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Лексико-культурологический анализ паремий, относящихся к концепту ‘труд’

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Ioieoeeiaeueiia iauaia?aciaaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea

aeiiacey ?3

Iao/iay ?aaioa ia oaio:

«Eaeneei-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee aiaeec ia?aiee, ioiinyueony e eiioeaioo
“o?oae”».

Iao/ioth ?aaioo auiieiee

o/aiee XI eeanna A

IIO aeiiacee ?3

Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiia

ai?iaea Aieaia?aaea

Oaie?i A.E.

Iao/iue eiinoeueoaio: A?uneia A.A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Iaoaeeeia ?.A.

Aieaia?aae, 2008

Anooieaiea

Oaeo aeeaeiaa ycuea e eoeueoo?u ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ia aucuaaao
niiiaiey. Ia?aua iiiuoee iienea acaeiinayce ycuea e eoeueoo?u
iaia?oaeeaathony o A.Aoiaieueaeoa, ii?aaeaeeaoaai iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
neaaeothuei ia?acii: iaoa?eaeueiay e aeooiaiay eoeueoo?a aiieiuathony a
ycuea; anyeay eoeueoo?a iaoeeiiaeueia, aa iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?
au?aaeai a ycuea iin?aaenoaii iniaiai aeaeaiey ie?a; ycueo i?enoua
niaoeeoe/aneay aeey eaaeaeiai ia?iaea aioo?aiiyy oi?ia, yaeythuayny
au?aaeaieai «ia?iaeiiai aeooa» aai eoeueoo?u. sscue, ioia/ae A. oii
Aoiaieueaeo, anoue iiin?aaeothuaa caaii iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e ie?oaeathuei
aai ie?ii. Eaeae o/aiiai iieo/eee ?aciiia?acioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth a
?aaioao A.A. Iioaaie, O. Aaeee, ?.I. sseianiia. Ii iiaieth A.O.
Oa?aniaa, ycue aeeth/ai a eoeueoo?o, oae eae «oaei» ciaea yaeyaony
eoeueoo?iui i?aaeiaoii, a oi?ia eioi?iai ii?aaeia/aia ycueiaay e
eiiioieeaoeaiay niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea. I?e yoii cia/aiea ciaea
iiieiaaony eae eoeueoo?iia ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia aicieeaao oieueei a
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eoeueoo?a oaeaea aeeth/aia a ycue, oae eae
any iia niiaeaee?iaaia a oaenoa. Eoeueoo?a e ycue yaeythony ?aciuie
naieioe/aneeie nenoaiaie, ii eiathueie i?e yoii iiiai iauaai: iie
yaeythony oi?iaie niciaiey, ioia?aaeathueie ie?iaicc?aiea /aeiaaea;
noauaeoaie eoeueoo?u e ycuea iiaoo auoue eiaeeaeaeu eeai yoiinenoaiu,
iiyoue-oaee ninoiyuea ec eiaeeaeaeia; aeey ycuea e eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ia
ii?iaoeaiinoue, enoi?eci, iaoiae aeeiaieee e noaoeee (/oi iniaaiii
aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue a ?aieao iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey).

sscue e eoeueoo?a acaeiinaycaiu a eiiioieeaoeaiuo i?ioeannao, a
iioiaaiaca (oi?ie?iaaiee ycueiauo niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea) e a oeeiaaiaca
(oi?ie?iaaiee /aeiaaea nioeeaeueiiai). sscue io?aaeaao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, iaiouaieaiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?ie yaeyaony
eoeueoo?a, nicaeaaaaiay /aeiaaeii; niioaaonoaaiii, ycue io?aaeaao
eoeueoo?o. A i?ioeanna eciaiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie, i?aaiaie, ?aeeaeiciie) eciaiyaony e ycue eae io?aaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiie eoeueoo?u. N eciaiaieai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaiythony
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiua noa?aioeiu e ycue, io?aaeathuee aeaiiua
noa?aioeiu. Oaeei ia?acii, i/aaeaeii aicaeaenoaea eoeueoo?u ia ycue.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie iaoee yaeyaony aii?in «Aeeyao
ee ycue ia oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?u?». Anee enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi ycue –
yoi aeooiaiay neea, io?aaeathuay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, aia eioi?ie e aac
eioi?ie /aeiaae aeeoue ia iiaeao, oi noaiiaeony yniui, /oi ycue aia
/aeiaaea ia nouanoaoao eae iauaeoeaiay aeaiiinoue, /oi ycue iaoiaeeony a
ian naieo, a iaoai niciaiee, iaoae iaiyoe. sscue iaiyao naie i/a?oaiey n
aeaeaeaieai iunee, n iiaie nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie ?ieueth. Ii A.
Aoiaieueaeoo, «ycue – yoi ie?, eaaeauee iaaeaeo ie?ii aiaoieo yaeaiee e
aioo?aiiei ie?ii /aeiaaea». Iiaeii ee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ethaee aeaeyo
ie? neaicue i?ecio naiaai ?iaeiiai ycuea e ?aaeueiue ie? nouanoaoao
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii io?aaeaaony a ycuea? Anee eaaeaeue ycue
io?aaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?enouei oieueei aio niiniaii, oi ycuee
?acee/athony naieie «ycueiauie ea?oeiaie ie?a». sscue iaoneiaeeaaao
niinia iuoeaiey aiai?yuaai ia iai ia?iaea, o.a. niinia iiciaiey
?aaeueiiai ie?a caaeneo io oiai, ia eaeeo ycueao iuneyo iiciathuea
noauaeou. Iaaeaeo ycueaie nouanoaoao ?acee/ea a oa?aeoa?a eo
eiiioieeaoeaiuo ooieoeee.

Eoae, eoeueoo?a ?acaeaaaony a «ycueiaie iaiei/ea». sscue ianeoaeeaaao
eoeueoo?o, ii ia ii?aaeaeyao aa. sscue niiniaai nicaeaoue aa?aaeueiua
eeethcee, iiaeiaiythuea niaie ?aaeueiinoue. Aa?aaeueiua eeethcee ea?atho
iaiaeoth ?ieue a nicaeaiee nioeeaeueiuo noa?aioeiia oeia «?aaioa ia aiee
– a ean ia oaaaeeo» eee «oa?iaiuea e o?oae an? ia?ao?oo», eioi?ua
oi?ie?otho iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?iua onoaiiaee. A oiu ethaeae iiaeii
aiaae?eoue neiaaniua ooaiiu, eioi?ua iiaoo ie?aneoue ie? a ioaeiue
oeaao: naaoeia aoaeouaa, oaiiia i?ioeia e o.ae. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y ycueo
/aeiaae aini?eieiaao auiunae eae ?aaeueiinoue, ia?aaeeaaao e iniuneeaaao
ianouanoaothuaa, no?aaeaao e ianeaaeaeaaony, eniuouaaao eaoa?nen («iaae
auiuneii neacaie iaieuethnue»). Ana yoi aiciiaeii aeaaiaea?y
anoanoaaiiiio ycueo e ae?oaei naieioe/aneei nenoaiai (ycueai eeii,
e?anie, aeanoia). sscue oanii naycai n ieoieiaeae, ?aeeaeae, iaoeie,
oeeinioeae e ae?oaeie oi?iaie iiciaiey ie?a. Iniai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
naycue ycuea n ?aaeueiie aeeciueth, oneiaeyie nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae, eo
ie?iaini?eyoeai e ioiioaieai e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaaeyaeii yoa naycue
i?iniao?eaaaony a naiaioeea iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie.

Iaoea ecaanoiu iiiai/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey no?oeoo?u e naiaioeee
?onneeo ia?aiee. Eco/aiea iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie ?onneiai ia?iaea anaaaea
auei /?acau/aeii aaaeiui eae aeey eeoa?aoo?iaaaeia, oae e aeey
eoeueoo?ieiaia e eeiaaenoia. ssaeyynue naiaia?aciuie iaeiieoaeyie e
o?aineyoi?aie ia?iaeiie ioae?inoe, iiuoa e ciaiey ?onneeo ethaeae,
ia?aiee ianoo a naaa aiaaoaeooth eioi?iaoeeth ia iniaaiiinoyo
ie?iaini?eyoey ?onneiai ia?iaea, iniaaiiinoyo aai ioiioaiey e aeecie.
Iaoa ?aaioa auiieiaia a ?onea eeiaai-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee,
iiaeieiaao ?yae aaaeiaeoeo aeey aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey eeiaaenoeee
aii?inia, i?aaeeaaaao iao?aaeeoeeiiiia ?aoaiea iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo a
/aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa i?iaeai – ioiioaiey e o?oaeo. Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony
aai AEOOAEUeIINOUe. E?iia oiai, iu i?aaeeaaaai a naiae ?aaioa iiaue
iiaeoiae e aiaeeco ?onneeo ia?aiee i o?oaea, iicaieythuee ?aoeoue
aeaiioth i?iaeaio a iao?aaeeoeeiiiii aniaeoa.

Iauaeoii iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey noaee iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee ?onneiai
ia?iaea, nia?aiiua e caienaiiua ecaanoiui ?onneei eaeneeia?aoii A.E.
Aeaeai. I?aaeiaoii eco/aiey a iaoae ?aaioa aunooiaao eoeueoo?ii e
enoi?e/anee ia?ee?iaaiiia niaea?aeaiea iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie i o?oaea,
nia?aiiuo o/aiui.

Oeaeue enneaaeiaaiey – auyaeaiea oa?aeoa?a acaeiinayce e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe eoeueoo?iuo onoaiiaie ?onneiai ia?iaea,
iniaaiiinoae aai ie?iaini?eyoey e naiaioeee ycueiaiai ciaea.

Aeinoeaeaieth aeaiiie oeaee niinianoaiaaei ?aoaiea neaaeothueo
eiie?aoiuo caaea/:

1. Auyaeoue ei?ion iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie, naiei niaea?aeaieai
io?aaeathueo ioiioaiea ?onneiai /aeiaaea e o?oaeo;

2. I?ineaaeeoue eciaiaiey ioiioaiey e o?oaeo a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu
enoi?ee ?onneiai iauanoaa, caoeene?iaaiiua a ycuea iineiaeoe e
iiaiai?ie;

3. Ioiaoeoue aeeyiea i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, yoeee e ii?aee iauanoaa ia
ioiioaiea e o?oaeo e iienaoue oa?aeoa? i?aaenoaaeaiiinoe yoiai aeeyiey a
ycuea;

4. Iniiauaaynue ia niaea?aeaiee ia?aiee, auyaeoue e iienaoue eiaaiu,
io?aaeathuea iaiythuaany ioiioaiea ?onneiai /aeiaaea e aaciaie oeaiiinoe
O?OAe;

5. Iainiiaaoue yoiieoeueoo?iia niaea?aeaiea ?onneeo ia?aiee i o?oaea,
iniiauaaynue ia niiinoaaeaiee eo n aiaeeeneeie iineiaeoeaie e
iiaiai?eaie niioaaonoaothuae oaiaoeee;

Iao/iay iiaecia enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi a iai aia?aua i?iaeaia
ycueiaie naiaioeee ia?aiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ioiioaiea ?onneiai /aeiaaea
e o?oaeo, ?aoaaony a aeeao?iiee; i?ineaaeeaaaony aeeiaieea ycueiaiai
niciaiey ?onneiai /aeiaaea, iaoneiaeaiiay eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeie
oaeoi?aie.

Oai?aoe/aneay cia/eiinoue i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaeeony iai a
oii, /oi iii iiaeao aianoe ii?aaeaeaiiua aeiiieiaiey a iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe eeiaaieoeueoo?ieiaee, naycaiiua, i?aaeaea anaai,
n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiyoaiiiai aiaeeca eiie?aoiiai ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea e
eniieueciaaiey i?eioeeia eioaa?e?iaaiiiai iienaiey, nouiinoue eioi?iai
ninoieo a i?eaea/aiee a i?ioeanna eeiaai-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai aiaeeca
ycueiauo aaeeieoe naaaeaiee ii enoi?ee, eoeueoo?a, yoiia?aoee ia?iaea –
iineoaey ycuea.

I?aeoe/aneay cia/eiinoue ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?acoeueoaou
iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e eco/aiee
acaeiiioiioaiee ycuea e eoeueoo?u, a oaeaea i?e aiaeeca i?ioeanna niaiu
oeaiiinoae ia?iaea, aai ioiioaiey e o?oaeo.

AEAAA 1. ?ONNEEE IA?IAe EAE OAI?AOe ssCUEA E EOEUeOO?U

1.1. Io?aaeaiea a ycuea i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?iaea ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a

Ecaanoiue enoi?ee i?ioeiai aaea i?ioanni? A.E. Eioey?aaneee caiaoee:
«sscue – aa?iaeoee, a eiiaaea e aaeeinoaaiiue naeaeaoaeue aueie aeecie
ia?iaea».

A neiaao e eo cia/aieyo io?aceeenue e aeioee aei iaoeo aeiae iocaoee
i/aiue aeae?eeo a?ai?i, oaeou aeecie iaoeo aeae?eeo i?aaeeia, oneiaey eo
o?oaea e ioiioaiee, ai?ueaa ca naiaiaeo e o.ae. sscue eaaeaeie yiioe
niaea?aeeo a naaa ciaiey ia?iaea a yoo yiioo .

Anee iiiuoaoueny ?ane?uoue niaea?aeaiea neiaa, oi iaecaaaeii i?eae?ony
einiooueny yaeaiee aeecie, eioi?ua iaicia/atho neiaa. AEeoaeneea caiyoey
?onneiai ia?iaea io?aaeaiu a iiiai/eneaiiuo neiaao, i?yii iacuaathueo
yoe caiyoey, iai?eia?: ai?oie/anoai – aeiauaaiea i?aea aeeeeo i/?e,
aeaaoy?ie/anoai – auaiia ae?aoy ec aea?aaa, ecaic – ceiiyy ia?aaicea
oiaa?ia e?anoueyiaie, eiaaea ia auei ?aaiou ii naeueneiio oicyenoao. A
neiaao eaan, ue (ooe), aeeiu, eaoa e iiiaeo ae?oaeo io?aceeanue ?onneay
ia?iaeiay eooiy; aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu nouanoaiaaaoeo aeaaii aeaiaaeiuo
nenoai io?aaeathony a neiaao a?io, aeoui, a?eaaiiee.

Io?aceeenue a onoie/eauo ni/aoaieyo ?onneiai ycuea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, ii?aeueiua caiiaaaee, a oaeaea iau/ae. I.A. Oieioia a
i?aaeeneiaee e nai?ieeo A.E. Aeaey «Iineiaeoeu ?onneiai ia?iaea» ienae:
«Iaiaic?eii iiiaiia?acea /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua caia/aoeaeenue
a /aeaiiuo ia?iaeiuo ec?a/aieyo e aoi?eciao. Ec aacaeiu a?ai?i aeioee
aei ian a yoeo naonoeao ?acoia e ciaiey aeecie, e no?aaeaiey ethaeneea,
niao e ne?cu, ethaiaue e aiaa, aa?a e aacaa?ea, i?aaaea e e?eaaea,
/anoiinoue e iaiai, o?oaeiethaea e eaiue, e?anioa enoei e o?iaenoai
i?aae?annoaeeia».

sscue eae iniiaa iaoeee nio?aiyeny i/aiue aa?aaeii. Aaeeeieaiiui
i?eia?ii oiai, eae ia?iae aei?iaeeo naiei ycueii, iiaoo neoaeeoue
eacaee-iae?aniaoeu. Iioiiee o/anoieeia Aoeaaeineiai ainnoaiey,
i?aoa?iaaaaoea a ?innee ?aeeaeiciua aiiaiey, ooee a Oo?oeeth, i?iaeeee
oai aeaa – o?e aaea, ii nio?aieee a /enoioa ycue, iau/ae, ?eooaeu.

?onneee ia?iae yaeyaony oai?oeii eoeueoo?u, oae eae ienaoaee, noa?aynue
iaeoe iiaua, naaaeea neiaa, ia?auathony, i?aaeaea anaai, e ?a/e i?inoiai
ia?iaea. Iiiyoea «ia?iaeiue ycue» oanii naycaii n ae?oaei –
«iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue». A no?oeoo?ii – ycueiaii ieaia iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue
iieiinoueth ianeaaeoao no?oeoo?o ia?iaeiinoe. Iiiyoea «iaoeeiiaeueiue
ycue» ioaaouaaao ana «?aciiaeaeiinoe» ycuea, eniieuecoaiua ia?iaeii: ia
oieueei eeoa?aoo?iue ycue, ii e aeeaeaeou, i?inoi?a/ey.

sscue ?onneiai ia?iaea auiieiyao ynoaoe/aneoth ooieoeeth, iineieueeo
neoaeeo iaoa?eaeii aeey nicaeaiey eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee. sscue
ioe?uaaao ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey au?aaeaiey iuneae, ii eo ioaeii
aeaeaoue, eie ioaeii oiaoue iieueciaaoueny. sscue iaiiaeyaony
aaeaieiooii. Ii auaatho iniaua a?aiaiiua neooaoeee, eiaaea yoi
iaiiaeaiea i?ioaeaao iaeaieaa aeoeaii. Yoi, eae i?aaeei, ia?eiaeu
nioeeaeueiuo iio?ynaiee o ia?iaeia.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee a ?innee aeey ?onneiai ycuea iioa?yee aeooaeueiinoue
oaeea neiaa, eae ainoaea?ue, o?aeeeia, ai?iaeie/ee, ai?iaeiaie,
o?yaeiee, eaia?aa?, neiiae, aeeueaeey e iiiaea ae?oaea. Eiia/ii, iie ia
iiaee en/aciooue n?aco. Iu aei neo ii? ciaai, /oi iie icia/atho, e
eiiaaea n ieie ano?a/aainy a ?anneacao i i?ioeii, a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?a.

Iiaua yaeaiey a aeecie ia?iaea ?iaeeee iiaua eo iacaaiey: aeae?ao,
?aaeii, iaiaeao, aee?aeoeaa. Caeanue ia i?inoi iiaua neiaa, ii aeaaea e
iiaua oeiu neia: aei ?aaiethoeee a ?onneii ycuea ia auei
neiaeiinie?au?iiuo neia. A ycue noaee i?iieeaoue neiaa aea?aiiiua,
aeeaeaeoiua, i?ioanneiiaeueiua.

Iineieueeo ycue – oai?aiea anaai ia?iaea, eaaeaeia neiai e au?aaeaiea a
i?i i?ioiaeeo i?iaa?eo a?aiaiai e eiio?iee?oaony anai ia?iaeii. E yoi
iiiiaaao aio inaiaiaeeoueny io anaai «iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiiai».

1.2 Io?aaeaiea «ia?iaeiiai aeooa» a iineiaeoeao e iiaiai?eao ?onneiai
ia?iaea.

«Aac iineiaeoeu ia i?iaeeaaoue», – oae n/eoaee ethaee a i?ioeii. ?onneee
ia?iae ai?aaa ai?aeeoueny iineiaeoeaie e iiaiai?eaie, eioi?ua ii
nicaeae, a eioi?uo au?acee naie oi, naith ii?aeue, naie oaeaio
ooaeiaeieea neiaa.

Iineiaeoea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeoaiei iaoeeiiaeueia, n ae?oaie –
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueia. Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea ioaeii iiieiaoue oae: iineiaeoeu
?aciuo ia?iaeia au?aaeatho noaeaeaiey. Nouanoaotho iunee, naienoaaiiua
anai ia?iaeai, ii o eaaeaeiai ia?iaea iie au?aaeathony ii-naiaio, n
o/?oii yoiia?aoe/aneeo, aaia?aoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae, iau/aaa,
iaioaeueiinoe e o.ae. Oae, iaueie aeey anao ia?iaeia ie?a ieacuaathony
eaeae ie?a e aeia?a, ?iee o?oaea e ciaiee; oaaaeaiea e oi?ioei
/aeiaa/aneei ea/anoaai: o?oaeiethaeth, ne?iiiinoe, /anoiinoe, –
inoaeaeaiea ceiau e aeaaeiinoe, aeoiinoe e eaie.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia naiaia?acea iineiaeoe neacuaaaony a eo iino?iaiee. Aeey
?onneeo iineiaeoe aanueia oa?aeoa?ia eaeiie/iinoue. Ia aac?uauea e ?ae
?uaa, – neaaeao ?onneee. A e?aiaoe au?aceony oae: Oai, aaea iao
o?oeoiauo aea?aaueaa, na?eea nieae?o ca aiaeuenei. Aoaaiaoe aiai?eo:
?acaaaeaoue /oaeea iunee o?oaeiaa, /ai ?aniiciaoue neaaeu ciae ia eaiia.
?onneee neaaeao ei?i/a: *oaeay aeooa – iio?iee. Iaeiie ec aaaeiuo
i?iaeai iaoee, aei neo ii? ia ?aoaiiie iaeiicia/ii, yaeyaony aii?in i
?aca?aie/aiee iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie. A iaoae ?aaioa yoe oa?ieiu
eniieuecothony a neaaeothueo cia/aieyo: Iineiaeoeu – ia?aciua au?aaeaiey
ni no?oeoo?ie i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ua icia/atho noaeaeaiey (ia iiiyoey) e
eiatho eeai oieueei ia?aiiniia cia/aiea, eeai i?yiia e ia?aiiniia.
Iai?eia?, iaoea eina ia eaiaiue; oeaoaee Neaeo e?ooua ai?ee. Iiaiai?ee –
onoie/eaua ni/aoaiey a oi?ia i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ua eiatho i?yiia
cia/aiea e au?aaeatho noaeaeaiea. Iai?eia?, aeaiueae – aeaei iaaeeaiia;
ethaae ana aic?anou iiei?iu; aeaoo nia?oae ia aeaeaoue, a iaeiie ia
ieiiaaoue. Iineiaeoeu – yoi «naouaiea iunee» (A.A. Iioaaiy). «Aanue
i?ioeann naeeiaiey aieaa aeeeiiiai ?anneaca a iineiaeoeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
/eneo yaeaiee, eiathueo ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue aeey /aeiaa/aneie iunee,
iiaeii neacaoue, oa?aeoa?ecothueo niaith /aeiaa/aneoth iuneue…» (A.A.
Iioaaiy) Iineiaeoeu eae au aeeoioee?otho a iaoai niciaiee cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai iiyoe/aneeo ia?acia, eioi?ua iu iiaeai ecaeaeaoue ec iaoae
iaiyoe e ?aaeeciauaaoue a eaaeaeii iiaeoiaeyuai eiie?aoiii neo/aa.

O iineiaeoe aeieaay aeeciue, eo aa?aaeii nio?aiyee e ia?aaeaaaee ii
ianeaaenoao io iieieaiey e iieieaieth. Iieuecu io ieo auei iaiaei.

Ai-ia?auo, iie o/eee ethaeae oio – ?acoio. N eo iiiiuueth ia?aaeaaaeenue
aaaeiua ciaiey. Iai?eia?, ciaiea oiai, eaeay iiaiaea aoaeao a aeeaeaeoaa
eee iineaaeothuaa a?aiy: /eaen i?eeaoae – ia oainoa aiaeo i?ei?n;
aeo?aaeue i?eeaoae – oaiei i?ei?n; eioea a eeoaie – ii?ic ia ii?ia e
o.ae.

Ai-aoi?uo, iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee niaea?aeaee niaaou e oeacaiey, eae
ioaeii naay aanoe, eae iinooiaoue:

ia ai?oe: ai? ia auaaao aiaao, a auaaao ai?aao; ieooo aea ai?o /anoue ii
?acai?o; e n oiii ai?iaaoue – aaaeu ia ieiiaaoue;

ia iaiaiuaae: ia eue i?aaaeu a ae?oaeo, anee a oaaa a? iao;

ia eaienue: aac aeaea aeeoue – oieueei iaai eiioeoue; o?ooie ai?acaeu ia
ieooie; oi/aoue anoue eaea/e, oae ia neaee ia ia/e e o.ae.

Iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee, au?aaeay ia?iaeioth ii?aeue, o/ao iao?eioecio:
naiy caiey e a ai?noe ieea; /oaeay noi?iia – ia/aoa.

A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa ia?iaeiuo iineiaeoe caeiaeai aeia?ue niune,
caei?iaay ia?iaeiay ii?aeue. Iineiaeoeu ninoaaeytho iaiyoue ia?iaea. A
ieo io?aceeanue e aai enoi?ey, e iau/ae, e auo, e aa?iaaiey. A.E. Aeaeue
a nai?i nai?ieea i?eaiaeeo oaeea enoi?e/aneea iineiaeoeu: eaoeo aonue ia
nayooth ?onue (i Iaiieaiia); aaea Iaiae i?ieae?o, oai o?aaa ia ?ano?o.

A iineiaeoeao e iiaiai?eao io?aceeinue iiiai ?onneeo ia?iaeiuo iau/aaa,
ii iie /aua anaai ni?yoaiu, eo ioaeii eneaoue, iaia?oaeeaaoue a ia?acao:
ec ecau ni? ia auiinyo; ia iaie onoaaeeinue, ia iaie e ia?anoaaeony;
iau/ae ia eeaoea – ia ia?anoaaeoue. Oae, e i?eia?o, au?aaeaiea ia
auiineoue ni? ec ecau ainoiaeeo e iauaneaayineie o?aaeeoeee, niaeanii
eioi?ie n/eoaeinue, /oi, auiiny ni? ec aeiia ia iaic?aiea ninaaeae,
/aeiaae ineaaeyao naia aeeciaiiia i?ino?ainoai, iiaeaa?aaao iianiinoe ia
oieueei naay, ii e naieo aeeceeo, /aai aeiioneaoue iaeuecy ie a eiai
neo/aa.

Aicieeee iineiaeoeu ?aciuie iooyie. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eo –
?acoeueoao iaaethaeaiey ia?iaeaie ca yaeaieyie aeecie, ca iiaaaeaieai
aeeaioiuo: iineooaeny eicea aa?ai, aea e nai a aaaeo iiiae; ia aa?ue
eiceo a eaionoa, a aieeo a ia/a?ia; iaoea ia iiiieo iooea, a naii ae n
oia iaeae?o; ia i?eeeaeuaaeny iaoeie, aiee nuano e o.ae.

Iineiaeoeai e iiaiai?eai iau/ii noaeaeaia aeieaay aeeciue. Ia?iae ia
oieueei nicaeaoaeue iineiaeoe, ii e no?iaee ?aaeaeoi?. Ii eniieuecoao
oi, /oi nicaeaii i?aaeeaie, ?anoe?yy, iaeiaei, noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe
iineiaeoe, i?eaycuaay eo e iiaui neooaoeeyi.

AUAIAeU ii 1 aeaaa:

1. sscue oeene?oao ana iniaaiiinoe eaeiai-eeai ia?eiaea enoi?ee, ciaiey
ethaeae a yoio ia?eiae, aai oeaiiinoe.

2. Iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee io?aaeatho ia?iaeiia naiaia?acea.

AEAAA 2. YOIIEOEUeOO?IIA NIAeA?AEAIEA IINEIAEOe E IIAIAI?IE ?ONNEIAI
IA?IAeA I O?OAeA

2.1. O?oae eae aaciaay oeaiiinoue a ycueiaii niciaiee ?onneiai /aeiaaea

Aeey ian iaeaieaa aaaeii i?eciaoue, /oi ycue – yoi oaeo eoeueoo?u,
ninoaaiay /anoue eoeueoo?u, eioi?oth iu ianeaaeoai io iaoeo i?aaeeia.
sscue aunooiaao a ?iee iniiaiiai eino?oiaioa, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai
iiaeii onaieoue nouiinoue eoeueoo?u e au?aceoue a iaiaaeaiiii aeaea
niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou iaoeeiiaeueiie iaioaeueiinoe. sscue iaeiia?aiaiii
i?iaeoeo eoeueoo?u e aa aaaeiay ninoaaiay /anoue, oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey
eoeueoo?u e oaeoi? oi?ie?iaaiey eoeueoo?iuo eiaeia. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ycueii e eoeueoo?ie iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu eae ioiioaiey /anoe e
oeaeiai. sscue iiaeao auoue aini?eiyo eae eiiiiiaio eoeueoo?u e eae
i?oaeea eoeueoo?u. A o?aaeeoeeiiiie eeiaaenoeea ycue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
iacaaeneiay, aaoiiiiiay naieioe/aneay nenoaia, o.a. ioaeaeueii io
eoeueoo?u. Iaeiaei eaaeaeue iineoaeue ycuea iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyaony e
iineoaeai eoeueoo?u, a ycueiaua ciaee niiniaiu auiieiyoue ooieoeeth
ciaeia eoeueoo?u e oai naiui neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii i?aaenoaaeaiey
iniiaiuo onoaiiaie eoeueoo?u. Eiaiii iiyoiio ycue niiniaai io?aaeaoue
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueioth iaioaeueiinoue aai iineoaeae.

O eaaeaeie eoeueoo?u naie eeth/aaua neiaa, io?aaeathuea aaciaua
oeaiiinoe ia?iaea-iineoaey ycuea. Iai?eia?, aeey iaioeaa yoi ii?yaeie,
oi/iinoue, aeey aiaee/ai – uaiaoeeueiinoue, /iii?iinoue,
naea?aeaiiinoue, aeey ?onneeo – oe?ioa aeooe, aeia?ioa,
iaaa?anneaiinoue, iocua/eainoue e – i/aiue /anoi iacuaaaiua – eaiue,
aanoaaaoiinoue, aacioaaonoaaiiinoue. Oaeea eeth/aaua neiaa eoeueoo?u
oi?ie?otho a niciaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae oie eee eiie eoeueoo?u iniaua
iaioaeueiua no?oeoo?u – eiioeaiou, niaea?aeauea a naaa oeaiiinoiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae i iiciaiiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aeey oiai, /oiau
neiai ia?aei noaoon eiioeaioa, ioaeii, /oiau iii noaei
iauaoiio?aaeyaiui, o.a. iaoeeiiaeueiui, aeoeaii aeeth/aeinue a ninoaa
o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe, iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie, i?eia?aei
iiieiaoeaioth ieioiinoue (A.E. Ea?anee). Aaconeiaii, iaeiei ec oaeeo
eiioeaioia a ?onneie eoeueoo?a, eae iieacuaaao aiaeec iineiaeoe e
iiaiai?ie A.E. Aeaey, yaeyaony O?OAe e aai neiai-niooiee EAIUe.

2.1.1. IIIssOEEIAss NINOAAEssTHUAss EIIOeAIOA «O?OAe/EAIUe»

IIIssOEEIUE neie eiioeaioa «o?oae/ eaiue» eaaei ainnoaiaaeeaaaony ec
neiaa?iuo ii?aaeaeaiee eeth/aauo neia, aoiaeyuee a iiiyoeeiia yae?i
aeaiiiai eiioeaioa. N?aaiei yoe aeaoeieoeee:

O?OAe – oeaeaniia?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, ?aaioa, o?aaothuay
oinoaaiiiai e oece/aneiai iai?yaeaiey.

AeAEI – 1. ?aaioa, caiyoea, oi, /ai eoi-i. caiyo.

2.Aeaeiaay iaaeiaiinoue, ioaeaea. Caeioa?aniaaiiia, caaioeeaia ioiioaiea
(?aca.).

3. Iieaciia caiyoea (?aca.).

?AAIOA – 1. Oi, /ai eoi-i. caiyo, caiyoea, o?oae.

2.. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iia?aoeee ii nicaeaieth, nii?oaeaieth,
ecaioiaeaieth, ia?aaioea /aai-i.

EAIUe – ionoonoaea aeaeaiey ?aaioaoue, iaethaiaue e o?oaeo.

AACAeAEUeA – i?aauaaiea a i?acaeiinoe.

Iniiaiua iunee i o?oaea, au?aaeaiiua a ?onneii ia?aieieiae/aneii oiiaea,
iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e naie iauei eiaaiai:

1. O?oae i?enoonoaoao a iaoae aeecie iinoiyiii (Aine?aniue aeaiue ia
iai, a ainiiaeai. Auee au ?oee, a iieioeei aeaaeoo/iaeae?i – 11
aaeeieoe). Yoa eiaaia aea?o iiiyoue, /oi ?aaioa ieeiaaea ia caeii/eony,
iia iiaeao niaiyoueny, ii ia i?ae?auaoueny. O?oae ia i?inoi yaeyaony
iinoiyiiui niooieeii /aeiaaea, ii caiieiyao ii/oe an? a?aiy.

2. O?oae o?aaoao oneeee (E?aea ia ?aaioatho. Ean na/ue – ia aeaeaoue
iea/ – 13 aaeeieoe). Iuneue ia eioaineaiinoe o?oaea ia?aieaoaia n
iuneueth i aai ianeii/aaiinoe: i?ioeannu o?oaea aacaea iaicia/aiu n
iiiiuueth aeaaieia ianiaa?oaiiiai aeaea.

3. O?oae iineo iiaeiaaieueiue oa?aeoa? (Ia eoieai – ia oieii, ia
caeaaae?i – ia ?aaioiee. Ioaeee ca nianeai naiue eao ?aaioae – 17
aaeeieoe). O?oae ia aeinoaaeyao /aeiaaeo oaeiaeaoai?aiey e ia aea?o
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeinoaoea, iineieueeo iineo auioaeaeaiiue oa?aeoa?.

4. O?oae eiaao naie neaaenoaey, eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e
io?eoeaoaeueiua (Aaea ?aaioii, oai e aonoi, a a eaieaii aeiio ionoi. Ia
io?oaeoue aeoaea, ia iaaenaaey aeoaea – 156 aaeeieoe). A caaeneiinoe io
oa?aeoa?a o?oae iiaeao i?eiineoue eeai oeo/oaiea auoa, eeai ia ianoe
ieeaeeo oeo/oaiee, a oieueei aieacie aneaaenoaea oece/aneiai enoiuaiey.

5. Neaaeoao au?aaioaoue ioiioaiea e o?oaeo (Ia aeaei ia iaaeaaeny e io
aeaea ia ioaeaaeny. Ia iieeaeae a caian aeaea, a iieeaeae a caian oeaaa
– 236 aaeeieoe). Iaiiia?iay cao?aoa nee e i?iaiice?iaaiea
io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee ioa?auatho /aeiaaea io o?oaea,
iiaeoaeeeaatho aai e ioeaco io ?aaiou, iaeiaei ia noieo caauaaoue i
oeaiiinoe o?oaea, aai ia?aii/a??aeiinoueth ia?aae aacaeaeueai.

6. Ia ana iaeeiaeiai ioiinyony e o?oaeo (Aeaia iaooo, a naia?i ?oeaie
iaooo. Na? ioaee/ie, aea na?aeeo ia ?aaioo – 22 aaeeieoeu).
Aacaeaeueieee niieieii ninouanoaotho ?yaeii n o?oaeaieeaie, ii oiai, eoi
ia noi?iieony o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, anaaaea iiaeii ociaoue ii aai
iiaaaeaieth.

7. Ioiioaiea e o?oaeo ii?aaeaeyao iieiaeaiea e oeaiiinoue /aeiaaea a
iauanoaa (Aac aeaea aeeoue – oieueei iaai eiioeoue. Eaieaue e iiaeeu ia
noieo. Oaaeyo ia aeaaea o?ee, eiee a aeaaea oiee – 159 aaeeieoe).
Iineieueeo iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ethaeae o?oaeeony, iinoieueeo
eiaiii oio, eoi niiniaai ca?aaioaoue ia aeeciue naieie neeaie,
ieacuaaaony oaaaeaaiui /eaiii iauanoaa.

Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo eiaai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, ?aaioa aini?eieiaeanue
eae ia/oi iiaeiaaieueiia, ia i?eiinyuaa ?aaeinoe eee iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeinoaoea, iiyoiio nouanoaiaaei iiiai ii?aaaeaiee aeey ecaaaaiey ?aaiou,
iaeiaei ai ana a?aiaia oeaieeenue ethaee o?oaeiethaeaua, oae eae o?oae –
i?aanoaaiiay oeaiiinoue.

2.2.2. IOeAII*IAss NINOAAEssTHUAss EIIOeAIOA

Anee iiiyoeeiue neie eiioeaioa niaea?aeeo oeacaiey ia iauea
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia?iaea-iineoaey ycuea ia oio eee eiie iauaeo, oi
ia?aciay e ioeaii/iay ninoaaeythuea eiioeaioa anaaaea eoeueoo?ii
iaa?oaeaiu. Eiaiii oa?aeoa? ia?aciinoe e ioeaii/iinoe iicaieyao
auaeaeeoue eoeueoo?ii ia?ee?iaaiiua yeaiaiou naiaioeee ycueiaiai ciaea.

Iineiaeoeu i o?oaea oae aea, eae e iiiaea ae?oaea iineiaeoeu, aeeth/atho
ioeaii/ioth eaeneeo. ssaeaiea, eioi?ia ioeaieaaaony aoaeoi au
iieiaeeoaeueiia, n oi/ee c?aiey eaeaaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ieacuaaaony
ianiioaaonoaothuei eaeaaeo: Noie iinoaayo, oae e ?aaioaoue canoaayo.
Iai, aea nai? ai; a ?a/eno, aea iea/eno – aieiaeiue neaeeo. ?aoeaay
eioaaeea iaaeieai aeea?o. Ieai n eaanii (n eeneioie), eioaaeue n
caieieie aea /aeiaae n eaioeie aeaa aaea aeeaoo.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi iiiyoea «?aaioa» a iaoeeiiaeueiii niciaiee –
oeaiiinoue, ia i/aiue /anoi ioeaieaathuayny n iaeiicia/ii
iieiaeeoaeueiie noi?iiu: Ia iio?oaeeoueny, oae e oeaaa ia aeiaeoueny.
Iieoaea oeai a ?oeao, iiooaea e oeaa a coaao., Io?aaae ia aaeee, a ai?u
eiiaao. Aeaei o/eo, e io/eo, e ei?ieo. *anoi i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony
«?aaioa» e «i?acaeiinoue»: O?oae /aeiaaea ei?ieo, a eaiue ii?oeo. Aaea
?aaioii, oai e aonoi, a a eaieaii aeiio ionoi. ?aaioa a?aiy, a aeinoao
/an. Iinea aeaea e aoeyoue oi?ioi». A ?aaeueiie aeecie auaaao, /oi o?oae
ia i?eiineo ?aaeinoe, oaeiaeaoai?aiey, a annioeee?oaony n
?aci/a?iaaieai, aieaciueth: Ia noieueei aiaa/ae ia naaoa, neieueei
ai?aoiia (o.a. noooeuo). E n oiii?a ia aiaaoatho, a ai?aatho. Io ?aaiou
ia aoaeaoue aiaao, a aoaeaoue ai?aao.

Iineiaeoeu, naycaiiua n iiiyoeai «?aaioa», a nai?ieea Aeaey iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia 3 a?oiiu: iineiaeoeu, ii?aaeaeythuea ianoi o?oaea a
aeecie /aeiaaea; iineiaeoeu, aiai?yuea i iineaaenoaeyo o?oaea, eae
iieiaeeoaeueiuo, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiuo; iineiaeoeu, i?eaioe?othuea
/aeiaaea a aeecie.

Iineiaeoeu ia?aie a?oiiu i?yii aiai?yo i cia/eiinoe ?aaiou aeey aeecie
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, iai?eia?: Ia ieaa iioae, a eeaoe iieenue, n aieiaeo
ia iii??oue. Oi/aoue anoue eaea/e, oae ia neaee ia ia/e!. Ia aiaa
oiiaae, a aac aeaea ia auaae.

A?aaaiue (i?yeea) ia aia, a ?oaaoo aea?o. ?aaioae aei iioo, oae iiaoue a
ioioo. Aoue oeaa a iioa eeoea!. A iiea na?iii aea aeeie, oae e aeiia
iiaeii aea aeeeie. Aac o?oaea ia auiaoue e ?uaeo ec i?oaea. Ia o??oe, ia
iyaoe – ia aoaeao eaea/. A iiea Iaeaiuey ia ?aaee aoeyiuey, a nieiooeo
ai?o aeey caiana aia??ae. Eoi ia eaiea iaoaoue, oio aoaeao aiaao. Eoi
iaoaoue ia eaieony, o oiai e oeaa ?iaeeony. ?aaioa – eo/oee i?eaa?ie. Ii
?aaioa aaea aeoniae.

Ia neaee neiaea ?oee, oae ia aoaeao e neoee! – ii?aaeaeytho ?aaioo eae
aeeciaiii aaaeioth iio?aaiinoue /aeiaaea, aiai?yo i oii, /oi anyeia
aeaei o?aaoao oneeee e aac oneeey, noa?aiey ieeaeiai aeaea ia
naeaeaaoue, iai?eia?:

Aeaei ia iaeeia, a eaoi ia iiaae?o. Aeaei ia aieoae, ia ?aceaoyony.
?aaioa ia /??o, a aiaeo ia oeae?o. Aeaei ia iaaeaaaeue, a ean ia oeae?o.
Aeaca aeyaeyo (no?aoao), a ?oee aeaeatho. Ca iaeei ?ac aea?aaa ia
n?oaeoue. Ia io?oaeoue aeoaea, ia iaaenaaey ioiea. Iinayii n eoeioei,
oae e au?inei iaiiiaeei.

Aiao iieenue, e?aienue aea ca nioo aea?aeenue! A iieiea/a ?aaioa
oyaeaea: iaa iiaenoaaeoue – eaa/a ni?aaeoue, – inoaeaeatho ieiooth
?aaioo, i?acaeiinoue e eaiue, iai?eia?: I?acaeiinoue – iaoue ii?ieia
(ia?aaiaeiay). Io ia/aai aeaeaoue e oa?aeai ia iieaoe eacao. Aac aeaea
aeeoue – oieueei iaai eiioeoue. Ec eoea – ia iu, ec ieuaee – ia iu, a
iiieoue, iiieynaoue – i?ioea ian ia nuneaoue.

Aeoue aaeeooe. Ioo aeoue. Iaeaaeo iaeaaeeoue. A eaiioue caiieoue, Neaeeo
Aeany, iiae naany. Eaieaue e iiaeeu ia noieo, I?yaee, aeaaeoea, ia
eaienue, ii eaaeai ia oyienue! Eaiue ioaeeea ia ei?ieo. Ia iieaoyo
eaaeaoue – eiioy ia aeaeaoue. Ia /oaeoth ?aaioo aeyaey, nuo ia aoaeaoue,
Aeaeaoue eae-ieaoaeue, oae ieeae e ia aoaeao.

Aoi?ay a?oiia iineiaeoe ?anniao?eaaao iiiyoea i?acaeiinoue eae aioeiiae
iiiyoeth ?aaioa, iai?eia?: O?oae /aeiaaea ei?ieo, a eaiue ii?oeo. ?aiiyy
ioe/ea iinie i?i/euaao, a iicaeiyy aeaca i?iaee?aao. Aaea ?aaioii, oai e
aonoi, a a eaieaii aeiio ionoi. *oi iai?yae?oue, oi e i?io?yn?oue.
Ai?ueea ?aaioa, aea oeaa neaaeie. Neaaeeay aaea ia i?eae?o eaaea. ?aaioa
/a?ia. Aea aeaiaaeea aaea. Ie ia eaeia aeaei ia iacuaaeny e ie io eaeiai
aeaea ia ioeacuaaeny! Ia aeaei ia iaaeaaeny e io aeaea ia ioaeaaeny! –
aiai?eo n ianiaoeie i eaie e eaioyyo, iai?eia?: Aeaeuaaee iu neaeiae
(aaciiaeo), iiaeyaeei ia eaaeiy. Caia?cea o?oea, ia ia/e e?aea (naeiuey
aeaa?ue ?anoai?eea, a ae eaiue auei nieoe aea i?eoai?eoue). Naia?i iaeio
nieiieieo iiaeuiatho.

Oi/aony anoue aea ia oi/aony eacoue (a iiaeiieuea). I?iaeioeoue-oi
oi/aony, aea i?iaeaaaoue eaiue. Aio aeae ye/ei, aea au? e iaeoieaiiia.
?aaioaao, eae ?aa?iie, a ano, eae aeaoeia. *enoi iie aeiaoeu aeioo, /oi
ec ia/e iiaeatho.

Eaiue, ioai?e aeaa?ue, nai?eoue! – Oioue nai?th, aea ia ioai?th.
Aeaaooea Aaaoea naea i?ynoue, aea e canioea. Oaay Niouey – ia ia/e
canioea (niiy, niieeaay). *ae ou onoae, ia iia neaey? Oeea e iuea,
aeaaeeea e eaoaea, i?yea e eiueea (a an? ycueii), – ii a oi aea a?aiy e
ia inoaeaeaao ionoonoaea ?aaiey e ?aaioa, iai?eia?: Eoi aeieai nieo,
oiio aia i?inoeo. Aieueoa nieoue – iaiueoa a?aoeoue. Eoi nieo – ia
a?aoeo. Eoi iue?o, oio e nieo; a eoi nieo, ia a?aoeo. ?aii anoaaaoue –
iaeiaaea ie?iaaoue. Iai au oae iaoaoue, /oia iicieae ia iaaeaaoue. Io
o?oaeia naieo nuo aoaeaoue, a aiaao ia aoaeaoue, Ooaeay noiyiea eo/oa
aeia?iai iioiaeo (nieaeao.). *oi aeaei, aeaei ia nieie – ia oeaoeo. Io
o?oaeia i?aaaaeiuo ia iaaeeoue iaeao eaiaiiuo. Iiae eacae aea e ia aie,
iooiai eacae e aeaaeie.

O?aouey a?oiia iineiaeoe eiinoaoe?oao a?aoioth i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea, ia
iicaieythuoth aio anaaaea auoue o?oaeiethaeaui, aeeoue i?aaaaeiui
o?oaeii, anaaaea iinooiaoue ii niaanoe, iai?eia?: Iieaeo iiaoeyoue, ia
aaeue naao iicaaaoue.

Ieeinue au aea aeinue, aea ?aaioa ia oi ia oea. Anao ?aaio ia
ia?a?aaioaaoue. O aiaa aeiae aia?aaee iiiai: ia?aaioaainy. ss au? a
iae?ieao, a eaiue iiy auea oae n oae?iea. A e?aniue aeaiue i?ynoue
eaiii.

Eaaei aeiauoi, eaaei e i?iaeeoi. Eaaei i?eoei, eaaei e ooei. Eae ie
ia/e, a eo/oa ia ia/e. Io aacaeaeuey e oi ?oeiaeaeuea. Ia ?aaioo
iicaaeue iineaaeieo, ia aaeo iaia??ae ia?auo. Eaiue eaie e ca eiaeeo
acyoueny, a ia eaiue eaie iaaaeaoue, – aiai?yo i oii, /oi i /aeiaaea
noaeyo ii aai aeaeai, iai?eia?:

Iinea oeaaa, iinea niee ioaeioiooue /anie, oae caaa?i?ony naea eonie aea
eaie iaoie. I?ieaieoueny – e oeaaa eeoeoueny. Ae au aea iee – aio ii?
aeaei.

Oaeie ?aaioyuee, /oi iiia? n ei/aaeueii a ?oeao. Eaieaue e iaaaeo,
?aoeaue e ?aaioa. I aeia?a o?oaeeoueny, anoue /ai iioaaeeoueny. Ia ioaae
iieiaeoea ?aaioie, a nuiue aio iieo (o.a. iieioue). Oae ?aaioaai, /oi
iaaeinoa iino ooa?a. *oi Iaoea iai?yea, oi iuoea ne?aea. Ii ?aaioa e
?aaioieea (e ianoa?a) ciaoue. Eae ne?ieoue, oae e oa/aoue noaiaoue. Eae
oue?ony, oae e ii?aony (e iineony). Aeiia ia eaaeo, a a ethaeyo ia
noith. Iineiaeoeu i?ecuaatho /aeiaaea ioaeuoaoue ia aeoiay i aeaea
oieueei iinea oiai, eae iii caeii/aii, iai?eia?: Iaoae aeaei n
aacaeaeueai, i?iaeea?oue aae n aanaeueai (eee: n oia ia nieae?oue).
Oaaaeenue, ?aaioae – ii/ue aoaeao ei?i/a (o.a. oi?ioi oni?oue).
?aaioaoue – aeaiue ei?ioaoue; ioaeuoaoue – ii/ue ecauaaoue. ?aaioa
a?aiy, a aeinoao /an. Iinea aeaea e aoeyoue oi?ioi. Aoeye, aea aeaea ia
caauaae (a aeaei ciae)! Iieiaeaoe, aoeye, aea nai naay ciae! Aeaaooea,
aoeye, a naiaai aeaea ia caauaae (a aeaei iiiie)! Aoeyoue, aeaaooea,
aoeye, a aeaeueoea ia caauaae (a aeaeueoea iiiie)! Iieii aaeu oi/eoue,
ii?a aieaieua no?i/eoue. Aoeyoue aoeye, aea ia caaoeeaaeny!

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e
o?oaeo i?aiaeaaeaao a iineiaeoeao e iiaiai?eao ?onneiai ia?iaea.

Eiioeaio «O?oae»

Iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea E?iie/iia ioiioaiea Io?eoeaoaeueiia
ioiioaieaAac aeaea aeeoue – oieueei iaai eiioeoue.

Eoi ?aii anoa?o oiio aia iiaea?o.

?aaioae aei iioo, oae e iiaoue a ioioo.

Eoi ia eaiea iaoaoue, oio aoaeao aiaao.

Oa?iaiea e o?oae an? ia?ao?oo.

Neo/ai aeaiue aei aa/a?a, eiee aeaeaoue ia/aai.

I?acaeiinoue – iaoue ii?ieia. *oiau ?uaeo nuanoue,

iaaei a aiaeo eacoue.

*oi iiiieioeoue, oi

e a cae?ii iieiaeeoue.

?aaiou noieueei, /oi

eo?u ia eeththo.

Aeaeaei o?e, a aeia?i

ia iao?e.

Io o?oaeia i?aaaaeiuo

ia iaaeeoue iaeao eaiaiiuo.Aeaia iaooo, a naia?i ?oeaie iaooo.

Ioaeee ia aeea?o aiaao, a aeea?o ai?aao.

Ca?aaioaee /e?ae aea aiey/eo aea o?aoee ai?a.

Iaeei ?oaeo, naia?i a eoeaee o?oayo.

Eeioei a iio, aieiaa, /oi i?ae, a ycue – oioue auaeie.

Ia iaoe ca?aaioee e aiaeiaie Inaeou?e ia caeaaeaoue.Anaai – 89
aaeeieoeAnaai – 69 aaeeieoeAnaai – 192 aaeeieoeu

Eiioeaio «Eaiue»

Iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea E?iie/iia ioiioaiea Io?eoeaoaeueiia
ioiioaiea?aoeaay eioaaeea iaaeieai aeea?o.

Ieai n eaanii (n eeneioie), eioaaeue n caieieie aea /aeiaae n eaioeie
aeaa aaea aeeaoo;

Aeaei ia iaeeia – a eaoi ia iiaae?o.

Oae ?aaioaai, /oi iaaeinoa iin ooa?aoue.

Ooaeia aeaei – anoaiue, iiaaae, oi?ioaa – eya, iieaaee!Eaieaiio anaaaea
i?acaeiee.

Iuia aoeyoee e caao?a aoeyoee – iaoiaeeoueny aac ?oaaoee.

Neiii?io aiein ia aeoaeea iano?ieo, a aeeouey naiaai ia ono?ieo.

A aine?anaiuea ianie i??o, a a iiiaaeaeueiee eiaueu euao.

Aoee aea aoee, ai e a eaioe iaoee.Eaiue aac niee oeaaaao.

Eaiue aeia?a ia aeaao.

Ea?a ia aeiaaae?o aei aeia?a.

Ia ?aaioa nooeo, a caaioa.

O?oaeiaay aeaiaaeea anaaaea e?aiea.

O?oae /aeiaaea ei?ieo, a eaiue ii?oeo.Anaai – 108 aaeeieoeAnaai – 54
aaeeieoeuAnaai – 102 aaeeieoeu

2.3. ?onneia yoiiycueiaia niciaiea e oi?ie?iaaiea ioiioaiey e o?oaeo.

Iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee ?onneiai ia?iaea i o?oaea e eaie a iieiie ia?a
io?aaeatho aeeiaieeo ?onneiai ycueiaiai niciaiey.
Eeiaai-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee aiaeec ia?aiee iicaieyao a yoii oaaaeeoueny.

Iiaiai?ee e iineiaeoeu, caienaiiua A.E.Aeaeai, io?aaeatho ii?aaeae?iiue
acaeyae ia aaue, eioi?ue noi?ie?iaaeny e ia/aeo XIX aaea. Ie?iaini?eyoea
?onneiai ia?iaea a o?aaeeoeeiiiue ia?eiae e nia?aiaiiia ioiioaiea e
aeecie a oeaeii, e e o?oaeo a /anoiinoe ai iiiaii ioee/athony, oae eae n
oa/aieai a?aiaie iaiythony nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea
oneiaey aeecie iauanoaa, eciaiyaony e naia oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey o?oaea,
a cia/eo, e ioiioaiea i?inoiai /aeiaaea e o?oaeo.

?aiueoa ?onneea ethaee ?anniao?eaaee o?oae eae aeayoaeueiinoue,
o?aaothuoth iaiineeueiuo cao?ao nee e a?aiaie, i?eiinyuoth oieueei
onoaeinoue e aieacie. Aeaaea a cia/aiee neiaa «o?oae», aeaiiii a
Oieeiaii neiaa?a aeeaiai aaeeei?onneiai ycuea A.E.Aeaey, i?enoonoaotho
ii?aaeaeaiey, aeeceea e io?eoeaoaeueiui: …anyeia iai?yaeaiea
oinoaaiiuo e oece/aneeo nee, an?, /oi ooiieyao (Aeaeue, 1998, IV:436).

Aanue iaoa?eae, aeaiiue iai A.E.Aeaeai, ia ia?aue acaeyae niaea?aeeo
i?ioeai?a/ea: n iaeiie noi?iiu, ethaee ia iiaoo ia iiieiaoue, /oi o?oae
iauanoaaiii cia/ei aeey /aeiaaea, iieacai, /oi o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue
oi?ie?oao iiiaea i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa e naienoaa /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe,
ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia?aiee, caienaiiua A.E. Aeaeai, niaea?aeao
iiiaeanoai aaeeieoe, aaea o?oae i?eciaaony iaiineeueiui, aeinoaaeythuei
aieue e oece/aneia no?aaeaiea, ia i?eiinyuei ieeaeiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

Iaoa caaea/a – ?acia?aoueny a yoii i?ioeai?a/ee, ociaoue, ianeieueei
iauaeoeaii ycue oeene?oao oaeia i?ioeai?a/ea.

O?oae – oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey, iia iaiinoiyiia, oae eae niciaiea ethaeae
iaiyaony i?e eciaiaiee nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e
ae?oaeo oneiaee aeecie. Ioiioaiea ?onneiai /aeiaaea e o?oaeo
iaiaeiicia/ii, iii iaiyaony, iioiio /oi iaoneiaeaii ?acee/iuie aiaoieie
oaeoi?aie.

N ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i o?oae aeey iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey ?innee aue
oieueei eeoue n?aaenoaii auaeeaaiey. *aeiaae iaoiaeeeny a ?aanoaa o
naiaai oicyeia, iiiaueea, aiy?eia. ?onneay aea?aaiy auea i?eaeaaeaia
oyae?eui e?aiinoiui i?annii, a e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ai?iaeao oaeaea
eniieueciaaeny a iniiaiii e?aiinoiie o?oae, i?e eioi?ii ?aaioiee ia aue
caeioa?aniaai a ?acoeueoaoao naiae ?aaiou. I?e Aeaoa?eia II (XVIII aae)
e?aiinoiie o?oae aeinoea naiaai aiiaay. Na?eae oeacia e?aiinoiia
e?anoueyinoai auei iecaaaeaii aei niaa?oaiii aani?aaiiai iieiaeaiey.
Ianiio?y ia ?iaeea iiiuoee Iaaea I ia?aie/eoue e?aiinoiie o?oae,
e?anoueyi i?eioaeaeaee e ?aaioa a ainiiaeneii oicyenoaa aei iyoe aeiae a
iaaeaeth. E iiuue ?inneeneie oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aea?aeaeanue ia
iiaeiaaieueiii o?oaea i?eieniuo e?anoueyi. Naoei a iueana I.Ai?ueeiai
«Ia aeia» aiai?eo: ?aaioa? Naeaeae oae, /oiau ?aaioa auea iia i?eyoia –
y, iiaeao auoue, aoaeo ?aaioaoue… aea! Iiaeao auoue! Eiaaea o?oae –
oaeiaieuenoaea, aeeciue – oi?ioa! Eiaaea o?oae – iaycaiiinoue, aeeciue –
?aanoai! (I.Ai?ueeee. Iueanu. Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia eieaeiia ecaeaoaeuenoai,
1975 a., no?. 123 – 124)

Oyae?eue, iiaeiaaieueiue o?oae iao?e naia io?aaeaiea e a iineiaeoeao e
iiaiai?ea, aaea ii /anoi oa?aeoa?ecoaony n io?eoeaoaeueiie noi?iiu. I?e
iienaiee oaeiai o?oaea oiio?aaeythony neiaa oaueoueny, iaoaoue,
io?aiuey, ai?aao, eaoi?aeiay e ae?. Neiai «oaueoueny» icia/aao oaueoueny
eee aoaoue iaaeeaiii, n o?oaeii (N.E.Iaeaaia e I.TH.Oaaaeiaa Oieeiaue
neiaa?ue ?onneiai ycuea, no?. 779), io?aiuea – aaooay iaeaaeaea,
eioiiouey (N.E.Iaeaaia e I.TH.Oaaaeiaa Oieeiaue neiaa?ue ?onneiai ycuea,
no?. 469), eaoi?aeiue – iaauiineii oyae?eue, io/eoaeueiue (N.E.Iaeaaia e
I.TH.Oaaaeiaa Oieeiaue neiaa?ue ?onneiai ycuea, no?. 779).

Naea?aeaiiia ioiioaiea e o?oaeo iiaeaea?aeeaaea ?onneay I?aaineaaiay
Oea?eiaue. Iia o/eea ethaeae: o?oae ia aeieaeai aeinoaaeyoue
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, /aeiaae aeieaeai no?aieoueny e aeooiaiiio
aeaaiiieo/eth. Aieneii Oaiaei? ienae: Aeaei – ia aeaaiia a aeecie,
aeaaiia – iano?iaiea, e aiao ia?au?iiia (Eanueyiiaa, 1994, 111-112).
Oea?eiaue cai?auaea ?aaioaoue ii auoiaeiui, ii e?anoueyia iinea
io?aaioee a oa/aiea iaaeaee ia ainiiaeneeo caieyo oieueei e iiaee
ii?aaioaoue ia naay a cai?au?iiua aeie. Iie niaa?oaee a?ao, ii e yoiio
eo auioaeaeaee oyae?eua oneiaey aeecie. Oea?eiaiia nineiaea, iieuecoynue
o?oaeii oao aea e?anoueyi, inoaeaeaei eo e i?ecuaaei eeoue e aeooiaiiio
?inoo. I?eoiae e aeanoe eiiioienoia ia neeueii eciaiee neooaoeeth.
Ianiio?y ia eicoia «Eoi ia ?aaioaao, oio ia ano», iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai
ia naeaeaei ethaeae iaoa?eaeueii iaania/aiiuie, a, iaiai?io,
?ai?anne?iaaea i?aeoe/anee anao oicyenoaaiiuo e aeayoaeueiuo ethaeae.
Eieeaeoeaecaoeey canoaaeea ?aaioaoue ethaeae ca oae iacuaaaiua
«o?oaeiaeie». A eoiaa, eae e i?e iiia?oe/aneii ?aaeeia, /aeiaae ia
iieo/ae aeaiaa ca naie o?oae, ioiioaiea e iaio, niioaaonoaaiii, ia
eciaieeinue. Eeoue a 90-a aiaea XX aaea ?aaioa noaea aaeaeaaoii
iiea/eaaoueny, a niciaiee ethaeae o?oae ia/ae ia?anoaaaoue auoue
ecio?eoaeueiui e aac?acoeueoaoiui, ia iaeii ec ia?auo iano auoea aai
ii?aeueiay noi?iia, o?oae noae aini?eieiaoueny ia i?inoi eae n?aaenoai
nouanoaiaaiey, a e eae iaeaai?aaeeaathuay aeayoaeueiinoue. Ia iniiaa
aeaiiuo oaeoia iu iiaeai naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi eeoue iaaeaaii
eciaieeinue ioiioaiea e o?oaeo, iiyoiio ia noieo a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy
iaeeaeaoue ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee a ycuea e, a /anoiinoe, a aai
ia?aieieiae/aneii oiiaea; i?aiaeaaeaiea ia?aiee n io?eoeaoaeueiui eee
e?iie/iui ioiioaieai e o?oaeo yaeyaony inoaoi/iui yaeaieai, eioi?ia ni
a?aiaiai i?e i?aaeeueiie iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa aoaeao noiaeeoue ia iao.

2.4. Iaoeeiiaeueii-ia?ee?iaaiiia niaea?aeaiea ?onneeo ia?aiee,
io?aaeaiiia a ycuea.

Iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee caiieiytho eaeoiu a eaene/aneie nenoaia ycuea,
eioi?ay ia iiaeao iieiinoueth iaania/eoue iaeiaiiaaiea iiciaiiuo
/aeiaaeii iiauo noi?ii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e ai iiiaeo neo/ayo yaeythony
aaeeinoaaiiuie iaicia/aieyie i?aaeiaoia, naienoa, neiaeiuo i?ioeannia,
ninoiyiee eee iiiaianiaeoiuo neooaoeee. A iineiaeoeao e iiaiai?eao
iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea enoi?ey ia?iaea, naiaia?acea aai eoeueoo?u e auoa.
Iie /anoi iinyo y?ei au?aaeaiiue iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A eo
ia?aciaaiee ea?aao ia?iiioth ?ieue /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?, oae eae
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie naycaii n /aeiaaeii,
?aciiia?aciuie noa?aie aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aaaeiue aniaeo yoiieeiaaieoeueoo?iie oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aiee iiaeii
auyaeoue, anee niiinoaaeoue ?onneea e aiaeiycu/iua iineiaeoeu e
iiaiai?ee.

Oiiiaua ciaiey iicaieytho iai i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea
ioiioaiey e o?oaeo o ?onneeo e aiaee/ai nouanoaaiii ioee/aeinue a neeo
?aciuo nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee
noaiiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi Aiaeey auea ia?aie no?aiie,
aaea neiaeeeenue iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aai?ioa e
nei?aeoaai ia?aoiaea io oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecio, e iaaiiiio,
iiea/eaaaiiio o?oaeo. Ia e?oiiuo iaiooaeoo?ao auea iaeaaeaia nenoaia
?acaeaeaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeee ?o/iiai o?oaea. I?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey
ioiineoaeueii neiaeiuo ecaeaeee ?acaeaeyeny ia ?yae i?inouo iia?aoeee.
Yoi ai iiiai ?ac iiauoaei i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e nicaeaaaei
i?aaeiinueee aeey aai caiaiu iaoeiiui.

Aiaeee oaeaeinue ia?aeoe e i?iiuoeaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee, iaania/eaathuae
ea/anoaaiii aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Oaeea ?acee/ey a oneiaeyo aeecie ia?iaea a Aiaeee e ?innee ia iiaee ia
io?aceoueny e ia oi?ie?iaaiee ycueia.

A aiaeeeneii ycuea nouanoaoao iiiai iineiaeoe e iiaiai?ie n
iieiaeeoaeueiui ioiioaieai e o?oaeo, iai?eia?: the labourer is worthy of
his hire – o?oaeyueeny aeinoiei iaa?aaeu ca o?oaeu naie; the workman is
known by his work – aeaei ianoa?a aieony; be a demon for work –
?aaioaoue n aca?oii; the devil finds work for all hands to do – eaiue –
iaoue anao ii?ieia; put some ginger into something – ?aaioaoue n
iaiiueeii e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Aeaiiua i?eia?u iieacuaatho, /oi a aiaeeeneeo iineiaeoeao o?oae
?anniao?eaaaony ia oieueei eae n?aaenoai auaeeaaiey, ii e eae enoi/iee
iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey, /aai iaeuecy oaeaeaoue a ?onneeo ia?aieyo.
O?oae a aiaeeeneeo iineiaeoeao e iiaiai?eao ia ?aanoai. Oioy eiia/ii aea
e a aiaeeeneii ycuea anoue iineiaeoeu, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho o?oae n
io?eoeaoaeueiie noi?iiu: a woman’s work is never done – ?aaioa ii aeiio
eiioea iao; work like a horse – ?aaioaoue eae eaoi?aeiue; hard labour –
eaoi?aeiua ?aaiou – ii eo ai?acaei iaiueoa.

AUAIAeU ii 2 aeaaa:

1. sscue, yaeyynue ninoaaiie /anoueth eoeueoo?u, io?aaeaao a? aaciaua
oeaiiinoe, iai?eia?, o?oae.

2. A?oiie?iaea ia?aiee ii eiaaiai e eo aiaeec aea?o iiiyoue, /oi o?oae
aini?eieiaeny eae iaiineeueiay e iaei?acoeueoaoiay aeayoaeueiinoue.

3. Io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e o?oaeo i?aiaeaaeaao a iineiaeoeao e
iiaiai?eao ?onneiai ia?iaea.

4. Nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey ieacaee i/aiue aieueoia aeeyiea ia niciaiea
ethaeae e, eae neaaenoaea, ia ioiioaiea e o?oaeo, io?aceaoaany a
ia?aieieiae/aneii oiiaea.

5. Oi?ie?iaaiea ioiioaiey e o?oaeo o ?onneeo e aiaee/ai ioee/aeinue a
neeo aa?iiie/iie e auno?ie iiaea?iecaoeee Aiaeee, iaania/eaoae auoiae ia
ea/anoaaiii iiaue o?iaaiue aeecie ianaeaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iiith auea i?iaeaeaia iau?iiay ?aaioa ii aiaeeco e eeanneoeeaoeee
ia?aiee, ioiinyueony e eiioeaioo «o?oae», a oiaea eioi?ie auei auyaeaii,
/oi ycue e eoeueoo?a ia?ac?uaii acaeiinaycaiu e aeeytho ae?oa ia ae?oaa,
ii oeene?oao ana iniaaiiinoe yoie eoeueoo?u a ii?aaeae?iiue io?acie
a?aiaie; eciaiaiey a aeecie ethaeae io?aceeenue ia oieueei ia
ie?iaini?eyoee, ii e ia eo ycuea, /oi iiaeii caiaoeoue, a /anoiinoe, a
ia?aieieiae/aneii oiiaea. Aei eiioea XX aaea e o?oaeo auei i?aeoe/anee
iianaianoiia io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea, iaeiaei n ia?aoiaeii ?innee ia
iooue ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iii noaei iaiyoueny a eo/ooth noi?iio, o?oae
ia?anoae oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eeoue iaoa?eaeueioth noi?iio auoa, aio noaei
i?eaeaaaoueny aieueoaa aeooiaiia cia/aiea. Ni a?aiaiai yoi iiaia
ioiioaiea io?aceony a ia?aieyo, ii aeey yoiai iauanoai aeieaeii
iieiinoueth ecaaaeoueny io iuouaiey iieiie caaeneiinoe io ainoaea?noaa.
Iiy iao/iay ?aaioa inaauaao eiaiii aii?in acaeiinayce oeaiiinoae
iauanoaa e aai ycuea.

Nienie oeeoe?oaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeiia?aaeia A.A. sscue e noeeue ?onneeo ienaoaeae. I., Iaoea, 1980.

Aeiia?aaeia A.A. I ycuea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?icu. I., Iaoea, 1980.

Aeiia?aaeia A.A. I oai?ee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?a/e. I., Aunoay oeiea, 1971.

Aoiaieueaeo A. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ii ycueiciaieth. Ia?. n iaiaoeeiai, I.,
I?ia?ann, 1971.

Aeaeue A.E. Iineiaeoeu ?onneiai ia?iaea. Nai?iee a aeaoo oiiao. – I.,
Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a, 1984.

AEoeia A.I. ?onneay o?acaieiaey. – I., Aunoay oeiea, 1986.

Eoiei A.A. Eo?n o?acaieiaee nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. – I., Aunoay
oeiea, 1986.

Eoiei A.A. Aiaei-?onneee o?acaieiae/aneee neiaa?ue. – I., ?onneee ycue,
1984.

Iieioeia A.E. Iniiau o?acaieiaee ?onneiai ycuea. – E., Iaoea,
Eaieia?aaeneia ioaeaeaiea, 1977.

Iieioeia A.E. O?acaieiae/aneee neiaa?ue ?onneiai ycuea. – I., ?onneee
ycue, 1978.

Oa?ania A.O. Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ineoieeiaaenoeee. – I., Iaoea, 1987.

O?aei?ia A.E. O?acaieiae/aneee neiaa?ue ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.
Nai?iee a aeaoo oiiao. – Iiaineae?ne, Iaoea, 1995.

Oaineee I.I. A ie?a neia. – I., I?inaauaiea, 1978.

Oaineee I.I. O?acaieiaey nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea, – I., Aunoay
oeiea, 1985.

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