioea.

A caaea/o ineoieeiaaenoeee aoiaeeo enneaaeiaaiea e iiaeaee?iaaiea:

– i?ioeannia ieaie?iaaiey ?a/e,

– iaoaieciia, niaaeeiythuea aiaaeeii ciaiea e eniieueciaaiea ycuea – a
/anoiinoe, i?ioeannia (aeai?eoiia) aini?eyoey e i?iaeooee?iaaiey ?a/e,
eiaieoeaiuo i?ioeannia, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo n ycueiaui ciaieai i?e
i?iaeooee?iaaiee e iiieiaiee ycuea;

– oi?iu ycueiaiai ciaiey, eaaeauaai a iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ycuea
eiaeeaeaeaie;

– iaoaieciia onaiaiey ycuea ii oiaeo ?acaeoey ?aaaiea (ineoieiaey
?acaeoey ?acaeoey – developmental psycholinguistics).

Ineoieeiaaenoeea, eae e ineoieiaey ycuea, ?anniao?eaaao nianoaaiii
aeeneo?neaioth aeayoaeueiinoue, inoaaeyy a noi?iia iaoaieci ycuea n aai
aano?aeoiuie e noaoe/iuie no?oeoo?aie. Aeaaiuie iauaeoaie
ineoieeiaaenoeee, ii [Farmini 1981], yaeythony: ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ycuea,
i?iaeooee?iaaiea e ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea aeeneo?na e oaenoa, ?eoi?eea,
noeeenoeea, i?aeoeea ia?aaiaea e i?aiiaeaaaiea ycuea

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey ineoieeiaaenoeee

Nio?oaeie/anoai eeiaaenoeee n ineoieiaeae ca?iaeeeinue aeaaii, aua a
?aaioao ii yenia?eiaioaeueiie ineoieiaee A.Aoiaeoa. Oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey ineoieiaee eae (ioiineoaeueii) oi/iie iaoee, a
eiioea 1940-o aa., onoaiiaeeenue noieue oaniua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ineoieiaeae e eeiaaenoeeie i?e ia?aaioea iaeiieaiiiai iaoa?eaea, /oi
iiaeii noaei aiai?eoue i ?iaeaeaiee iiaie aeenoeeieeiu, iacaaiiie
ineoieeiaaenoeeie. A 1950-a aa. iieo/ee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea nai
oa?iei “Ineoieeiaaenoeea”, iaicia/aaoee iaeio ec aeenoeeieei,
caieiathueony /aeiaa/aneie eiiioieeaoeeae, a eiaiii, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aeaeiaee?iaeie e eiaee?iaeie, niioiinyueie ninoiyiey niiauaiey n
ninoiyieyie iauaiey. A 1960-70-a aa. iu iaoiaeei oieueei noeeenoe/aneea
aa?eaiou yoie oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ineoieeiaaenoeea caieiaeanue
ineoieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, naycaiiuie n onaiaieai, i?iaeooee?iaaieai
e iiieiaieai ycuea, enneaaeiaaea i?e?iaeo ycueiaiai eniieiaiey, a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oi?iaeueiiio eco/aieth ycuea eae iaeioi?ie
aano?aeoiie nenoaiu eee enneaaeiaaieth i?ioeannia i?iaeooee?iaaiey e
iiieiaiey auneacuaaiee. Iineieueeo a Aa?iia ineoieiaey ?a/e (“ineoieiaey
ycuea”) ca?iaeeeanue aeiaieueii aeaaii, ineoieeiaaenoeea n/eoaeanue
/anoueth iauaai oaeiai enneaaeiaaiey.

E?iia oiai, ioi?ieaiea ineoieeiaaenoeee eae ioaeaeueiie iaoee
iauyniyaony iauaiaoiaee/aneeie oaeoi?aie. Ineoieeiaaenoeea auea
?aaeoeeae ia no?oeoo?aeeci, no?aieaieai ii?iaa?aiooue iiaiea, /oi
no?oeoo?u a iniiaa naiae iaeciaiiu. Eiaiii a ?aaioao nioeeieeiaaenoia e
ineoieeiaaenoia aeaiiino?e?oaony ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney ycueiauo no?oeoo?,
eae a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii, oae e a eieeaeoeaiii aniaeoao.

Ii eiioaeno e naia aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe ineoieeiaaenoeee oaeaea
eciaieeenue ca ia?eiae 1950-80-o aa., iniaaiii eiaaea iiyaeeenue
iae?ieeiaaenoeea, iaoieeiaaenoeea, iaaeieeiaaenoeea e o.ae.
Iaaethaeaaony e ?ino ineoieeiaaenoeee aaeoaue: anoue oai?aoe/aneay
ineoieeiaaenoeea, i?eeeaaeiay ineoieeiaaenoeea e ineoieeiaaenoeea
?acaeoey (developmental psycholinguistics).

Iaeiei ec oeaio?aeueiuo iiiyoee ineoieeiaaenoeee iineaaeieo 20 eao
yaeyaony iaioaeueiue eaeneeii – eae iaoaoi?a, iaicia/athuay iaoe?ioth
/anoue ycueiaiai ciaiey, aeeth/ay ciaiea yeaiaioa?iuo iineoaeae
ycueiaiai cia/aiey, eo oi?iu e iaioaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee. Iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee yoiai ciaiey, i aeinooia e iaio ii
oiaeo eniieueciaaiey (eiaieoeaiie ia?a?aaioee) ycuea. ?aaiou
eiaieoeaiiai iai?aaeaiey ineoieeiaaenoeee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee
iaaeinoaoee oao iiaeaeae eaeneeiia, a eioi?uo /oanoaaiiua neaiaeu i?yii
niioiinyony n iaioaeueiuie ?ai?acaioaoeeyie (iniaaiii iiaeaee aini?eyoey
“nieco aaa?o”). Auei iieacaii, /oi niioaaonoaothuea i?ioeannu
i?aaieciaaiu eioa?aeoeaii, oae /oi nouanoaaiiu oieueei oa aniaeou
aioo?aiiae ?ai?acaioaoeee aini?eieiaaiuo neaiaeia, eioi?ua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii niioianaiu n iaioaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae o?aieiuo
aaeeieoe. A ionthaea – iaeei oaa aei oiai, /oiau ioeacaoueny io iaoaoi?u
iaioaeueiiai eaeneeiia eae o?aieeeua eioi?iaoeee, e eioi?iio /aeiaae
ia?auaaony ii iaoiaeo eniieueciaaiey iau/iiai neiaa?y.

Iiaeaee oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

?ac?aaio/eee eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa no?aiyony i?iieeiooue a oaeiu
oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eo niiniaiinoe e iaeaaeaieth
iaaueaie, ciaieyie e oiaieyie. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ?ane?uoue oa
aeoaeiiua iaoaieciu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo /aeiaae niiniaai iao/eoueny
i?aeoe/anee ethaiio aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ineoieiaee iuoeaiey anoue ianeieueei iiaeaeae oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeia ec ieo iacuaaaony eaae?eioiie. Nooue eaae?eioiie
aeiioacu, ia eioi?ie iniiaaia eaae?eioiay iiaeaeue, ninoieo a
neaaeothuai: ia?aoiae io enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo caaea/e e aa ?aoaieth eaaeeo
/a?ac eaae?eio aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iooae. Ia ana iooe aaaeoo e
aeaeaaiie oeaee, iiiaea ec ieo caaiaeyo a ooiee, ec eioi?iai iaaei
oiaoue aica?auaoueny e oiio ianoo, aaea iioa?yii i?aaeeueiia
iai?aaeaiea. Ii iiaieth noi?iiieeia eaae?eioiie iiaeaee iuoeaiey,
?aoaiea anyeie oai?/aneie caaea/e naiaeeony e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiio iieneo
a eaae?eioa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iooae n ioeaieie oniaoa iinea eaaeaeiai
oaaa.

Iaeiaei nouanoaotho caaea/e, eiaaea eaae?eioioth iiaeaeue iiaeii
iino?ieoue eeoue oai?aoe/anee (iai?eia?, aeey ea?u a oaoiaou), eeai iia
aiiaua ia nouanoaoao. Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiua oaoiaoiua i?ia?aiiu oaea
aeaaii eniieuecotho ia oieueei iaoai?ioeaaeo?o oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai
iienea, ii e ae?oaea iaoai?ioeaaeo?u, naycaiiua n ae?oaeie iiaeaeyie
iuoeaiey.

Aeieaea aiaeu a ineoieiaee eco/aeanue annioeeaoeaiay iiaeaeue iuoeaiey.
Iniiaiie iaoai?ioeaaeo?ie yoie iiaeaee yaeyaony annioeeaoeaiue iiene e
annioeeaoeaiia ?annoaeaeaiea, iniiaaiiua ia iieiaeaiee, /oi ?aoaiea
iaecaanoiie caaea/e, oae eee eia/a, iniiauaaaony ia oaea ?aoaiiuo
caaea/ao, /ai-oi iioiaeeo ia oo, eioi?oth iaaei ?aoeoue. Iiaay caaea/a
?anniao?eaaaony eae oaea ecaanoiay, oioy e ianeieueei ioee/athuayny io
ecaanoiie. Iiyoiio niinia aa ?aoaiey aeieaeai auoue aeecie e oiio,
eioi?ue eiaaea-oi iiiia ?aoeoue iiaeiaioth caaea/o.

Aeey yoiai iaaei ia?aoeoueny e iaiyoe e iiiuoaoueny iaeoe ia/oi
iioiaeaa, /oi ?aiaa oaea ano?a/aeinue. Yoi e anoue annioeeaoeaiue iiene.
Iiiyoea annioeeaoeee caeanue ai?acaei oe?a, /ai i?inoi «iioiaeanoue».
Annioeeaoeaiua nayce iiaoo aicieeiooue e ii eiio?anoo, eae
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iaeiiai ae?oaiio, e ii niaaeiinoe, o.a. a neeo oiai,
/oi iaeioi?ua yaeaiey aicieeaee a ?aieao iaeiie e oie aea neooaoeee eee
i?ienoiaeeee iaeiia?aiaiii (eee n iaaieueoei naeaeaii ii a?aiaie).

Annioeeaoeaiia ?annoaeaeaiea iicaieyao ia?aiineoue i?eaiu,
eniieueciaaiiua ?aiaa, ia oaeouoth neooaoeeth. E niaeaeaieth, ianiio?y
ia iiiaieaoiaa eco/aiea annioeeaoeaiie iiaeaee, aua ia oaeaeinue
nicaeaoue no?ieioth oai?eth annioeeaoeaiiai iienea e annioeeaoeaiiai
?annoaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei enneaaeiaaiey a yoii iai?aaeaiee nua?aee aaaeioth
?ieue: iie iiiiaee nicaeaoue yooaeoeaiua i?ia?aiiu a ?aniiciaaaiee
ia?acia, a eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo caaea/ao e a iao/aiee YAI.

Eeiaaiineoieiaey

Eeiaaiineoieiaey yaeyaony aua iaeiie iaoeie, caaeaenoaiaaiiie a
i?ioeanna eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiie eioaeeaeoa. Aeaiiue
oa?iei ia?aciaai ii ia?acoeo iiiaeo oaea onoiyaoeony oa?ieiia. Oae,
ineoieeiaaenoeea – enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoa eeiaaenoeee iaoiaeaie
ineoieiaee (a /anoiinoe, n iiiiuueth ineoieiae/aneeo yenia?eiaioia),
nioeeieeiaaenoeea – enneaaeiaaiea i?aaeiaoa eeiaaenoeee iaoiaeaie
nioeeieiaee (a /anoiinoe, n iiiiuueth nioeeieiae/aneeo ii?inia e o.i.).
Ca i?aaeaeaie ycueiciaiey – iaoaiaoe/aneay oeceea – enneaaeiaaiea
i?aaeiaoa oeceee iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie.

Eae auei oeacaii ai aaaaeaiee, eeiaaiineoieiaey – enneaaeiaaiea
i?aaeiaoa ineoieiaee (/aeiaa/aneie iaioaeueiinoe, yiioeee, niciaiee,
ia?oeaioeee) eeiaaenoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie, /a?ac i?ecio iauaeaiiiai ycuea.
Iia ioee/aaony io ineoieeiaaenoeee, ii oai ia iaiaa ai iiiaii n iae
noiaea.

Iaeiaei eeiaaiineoieiaey ia no?aieony e nianoaaiii ineoieiae/aneei
iao/iui ?acoeueoaoai. Aa caaea/a ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaoiaeaie
eiio?anoeaiie eaene/aneie naiaioeee auynieoue, eaeiaa naiaioeea oa?ieiia
/aeiaa/aneie aeooiaiinoe. ?anniio?aa aea, eae ?aaeueii oiio?aaeythony
yoe oa?ieiu a eeanne/aneie e nia?aiaiiie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie (oi anoue, ia
i?ioanneiiaeueiie ineoieiae/aneie) eeoa?aoo?a, iu aeieoiaioe?oai e
enneaaeoai ia oieueei ?anoiaeea iiaiey aeaiiiai yoiina i aeooiaiinoe, ii
e aino?aaiaaiiinoue au?aceoaeueiiai iioaioeeaea ycuea a oa?aeoa?enoeea
yoie aeooiaiinoe. Niiinoaaea ?acoeueoao n oiio?aaeaieai oa?ieiia a
ineoieiaee, iu iiiiaeai ineoieiaai onoaiiaeoue, ianeieueei aeaeaei iie a
naiai enneaaeiaaiee ioioee io iauaeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Oai?ey eioa?i?aoaoeee

I?iaeaia eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa ai
iiiaii e?iaony a oii, /oi aei neo ii? oi/ii iayniu iaoaieciu iieo/aiey,
ia?a?aaioee, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii. Oai?ey
eioa?i?aoaoeee e au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea – yoi eiaiii oa iaeanoe
eeiaaenoeee e ineoieeiaaenoeee, ia ia?ana/aiee eioi?uo iaoiaeeony
?aoaiea aeaiiie i?iaeaiu. Eiaaea noaiao ecaanoia e iiiyoia nenoaia
anoanoaaiiie eioa?i?aoaoeee ycuea, oiaaea iiaeii aoaeao nicaeaoue
eneonnoaaiioth nenoaio, eaeaioe/ioth ae.

Iauea iiiyoey oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee.

Iiiyoea «eioa?i?aoaoeey» eaaeaei n naiiai ia/aea a iniiaa
iauaeeiaaenoe/aneeo oai?ee, a oaeaea a iniiaa eiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee
(aniiiiei eeanne/aneoth ?aaioo A?enoioaey «Ia enoieeiaaiee»). A
iineaaeiea aiaeu a iauai e i?eeeaaeiii ycueiciaiee au?aaioaeny oaeie
acaeyae ia ycue, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au iacaaoue «eioa?i?aoaoeeiieciii»
a oe?ieii niunea neiaa. Yoio acaeyae i?aaenoaaeai eae a ?aciiia?aciuo
iaeanoyo /enoi eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca (a oai?eyo oi?iaeueiuo
a?aiiaoee, a iienaiee aeeneo?neaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a «oai?ee ?a/aauo
aeoia», a nioeeieeiaaenoeea, a enoi?ee ycuea), oae e a enneaaeiaaieyo ii
«eneonnoaaiiiio eioaeeaeoo». Eioa?i?aoaoeeiieci – aanueia ?acii?iaeiia
oa/aiea, e ii?aaeaeaieth aai iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee iiaeii i?eeoe oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa niiinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo nia?aiaiiuo eiioeaioeee
eioa?i?aoaoeee e au/eaiaiey iauaai aeey ieo oai?aoe/aneiai yae?a. Yoi
oio acaeyae, niaeanii eioi?iio a iniiaa aeaaeaiey ycueii e
eniieueciaaiey aai eaaeeo iaeei e oio aea eioa?i?aoe?othuee iaoaieci,
ianeoaeeaathuee ?acee/iua noa?u ycueiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?e yoii
eniieuecothuee ?acee/iua aeaeu ciaiee. N?aaee yoeo noa? – aiai?aiea,
iiieiaiea, ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea, eiiiaioe?iaaiea, ia?eo?ace?iaaiea,
?annoaeaeaiea, a?aoiaioaoeey, iao/aiea, ia?aaiae e ae?. Naia aea
eioa?i?aoaoeey, /a?ac eioi?oth e ii?aaeaeythony oeacaieth noa?u,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieo/aiea ia iniiaa iaeiiai enoiaeiiai iauaeoa
(iacuaaaiiai eioa?i?aoe?oaiui iauaeoii) ae?oaiai, ioee/iiai iauaeoa,
i?aaeeaaaaiiai eioa?i?aoaoi?ii a ea/anoaa ?aaiineeueiiai enoiaeiiio ia
eiie?aoiii oiia neooaoeee, iaai?a i?acoiioeee, ciaiee.

A eioa?i?aoaoeeiiecia aeaaeaiea ycueii e ciaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae
?acee/iua iiiyoey. Oae, oioy niaoeeaeueiua aeaeu ciaiee (oeie/aneea,
oece/aneea, iaoaiaoe/aneea e o.i.) aiaea/aiu a iiieiaiea ?a/e, iie, oai
ia iaiaa, e aaaeaieth eeiaaenoe/aneie oai?ee ia ioiinyony. Iai?eia?, iu
iiieiaai i?aaeeiaeaiea Eaiaiue i?inaenoae o Iao?a iaae aieiaie a oii
niunea, /oi iiaeai aeaoue aio neaaeothuoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth: Eaiaiue
i?ieaoae iaae aieiaie Iao?a; eaiaiue aue oyaeaeui a oie noaiaie, eaeay
iaiaoiaeeia aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeiao ecaeaaae niioaaonoaothuee
naenoyuee caoe, e Iao? oneuoae yoio caoe, ioeaiea aai eae naeno. Iaeiaei
yoi oieeiaaiea aiana ia iaycuaaao ian n?aaee neiaa?iuo oieeiaaiee
aeaaiea naenoaoue iiiauaoue (eae iaeii ec iioaioeeaeueiuo cia/aiee)
oaeia: «naenoaoue – i i?aaeiaoao n?aaeiae oyaeanoe: ecaeaaaoue
oa?aeoa?iue caoe i?e iieaoa».

Anee inoaoueny ia oie iiceoeee, /oi ciaiey i naienoaao oyaeaeuo
i?aaeiaoia ia iaycaiu aoiaeeoue a eiiiaoaioeeth ycuea, oi ioiaaeao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aaneiia/ii ae?iaiuo oieeiaaieyo aeey ycueiauo aaeeieoe
(ia?aeathueo ninoaaeoaey neiaa?y ia aaneiia/ioth ?aaioo: aaaeue n
?anoe?aieai e?oaici?a o aeia?iniaanoiiai eaeneeia?aoa aoaeao iinoiyiii
aicieeaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ?aaecee neiaa?y). Aeey
eeiaaenoa-eioa?i?aoaoeeiienoa i?iaeaia nieiaaony n yoie noi?iiu (oae eae
eeiaaeno ioaeaeaaony io yioeeeeiiaaee/aneie eioi?iaoeee), ii
oneiaeiyaony n ae?oaie: i?e iino?iaiee iienaiey ycuea, ii iiiooii (ii
ioaeaeueii io naieo i?yiuo eeiaaenoe/aneeo iaycaiiinoae) aeieaeai
ninoaaeyoue eiiiaiaeee «noai ciaiey» (a ia eiiiaiaeee nianoaaiii
ciaiee), niaianoeiuo n ycueiaui iienaieai oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ia iniiaa
oaeiai eiiiaiaeey – «eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caiana» – iiaeii auei
iiaeaee?iaaoue eioa?i?aoaoeee auneacuaaiee.

Iino?ieoue i?ioeanni? anoanoaaiiiai ycuea – cia/eo, aiieioeoue i?eioeeiu
eioa?i?aoaoeee ycueiauo au?aaeaiee, caeiaeaiiua a /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iino?iaiea i?ioeanni?a anoanoaaiiiai ycuea – iaeia ec iaeaieaa
aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee e nicaeaiey
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa. Yoa i?iaeaia ii?iaeaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiui
ac?uaii, ia?aaeeaaaiui /aeiaa/anoaii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy: ca/anooth eaa/a
auaaao auynieoue eaeie-eeai oaeo (aeieacaoue oai?aio, ?aoeoue o?aaiaiea
e o.i.) eee neiino?oe?iaaoue eaeia-eeai i?eniiniaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naiiio, /ai ecaea/ue ioaeiue ?aoeaio ec nouanoaothuae eeoa?aoo?u. Ia
iiiiaaao a oaeii iienea eioi?iaoeee aeaaea oi, /oi aeiaieueii iiiaea
ecaeaiey iaeiia?aiaiii n ioaeeeaoeeae caiinyony ia iaoeiiua iineoaee:
aeaaea oiaaea ecaea/ue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioaeiua naaaeaiey
ooiaeaiaioaeueii o?oaeii eiaiii iioiio, /oi oaeno ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea
n o?oaeii iiea /oi iiaeaeaaony eioi?iaoeeiiiie ia?aaioea. A /anoiinoe,
ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ia nouanoaoao iiea aua aeaaea oaeie nenoaiu,
eioi?ay aeey i?iecaieueiiai oaenoa ia aeaiiii (neaaeai, ?onneii) ycuea
aeaaaea au iieiue aai ii?oieiae/aneee aiaeec (aeey i?iecaieueii
aieueoiai, a ia ia?aie/aiiiai neiaa?y) eee iieiue aai neiaa?ue. A aaaeue
caaea/a ii?oieiae/aneiai ?aniiciaaaiey, eee «eaiiaoecaoeee», yaeyaony
i?aaeiinueeie aeey ?aoaiey iiiaeo ae?oaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo caaea/.

Iineaaeiea 20 eao a oeaio?a aieiaiey au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee
iaoiaeeony aii?in i iiaeaee?iaaiee oie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea,
?acoeueoaoii eioi?ie yaeyaony ?a/ue. Iaeiaei anee a ia/aea yoiai
ia?eiaea aieueoee eioa?an, eae i?aaeei, aucuaaee enneaaeiaaiey,
enoiaeyuea ec oi/ee c?aiey aiai?yuaai, oi, ia/eiay n 1970-o aiaeia e
aieioue aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ana /aua e /aua aeaeathony iiiuoee
iino?ieoue iiaeaeue iiieiaiey. Oaeia eciaiaiea eioa?ania naycaii n oai,
/oi iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth eae e i?inoie ia?aeiaee?iaea iiaa?oiinoiuo
(iaaethaeaaiuo) no?oeoo? a «niuneiaua ?ai?acaioaoeee» noae
i?aaenoaaeyoueny ana iaiaa e iaiaa aa?iyoiui. I?iecioae iinoaiaiiue
ia?aoiae io «eeiaaenoeee aiai?yuaai» e «eeiaaenoeea iiieiathuaai», /oi,
a naith i/a?aaeue, iauyniyao oaiaeaioeeth e eioa?i?aoaoeeiienoneiio
iauyniaieth.

I?e anai iiiaiia?acee nia?aiaiiuo eiioeaioeee iauaiea noaee
oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae oi, /oi naycuaaao aeaoo eaee aieueoaa /enei
ee/iinoae, aiai?yueo e iaeiia?aiaiii eioa?i?aoe?othueo eae /oaeoth, oae
e nianoaaiioth ?a/ue. Eioa?i?aoaoeey – yoi i?ioeann, a eiia/iii eoiaa
?anoeaieaaaiue eae iiieiaiea, iaaeiiiieiaiea, iaaei?acoiaiea e o.ae.;
oeaea oaeie ioeaiee iai?a?uaia e ia ia?aie/eaaaony iiey?iuie oi/eaie.
I?e/ai i?ioeann yoio caeeth/aaony ia a «ia?aaiaea» au?aaeaiey-iauaeoa a
niuneiaoth no?oeoo?o, a a iino?iaiee e i?iaa?ea aeiioac i oaeie
no?oeoo?a, i oii, ianeieueei iaeie no?oeoo?u aieaa aa?iyoiu ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, e aeaaea i oii, noieo ee aeaeueoa iuoaoueny
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue iinooiathuea niiauaiey. A «ia?aeiaee?iai/iie»
eiioeaioeee iau/ii enoiaeyo ec iaeciaiiinoe eeth/a e oeo?o, a
eioa?i?aoe?othuai aea iiaeoiaea aiieia aeiioneaaony neo/ae, eiaaea ii
oiaeo iiieiaiey ?a/e aini?eieiathuay noi?iia iinoaiaiii iaiyao oo aaco
ciaiee, ia eioi?oth iia iie?aaony.

Aiciiaeiua ia?niaeoeau oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee i?aaenoaaeythony
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Eiiioieeaoeey a ?aieao oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee iaeaaeaao iiiaeie
aniaeoaie, n?aaee eioi?uo – noieeiiaaiea iaia?aiee e eo eioa?i?aoaoeey
eaaeaeie ec iauathueony noi?ii. Iaia?aiea iiaeao auoue naycaii eae n
iioeaaie iiaaaeaiey aiai?yuaai (i?e iiieiaiee iaia?aiee), oae e n
oiiaeueiinoueth iiieiaiey.

Iaia?aiea a ?a/aaii iiaaaeaiee iaeaaeaao neaaeothueie ia?aiao?aie:

a) noaiaiue i?aaeiaia?aiiinoe a auiieiaiee ca?aiaa caieaie?iaaiiiai
aeaenoaey

a) auai? aeaenoaee

a) ineoieiae/aneia ninoiyiea, eioa?i?aoe?oaiia eae «aeaeaiea» eee «aiey»

a) i?aaeaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeaiiiai ?a/aaiai aeaenoaey;

ae) noaiaiue eiio?iee?oaiinoe aeaenoaee, eo i?eau/iinoue, aeaaiui
ia?acii, naycaiiay n iaaueaie ?a/e, a ia ni ciaieyie.

No?aoaae/aneee eiiieaen (caiunae) aiai?yuaai – yoi iniciaiiue eiiieaen
iaia?aiee, eiathueeny aua aei eo ?aaeecaoeee e eniieuecoaiue ii oiaeo
?a/aauo aeaenoaee. Yoi icia/aao i?aaeiaia?aiiinoe a auai?a aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a aeaenoaee, ia oiia eiie?aoiiai aea e iinoiyiii
iaiythuaainy iaai?a ineoieiae/aneeo ninoiyiee, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony
«i?in/eouaaieai» iineaaenoaee aoaeoueo aeaenoaee, i?e i?acoiioeee oie
eee eiie noaiaie eiio?iee?oaiinoe iinoiyiii iaiythuaeny neooaoeee
iauaiey. ssnii, /oi no?aoaae/aneea eiiieaenu ia anaaaea eaaeao ca
?a/aauie aeaenoaeyie. E?iia oiai, iiaeii oaea aei inouanoaeaiey
no?aoaae/aneiai caiunea ioeaieoue naie aoaeouea aeaenoaey eae aeo?iua
eee aeaaea, caieaie?iaaoue o?aaoaioth aeico ene?aiiinoe (eee, iaiai?io,
iaea?aiiinoe) e aeaaea ioeacaoueny io auiieiaiey naieo caiuneia.

Inouanoaeaiea aea no?aoaaee a ?aaeueiii iauaiee iaeaaeaao aeaoiy
aaaeiuie aniaeoaie:

a) noaaeeaeueiinoue inouanoaeaiey (ia/aei, aiieiuaiea, caaa?oaiea e
o.ae.);

a) niioianaiiinoue «aoaeothueo» e «iai?iieoaeueiuo» aeaenoaee.

No?aoaae/aneee eiiieaen acaeiiaeaenoaoao, eae ieieioi, n o?aiy ae?oaeie
– aiano?aoaae/aneeie – eiiieaenaie i?e eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii aeoa iauaiey:
n eiiieaenii eiiaaioeee aeaiiiai nioeeoia, n eiiieaenii ee/iinoe
aiai?yuaai e n eiiieaenii ee/iinoe ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth n aeaiiui
aiai?yuei a ioeaiea iineaaeiaai.

A ?acee/iuo yieciaeao inouanoaeaiey no?aoaae/aneiai caiunea a ?a/e
ia?aiao?u iaia?aiey i?iyaeaiu auaatho a ?aciie noaiaie. Iaia?aiea,
iiieiaaiia a ?aieao oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee, iicaieyao aueoe ca i?aaeaeu
iaeiiai ioaeaeueii acyoiai auneacuaaiey e aeaaea a?oiiu auneacuaaiee:
oi, /oi iiaeii iacaaoue «?a/aaie aeeciueth» /aeiaaea, iiaeao auoue
i?ieioa?i?aoe?iaaii eae niaia no?aoaae/aneeo e aiano?aoaae/aneeo
eiiieaenia, n eo aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeeae. Iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaeoeae
iiieiaiey e ?a/aauo iaia?aiee – yoi iaeia ec aeeaeaeoeo caaea/ oai?ee
eioa?i?aoaoeee a ?aieao au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee.

Ciaiea eae iniiaa eioa?i?aoaoeee

Eioa?i?aoaoeey ioaaouaaao eae iiieiaiea, oae e i?iecaaaeaiea
(«i?iaeooee?iaaiea») auneacuaaiey. Iaeo?aeueii yoi iiiyoea oaeaea e ii
ioiioaieth e iniciaieth aoeaaeueiiai niunea e ?anoe?aiiiai,
aeiiieieoaeueiiai niunea. Iineaaeiee aeae niunea aiaeaeaao ciaiea,
iniiaaiiia ia eiae/aneii auaiaea. Nouanoaaiii i?eaea/aiea aiaycueiauo
ciaiee e i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee iaiaeiicia/iuo auneacuaaiee.

Iiiyoea eioa?i?aoaoeee ecaeaaia iaoi?iaeueii eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
oa?ieia aeey iaicia/aiey oiai, /oi iiaeii ecaea/ue ec eaeiai-eeai
?anniao?eaaaiiai iauaeoa e ia niaiaaeaao n yoei iauaeoii aoeaaeueii,
o.a. ia oiaeaeanoaaiii aio eeai ii oi?ia (neo/ae aoeaaeueiiai
ia?eo?ace?iaaiey, n nio?aiaieai niunea), eeai ii niaea?aeaieth (neo/ae
eioa?i?aoaoeee, naycaiiie n aiaea/aieai «iiai/iuo», o.a.
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo, ia /enoi ycueiauo ciaiee eioa?i?aoaoi?a). I?e
eiie?aoiie eioa?i?aoaoeee iauaeo ?anniao?eaaaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiii oiia:
iai?eia?, a i?eaycaiiinoe e eiie?aoiie neooaoeee iiyaeaiey iauaeoa, a
eiioaenoa aieaa e?oiiiai auneacuaaiey, i?aaeoanoaothueo auneacuaaiee
oiai aea aaoi?a e o.i. Oa?aeoa?enoeee yoiai oiia io?aaeathony a ?aieao e
iieo/aaiie eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aano?aeoiay eioa?i?aoaoeey, o.a. oa, eioi?ay
inouanoaeyaony aia oaeiai oiia, eae au a ionoioa, – neo/ae aeiaieueii
?aaeeee; i?eaeeceoaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii neo/aa iiaoo aeaoue,
iiaeaeoe, oieueei i?aaeeiaeaiey-i?eia?u a a?aiiaoe/aneeo iiniaeyo (oeia
Iaia iuea Iaoo. Aeaoe iioee a naae. Ianooieea aania, – a nai?ieea
oi?aaeiaiee ii ?onneiio ycueo aeey ia/aeueiie oeieu).

A iniiaa iiiyoey iiaeaee eae iauaeoa iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee (oai?ee
iiaeaeae) eioa?i?aoaoeey naycaia n oai oaeii c?aiey, iiae eioi?ui iauaeo
?anniao?eaaaony. Oai oa?iei iiaeaeue yaeyaony neiiieiii oa?ieia
eioa?i?aoaoeey. Iaeiaei oaeia iiieiaiea ia aaeeinoaaiii. Noieue aea
oe?iei, anee ia aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiii, iiieiaiea eioa?i?aoaoeee eae
i?ioeanna: a iineaaeiea aiaeu a eeiaaenoeea ana aieueooth iiioey?iinoue
iieo/aao acaeyae ia eioa?i?aoaoeeth eae ia oi, /oi ii?aaeaeyao i?e?iaeo
?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe aiiaua (i eiioeaioeee «eioa?i?aoaoeeiiecia»).

I?eioeeiu eioa?i?aoaoeee

Aieueoay /anoue eioi?iaoeee iaiaeiicia/ia. Ii, oai ia iaiaa, a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa /aeiaae oniaoii (aa?ii)
eioa?i?aoe?oao auneacuaaiey. Iiyaeyaony aii?in: eaeiau aea i?eioeeiu,
eioi?uie iieuecoaony /aeiaae, eioa?i?aoe?oy auneacuaaiey? A iieneao
ioaaoa auei i?aaeeiaeaii aeiaieueii aieueoia /enei eaiaeeaeaoia ia
caaiea «aaaeouaai» i?eioeeia. Aio oieueei iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

Iaeaieaa ii/oaiiia ianoi caieiaao «i?eioeei O?aaa» (i?eioeei
eiiiiceoeeiiiinoe). A iaiauaiiii aeaea ii oi?ioee?oaony oae: cia/aiea
oeaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey anoue ooieoeey io cia/aiee aai /anoae. Aeey
iiaa?oiinoiie no?oeoo?u i?aaeeiaeaiey yoio i?eioeei, acyoue aoeaaeueii,
ia nianai ni?aaaaeeea: aeinoaoi/ii i?ineaaeeoue aai aeaenoaea a neo/aa
neioaene/aneie iaiaeiicia/iinoe. A eiioeaioeee «eiiiiiaioiiai aiaeeca»
i?aaeeiaeaiey yoio i?eioeei aeaenoaeoaeai oieueei aeey «enoiaeiie
neioaene/aneie no?oeoo?u» i?aaeeiaeaiey; eiaiii ia yoii i?eioeeia e
iniiaaia ?aaioa «i?aaee naiaioe/aneie i?iaeoeee» a oaeie eiioeaioeee
naiaioeee [Katz, Fodor 1963]. Aeaaea i?e oaeie o?aeoiaea, oai ia iaiaa,
oeacaiiue i?eioeei iaoaeeeaaaony ia o?oaeiinoue, naycaiioth n
eioa?i?aoaoeeae oeeoao.

I?eioeei ieieiaeueiie eioa?i?aoaoeee [Th.R.Hofmann 1979,] ioiineony e
ae?oaie noi?iia aii?ina: eaaeaeia i?aaeeiaeaiea eioa?i?aoe?oaony oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau aeiaaaeoue ii aiciiaeiinoe iaiueoee iauai iiaie
eioi?iaoeee, o.a. /oiau iaeneiaeueiui auei aa ia?ana/aiea n i?aaeuaeouei
eiioaenoii (?a/ue ia eaeao i oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aaiaeeony iiaue
nthaeao, oieon eiio?anoa e o.i.). Yoio i?eioeei ni?aaaaeeea aeey i?yiiai
oieeiaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ia aeey auoaeathueo ec i?aaeeiaeaiey
neaaenoaee.

Ae?oaie eiee/anoaaiiue i?eioeei – «iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiay a?eoaa Ieeaia»
[P.Grice 1978]: i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee niuneu au?aaeaiey ia aeieaeiu
iiiaeeoueny aieueoa iaiaoiaeeiinoe. A /anoiinoe, iiiaeanoai
eiioaenoiiiaoneiaeaiiuo cia/aiee («noiiiceoeee») neia a i?aaeeiaeaiee
aeieaeii auoue ?iaii a oie noaiaie oe?ieei, eaeay ii?aaeaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eioa?i?aoaoeee; auoiae ca i?aaeaeu ieieioia
aeiioneaaony oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea i?aaeeiaeaieth o?oaeii eia/a
i?eienaoue iniuneaiioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth.

I?eioeei eaeaioeoeoee?oaiinoe [K.Stenning 1980] iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
eae naycaiiue n i?aaeuaeoueie aeaoiy; ii oi?ioee?oaony oae: e
eioa?i?aoaoeee oeaeiai, ii ia?a iinooieaiey iiauo ycueiauo au?aaeaiee,
iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeyoue oaeie ieieioi, eioi?ue eiae/anee ia i?ioeai?a/eo
naiiio auneacuaaieth. Aiaeiae/ai yoiio i?eioeeio, ia ia?auai ia
eiioaeno, «i?eioeei eieaeueiie eioa?i?aoaoeee»: eioa?i?aoaoi? ia
aeieaeai eiino?oe?iaaoue (a oi/iaa, ioeaieaaoue) eiioaeno aieaa e?oiiue,
/ai oio, eioi?ue aio iaiaoiaeei aeey iieo/aiey eaeie-eeai
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Oae, anee Aeaeiio aiai?yo: Cae?ie aeaa?ue, – oi ii
iieiao, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i aeeaeaeoae aeaa?e, a ia i oie, eioi?ay
iaoiaeeony a ninaaeiai aeiia ia o?aoueai yoaaea. Oaeie i?eioeei iiaeii a
?aeeao IAss naycaoue n o?aaiaaieai i ieieiaeueiie ?aaioa aiaeecaoi?a.

I?eioeei aiaeiaee [Oe.Dahl 1976], acyoue n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?i?aoaoi?a,
iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaai oae: eiae a aeaeo, /oi aiai?yuee no?aieony
oiiieiaoue oieueei oa aaue, eioi?ua eciaieeenue, a i oao, eioi?ua
inoathnue aac eciaiaiey, iau/ii oiae/eaaao.

Iaeiiaoe, «i?eioeei iau/iinoe» iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue oae: anee iao
ieeaeeo aeey yoiai iniiaaiee, ia iiaeic?aaae, /oi o eioa?i?aoe?oaiuo
neia eiaaony eaeie-eeai aua aeiiieieoaeueiue, ne?uoue niune.

Au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea

*oi aea oaeia «oai?ey eeiaaenoe/aneeo au/eneaiee»? Yoi aeenoeeieeia,
caieiathuayny eiiioieeaoeaiuie i?ioeannaie a iaeaieaa aano?aeoiii aeaea.
A aa ooieoeee aoiaeeo onoaiiaeaiea iauaai aeaea e iaueo i?eioeeiia
iino?iaiey i?ioeanni?ia anoanoaaiiiai ycuea, aeieacaoaeuenoai oai?ai
ioiineoaeueii ?aaiineeueiinoe eee ia?aaiineeueiinoe aeaoo ?acee/iuo
oi?iaeueiuo a?aiiaoee iaeiiai e oiai aea ycuea e o.i. Aeaeeii, eiaiii e
oai?ee eeiaaenoe/aneeo au/eneaiee ioiineony e?oa caaea/, o?aaeeoeeiiii
ioiineiue e aaaeaieth iaoaiaoe/aneie eeiaaenoeee, a oaeaea e
iiaeaee?iaaieth iauaiey n YAI ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea. Ae?oaay aea /anoue
oai?ee eeiaaenoe/aneeo au/eneaiee naycaia n iaeaieaa aeoaeiiuie
i?ioeannaie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii e eo iiaeaee?iaaieai ia YAI.

I?aaeiaoii «au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee» yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea e
i?eiaiaiea nenoai ia?aaioee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea a ea/anoaa /anoe aieaa
e?oiiuo nenoai, iai?eia?, i?iiuoeaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiii-iieneiauo nenoai.
Caaea/a oaeeo nenoai – iiene eioi?iaoeee a aaca aeaiiuo e aaoiiaoe/aneia
iiiieiaiea aacu aeaiiuo. Ae?oaia, niaaeiia iai?aaeaiea – iino?iaiea
nenoai, ?aoathueo caaea/e, noi?ioee?iaaiiua ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea.

E eioi?iaoeeiiiui caaea/ai au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee ioiinyony:

1. Aaoiiaoe/aneia onoaiiaeaiea ii eiie?aoiiio oaenoo oao i?aaee e
aaeeieoe aeaiiiai ycuea, eioi?ua o/anoaiaaee a iino?iaiee yoiai oaenoa
(i?e yoii niioaaonoaothuay nenoaia eniieuecoao naith aaco aeaiiuo i
a?aiiaoeea e aaeeieoeao ycuea). A ?anoe?aiiie oi?ioee?iaea ?a/ue caeanue
eaeao i oii, /oiau onoaiiaeoue ii eiie?aoiiio ia?acoeo ?a/e (oaenoo) ana
oa caeiiu eiae/aneiai auaiaea (a oe?ieii niunea) e ana oa aeneiiu
(«yeaiaioa?iua i?iiiceoeee»), eioi?ua i?eaeatho ?a/e iniuneaiiinoue e
aeaeatho aa i?aaeeueiui oaenoii ia aeaiiii ycuea.

2. Onoaiiaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naycae, eioi?ua eiathony iaaeaeo aeaoiy
ia?acoeaie oaenoia (iai?eia?, iaaeaeo cai?inii e eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia
e eioi?iaoeeae, o?aieiie a nenoaia, eee eioi?iaoeeae, caaeaiiie a aeaea
oaenoa). Oae, a cai?ina iiaeao niaea?aeaoueny caaeaiea auynieoue,
iienuaaaony ee a oaenoa eneiiia i?eniiniaeaiea aeey auiieiaiey
eiie?aoiuo ?aaio.

A iaieo neo/ayo o?aaoaony onoaiiaeoue nayce iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
ia?acoeaie ?a/e. ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e naycaii n i?aaenoaaeaieai e
eniieueciaaieai ciaiee i?e iia?e?iaaiee ?a/ueth. Eaeiai aea ianoi
au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee a «eneonnoaaiiii eioaeeaeoa»?

?. Oaie oeacuaaao, /oi au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea – yoi «i?iaeaia
iaaeaeaiey iaoei niiniaiinoueth iauaoueny n /aeiaaeii ia anoanoaaiiii
ycuea. Iao iaoiae ninoieo a oii, /oiau iiiuoaoueny iiiyoue, eae ethaee
iauathony ae?oa n ae?oaii, e enneaaeiaaoue yoe i?ioeannu». I. *a?eiia
ieoao: «Au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea aeieaeia iino?ieoue iauoth oai?eth
iiieiaiey anoanoaaiiiai ycuea a ea/anoaa iniiau aeey oaeeo i?ia?aii YAI,
eioi?ua iiieiatho anoanoaaiiue ycue».

Ii iiaieth Oiiiniia, oai?aoe/aneay au/eneeoaeueiay eeiaaenoeea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiiuoeo ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue i?e?iaeo ycuea n oi/ee
c?aiey «eeiaaenoe/aneeo au/eneaiee» – i?ioeaaeo? iaae ?a/ueth,
aiaeiae/iuo oai, eioi?ua auiieiythony ii oiaeo nianoaaiii
au/eneeoaeueiuo ?aaio. A aia?eeaineie au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeea ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue auei i?aaeeiaeaii ianeieueei eiioeaioeee
oai?aoe/aneie au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeee: «ooieoeeiiaeueiay a?aiiaoeea»
I.Eay [M.Kay 1979], «eiaieoeaiay a?aiiaoeea» [Lakoff, Thompson 1975],
«eaene/aneay ooieoeeiiaeueiay a?aiiaoeea» [J.Bresnan ed. 1982] e ae?.

Ia?aaioea anoanoaaiiiai ycuea (IAss)

Iaeanoue iino?iaiey nenoai, ia?aaaouaathueo (eee «ia?a?aaaouaaueo»)
anoanoaaiiue ycue, oi/iaa auei au iacaaoue ia?a?aaioeie ?a/e (oaenoia)
ia anoanoaaiiuo ycueao. Yoa iaeanoue, a oii aeaea, eaeie iia i?eia?aea a
iineaaeiea aiaeu, caiyoa iino?iaieai e i?iaa?eie eiioeaioeee (e
oaoie/aneeo eo aiieiuaiee) iauaiey n YAI ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea. A
/anoiinoe, nthaea ioiineony caaea/a iino?iaiey oaeeo i?ia?aii aeey YAI,
eioi?ua iicaieytho i?aaieciaaoue aeeaeia n YAI. A ioee/ea io caaea/e
«?aniiciaaaiey onoiie ?a/e», aaea ?aoaaony i?iaeaia aeonoe/aneiai
?aniiciaaaiey neaiaeia, IAss caieiaaony iia?aoeeyie aieaa aano?aeoiiai,
aieaa neiaiee/aneiai ii?yaeea: iia?aoeeyie iaae cia/aieyie e eiae/aneei
auaiaeii, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey ?aniiciaaaiey ?a/e.

Iauaeoii IAss iau/ii n/eoaaony oaeno. A nenoaia aea, i?aoaiaeothuae ia
ia?niaeoeaiinoue, noaaeony caaea/a ia i?inoi ?aniiciaoue yoio oaeno, a
auynieoue oa iau/ii ne?uoua aeaeaeouea neeu, eioi?ua aai noi?ie?iaaee.
Iaiiiiei, /oi oaeno a aai noaiiaeaiee iacuaatho aeeneo?nii.

Nenoaia ia?aaioee oaenoa, ii O?eaeiaio, ?aoaao aeaa i?iaeaiu: 1)
auyniyao enoiee eioi?iaoeee, ec eioi?ie «eiiiiceoeeiiiui» iooai iiaeao
auoue auaaaeaia eiie?aoiay naiaioe/aneay eioi?iaoeey aeey eaaeaeiai
ioaeaeueiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey oaenoa (o.a. auyaeyao naiaioeeo i?aaeeiaeaiey
enoiaey ec no?oeoo?u oeaeiai oaenoa), e 2) onoaiaaeeaaao ?ieue e
ooieoeee yoie eioi?iaoeee aunieiai ii?yaeea a ?aieao oeaeiai aeeneo?na.

Aiiaua aiai?y, nenoaia IAss aeieaeia: a) ieaie?iaaoue auneacuaaiey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiie?aoiuo eiiioieeaoeaiuo oeaeae, /oi
iaoiaeeony a caaeneiinoe io ciaiee, iiaiee e iaia?aiee iieueciaaoaeae
oaeie nenoaiu, e a) ?aniiciaaaoue a auneacuaaieyo iieueciaaoaey oa
ieaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue niiauaiu a ?acoeueoaoa ianeieueeeo
auneacuaaiee eee eioi?ua, ii caiuneo iieueciaaoaey, iiaoo auoue
eiae/anee auaaaeaiu ec i?acoiioeee iauathueony noi?ii (/aeiaaea e YAI).
Iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo iooae aeinoeaeaiey yoiai – neaaeothuee oeeee:

1. ?anniio?aoue oaeouaa auneacuaaiea (i?aaeeiaeaiea).

2. Iniiauaaynue ia iaeeiiaiee yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey (iiaanoaiaaoaeueiia,
aii?ineoaeueiia, iiaaeeoaeueiia), i?eienaoue yooaeo auneacuaaiey
iaia?aieth iieueciaaoaey.

3. Eniieuecoy aeai?eoiu ?aniiciaaaiey, a oaeaea aaco iaueo i?acoiioeee,
auaanoe, anee yoi aiciiaeii, eaeei ia?acii iaaethaeaaiua aeaenoaey
oeeaaeuaathony a ieai aeinoeaeaiey oeaee, eioi?oth, eae iaeeaeaaony,
i?aneaaeoao iieueciaaoaeue. Anee yoio ieai ia iiaeao auoue iaeiicia/ii
auyaeai, au?aaioaoue oeaeue nenoaiu, iai?aaeaiioth ia ane?uoea oeaee
iieueciaaoaey.

4. Au?aaioaoue caaea/e nenoaiu aeey oao oeaeae, eioi?ua iieueciaaoaeue
iaia?aaaeny aeoeaece?iaaoue a nenoaia.

5. Eniieuecoy /anoiua (o.a. ia iauea) i?acoiioeee, ii?aaeaeeoue
i?aiyonoaey, eioi?ua iiaoo iiiaoaoue inouanoaeaieth ieaiia
iieueciaaoaey, a oaeaea ioieou, a eioi?uo iieueciaaoaeth iio?aaoaony
iiiiuue.

6. I?eiyoue io?eoeaiey aeey iaeioi?uo ec i?aiyonoaee a ea/anoaa oeaeae
nenoaiu.

7. Iieuecoynue /anoiuie i?acoiioeeyie, iino?ieoue ieai aeinoeaeaiee
oeaeae nenoaiu, iniaaiii oeaeae aeey i?aiaeieaiey i?aiyonoaee aeey
iieueciaaoaey. A caaeneiinoe io yoeo oeaeae ieai iiaeao aeeth/aoue a
naay oaeea eiiioieeaoeaiua aeaenoaey, eae aii?inu, i?iyniythuea
iaia?aiey iieueciaaoaey.

8. Auiieieoue ?acoeueoe?othuoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee.

9. Ia?aeoe e ioieoo 1.

?acoiaaony, yoio oeeee ia iaeaaeaao noaoonii eaeaaea: yoi nei?aa i?eia?
oiai, a eaeeo oa?ieiao iiaoo oi?ioee?iaaoueny iauea ieaiu iino?iaiey
nenoaiu ia?aaioee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea. Aieaa ocei noaaeony i?iaeaia a
oii iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ia naycaii n eiaiai ?.Oaiea: 1) ioia?aaeaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiee a eo niuneiaia i?aaenoaaeaiea; 2) o?aiaiea a iaiyoe e
inouanoaeaiea oiicaeeth/aiee ioiineoaeueii iieo/aiiiai niunea; 3)
ia?aaiae niuneiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia anoanoaaiiue ycue. Iniiaiua
?aaeeiu ?aaiou a yoii iai?aaeaiee – ia?eo?ace?iaaiea e oiicaeeth/aiea.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oi, /oi IAss n iiiiuueth YAI («eneonnoaaiiay
IAss») ioee/ia io IAss /aeiaaeii (o.a. «anoanoaaiiie IAss») a
neaaeothueo ioiioaieyo:

a) iineaaeiyy ia iiaeao ia?aie/eoueny aiaeecii e neioacii aia eiioaenoa
neooaoeee ai anao aa aeaoaeyo;

a) iineaaeiyy ia oieueei i?aiaeieaaaao iaiaeiicia/iinoe anoanoaaiiiai
ycuea, ii e yenieoaoe?oao eo a naieo oeaeyo.

sscueiaie i?ioeanni?, ?ac?aaaouaaaiue eieeaeoeaii ?.Oaiea, ooieoeeiie?oy
a eioa?aeoeaiii ?aaeeia, aeieaeai iaoiaeeoue iaeaieaa aa?iyoioth aeey
aeaiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey eioa?i?aoaoeeth, a ia i?inoi auyaeyoue ana
aiciiaeiua niiniau enoieeiaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiee: /aeiaae iau/ii ia
caia/aao oao iaiaeiicia/iinoae a oaenoa, eioi?ua /a?an/o? ne?oioeaciay
nenoaia ia?aaioee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea niiniaia, a i?eioeeia, auyaeoue.
Aiaeec i?ienoiaeeo iineiaii, io ia/aea e eiioeo i?aaeeiaeaiey, a
?acoeueoaoa iaeiie?aoiiai, a ia iiiaie?aoiiai «i?ioiaea» ii
i?aaeeiaeaieth: iau/ii aea /enei i?ioiaeia aeinoeaaao iyoe. E?iia oiai,
nenoaia ia?aaioee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea iaeaaeaao ciaieyie i ie?a a oie
ia?a, eaeay iaiaoiaeeia aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai aiaeeca.

Nenoaia IAss, ?acoiaaony, – ia naiioeaeue. Aa caaea/e oii?yaei/aiu e
ii?aaeaeytho «o?iaie IAss». Oae, iaycueiaui oeaeyi iiae/eiaiu
i?ioeaaeo?u, iai?aaeythuea ethaie aeae IAss; yoei i?ioeaaeo?ai, a naith
i/a?aaeue, iiae/eiai o?iaaiue ?a/aauo aeoia (i?e eioa?i?aoaoeee eee
ii?iaeaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo auneacuaaiee). Naiue ieceee o?iaaiue
ninoaaeytho i?ioeaaeo?u nianoaaiii ycueiaie ia?aaioee (ycueiaie aiaeec).

Iaueie aeey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo nenoai IAss yaeythony neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou:
Ass -> O? -> EIO -> NIAe -> AAe. A eiaiii, anoanoaaiii-ycueiaie aoiae
(Ass) ia?aaiaeeony a oi?io ?ai?acaioaoeee (O?) ciaiee; eioa?i?aoaoi?
(EIO) onoaiaaeeaaao naycue iaaeaeo ?ai?acaioaoeeae aeey iieiaeaiee aeae
a (O?) e, iin?aaenoaii ycuea nenoaiu ia?aaioee aeaiiuo (NIAe), aaieii
aeaiiuo (AAe). A ?aieao yoeo nenoai iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n ia?aaioeie
oaenoa («eeiaaenoe/aneea au/eneaiey» iaeaaeatho ?acee/iuie naienoaaie;
aiaeec i?iaaaeaiiuo ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ?ac?aaioie iieacuaaao nei?aa
ia oi, a /ai iie ninoiyo, a oi, /ai yoe iia?aoeee ia yaeythony: iie
?aaioatho ia eneeth/eoaeueii aaeaeeoeaii, ia eneeth/eoaeueii iaeia ca
ae?oaie (iineaaeiaaoaeueii), ia eneeth/eoaeueii ia iee?io?iaia e ia
noaoenoe/aneei ia?acii.

Enoi?ey IAss

I?aaeunoi?ey IAss ii?aaeaeaia iiiaeie oaeoi?aie, ec eioi?uo iiaeii
auaeaeeoue a iniaaiiinoe aeaa: 1) iiiuoee iiaeaee?iaaiey iae?iiia a
aeaea eiae/aneiai ono?ienoaa, naycaiiua n eiaiaie IaeEaeeio e Ieoona; 2)
ca?iaeaeaiea «eioi?iaoeeiiiie» ia?aaeeaiu – acaeyaea ia /enea e ia oaeno
eae ia oi, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao iauaa iiiyoea «eioi?iaoeee» (Oaiiii),
iaeaaeathuaa eiee/anoaaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ni anaie auoaeathueie
iineaaenoaeyie aeey iaoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee eioi?iaoeee. Iiiyoea
«eioi?iaoeaiinoue» i?eiaaeeaaeeo oeacaiiie ia?aaeeaia.

Nianoaaiii aea enoi?eth IAss eiiaaea i?aaenoaaeytho eae ninoiyuoth ec
o?ao yoaiia:

1. Ia/aei 1950-o – ia/aei 1960-o aiaeia. Eaeay «eioi?iaoeee» i?eaaea e
eiioeaioeee «iaoeiiiai ia?aaiaea» eae onoaiiaeaiey oie eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ay ne?uoa ca i?aaeeiaeaieai ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea, e au?aaeaiey aa
ia ae?oaii – oeaeaaii ycuea. sscue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai niaea?aeaiey aue
iacaai «ycueii-iin?aaeieeii». Ia yoii yoaia auea aaaaeaia e eaeay
ya?enoe/aneiai iienea, a oaeaea ycuea i?ia?aiie?iaaiey aeey ?aoaiey
caaea/ IAss (iaeaieaa iiioey?iui ycueii, ia/eiay n yoiai a?aiaie, aue
EENI, aaaaeaiiue e iienaiiue aia?aua a ?aaioa.

2. «Yiioa ia?aaioee naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee» (i?eia?ii 1962-1973 aa.).
Aa iniiaiua eaeae: a) iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ia?aie/aiiua
niaea?aeaoaeueiua iaeanoe aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey IAss; a) neaaeoao
iino?ieoue eae iiaeii aieueoa nenoai aeey ia?aaioee ia?aie/aiiuo
iiaeuycueia, i?enaiea yoei nenoaiai noaoon «yenia?oia» a oaeeo iaeanoyo,
a caoai iauaaeeieoue ana yoe nenoaiu a iaeio, a ?aieao «e?oiiiai
yenia?oa», ii?aaeaeythuaai, eaeie ec iiae/eiaiiuo aeieaeai ia/aoue
?aaioaoue ia eiie?aoiii yoaia ia?aaioee, i?e ?aoaiee eiie?aoiie caaea/e
– eiioeaioeey «e?oiiiai ia?aeeth/aiey»; a) eniieueciaaiea «eeth/aauo
neia», oi?aaeythueo auai?ii eiie?aoiuo aeaenoaee ii oiaeo ia?aaioee
oaenoa; a) ia?aaiae anoanoaaiiiai ycuea ia oi?iaeueiua ycuee (iaeioi?ua
ec oi?iaeueiuo ycueia i?e yoii iaeaaeatho nianoaaiiuie en/eneaieyie,
oeia en/eneaiey i?aaeeeaoia oi?iaeueiie eiaeee; eiathony ycuee iienea a
aaca aeaiiuo. Yoo yiioo eiiaaea iacuaatho y?ie «eiaeaia?iiai iiaeoiaea»:
iniiaiie oii? aeaeaeny ia ?aoaiea eiie?aoiuo (eae i?aaeei, i?eeeaaeiuo)
caaea/, aac iiiuoee iiaeaee?iaaoue ineoieiae/aneoth ?aaeueiinoue.

Ia/aei 1970-o aiaeia iciaiaiiaaeinue eioa?anii e ia?aaioea naiaioe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee; iiyaeeenue aeaaea ia?aua ?inoee eioa?ana ae «eiaieoeaiie
iaoea» (iacaaiiie a oa aea aiaeu «eiaeoieiaeae»).

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee yoie «yiioe» auynieeinue: a) aeaaea a i/aiue
i?inouo neooaoeeyo (eniieueciaaiea ycuea ai?acaei aieaa ?aciiieaiiai,
/ai iiaeii auei au iaeeaeaoue; a) niaoeeaeecaoeey oie eee eiie nenoaiu
IAss e ia?niaeoeaa ?anoe?aiey yoie nenoaiu iaoiaeyony a na?ueaciii
eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo niaie; a) ?ai?acaioaoeee aeey ycueiauo au?aaeaiee,
eniieuecoaiua a ?aieao oaeeo nenoai (neaaeai, oi?iaeueiua ycuee),
aanueia iaoi/iu e iaaaeaeaaoiu au?aceoaeueiui niiniaiinoyi anoanoaaiiiai
ycuea; a) i?eoiaeeony iinooieoueny i/aiue iiiaeie oeiaie au?aaeaiee,
?aaeueii eniieuecoaiuo ia anoanoaaiiii ycuea (a /anoiinoe, au?aaeaieyie
aeey oece/aneeo niauoee e aeaenoaee, iienaieyie noeai, ea?o, iooae,
i?aaeienaieyie; ?aaeueiuie ?acaiai?aie, nii?aie, aeaaaoaie,
ianoaeaeaieyie, yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiuie auneacuaaieyie e
auneacuaaieyie ia yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyieyo; iaoaiienaieyie oai?ee;
iiyoe/aneei ycueii, thii?ii, e?iieae, eiaeueth e o.i. – o.a. anai, /oi
o?aaoao ai?acaei aieaa aiaaoiai iaoaycuea, /ai oio, eioi?ue iiaoo ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aaeinoaaeoue a iaoa ?anii?yaeaiea nouanoaothuea
iioaoeee eiaeee).

3. Nia?aiaiiay yiioa (1970-1995 aa.). A yoi a?aiy a oeaio?a aieiaiey
iaoiaeyony neaaeothuea i?iaeaiu: a) niioianaiiinoue ?a/aauo aeoia,
oieonia aieiaiey e iaueo (aeey YAI e /aeiaaea) i?acoiioeee; a)
eniieueciaaiea «iiaaoi?neiai» iioaioeeaea ycuea (a /anoiinoe,
eioa?i?aoaoeey iaoaoi?); a) iino?ieoa i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai, iiieiathueo
anoanoaaiiue ycue (a ia i?inoi aai ia?aaaouaathueo), a) ia?aaioea
auneacuaaiee i i?ino?ainoaaiiuo niauoeyo; ae) aaaaeaiea oaeoi?ia
«cae?aaiai niunea» a ninoaa eiae/aneiai auaiaea nenoai IAss, a
/anoiinoe, o/ao noaiaie i?aaaeiiiaeiaiinoe i?e eioa?i?aoe?iaaiee
auneacuaaiee.

Nenoaia, «iiieiathuay» anoanoaaiiue ycue

Niiaeaee?iaaoue iiieiaiea e ia?aaioeo anoanoaaiiiai ycuea – yoi ia iaeii
e oi aea. Oae, iu iiaeai (ia iiieiay iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii)
iaieioee?iaaoue neiaieaie, iiaoi?eoue neacaiiia ia /oaeii (e iaiiiyoiii
iai) ycuea e o.i. Ana yoi, ionoue ia?oaeaiea, niioaaonoaoao neooaoeee
IAss aac iiieiaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, nai oaeo oiai, /oi iu ia/oi
iiieiaai, ?aaiineeai oiio, /oi iu iaae au?aaeaieai i?iecaiaeei
ii?aaeaeaiiua eeiaaenoe/aneea iia?aoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iiieiaiea
anoanoaaiiiai ycuea – niaoeeaeueiue neo/ae IAss. Iiiaea ec iino?iaiiuo
nenoai IAss ia iiieiatho anoanoaaiiiai ycuea a oii niunea, eioi?ue
?acoiii aeeaaeuaaoue a oa?iei «iiieiaiea».

I?aaeaea anaai, ia ana oaeea nenoaiu iaeaaeatho oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoueth:
au?aaioea nianoaaiiuo oeaeae, ieaie?iaaiea, aiieiuaiea no?aoaaee a aeaea
oao eee eiuo oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiia, «i?ineaaeeaaiea» ?acoeueoaoia yoeo
i?eaiia e i?aaeneacaiea (i?aaeaeaeaiea) aeaeueiaeoeo ?acoeueoaoia – ana
yoi iiea aua ia aieaa /ai i?iaeo oi?ioae nenoaiu IAss. Oae, nenoaia
SHRDLU iaeaaeaao nenoaiie ieaie?iaaiey, ii oeaee a iae aeinoeaathony ia
iin?aaenoaii auneacuaaiee; e e?iia oiai, yoa nenoaia ia a ninoiyiee
?aniiciaaaoue oeaee /aeiaaea: a aeeaeiaa n YAI eiaiii /aeiaae iaeaaeaao
eieoeeaoeaie. Ianeieueei aieaa caianee?iaaii ionoonoaea
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe a nenoaiao YEECA e AeIEOI?. Oieueei n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue e iiaeaee?iaaiea iaia?aiee aioee a e?oa
eioa?ania ?ac?aaio/eeia IAss.

Ae?oaia a?aiaiiia oiouaiea: iiiyoue iiaia auneacuaaiea a aeeaeiaa eee a
oaenoa – cia/eo, e?iia i?i/aai, naycaoue aai n oai, /oi auei neacaii
?aiueoa. A nenoaiao «eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa» yoa caaea/a ?aoaaony, a
iniiaiii, iiin?aaeiaaiii, a aeaa oaaa:

1) nia/aea, ia iniiaaiee i?ioieiea aiaeeca i?aaeoanoaothuaai aeeaeiaa
eee oaenoa, aeoeae?othony «o?aeiu», eee «ne?eiou» (o.a., iaoi?iaeueii
aiai?y, oa noaiu ec aacu ciaiee, a eioi?ua iiaeii oeiaeeoue iinooieaooth
iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth), a caoai

2) iiaia, oaeouaa niiauaiea niiinoaaeyaony n yoeie noaiaie (ii ia n
i?aaeoanoaothueie i?aaeeiaeaieyie iaiin?aaenoaaiii).

A ?acoeueoaoa, a /anoiinoe, oioneaaony oaeay aiciiaeiinoue, ?aaeueii
eniieuecoaiay ia naiii aeaea a iauaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, eae «eiaey ia
neiaa», iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a oiio?aaeaiee oa?ieiia e o.i.

O?aouea ioee/ea ninoieo a neaaie ?aaeeciaaiiinoe aeeyiey eiioaenoa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iai?aaeaiea ?aaiou aiaeecaoi?a. Oae, a aieueoeinoai
nenoai IAss eiaaony aeaa ioaeaeueiua iiaenenoaiu: a) aiaeecaoi?
(«ia?ca?») ia?a?aaaouaaao aoiaeiie oaeno a iaeioi?oth i?iiaaeooi/ioth
oi?io (ia ycue neioaene/aneeo aea?aaueaa – eae a nenoaiao oeia, ia
oi?iuaiiue anoanoaaiiue ycue – eae a ?aaioa eee ia ycue iiiyoeeiuo
i?eieoeaia – eae o Oaiea), a caoai a) iiaenenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea
no?ieo ?ai?acaioaoeeth aeey cia/aiey aoiaeiiai oaenoa (iin?aaenoaii
caiieiaiey iaaeinoathueo aeaoaeae a ?ai?acaioaoeee, iieo/aiiie ia
auoiaea ec aiaeecaoi?a); oiaaea aeeth/athony oa iaoiiiyiooua niauoey,
eioi?ua naycuaatho a aaeeiia oeaeia oaeou, oiiieiaaiua a oaenoa. *anoi
i?aaenoaaeaiiua ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou (nenoaia ioaaoa ia aii?inu e nenoaia
iino?iaiey aiiioaoeee e noaouea) nei?aa aeaiiino?e?otho aeinoeaiooinoue
iiieiaiey, /ai yaeythony /anoueth i?ioeanna iiieiaiey. Iacia/aiea
i?iiaaeooi/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aeey cia/aiey oaenoa anaaaea iaeii e oi
aea: caueoeoue nenoaio eiae/aneiai auaiaea io «eai?ecia» anoanoaaiiiai
ycuea. Iaeiaei yoa iai?aaeaiiinoue ia auaea?aeaia iineaaeiaaoaeueii:
eiae/aneee auaiae anaaaea auaaao i?e yoii naycai n aeiiieieoaeueiui
aiaeecii – ia iniiaa oaia?ue oaea i?iiaaeooi/iie ?ai?acaioaoeee. Ii ia
?aaioa aiaeecaoi?a ieeae ia neacuaaaony (a iacaaiiuo nenoaiao) oi, e
eaeei auaiaeai i?eaeao nenoaia eiae/aneiai auaiaea. Iiiuoea ainiieieoue
yoi oiouaiea naeaeaia ?ac?aaio/eeaie nenoaiu FRUMP, aaea ciaiey i ie?a
ioaeaeaiu io /enoi ycueiauo naaaeaiee, ia aaea, oai ia iaiaa,
eiioaenoiay eioi?iaoeey aeeyao ia i?ioeann aiaeeca, A yoie nenoaia
niaea?aeaony, n?aaee i?i/aai, aeaa iiaeoey: I?aaeneacuaaoaeue
(i?aaeneacuaaao ia?aie/aiey ia oi, /oi iiaeao aeaeueoa iiyaeoueny a
oaenoa) e Auynieoaeue (aa?eoeoee?oao yoe aeiioacu I?aaeneacuaaoaey).
Iaeiaei yoa nenoaia iaoiaeeony a noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Ae?oaie aeae i?iaeai: ioiioaiea iaaeaeo neioaenenii e naiaioeeie a
?aieao aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eiaai caeanue, eae ieieioi, o?e
aiciiaeiinoe:

1) i?e ia?aoiaea io i?aaeeiaeaiey e i?aaenoaaeaieth aai cia/aiey nia/aea
iieiinoueth ainnoaiaaeeaaaony neioaene/aneay no?oeoo?a i?aaeeiaeaiey; ia
aoi?ii aea yoaia yoa no?oeoo?a ia?aaiaeeony a naiaioe/aneia
i?aaenoaaeaiea;

2) iaaeaeo neioaenenii e naiaioeeie iao ieeaeeo aa?uea?ia, naiaioe/aneay
no?oeoo?a iieo/aaony i?yii, enoiaey ec oaenoiaiai aeaea i?aaeeiaeaiey;

3) iino?iaiea /anoe/iuo neioaene/aneeo ?ai?acaioaoeee ia?aiaaeaaony
onoaiiaeaieai /anoe/iuo aea naiaioe/aneeo ?ai?acaioaoeee (o.a. neioaenen
e naiaioeea ?acee/athony, ia a aiaeeca acaeiiaeaenoaotho ia
i?yiieeiaeiui ia?acii). O?aouea ?aoaiea yaeyaony eiii?iienniui iaaeaeo
ia?auie aeaoiy; a iniaaiiinoe iii oaeiaeaoai?yao i?ioeaieeia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aiaeeca, eioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi i?e IAss iaiaoiaeeii
aeiioneaoue aiciiaeiinoue oie neooaoeee, eiaaea ?acee/iua oeiu
eioi?iaoeee e i?ioeaaeo? aucuaathony aieaa iaeiiai ?aca ia ?acee/iuo
yoaiao ia?aaioee aoiaeiiai au?aaeaiey.

A iaiauaiiii aeaea eiii?iienniue iiaeoiae iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaai
eae «iiaeoeueiay eiioeaioeey IAss». Iaeii ec aeinoieinoa yoiai iiaeoiaea
– i?aaiecaoeeiiiia oi?iuaiea: iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue anth caaea/o ia
ianeieueei iiaecaaea/, eioi?ua ii?o/athony ?aciui enneaaeiaaoaeyi eee
a?oiiai enneaaeiaaoaeae; iieo/aaiua aea a ?acoeueoaoa «iiaeoee»
?aaioatho ai acaeiiaeaenoaee ae?oa n ae?oaii, ii ia «aiaoeaaynue» ai
aioo?aiithth oaoieeo iia?aoeee ae?oa ae?oaa.

Ianiiiaiii, ia?a?aaioea anoanoaaiiiai ycuea a oeaeyo nicaeaiey
eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?ioeann, neiaeiinoue eioi?iai o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Iiiuoee
nicaeaoue «anoanoaaiiue ycue aeey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa»
i?aaei?eieiathony niiaa e niiaa, oae /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia
aiciiaeiui, /oi a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iiyaeony nenoaia ycuea aeey
eneonnoaaiiiai ?acoia, eaeaioe/iay anoanoaaiiie.

Caeeth/aiea

Iineaaeiea 20 eao a oeaio?a aieiaiey ?ac?aaio/eeia eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa iaoiaeeony aii?in i iiaeaee?iaaiee oie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?ie yaeyaony ?a/ue.

Iienaiea i?ioeannia iieo/aiey, ia?a?aaioee, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee cao?oaeiyaony oai, /oi aeaiiua i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeyo a iicaa
/aeiaaea e iaaeinooiiu aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Auneacuaaaony iiaiea, /oi, eco/ay i?ioeann ia?aaioee ycuea a iicaa
/aeiaaea, enneaaeiaaoaeue iuneaiii i?ineaaeeaaao oio iooue, eioi?ue
i?ioiaeeo yoio /aeiaae, aini?eieiay e eioa?i?aoe?oy eaeie-eeai oaeno.

Enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia ia?aaioee ycuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n
i?eeeaaeiuie caaea/aie. Ia eo iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaeaee
eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa y ia noaea inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia anao iaoiaeeeao aiaeeca
e ia?aaioee anoanoaaiiiai ycuea, oae eae aii?in eeiaaenoe/aneiai
iaania/aiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa aanueia iaoe?ai. Ii oie aea
i?e/eia a i?aaeeiaeaiiii iiaeoiaea auee ?anniio?aiu eneeth/eoaeueii
iauea iieiaeaiey e iaeioi?ua i?eia?u e iei. Aue cao?iioo oieueei
neioaene/aneee iiaeoiae, e?iia eioi?iai nouanoaoao oaeaea, iai?eia?,
ii?oieiae/aneee e eaene/aneee.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aeaiueyieia A.C. Iniiau oai?ee eioa?i?aoaoeee e aa i?eeiaeaiey a
au/eneeoaeueiie eeiaaenoeea, I.: Ecae-ai Iine. oi-oa, 1985

2. E?aoeee neiaa?ue eiaieoeaiuo oa?ieiia, I.: Oeeieiae/aneee oaeoeueoao
IAO ei. I.A. Eiiiiiniaa, 1996

3. Iuoeaiea, eiaieoeaiua iaoee, eneonnoaaiiiue eioaeeae,o I.:
Oeaio?aeueiue niaao oeeinioneeo (iaoiaeieiae/aneeo) naieia?ia i?e
I?aceaeeoia AI NNN?, 1988.

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