.

Категория времени в системе неличных форм английского глагола

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3176
Скачать документ

78

С????е

В???е

Г?? 1. О???е ???? ?рм ?????о ???а

1.1 И????

1.1.1 И???? с ???? to

1.1.2 Ф?? ?????

1.1.3 С??????е ???и ??н??а

1.2 Г???й

1.2.1 С???а ???ия

1.2.2 Ф?? ???ия

1.2.3 С??????е ???и ??н?я

1.3 П????

1.3.1 С???а ????я

1.3.2 Ф?? ????я

1.3.3 С??????е ???и ????я

Г?? 2. К???ия ???и в ???е ???? ?? ?????о ???а

2.1 К???ия ???и в ??е? ?????

2.2 К???ия ???и в ???е ???ия

2.3 К???ия ???и в ??е? ????я

4. Л??????? ??? ??????? с ?????м в ???и ????х ??? ?????я в ????? я??

4.1 С????о-??????е ?????и ??????? с ?????м в ????х ??????? ???ях

4.2 С??????е ?????и у?????я ??????? с ?????м

З?лю??е

Б?????я

В???е

Г??л – э? ??ь ?? (??с ??), ???ю?я ???? (to run ???, to read ???, to
speak ????) ?и ????ляю?я в ?? ???ия ????е ??оя?я, ????я, ?оя??ия ????в
(to love лю??, to know ??ь, to see ???, to be ??, to belong ??????, to
redden ????).

В я???й ???е ??? ???? ??? ??о, ? ?????? ? ??й ??? ??и ??: ?е ?????ия
???ую?я ? ?? ?????о ??а, ???й и ????ля? ?????ю ???ию.

Г??л я?я?ся ???? ???м ??, ? ?? ?о ??? ??т ?о????? ???я?ся ??? ??????
??и??. Э?т ??е?, ????я ? ??я??и ?? ????й ???и ?????о я??, ??? ????? и в
??оя?е ??я.

В э?й ???? ??? ?с???? ???? ??ы ?????о ???а:

И????

Г???й

П????

А ?к ? ?????аю?я ?????и в???ия ????х ????й ? ???? ??.

В ?????е я??в ??ляют ???? ??ы ???а, ? ?? ??е, ???е ? ????яю?я в ??
?????, ? ??т ???ь в ?о ???. Н???е ??ы ?а?? ? ?еют ??????? ????в ??, ??а
и ????ия, ? ???ют ???и ???ия (??оя?го, ????? ?и ????), а ?? ???ают ?
??????? ? ???и, ? ??, я?яе?я ? ????? ?и ???? ??????м с ????м ????? ?и
?????? ?у. Н???е ??ы ???а ???ают ? ? ?? я??х. Н???р, в ???м я?? е?ь
??????, ???? ?т в ?????, а в ????? я?? ?? г???й, ???? ?т в ???м.

Т?а ???а ?я ??, ?о? ????е ???ь ???? ??ы ????о? ???а, ???? ??ы ??т ??
???ы с ??????? ??и ??ия.

Ц?ь ?????ия: ????е ???? ????й и ? ??????е ?и ???е ????

З??и:

2 О?? ??????? ????а

2 Е? ?а?з и ????е

2 Е? ?п????? и ????

Т?????? ??й ???о ?????ия я?яю?я ???? ? ??????й ????? ??х ???в ?к:

М.Я. Б?х, В.Н. Ж???, Б.А. И??, И.П. И???, Т.К. Ц???а, Е.А. К???а, Л.Г.
В??, К.А. Г???

Р??а ???т ? ???ия, ?? ?? и ??ю??я.

Г?? 1. О???е ???? ?? ?????о ???а

Н???е ??ы ?????о ???а ?????аю?я ? ?? ???ях ? ??????й и ?????? ?????
??ящ??х ??ю ?????? ?????о я??, т? ?к ???е ?? ???а ? ??? и ???? я?я?ся
??????м. С???уют ??е ?????е ?????ия, ???е ??я?? ???т?м ??? ??й ? ???? ??
???а. О??о ??? ?м ???и к ? ?????ию, ???т ?????ь ????я, ???е я?яю?я
???с???и, ???????и: ??? ??р ?-??? ?з??т ???? ??ы ?????о ???а, ???? М.А.
Б?х ?з??т ? Verbids, Б.А. И?? – Verbals, И.П. И??? – ????

К? ?е ?? ???о, ??? ?к ?с? ?? я?я?ся ?????м ?????о ??????о ???ия, ? ? ??о
???ь о ??ч?х ??? ???а. Т?? ???м, ?е ???ы ????? ?? ??о ??????ь в ??е
????и и ????и (????я – ??оя?е и ???? яз?а ?и ??й-?? ??? ???ы ??? с ??и
??ия ?????й ??у ?о ??а??и ??я?, ????вую?? в ?? ??? ???и; ???????я?ся
????и – ?????ое ???? ?х ?и ?? я???х я??? и я???й ???ы в ??м ?к ??м?
???????? ???ия).

В ??? ??е ?????ы ???? ??ы ?????о ???а в ?м ??, в ???м ?и ????ют в н??я?е
??я. В ?????? с ??ю ??? ????т р????? ???????е ?????и ?? ???? ?? ???а.
П????ая ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????о ???а Ж??? В.Н. ?я?? с ?м, ?о ?м ?и??е
??? ????ся ????. В ??м с э?м ???? ?????и ?е ???: Ц???а Т.К., К???а Е.А.,
И???, Г??? К.А., И?? Б.А.

К ???? ??? ???а в ?????м ????? я?? ??ся?я ??ы ????я, ???ия и ?????. А??з
э?х ?? ????ля? ???с с ??и ??ия ??й ??????? ??я ?????? ?????о я??, ??й ?
??????х ?? к???о я?я?ся ???ая ???а ???? ?? и ?????и ? ?????ия. Н???е ??ы
???а ???ют ?к ?а???ми, ?к и ???? ???и.

Ж??? В.Н. (с.141) ????, ?о ?????и ???и ???? ?? я?яю?я:

1) С?????е ?, ?тя и ???ю?е ?о?и ?????я?, ????и ???и, ?? и ???

2) С????ть ????ь ??????е ????? и о???я?ся ??оя????м. Э? ?????ь ???т ??
????е в ????? ????? ????ях, ? ???ю??я ? ???? ? ????й с ???и ???и ???а.
Т?? ???м, ????? ??ы ?оя?яю?я в ???и у ???? ?? ?????о ???а ????и ???и,
??, ???, а ??е в ??????? ???о???й, в ???х ?????уют ????е ??ы:

Ср: reading a book aloud – without reading a book aloud – to read a book
aloud – I am reading a book aloud

По ??? ??ию ????х ????? ???е ???? ?? ?а?? ? ??? ??ю??ся в ?м, ?о ????е,
???? и ????в ? ?еют г??????х ????й ??, ??а и ???е?я и ??? ? ??т ???я?
????н?й ??? ??? ??????? ???и ?????. О????е ???? ?????? ?я ?х ???????
???и ?? ????ся в ??м ???е “???? ??ы”

И??? ??ы ???? ?? ???а ?оя?яю?я в ???я?? ?и ??????? ???ях. В э?м ????и
??ч?е ??ы ?????ы, и ??ая ????т ???? ?????? ? ???иям, ??ч?м ? ???? ???
???? ??.

В ????и ???х ?? н???е ??ы ???яют ?????? ? ??р???е ?я? с ???????м (????в
и ????) и с ??????? (????е), ??а ?к ????? ??ы я?яю?я, ???м ???м, ?????м
? ?????? и ?????о ??и?я. И??ия ?з??я ???? ?? ???а ?? ???я ? ??????
?лю??я в ????ую ???у, ????? ?? ?я ?я??ия ? ????и в ?????м ????? я?? ?
????? ???? ?еют ???е ????, ?м ???о ???? ? ???е ??ы. Б?? ???? ????? и
???е ??ы ?????аю?я в ??? ???????о ?и ???е ??? ??ы в ?????и.

1.1 И????

Т?? ???м, в ??? ???е ??????тся ????в, ???й ????ля? ??й ???ую ??у ???а,
я?яя? ?????? ??ью ????? ???ы ?????о я??. И???? ????? ? ??? я??х, в ????и
в ??к? я??. По ???ию ????? ????в ?????? ?с??у – ? ??д?я? в ?? ???? ???а
и ????т???о, ??? ????ся ? ???? ????? ??? ???????? и, ????, ???????и
?????. С???а ???????? ??оят в ?м, ?о в ?????и ????в ??т ???я? ? ? ???и,
?о и с???????. С???а ???а ??оят в ?м, ?о ????в ???? ????я? ??
(Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous), ??? (Active,
Passive), ??т ??ь ????е ??а и ???ля?ся ????.

По ????ю Т.К. И???й (?р.162) ????в – ???? ?????я ??а ???а, в ???? ??я?
??????о? ??? ??? ???ю?я ????. Поэ?? ??? э? ???ая ??а ???а ?????ся ?я
?е??я ????? ????й ???

Е?и ????в ????я в ???е ????? ?????о ?????, и, ??????о, ?у ?????? ????й
???, ????й ?м я?я?ся ?????м ?????, ?к ?к ????й ??? ?з ???ую?? ????? ??т
????я?ся ??? ?и ?????й ??????и; ? ??е ?????? ??? ?????, и, ??????о, в
????? ??и ??? ? ????м ???? ?е??л ????в:

I can’t be bothered now to wrap anything up

Neither can I old boy

И?лю??е ????ляют ??ю ????е ?????? have to, be to, ought to ?юс ?ф???; в
э?х ??аях ?я???? ???а to

By this time it ought to have been over

1.1.1 И???? с ???? to

Б????? ?????м ???т?а, ???й ???ют ?е ??????и – ???а to

to go ??, to write ??ть, to learn ???я

К? ??т Г??? К.А. (2000, 51), ??? ???а to ???? ?м ????в. Э? в ???? ?????я
в ?????м ????? я?? ??а ?????ая ?с?? to ?????т ??у (??? в ??те)

I’m not going to play the fool just because you tell me to.

И?????я ???а to ??о ???? ????в ??е ??ую?х ???? и ??: to ask, to forget,
to like, to mean, to promise, to refuse, to try, to want, to wish, to be
allowed, to be glad, to be going, would like/love, to have the right
(to), to have the occasion (to), ought (to), have (to).

Why didn’t you buy any bread?

I meant to, but I forgot (I meant to buy it)

Т? ? ?? ????, ?о ????в ??т ????я?ся ?з ?с?? to.К. А Г??? (с.59) ??ля?
???? ??? ?????ия ????? ?з ???ы to

Ё ??е ???????х ???? ??? Present, Past, Future Indefinite

Ё ??е ????х ???? и ??

Ё ??е ???? ?????го ???я?я

Ё ??е ????, ???ю?х ????? ?и ?????

Ё ??е ?? с but, cannot but, nothing but

Ё в ?????ях, ???ю??я с why not…

?? ?а ????? ?я?? ?ю?? and, except, than

1.1.2 Ф?? ?????

Ф?? ????? ?????? в ??ую?й ???е. Э? ???а ????а в ???? Т.К. Ц???? ?
?р.162, ?к и ???ы ? ??? ???? ??? ???а. В ???х ??? ??????? э? ???ы ??ядят
???? ?к ?:

В?ы ?????

ACTIVEPASSIVEINDEFINITETo take

To orderTo be taken

To be orderedCONTINUOUSTo be taking

To be orderingTo be being taken

To be being orderedPERFECTTo have taken

To have orderedTo have been taken

To have been orderedPERFECT

CONTINUOUSTo have been taking

To have been ordering-

К?? ??, ????в ??? в ??? ????х ????? ???х ????х и ????я ???? ??? ???а. Е?
???, ? ?? ????в ?з ???ы to, ????ля? ??? в ???е.

Ж??? В.Н. (с.162) в ??м ???и ????т ??ы ????? ???о ?-???у. Он ??т, ?о в
?????м ????? я?? ???я ???ая ???а ?? ????? – ??? ??ы ???????о ???,
?????ую?е ???м ???ам ??-????х ?? ??? ?? ???а, и ?е ??ы ??????? ???.

ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГСТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГН??????? ??я? to readTo be
readД????? ?зря? to be reading-П????? ??я? to have readTo have been
readП????-?????о ??я? to have been reading-

М.Я. Б?х ???? ???? ? ??????? ????я ?? ????? (с.104). В ??????? ????е
????? ??? ??:

Т The indefinite active

Т The continuous active

Т The perfect active

Т The perfect continuous active

Т The indefinite passive

Т The continuous passive

Т The perfect passive

Т The perfect continuous passive

To take – to be taking – to have taken – to have been taking;

to be taken – to be being taken – to have been taken – to have been
being taken

В э?м ???е ??о ???ь, ?о у ????? ??о ??, ???е ??о ????я? в ????х ??аях.

1.1.3 С??????е ???и ?????

Т.К. Ц???а ??ля? ??ую?е ???и ??н??а в ?????и (2000, 162):

В ????н? ?????м ??т ??:

1. П????е:

To see is to know У??? – ??? ???

It won’t take you long to get there

В? ? ?????ся ??о ???и, ??ы ????я ??

2. ??ь ????? ?????

q ????е ???е ????е:

all you have to do is to write a letter

?е ?о ?м ?? ???ь – э? ???? п??о

q ????е ????е ????е:

he must have fallen ill

??? ?? ? ???л

q ????е ???е ????е:

he continued to write

? ????л ???

3. ????? (и? ??ь ???? ????ия):

I didn’t ask to be told the news

я ? ???, ??ы ?е ???? э? ???ь

4. ?????е:

I have a lot of work to do

у ?ня ??о ???

5. ??оя???? ??:

I left my village to enter university

я ??л ? ??й ???и, ??ы ????ь в ?????т

6. ??оя???? ????? (? ???и too ?и enough)

he is too young to be told such things

? ???м ??д, ??ы г???ь ?у о ??х ??х

you are old enough to take care of your young btother

? ????? ????, ??ы ?????ся о ??м ????м ??е

1.2 Г???й

Е?????я ???ая ??а г???, ? ?ею?я ???а в ???м я??. П??? ????ю I, ? ????ся
? ????? с ???ю ???? – ing, ? ?и э?м ???ня? в ??, ?ря? с ?????и ???к?и,
???? ???????? (а ? ???????о, ?к ????е I), ? ?? ? ???????у ???ию ? ???н
и????у. О??о ????ся ???? ? ????? ? ??ко ????????м, ? и ??????и о????тя?
?????ия, ??????? ????? ?о ?????? с ???и ???и. (Е.А. К???а (с.9).

1.2.1 С???а ???ия

К? ?е ?????, ???? ???ня? в ??, ?ря? с ?????и ?????, ???? ???в????о

С???а ???а ??оят в ?м, ?о ???? ??т ????и ?? и ???, ??т ??ь ????е ??а и
???ля?ся ????.

С???а ???????? ???ю?я в ?м, ?о ????:

1. ??т ????я?ся ??е ????

he is fond of reading

? лю?т ???

thank you for inviting me

???о, ?о ? ?ня ?????

2. ??т ???ля?ся ??я????м ?????? и ??с????? в ??я????м ?и ??м ???

he insisted on my leaving at once

? ????л, ??ы я ?ел ?????

he objected to Helen taking part in the meeting

? ???? ??? ??, ??ы Х?? ????а ???е в ????и

3. в ?????и в ???? ???я? ? ? ???и, ?о и ???????е

1.2.2 Ф?? ???ия

Т.к. Ц???а (2000, 164) ????? ??ую?ю ???у ?я ???ия ?? ???ия:

ACTIVEPASSIVEINDEFINITEDoing

allowingBeing done

Being allowedPERFECTHaving done

Having allowedHaving been done

Having been allowed

Во ??? ???х ? ??м??е (Т.К. Ц???а с.164) ???аю?я ??????я о ?м, ?о ?????
??ы ???ия ????яю?я, ??ы ?????ь, ?о ??т?е, ????? ????м, ????о и ???с??т
???ию, ?????у ????м.

I am proud of having won this difficult competition

я ???ь ?м, ?о в??? э? ???е ??????

1.2.3 С??????е ???и ???ия

В ?????и ???? ??т ???я? ??ую?е ???и:

1. ???я ?????о

2. Swimming is my favorite sport

???? – ?й лю??й ?д ???

3. ???я ??и ????? ?????

q ????? ????

His job is sorting the mail

?о ??? – ?????ь ??у

q ????? ?????

When will you finish reading?

??а ? ????ь ????

4. ???я ????ия

I don’t mind doing it for you

я ? ???аю ???ь это ?я ?бя

5. ???я ???????? ?????я

There are different mrthods of teaching young children

????ют ??? ??? ?у??я ????х ??й

6. ???я ????х ??оя???в (с ?????ую?? ???г?и):

He sent the letter after arriving in Moscow

? ???? ??? ??е ???а в М??у

(??оя???? ???и)

You can help him by not doing anything

? ??? ??? ?у ? ??я ???

(??оя???? ??? ???ия)

He left without saying goodbye

он ?? ? ??????

(??оя???? ??? ???ия)

По ????ю И.П. И???й ???? – ???? ?????ая ???ая ??а в ???е ?????о ???а. В
? ??я, ?к ????в и ????я – ??ы, ?????? ?? ?????м ?р???? я??м, ???? ??т
????ь ??? в ????м я??. Э? ??а ????ля? ??ю ????? ????? и ??????х ??.

О??ая ?????, ????? ????? ??ы, и ?????ью ????ь ????? ??? (пря?е), ????
???? в ???ж?? ??? ????и?? ???и. Эти ??????? ???? ???яют ?????и ????
?????я: ???? ??о я?я?ся ?????м ???? ???? ????я, ???ю??я в ??? я??х
?????? ?????я?.

И?к, ???? ??ля?ся из ??? ???? ?? ?????о ?а?? ?м, ?о в ???м я?? ?т ???а
???ия, и, ?э?? ? ????м ?о с ???ю ?????о ?и ??????? ???а. Т?? ???? ???? в
?? ???? ???а и ???????? и ????ся с ???ю ????я – ing.

1.3 П????

1.3.1 С???а ????я

П???? ???? ???? ???а и ???????о. С???а ???а в??аю?я в ?м, ?о ????е ??т
??г?? ???и, ??, ???, м?? ??ь ????е ??а и ???ля?ся ????. (Т.К. Ц???а
с.164). С???а ???????о ???ю?я в ?м, ?о в ?????и ????е ??т ???я? ???ю
?????я

П???? I ???ня? в ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? – ???а, ??а????? и ???я – и ??????т
?? ???? ф??м ???? ???а, ????ю и ????с?ю:

Going ???/?я,

Reading ??ю?й/??я

Speaking ??ря?й/??ря

П???? II ????ся ? ??? ????? ?????и ?о???. О? ???ня? в ?? ???? ???а и
п???????. П???? II ????? ???? ??????т ???му ??????? ????ю:

to write ??? – written ?????

to do ??? – done ????й

П???? II ?????? ???? ???оя??? ??и ? ????я?ся и ???, в ????, ?я ?????я
???х ?? ???а:

has gone ??

have stopped ??????

И?к, ????е ???? в ?? ???ва ???а и ???????о. П???? ???я ? Participle I и
Participle II. Э? ?е ??ы ??е ???ю?я д?г ? ??а ???????и ?????.

1.3.2 Ф?? ????я

Т.к. Ц???а (2000, 166) ????? ???у ?я ???ия ?? ????я:

ACTIVEPASSIVEPRESENTDoing

creatingBeing done

Being createdPAST-

Done

createdPERFECT Having done

Having created Having been done

Having been created

В.Н. Ж??? ????? ??ую?ю ???у (с.144):

ПРИЧАСТИЕTo comeTo fadeНЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ I

НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ II

ПЕРФЕКТНОЕComing

having comeFading

Faded

Having faded

П???н? ??ы ????я ??? ????яю?я в ???? ??оя???в, ??ы ?????ь, ?о ????,
????? ?????, ????о и ?????? ???ию, ?????у ????м (Е.А. Ко??? с.9).

Н???е ???????е ??ы ????я э? Present Active (?и Participle I) и Past
Passive (?и Participle II).

П???? I ????ся ? ??вы ????? ?и ?и ??? ???? -ing:

Go – going

Write – writing

Learn – learning

1.3.3 С??????е ???и ????я

В ?????и ????е ??т ??:

1. ??ью ???? ????ия:

I saw him crossing the street

я ??л, ?к ? ????т ??у

2. ??????:

the rising sun ???я?е ???

a broken cup ???ая ??а

3. ??оя????м:

· ???и

while staying in London he met a few useful people

?? ? ?л в Л???, ? ????ся с ?????и ????и лю??

Having traveled about the country for three months he returned home

???????в ? ??? ?и ?ся?, ? ???ся ??й

· ??? ???ия

he came running into the room

? ??? в ???у

· ???ы

having no English he was quite lost

?к ?к ? ? ???л ?-????и, ? ? ??, ?о ???

· ????ую?х ??оя???в

she sat reading ?а ??? и ???

П???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ??? д???я ???ля? ????, ????? ????м, и ???? ? ???
“?к?”:

He spoke omitting the initial “h”

Он ???л, ???я ????е “х”

П???? в ???и ????ую?х ??оя???в ???я? к ????? ?е ?? ????. На ???й я?к ?и
???дя?я ?к ?а ????? ????х, ?????х сою?м “и”:

He was at home watching TV

? ?л ?? и ???л ????р

О??о ??я ????а ????я?ся ??? ????? ????х, ????? ??? Continuous.

She sat by the window waiting for her guests

О? ??? у ?? и ж?? ???

Ф?? ????я Present Active в ???? ?????я ??????т ???? ????ю ??оя?? ???и
???????о ??? (с ????? -?-; – ющ-; – ?-; – ящ-)

A man standing by the door

Ч???, ?оя?й у ?е?

А????? ????ю Present Passive в ф??? ?????я ??????т ???е ???т? ??оя??
???и ??????? ??? (с ????м -?-, ?-).

The books being sold here

К??, ?????е ??ь

А????е ????я Present Active и Passive ???ют ???????ь ????, ????? ????? и
????м

I looked at the man standing by the window

Я ????л ? ????, ?оя?? у ??

Е?и ??о ???? ????, ?????ю?е ??, ???е ???? ????м, ????я?ся ?????е ?????е

The man who has been waiting for you has gone

Ч???, ????й ?с, ??

П? ?????? в ???и ??оя???? ????? ????я Present Active и Passive ?????уют
???м ?????иям ??????? ??.

While reading the book he made a few notes

Ч?ая ??у, ? ??? ????о ???к

А????е ????е Past Passive ????т?? ???? ??????? ????ю ????го ???и (с
?ф???и -?-, – т-)

The books written in those years

К??, ????? в те ??

А????е ????я Perfect ?????уют ???м ?????иям ?????? ??.

Having seen what I wanted, I went back

У??в ?, ?о ??л, я ????ся ??д

З???????????????й В???ая

??????

?д????т???т????т???т????в??йTo writeTo have writtenTo be writtenTo have
been written?????To be writingTo have been writing–П???? I

Г???й??йwritingHaving writtenBeing writtenHaving been written?????—-

В э?й ??е ? ????????, ?о ??е ???? ??ы ???а и ? ????.

И???? – э? ???ая ??а, ? ???й ???ю?я ?е ??ы ?????о ???а

Г???й – э? ?????ая ??а ???а в ????? я?? ? ?ею?я ??о? в ???м я??

Т?? ???в?т ??ья ???ая ??а ?????о ???а – ????е, ???е ???? в ?? ???? ???а
и ?и??????, ??е ???? ??? ???и в ?????и ? ??т ??. Т?? ????е ??т ?е ??ы

Н???е ?р? ???а ?оя?яют ?бя ?????о ? ????ю с ???и ???и ???а. У ???? ??
???а ?????ая ????я ???и, ???й ??т ??я?? ??ую?я ??а.

Г?? 2. К???ия ???и в ???е ???? ?? ?????о ???а

В э?й ??е ??т ???а ????я ???и в ???е ???? ?рм ?????о ???а. М???л ?ят ?
???й Ж??? В.Н., И?? Б.А., а ?к ? ? ???? ?я ????в ??????? и????в ? ?????
?????о я??.

Н???е ??ы ???а, ?к и ??? ??ы, ?еют ????ю ??е?, ? ?????ую ??? ?.

К? ??т И?? Б.А. (1980, 215), ?е ???? ??ы ???а ???ю?я ??й ?????й ?????ью:
????я ???и ??т у ?х ? ??лю??, а ??????е ????. И?? ??ря, ??я, ????? в
??ой ? э?х ??, ??т ???? ? ?? ? ??, а ?? в ????и к ?е?? ??? ??ы ???а.
Н???р, ?к ????? ????в ??оя?? ???и ???? ? ??оя?е ??я с ??и ??ия ??ря?го,
а ???????ь с ????м, ????? ??? ??? ???а.

He could sing ????, ч? “? ?г ??”; ??я ???ия, ?????о ??? “??”, в ??? ???
????я к ????, ?к ?к ??ая ??а ???а ??т в ????м ???и.

2.1 К???ия ???и в ???е ?????

П??я ??а, ???ю ?м ????т ?????ь э? – ????в.

Ж??? В.Н. (1956, 162) ????, ?о ????в ? ??т ???оя???? ????? ???ия; ?о
????е ???? ????о ???и ????? ?????я. Фо?ы ???????о и ?????о ??я? ?а??ют ?
???????ь ???ия ????? с ????м ?????

I am glad to take your hand (Dickens)

They were glad to see me when I got home (Dickens)

“Oh! It is so terrible”, she kept sobbing, “to be coming back and
leaving him! ” (Collins)

В ??????иях ????? ????а ??а ???????о ??я? ????т ? ???? ? ??????я, ???е
????? в ???м

Do you want to see baby, Soames? (Collins)

О???о я?о э? ???? ????т в ??аях ?????ия ????? в ???и ???о ??а ?????
???ь?? ????? ????? и ?????я.

П????я ??а ??т в о?? ??аях ??-????е ?и ????е ?а??е

I am sorry to have been so troublesome to you (Collins)

в ??? ??аях – ????-????е ???? (??? ?. ??). О?? ?я ??х ???в ?????ия ?????
я?я?ся ???? ? ????, ?????ю?е ? ???и ???ию ?????, ? в ??? ??? ?? ?? о
????, ???о ??????я, ? ?о?м – о ???? ???????, ???е ??о и ? ??ь ?с?.
У?????е ????? ??ы ???? ? ?? ??????? ???ях, ?????? ?????.

П????я ??а ????? и?? ????-???н? ???? в ???н? с ???и ???????о ????ия,
????? ????и и с ????и и ???????и, ???ю?? ??????е ?и ????е к ???ию ?????,
?к к ?????у. Р???? ????е ???и, ???аю?е в ????ях с ?????м, ???ют ? ???ия
???а ?и ???????о, ? ???? ???т ????в. О???м я?я?ся ???к ??????я

…truly it would have been more imposing to have jumped over the bar
(Collins)

В ????и с ??? ??а????? ????ия ????? ????в ????? ???????, ? ? ??????я в
???м ????

She would have liked to have gone away and thought it all over at once
(Wells)

Т?? ? ???? ??т ????ая ??а ?????, ??ся?я ? ??о?в hope, expect, mean,
intend

I hoped to have found him (Collins)

П????-????ая ??а ???т?а, ???о ??? ??? ?й ? ???, ?????? ?????? ???ия,
????????о ???ию ?????, и, ???о ????? ??е ?????, ??т ??ь ?д??о-????е ????

I was impossible to say how long they might have been lurking about the
outside of the home before the child discovered them (Collins)

Б.А. И?? (1980, 215) ??т, ?о ????е ????и в ????? ????? ??р??ают ??т??
?????? ??ы, ??ую?е ???о ?????ия. М?? ???? ?а ???? ??ая ?????ия э?й ??ы.

О?н ? ?х ?я?н с у?????? ????х ???? can, may, must, ought; сю? ? ??о ???и
?????? ?? should и would. П??а, ?????? ?????о ????? ??т ????о ????й
???ер ?и ????х ???? э?й ???.

П? ??? cannot, may, must ????? ????в ?????я, ????, в ??х ????, ?к he
cannot have done it, he may have done it, he must have done it, ???м в
???м я?? ?????уют ????? ??? ?????и: ? ??т ??, ??ы ? э? ???; ??т ??, ? э?
???; ??? ??, ? э? ??? (??ь ??к н??я ???ь: ? ??? ?л э? ???ь; э? ?????е
??о ? с????о ?? ??л, ?????ую?й ?????у he had to do it). О?? ?я ?? ???е??
????? ???? я?я?ся ?, ?о в ?х ??????я ?????? ???? (в ??оя?м ???и) о
?????и ?и ??я??? ???ия ?и ??а, ??ся??я к ????. Поэ?? ?????? ???и ???о
(?????) ???а и ????? в э?х ???? ???т ???? ??не ????.

Н???? ??е ???т ?? в ?????ях ?? he might have done it, he could have done
it. З?? ??е ??????я ???? о ?????и ????ия ???ия в ????м ???и, ? ?е ? и
??я ?????ь ???ся, ?к ??ся?яся к ?????, ?к ??????ая ?я ??, ?????о ?????,
в ? ??я, о ???м ?? ??: ? ?г ? (??а) ???ь э?, а ? ??т ??, он ? (??а) ???
э?. Поэ?? ??е л???м ?? ? ???? ????е ??я в ??? ??е ???а, а ??е ?е ????ь
??у ????? do, ?к ????в ???????и. Э?, ???, ?в???о ????? ??, ?о ??? may ?
??т ф?? ????я ????? ???и. Во ?я?м ???, с ??и ??ия ?????? я?? ????ся
???????, ?о ????е ????? ???и ????? ? ??? ??ы ???а в ????в.

ВЫВОД:

1. И???? ? ??т ???оя???? ??е??о ???ия; ?о ????е ???? ????о ???и ?????
?????я.

2. В ??????иях ????? ????а ??а ???????о ??я? ????т ? ???? ? ??????я,
???е ????? в ???м

3. Р???? ????е ???и, ???аю?е в ????ях с ?????м, ???ют ? ???ия ???а ?и
???????о, ? ???? ???т ????в. О???м я?я?ся ???к ??????я

4. П????-д????я ??а ?????, ???о ??? ??? ?й ? ???, ?????? ?????? ???ия,
????????о ???ию ?????, и, ???о ????? ??е ?????, ??т ??ь ????-????е ????

5. ????е ????и в ????? ????? ?????ют ????е ?????? ??ы, ??ую?е ???о
?????ия.

С??ю?я ??а, ???ю ????т ?????ь э? – ????.

2.2 К???ия ???и в ???е ???ия

К? ??т В.Н. Ж??? (1956, 152), ??ы ???ия ? ?еют ???оя???? в????о ???ия, ?
??т ???? ???ие в ??оя?м, ????м и ???м ???и. Н????о, ???, ????ь ?и э?м,
?о ????н? ???? ???ия ?я ???ия ??е о??о, ?м ?я ????я, ? ??е ???, ?м ?я
?????.

Н??????е ??ы ???ия (reading, being read) в ???ом ????ют ????, ??????е
???ию, ??ж??? ????м, и в ?????и ? э?? ??ся?я к ??оя?? ?и ???? ???и

He insists upon my telling the whole story;

He insisted upon my telling the whole story;

He will insist upon my telling the whole story

В??е с ?м, ???, ??я ???ия, ????? ??????? ??? г???я, ??т ?????я ? ????
???ия ?????. В ??м ??? ? ??я ???ия ??т ????ь ?????ую?е ??оя???? ?и о?
??т ?? ????? ????? ???а-?????

But in spite of this I remember then wondering at Lucky’s (Collins)

adoration of her (Collins);

I object to going there (Collins)

П????я ??а ????? в??а ???? ????, ?????ю?е ???ию, ?????у ????м

Miss Pecksniff had quite the air of having taken the unhappy (Dickens)

Moddle captive and brought him up to the contemplation of the furniture
like the lamb to the altar (Dickens)

П??????? ???ию, ?????у ????м, ??т ??е ??ж??я ????? ??????? ??ы ???ия с
????? on (upon) и after. В э?х ??аях ???? ??? ???? ????, ???????о
?????ю?е ???ию, ?????у ????м

At once on arriving at the little hostel, Gino went to see her (Collins)

Б.А. И?? (1980, 218) ????, ?о к???ия ???и у ???ия ?к ? ?к и у ????я ??т
? ??лю??, а ??????е ????. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive ?????
???? ??????е с ????м, ????? ??? ?р?й ???а; в ?????и ? ????й ??ы ??? ??ы
???а, ?о ??т о????я к ??оя??, ????? и ???? ???и.

No one could pass in or out without being seen (Dickens)

She walked without turning her head (Collins)

The Perfect Gerund ????ет ????, ?????ю?е ???ию ??? ??ы ???а

She denies having spoken with him (Bronte)

She was ashamed of having shown even slightest irritation (Bronte)

О??о ?????ю?е ???? ? ??? ???? Perfect Gerund, в ????х ??аях ?????я
Indefinite Gerund. Э? ?????я ??е ???? to remember, to excuse, to
forgive, to thank и ??е ????в on (upon), after и without.

You must excuse my not answering you before (Collins)

I thank you for restraining me just now (Bronte)

П?? ????я??х ???? и ????в ??т ?к ? ??????ся Perfect Gerund

He did remember having been in that room (Collins)

They parted at Costa’s door without having spoken to each other again
(Collins)

ВЫВОД:

1. ??ы ???ия ? ?еют ???оя???? ????? ???ия, ? ??т ???? ???? в ??оя?м,
????м и ???м ???и.

2. ????я ???и у ???ия ?к ? ?к и у ????я ? ??лю?ая, а ??????я

3. Н????е?? ??ы ???ия (reading, being read) в ???? ????ют ????, ?н?????
???ию, ?????у ????м, и в ?????и ? э?? ??ся?я к ??оя?? ?и ???? ???и

4. П????о??е ???ию, ?????у ????м, ??т т?? ????ся ????? ??????? ??ы ??н?я
с ????? on (upon) и after.

С??ю?я ??а, ???ю ??с?? ?????ь э? – ????е.

2.3 К???ия ???и в ???е ????я

К? ???? В.Н. Ж??? (1956, 145), ????я ???и ????ся в ???и у ????я ???????
и ????? ??. О??о, ???ря ? ???е э?х ??, ???? в ?? ??оя??о ????е?я в
?????й ??????? ???и, ?и??? ??о ????т с ???оя???м ????м ????м.

П????, в ????, ??т ????е ????е ????. Ч? ? ???ля?ся э? ????? В???? ????
????я I в ?о ?????? ??????, ?к ? ?к и ????е ???? ????яII, ???ля?ся ?о
?????? ? ????м ?и с ??оя????? ???и.

Х????? ?я ????й ????е ????е ???? ???ля? ????ся ? ?????? ???? “????я
??оя?? и ???ш?о ???и” (Present и Past Participle), ???ю?х ????ию с
?????? ????м ???и?. У???ля?? ?? ???ы “?о?????я” (Indefinite) и “????ая”
(Perfect) ??а ???ают с ????и, ???е о???ают ?????ую?е ??я? ??-????х ???
?? ???а.

П???ия I и II ???ю?е ??н?, ?оя?яю??я в ????, ??????м с ????м ?????, ??т
????ь ? э?т ???к ?к ? ??ся??я к ??оя?? ???и

He may sit down and make a sketch of an anchor showing its various
details in proper proportion (Collins)

?и к ????? ???и

He sat down and made a sketch of an anchor showing its various details
in proper proportion (Collins)

?и ?к ???к, ??оя?о ???? ???у ????. В ????м ??? ???? ??н??? ????я и ?
????м в ???м ???и

and then an opera performed in New-York will be projected on the screen
of the theatre simultaneously with the incidental music (Collins)

О??я???? ???и ??т ???ля? ????е ???? ????я ????? ? ???и ???ия ?????, ? ?
?????ю с ?м

The reminder of this country now densely populated and intensely
cultivated ranked as one of the most beautiful places in Africa
(Collins)

О??о ????е ????е I, в ???е ? ????я II, ??? ???? ????, ??????е ???ию
?????

…but fortunately for the investigation being conducted at present such
discrepancies are of no importance (Dickens)

П? ?????? ????й I и II в ???оя???м ????м ???? ????? ?и и ??????? ?к ???к
???? ??т ?? ????? с ???? ??. В э?м ??? ????е I им?т ???? ????,
?оя?яю??ся в ??т?и, ???е ????я к ??оя?? ???и, а ????е II – к ?????. Ср.,
????, ??ую?е ???ы с ????я? ?и ? ?????? в ???е ?????? ???, ??ся??я к
?????у

The dog lying on the window-still got the prize last year;

The picture bought at the show is hanging in my room (Collins)

О??о ??е ?????? ?т???ся ? ??о.

В ??????м ?????? ????е ???? ????я I ???т ? ???? ????а ???а, ? ???? ?????
????е. П???? ? ?????? ???? ???? ????, ??????е ???ию ?????

Walking along the river at a village, Gino Santangelo said to Maria
(Collins)

А ????е ? ????? ???? и ? ???? ??????о в???о ????а (п? ?о ?????? ?з ?ю?)
???? ????, ???с?ую?е ???ию ?????

…and Christian gathering her things led the way;

…then running to the dog he seized him by the collar

?: While running to the dog he didn’t stop crying

П????е ????е ??? у???? ? ????, ???????? ???ию ????? и ?????е ? ?о
?????я, ?? ????е ????? ? ?????о ???а ?и ? ???а ??????о ??в?о ????а

…his two grandchildren … looked at him silently, never having seen so
old man (Collins)

И, ????, ????ю??я, ?ли ????е ????? ? ??????о ??о?

Having sat, poor soul, long by the bedside of Genry … she had acquired
the habit, and… (Collins)

Б.А. И?? (1980, 221) ??т, ?о ????я ???и у ????я, ?к и у ?? ???? ?? ???а,
??т ? ??лю??, а ??????е ????.

Participle I Indefinite Active and Passive ??? ?р??т ???? ??????е ???ию,
?????у ??? ??? ??о?; в ?????и ? ??е?? ??ы ??? ??ы ???а ?о ??т ????ся к
??оя??, ????? и ?д??у ???и.

When reading the book, one can’t help laughing

When reading the book, one couldn’t help laughing

When reading the book, you wil roar with laughter

Being left alone, they kept silence for some time (Bronte)

И??а Participle I Indefinite ???? ????, ??ся??я к ??????у ???и.

The last turning had brought them into the high-road leading to the town
(Collins)

Participle I Perfect Active and Passive ???? д???е, ?????ю?е ???ию,
?????у ??? ??? ???а

They were, indeed, old friends, having been at school together (Collins)

С??? ????, ?о ?????ю?е ???? ? ??? ???? Participle I Perfect: с ????и
?????? ???я?я и ???ия, ??? ?к to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to
seize, to look, to turn и ????ми ???и, Participle I Indefinite ?????ся
?? ?? ???????е ???у???ся.

Turning down an obscure street and entering an obscurer lane, he went to
a shop (Hardy)

Participle II ? ??т ????и ???и; ????? ??? ?? ??а ???я м?? ???? и
???????ь ???ия и ???????е ???ию, ?????у ??? ??? ??о?; ????е ?????я ??

His sister’s eyes fixed on him, obliged him at last to look Fleur
(Glasworthy)

В ????х ??аях Participle II ???? ????, ??ся??я к ??????у ???и

He is a man loved and admired by everybody (Collins)

ВЫВОД:

1. ????я ???и ????ся в ???и у ????я ??????? и ????? ??

2. П????, в ????, ??т ????е ????е ????

3. П???? ????е I, в ???е ? ????я II, ??да ???? ????, ??????е ???ию
с????о

4. П? ?????? ????й I и II в ???оя???м ????м ???? ????? ?и и ??????? ?к
???к ???? ??т ?? ????? с ???? ??.

5. В ??????м ?????? ????е ???? ????я I ???т ? ???? ????а ???а, ? ????
????? ????е.

6. П????е ????е ??? ????т ? ????, ???????? ???ию ????? и ?????е ? ?о
?????я, ?? ????е ????? ? ?????о ???а и? ? ???а ??????о ???? ?р???. И,
??о?о, ????ю??я, ?? ????е ????? ? ??????о ???а

4. Л??????? ??? ??????? с ?????м в ???и ????х ??? ?????я в ????? я??

С??? ???? ?? ???а в ????? я?? ?????? ??я ???????и ???и – ?????м (the
Infinitive), ???й ??? (the Ing) и ????? II (Participle II). С??? ????? в
????? я?? ?????о ???????я ???????и ????я? ???, ?? и ????й ???н??и. Ф??
?ф???а ?????? ??я ????? – ??????м (marked Infinitive) и ???????м
(unmarked Infinitive).

Р??? ??у ??????й и ???????й ??? ????? ??ю??ся в ???ях ? ???????о
?????ия.

Ф?? ????? ? ???у ?????я ??м ? ???ю?я ? ?? ???о ???а: ??ая ??а ?????
я?я?ся ?к бы ????? ?????ую?х ??? ?? ???а, ??? ?и ??о ???ю?я ?? ? ??а ?
??циям в ?????и.

В ?????и ????в ??т ???ь: ?????, ???й ??ью ?????, ??ью ????? ?????о
?????, ?????м, ??????, ??оя????м.

И???? – ? ??р ????? ???ы, а ? ???а. Не ???? ??? ? ????? ???? ????
??????. Ч?? ? (?????ая ??а, ??е А.М. П?????) ????? ??ля? ????в ? ???а,
??ая? ? ?, ?о ? ??? ??????ю ????в я?я?ся ??? с ????? ???й, ?о ????в ?
?????т к ??у ? ??????х, ? ??????х ?? ???а. И???? ?л ?ъя?? ??? ??ью ?? и
??????ся ?к ??о, ? ????? к ?ря??ю. Т?, ????в ?д ??? ?????я” ??лял ? ???а
в ???оя???ю ????ю И.Ф. К????ч. Л?ь ????и Д.Н. О?я??-К????? и А.А. Ш???в
и ???с? ??э???й ??ы ????? ??????, ?о ????в в ?????м ???м я?? – э?
???-???й ?????, т.е. ???ая, ???ая ??а ???а.

И???о, ?о и А.А. П??ня, ??ая ????в ??? ??ью ??, ?е ? ???ы?л ?у ????е к
???????у ??. И????, ? П???, ?е ??ю?ет в ?? ??? ????, ? ???т е? ?к
??????? и ???… О??? ?????н?? ????ия ? ???о ???а (verbum finitum) ???т
в ?м, ?о э?т ????й ??ю?? в ?? ?????е ?о?о ?? (1-?, 2-? ?и 3-?), ??а ?к в
??????? ?????, ????м ? ?я?, ?? ???ся ????л??м. В ??й ?? ?? ??????? ???
??д?я?ся ?м ?и ??? ????” [6, с.243].

Т?? ??е ???? А.А. Ш???в ??д ? А.А. П???й ????л ? ?м, ?о ?????о – ?з ???я
?д я??м и ?д ??м ????м – ???ь в ??е ?? ??л?? ??о, ? ?я??? с ???и ??, я
?л и т.д. Н??я ??е ??????о ???????я? ????в ?? ??? ??????? ???” ???а” [6,
с.343].

А??ы ??????? ??а г????и ??????о ?????о я??” [10] ??ают, ?о в ?????м
????? я?? ??ы ???т?а, ?к и ??ы ????я и ???ия, ??ся?я к ???? ??? ???а.

А??з э?х ?? ????ля? ???с с ??и ??ия ??й ?????т?и ??я ?????о я??, ??й ?
??????х ?? ???? я?я?ся ???ая ?с?? ???? ?? и ?????и ? ?????ия. О??? ????
?? ???а ? ??? ??ю??ся в ?м, ?о ????в, ????е и ???? ? ?еют ??????? ????й
??, ??а и ????ия и ??? ? ??т ???я? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??ц? ?????.
О????е ???? ?????? ?я ? ??????? ???и ????и ?? ????ся в ??м ???е ????е
??ы”.

В ????и ???х ?? н???е ??ы ???яют ?????? ? ??р???е ?я? с ???????м (????в
и ????) и с ?????ь?м (????е), ??а ?к ??о??е ??ы я?яю?я, ???м ???м,
???т?? ? ?????? и ?????о ???ия.

И??ия ???ия ???? ?рм ???а ?? ???я ? ?????? ?лю??я в ????ую ???у, ?????
?? ?я ?я??ия ? ????и в ???е?? ????? я?? ? ????? ???? ?еют ???е ????, ?м
???о ??у?е ? ???е ??ы.

В?? ?? ???????? р??ы ?ъя?я?ся ??й ??????ю и ??с???? ????. З????о с ????
?????ия? ? ??? ?? ?????, ?о ?а ?? ?????а, ???? ?????, ?????и а????и, ??
??????? я?я?ся ????ие в ??? ???? ????к ???, в ????и, З???? ???й ?????
Р????? ?ив????, ?????й и ????? ?????й ?? ? ???м ???? ??? ????.

Ц?ь ??оя?й ??? – ???? ?????й ??????? с ?????м и ?????? ?????ия ????? в
???и ????х ??? ?????я в ????? яз?е, ?????ю?х, ?о ???????? ?????, ?к ????
??ы ???а в ????х ??ях ??, ????ля? ??й ??? ??е” ?????е, ?м ???? ?и ????е,
???? ???м ??????м ??, ?о ??? ?о ??е ??? и ????ы? [1, с.3].

В ??? ???????? ?б?ы ???о ???? ?ею??ся ??? – ??????? ????а ? ?? ?????ия,
??? ??? ???, ?????аю?х ????в в ?????? ??е; ?я??? ????? – ??????х ??????
??????? с ?????м в ????х ??????? ???ях; ???? ??и????х ?????? ?????ия
??????? с ?????м; ?????ия ?????? ???в ???? ?????о ????? ? ???й я?к.

В ?? ?????ия ?? п???и???? ??е 1500 ???ц ??? ?р???й ?????? ??????? ?????
на ????? я??, ???? ??е ?а пят??я? ???? ?????ия ????? в ????х ???ях,
????? ?????и ??????? с ?????м и ?????к? ??? ????, ???? ???н ????в в
????? и ???м я??х.

Ф????? ????? ?????ия ????и ???-??е???? ??? ???х и ???ж?х ????в, а ??е
??????? ???е??я ????? и ?????? ????? XIX – XX ??в. Р??а ?лю?р???я ????и
???о ??ая ?????ия ????? в ?й ?и ?? ??????? ???и, ????? ? ?????? и
??о???? ?? ????? ?? ??????х п?????й: ?????е ???и П????? ??а” Ч. Д???а,
??????я ???ия” и ???а К??” Т. Д.р???, ??а о Ф???? (т.1: С????ик) ” Д.
Г????, ???н И?? Д. Л??на, ??а и ??” Моэ? и ???.

К???????я ??? ???т ? ???ия, ?? ??, ??ю??я и ?б??р??.

Ц??ы в ??? ????ы ?????и ????, ????, [5, с.16]: 5 – ?ря??? ??р ?????о
??ч?? (????? ?и ???) в р??? ??????я”, ?.16″ – ???? ????а, с ???? ????а
???.

4.1 С????о-с???ч??е ?????и ??????? с ?????м в ????х ??????? ???ях

К? ????? И.В. А???, ? ??? XX ?? ????ы ?????, ???м ???м, в???м о ?м, ?? и
??? ?ня?ся ???? ??, т.е. ???о??? ?? ???ие ? ???? ???????, и ??? ? ???
????? ???ия ????? к ??????й ????е” [20, с.26].

Ш??ую ?????ь ???? ??ия ???????о ?ля”, ?я??ая с ???и И. Т??а, М??а, И??а
и П???, ???е ?????и ??е г??ы ??, ?????? ????ю ????? ?и ?ня?й. Ул??
?????? ??о ?к ???????й з?к и ???, ?о ??а о ??? ??ще ??? ????? ??????е
??????? ??????о ????а, с ??й ??о?, и ??????е ?????и ??????? ??я ?????
я??в, с ???.

П?я?е ????ы я?я?ся ?я ???????в ???? ?ня?? ???????? ???а, и ?? ???? ?д
????? ??я???ую ???у ????? и ???о?????й, ???я ??т ?? ?я??а в я?? ? ??? в
??? и ??????? ???, ? и в ???иях ???????х ??, ? ???ля?ся ???? ???ия ?????
– ??????х ?????? ????х ???????.

С??????е ???ля?ся ?к ??? ??????и ?я??? ??????? ?? в ???е ?????я, ???я
?ма ? я?я?ся ??????. Г????е ??????ия ???ют ??ю????е ??о в ??????? ????е
?????? ?????о я?? ?к с ??и ??ия ?????и ? ?????ия, ?к и в ??е ?????ия ?
?????х ???й. В?? ??????и ????х ????? ???? ?????о я??, ???????х ??????и
???ия? в ? ??????? ?????и, ??????я ????? ??????? ??е???о ?????о я??
????ля? ?????? ????и.

И???? ? ??? ????д?ию я?я?ся ?????? ???????м; в ???????? я?? (VII – X ??)
? ?? ?е ?????? ???????? ???????е и ??????? ??с?а, в ????и, ??ня?я по
???м. С???о э? ??т ?? в ???и ?????х ?? ?? ?????: ?з ???ы to – ?????,
????я?? ? ??ы ??????о ??? OE drincan и с ???? to – ?????, ???одя?? ? ??ы
????? ???: OE drincenne. В ???????? я?? to ?л ????м, ?????ся с ????м
???м ????? и ????л ?и э?м ц?ь ?и ?????е ???ия.

И?????е ???? ????? ?я?? с ????м ????ия э?й ??ы в ???у ???а и ???й ею
????х ???х ??. Т?, с ??й ???ы, ????в ???? ????? ????и ??, ???и и ???, а
с ???, ? к ??? ????????о ???а ???л ??у ????? ???. В????е ??? ?????м ????
????а, ?е ? ??????ся ?к ???г: ? ?? ??? ?????м ?????.

Из ???? пя? ????? ?????й, ????х А.С. Х?-?и [17, с.25], ????в ?????? в
??? ? ?х. Э? ????ая ?????я 2 (??е ГК 2) ???л + not +) ????в с ???? to
(+. .), ГК 3 ???л + ???????е (?????е) + (not +) и???? с ???? to (+. .),
ГК 5 ???л + ???????е (?????е) + ????в ?з ???ы to (+ .), ГК 13 ???л +
?ю?? ??о + ????в с ???? to (+. .), ГК 14 ???л + ???????е (?????е) + ?ю??
??о + ????в с ???? to (+. .), ГК 25 ???л + ????в с ???? to в ???и
??оя???? ?? (+. .).

К?????ия ????? ???????, ?????ая Л.С. Б?????м, ?гля?т ?е?ю?м ???м:

1. ??????ия, я?? ???х ??т ?? ?к ?????, ?к и ?????? ???;

2. ??????ия, я?? ???х ??т ?? ??? ??? ??????о ????а: ?? ??? ?????, ?? ???
??????.

О?ю? в ???и ?с???й в ????? ??????иях ??т ????я?ся в ??е ??? ??? ??
(???й, ??????? и ?.) ???ы в ??е ?????.

В ???и ????? ????ия в ????? я?? ??е в ??е д??х ??? ?? (???????х, ?????й
и ?.) ??т ????я?ся ???ы в ??е ?????, ????? ??????ия в ??е ????в??
??????? ??????ия. В ???и ?????ую?? ????ия в ????? я?? ??е ??т ????я?ся
???ы в ??е ????? ?и ????я ?и ????? ??????ия с ?????ую?? ???и в ???? я?а
[3, с.18].

В ???х ? ????? ?????, ????? в ????й ???, ??б?е ??????ия ???ю?я ?к ?????
????е”; ????? ? (????? и ?????ие) ?????е ????? ??? ?????ают ?????й ??
??х ??????? ?к ????? (complement) ?и ???е. Мы ?????? в ??? ??? ??????ся
????и, ??я?й в ????? ?????х и ??????ь ?????й ?? ?и н?????м ?а?? ?к
?????ую?е ?????, ????у ?ня?е ?????о ?????” ??лю?о ?????о к ??м ?????ям,
?е ??? – я?о ??????ия ????я?ся ? в ??????й, а в ???? ??е.

Т?? ???м, ????в (??р????я ?р? ???а) ????ля? ??й ???ую ????ую ??у, ?т?ая
???? ????, ? ???ая ? ?ца, ? ??а. И???? ???? ? ???ы ?о ???? ?о ???ь?
Ф????м ????м и????а я?я?ся ???а to, ???я ? ??т ???оя???? ???ия и ? ????т
???ия.

П??е ?м ???и к ??м???ю ??????? ?? ????? в ? ??????? ???ях ????х ???
?е???ия, ????? ???? ??ую ? ??м????х ????й, ???????о ???? ????? ?к
???????й ??е ???а. ?????… ?? о?????, ????? ?ня?е о ????; в э?й ??е
свя? ???ия с ?я??м ?? ??????ся ????и, а ? ????ся ?????и ?????” [10,
с.161].

Я?яя? ????? ???т??, ????в ??т ряд ??????, ???ю?х ?о с ??? ??? ???а: ?? в
???ях, ?????? ??и, ????в ???я? ?????ь ???? ???? ?к ???с, т.е. ??т ????е
и ???е ???ия, ???? в?мя, ?????? и ??????? ??? и, ?о ??е ???е – ??т ??
?????й ???т ???ия; ??е ??, ????в ??т ?????ь ????ь пря?е ????? и ???ля?ся
????.

? ???х ????? ???т? ???????ся ???я ???а ?????, ???? ???? ??я?ся ???ию
???в с ???? to, ????в ????ю ???н???я к ???????? ?и ?????? е? ???????
???й” [10, с.161]. Т? ??м ??????ся ?????? ?ф???а, а ??у ?м ????? ????
и??и?? ?я?яю?я ? ??? в ??а?? ?? ????х, ? и в ?м, ?о ???о ??? ??? ???а,
????в ???? в ?????е ???в ???? ?к ???с, ???й ? ??т ????я ?е ?я? с ?о
???????. В ?х ??аях, ??а ????, ????? ?????м, ????? с ????? ?????я, ????в
????ся ?????. Е?и дея?? ???н ?????м, ????в ????ся ????м. С?т????? ???ия
с ?о ?я??м ?я?я?ся ?и ?????? ????? в ?????и ??е ???????о, ?м у ????я и
???ия, ???? ???, ?о ????в, ???о ???у, ???? ????, ????н?е ???й, ??а ?к
????е ???? ???к ?и ????т ? ??оя????, ?и ???х ?????ь ??? ????, а ???ий в
???й ???и, ?м ????в, ???? ???? ???и.

В?????е ???? ?????к? ????? ? ???? ????? ????, ?о ?к ??и ??????х, ?к и
??и ????? ????? ????ют ????е ??и ??ия в ????и ??ц? ????? в ?????? ??аях
?о ????е?я. К ? ??у Г.П. Б?????я ???т ?? ??????й ??? ???с?а ??????
?????о я?? – ????в в ???и ??оя???? ???ую?х я???.

????р, К??л ???? ?е????: He went home only to die”.

В ????и э?? ?????я ?м ??р ??т, ?о ????? ? ????? ??ь ? ??, ? ????я, а ???
???ую?е ????”. В ??????й ????? ?к ? ????? ????о ??к ??ия ? и???? в ???ом
??????. О?и ??????е ????ы ??ают, ?о ????в в э?х ??аях ???я? ???ю
??оя???? ??с?ия.

О????ся ? ??? ??? ??ия, – ????? Г.П. Б???в?ая. – К.Н. П??? ???т ??е
????? ??оя????? ?ли. Е.А. Г???, ?????ая ????в в ?????м ??????, ????, ?о
в ??х ??аях ????в ???? ????, ??ую?е ? ????м ???о ???а, в ??? ???? ?????
???а?ся ?????? с ????м ???о ???а. Л.С. Б????в и Д.А. Ш??? ???ют, ?о в
?????м ????? я?? ????в ??т ????? ????, ??ую?е ? ????м, ????? ????-????м
(??оя???? ???ую?? ???ия). В.Л. К????я и ?., ?????ая ?????е ??? ?????ия
?????, ???ют, ?о ????в ????т ??ь в ???и ??оя???? ????ую?х я???. Э?й ?
??и ??ия ?????ю?я и ??? ???? ?????о я?? В.Г. В?юм? и ?.

Т?? ???м, – ?????? Г.П. Б?????я, – к? в ?????, ?к и в ??????й ?????
????ют ?и ??и ??ия ? ???ю ????? в д??м ??????: ??ая ??а ??ия – ????в
???я? ???ю ??оя???? ????я. В??я ??а ??ия – ????в ???я? ???ю ??оят???а
??. Т??я ??а ??ия – ????в ????? ????, ??ую?е ? ????м ???а-?????, и
??лня? ???ю ??оя???? ??????х я??ий (???ую?? ???ия, ????ую?х я???). И?к,
?е ???? (? ??ю??? ?х, к?о?е ???яют ??? о ???и ????? в ??м ?????? ????),
?????ю?я ??? т?? ??ия в ????и ??????? ???и ??? ?????, ??ая ?о ??оя???в?,
? ???я?я ? ??иях ?????? ??, к ??й ??????и ??оя???? ? ????я” [5,
с.90-91].

Д??й ???. ? ????? я??, ?к ? ?к и в ???м, ??ь ??????? ????я, ??оя?е ?
???а в ??? ??е и ????? ???о ???а, – ?????? Е.А. К???а. – Х?я с ??и ??ия
???? ????ия ??у ????? ????я? ??зя ????? ???й ???ы, ?м ? ??е в ?????и ?и
??т ??ь ????е ???? и ???я? ????? ????е ??????? ???и, ? ?? ????я ??у ???
??? ???а и ?фи???м ??т ?? ??? ???????.

И???? ??т ?? ?????м к ???у в ??? ??е, ?и ??оя????м, ?и, ???ц, ???ля? ???
с ?м ?? ??е – ???е ????? ?и ???е ????е. О??о ??? о ?м, ?о ??? ???ляет
??????ую ?? ????? в ?м ?и ??? ????? ????и, ??? ?я? м?? ?????м и ???? в
??? ??е ?и ?????м и ?????, – ?е в ?????? ?в?? в ????ю?й ????? и ????я в
????? ????” [14, с.157].

? ? ??я, ?к ??? ?????я и ???????ия ??????? ???а в ??? ??? ???а ?????
????, – ??т В.А. А????, – ??т, ??я??? ???ию ??????? ??? в ???е ???? ??
???а, ??и ? ???я. В ????х ?????иях ??о ????ь ????е ????я, ??ю??я ????
??, ??ко ?и ?????? и ??о ?сят ???й ????.

Ф?????е ??????й ??ы ???а в ???е ???? ?? ?????о ????? и ?????о ?я ??ой ?
?х (?????, ????я и ???ия). П??? ????? ??ся ??о ??в ? ??я??и ??о ???????о
???а, и ?яд ? ?о ??о ???ь з????? в ??оя?е ??я.

К? ????, ? ?я?е ????е ???а to be с ????? II ??о ?и?? ??????й ??? ???????
???. Э? ??т ??о в ?х ??аях, ??а ??? ????е ? ?я?? с ????м, а ???? л?ь
??оя?е ????. В ???????й ????? ??????ь ???, ?о ???????е ???а ? ?ю ?а???ю
????у (?к в ???, ?к и в ???? ???) ?????ь к XV ??. О??о ??? ?????е ??о
???и ??? к ?????, и ? ?? ????. Н???? ??????и ???ы ???ь, ?о ??и?? ????в
??????л ?е в ????г???м я??. Т?? ??????е ??? ????й: ????е ???? beon и
wesan с ????? II в ? ??я ?е не ??о ??????й ??? ?? в ??е? ??? ??.

Ф?? ????? ??? ??я ????? ???й, ????я?? ? ???????н? ?я ???? ??х ???? –
????о и ??и??о.

Р???? ? ??о ?? ??? ? ????а. П??????е ????я to be + ????е в ?????кую ??у
????? ????? ????? ?шь к ??у ????????о ???а (СА). Э? ??? ??????я ??м ря?м
????? (O. Jespersen, Н.А. Д????й, J. C. Nesfield). Р??????? ? ???а ? ???
к??????е ??ы (????, ?????) ?????? в ???е ??о РНА.

В ??? ??, ?о в ??? РНА ? ????о ?е ????? ????? ?????, ???т и ??и ???
????? ????? ?? ??????? ???. О???о ???е ???????е ???л ????й ????в в
Ш?????ую э??. В э? ??я ???я?ся ?? ????, ????яю??я в ??? ???у?, ????
???????е ????ая ??а ??????? ???, ??ю??ся ????е ????? ????? в ????е
?????и. О??о и у ???в э?? В????ия ?е ??о ?т??? ?????????? ?????? ???? и
????й ?? и????а [1, с.179].

Р??а Т.А. Р????? и М.Э. С??ь ? ???? ?????к? ????? ?? в ??????? ???
(XVIII-XX ?) ” ??я?? ?????ию ????х ?????? ???ия ????? ф?м в ??н? ?????
???. К? ?????ют ???, ?е?о в э? ??я ???? ???е ????? ????е ??е ???? ?????я
??щ?о: ??а ??е??? ?? и ?????и be going to + ????в, ??р? ???ляют ?????ую
??ь ?????й ?????? ?????х ???в.

Э? г??????я ??а ???? в ??е ??? ?? (Future Indefinite, Future Continuous
и ?.) ???у я???х е??ц с ??????? ????м – ??????ю ???ия к ??е ????, и
???ля? ?????ую ??ь ?? ??????, ???ая ?????? ?????и ?????ия.

Т?, в XVIII ?? э? ????ция ???????я ??ую?? ?????: ?а ?? ????т??а – ?
??о??? ???ля? ??о 0,80% и ?????я ??ко в ??м ???? – ????и ????ь ????;
????е ???? ?????? ?????? ?????и – ?а ?????я т??о с ?????? ?????; ????в
??? ??т ??у ???????о ???.

В XIX ?? ???ю?я ??ую?е ????я в ?????? be going to + ????в: ?????ь ????ет
? ???? ??е ?м в 10 ?з, ?????я ??т ?к ????е, ?к и ????е ????, ????ся ?к с
??????, ?к и с ??????? ?????, ?ф??? ????я?ся в ??? ?к ?????ь??, ?к и
??????? ???.

В XX ?? be going to + ????в х??????ся ??ую?? ?????я?: ????????ь ?????и
?????о ? ?ня?ся; ????? ?????? ?????и ?з ???ия ????я; ????в ???? ????ся
?к с ??????, ?к и с ??????? ?????; ?к???? ?????я ????ю ?я?; ????в ?????н
????и ?к ????яю??ся, ?к и ? ????яю??ся в ??? ?????о ??; ????в ??т ??ы
???????о и ??????? ???в [1, c.222.]

Т?? ???м, ??? ?????ия be going to + ????в ???л, ?о ???? ?????? и ???????
????в, ???ляю?х ?????? э?й ??ы, ????? ??????. О?и ????: ???т??ая ?????ь,
??? ????я ?????о, ??а ????? – ?????ую?я ?е к ??у XIX ??, ??а ?к ??? –
?????е ?????, ?????е ????? и ????? ???? – ????? ??ня?ся и в XX ??. В? э?
???я? ??????, ?о и в н??я?е ??я ??????? be going to + ????в ??е??ают
о?????ю э?лю?ю.

Р?????е ?????-??????х ?????? ??????? с ?????м в ????х ??????? ???ях ???
с ?????о. С ??и ??ия ????? ??????? ??о ???? ?а ??ая ?????ия ????? в ?н??
?????о:

1. Свя? с ??м-?? ?я??м ?????т, ?о ??ю??ся ?и ?????? ??????х ??н, ? ?я???
с ????? ????й ?и ????? ???ую?м ??м. Ф????? ????ми ??? ?????ия я?яю?я:
??а ??оя?? ???и в ???м ????м ????м с ??т? ????? ??? и ??о ????? “??????”
????ие, т.е. ???е ????? и в ????? и в ????м.

2. Свя? ???ия ????? с ?я??м в???? ????? я?о в ?х ??аях, ??а ?с????е ?я??
с ????? ????й. С???ое ?? ??о ??т в ??е ????? ???и ?и ???? ??оя?? ???и;
??????ь ???ия ???н в ?????и ??я????м ?с????м, ??? ?????? в ????м ???,
??????н? в ??м ??? и? ? ?я?я?ся ? ????а.

To shut up a Lion or tiger in confinement was surely a horrible
barbarity. (Galsworthy, p.165).

To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy, p.61).

To get Irene out of London, away from opportunities of going about and
seeing people, away from her friends and those who put ideas into her
head ! That was the thing! (Galsworthy, p.66).

Because they told me that to admire Walter Pater was to prove myself a
cultures young man,… (Maugham, p.47).

Then it was a distinction to be under forty, but now to be more than
twenty-five is absurd. (Maugham, p.29).

… but the North Sea gave it a pleasant tang so that it was a delight
just to live and breath. (Maugham, p.54).

For a long time no critic has enjoyed in France a more incontestable
authority, and it was impossible not to be impressed by the claims he
made… (Maugham, p.22).

It doesn’t do us any good to wring our hands over the far-off things.

(Dreiser, p.527)

It was not for Carry to know the thing in which appealed to her
(Dreiser, p.526) – ????? в ?????и “???е ?????”

In a minute it would be fitting for me to take my leave. (Maugham.,
p.48).

“To be delivered immediately”, which was sure to be attended to;

(Dickens, p.798).

To repeat the same thing requires the feminine temperament. (Maugham,
p.64).

How wonderful to have her love him so! (Dreiser, p.62).

How stupid of me to quarrel with him! (Maugham, p.99).

To get Bcemis and Webster of Utica is the next thing to do. (Dreiser,
p.42).

И???? в ???и ???? ?????о:

Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune.

(Galsworthy, p. 20).

The only person who appears to have seen the young man is the captain of
that little steamboat. (Dreiser, p.24).

You seem to walk with your head among the stars. (Maugham, p.93).

A heavy sky seemed to cover the world with the grey whiteness of a
whitewashed ceiling. (Galsworthy, p.144).

Getting the butler on the wire, he inqired whether Mr. Clyde Griffiths
chanced to be there. (Dreiser, p.47).

You feel like a disembodied spirit, immaterial; and you seem to be able
to touch beauty as though it were a palpable thing. (Maugham, p.93).

Passion! He seemed, indeed, to have heard of it, and rules such as “A
young man and a young woman ought never to be trusted together” were
fixed in his mind. (Galsworthy, p.143).

By the way, do you happen to know a young man around here by the name of
Clifford Golden? (Dreiser, p.27).

К??????й ??? ????, ????? ??, ?????, ?о ???б??е ????? в ???и ?????о и
???? ?????о ?????я в ?????? ????? я?? ? ??о: ? 160 ???? ?? ???? 28 ???в
?????ия ?????. П????ю?м в э?й ф??? ?л ???й ????в ??? ?? ???????о ???.

С??ю?й ???????й ???т?а я?я?ся ???я?ая ? ??????ая ???я ???й ??и ?????
???? ??у??о.

С???? ???е ????е:

His first indignation was to be elated… (Dreiser, p.332).

It’s not your brother who is about to die (Quick, p.318).

Neglected dislase and hopeless poverty were as certain to be his
position as death itself. (Dickens, p.53).

По ????ю с ???и ?л??? ???и ???а ?????? ????? в ???? ???о ??а ????? ?????
?????о ?? и ??????е.

И???? ????т в ???и ???о ??а в ??ую?х ??????ях ????? ?????:

В ????м ???м ????м ? ?я?? be.2. В ????м ????? ???м ?а???, ?е ??? в ???
??е ????т ? ???? ????, ????о? ?????м ?и ????м (?о ???, ?????е ?и ?н?).3.
В ????м ????? ????м ????м.4. В ????м ???м ????м, ?е ???е ????е (с
?????ь?м ?и ??а??м II) ????ся с ?????м – ????м ???м ??о ??????ия.

И??ая ??ь в ??м ????м ???? ????е к ???ию, ?????у ?????м, ?и ??? э??
???ия [10, с.166].

И???? в ????м ???м? с ??л?? ????м (be + ????в).

Г??л be ??д ?????м в ????м ????м ??т ???? ?????в??, ?????ь, ????ь ?????
???к ???? ???и. Он ????я?ся в Present и Past Indefinite, ????в ??т ??у
??????о? ?и ????л??о ???.

… do hot inform your husband that you are to meet with me (Quick,
p.315).

“Yes, but it also says”, the director remarked, “that you are to look
shocked”… (Dreiser, p. 195).

П????й ????в ??е ????х ????.

В я?? ???й ????ры ????, ????? ????? ?????м, ??? ????я к ????? ???и. Г??л
must с ???ую?м Infinitive Perfect ?????я ??? ?л, ??? ??, ???о, ??ол
could – ???? (?г, ?г ?), may – ????, м?? ??, might – ?г ?.

С???? ????? ????е.

????е ???????? ??????ью” ????? ?????о ?????, ??ают ??? ??????о ?????о
я??” [10], я?я?ся ???н? ????х ???? can, must и ??? с ??ни??м. О?о??? ?я
?????ия ??? ??????? с ????м ????? ?????м ?к ?р?ую?х ????е ????? ????е
??? ????? ?????? ???ия ???а (???????о ?и ????я II), к ???? ????т ????в,
????я ???? ???? э?х ??, ? ?????ь ???? ????е ???? к ?о ???ию, ??????у
?????м, ?к к ?????, ???????у, ??????, ????у, ???н?? к ??????ю (????е
????я) ?и ????ь ? ???, ?????е ?и ??ц ???ия (????я ???е). С э?й ??и ??ия
????е ?? begin to work ???? ????е ????? ???е ????е, а ????е ?? I intend
to work – ????е ????? ????е ????е.

К? ?я???ь, ??и ?????? ?т ???о ??я? ? э? ??????ия. В? ????? ???? ?????ают
????в, ???аю?й к ???у ?и ???????у лю?? ???ия, ?к ????ия, ? ???ая ?? ???,
?о ??ля?ся в ????е ??, ? ???х ???т ?ф??? и ???ия ??о ????я в ??м и п???я
????о ???е ???? ???м ????м ?????. И?????? ???? я?? ?оят ? ????? ??
???ях. О? ?????ают ??е ????я в ???м я?? ?к ????е ????? ???м? ???? ?и
????? ???е?. А??ы ??т?? ????в ?????о я?? ??????? э? ????? ? ?????ую?е
????я с ?????м в ????? я??, ??ляя ???е и ????е ????е ????? ????е.

?ы ??е ??????ся ??и, ????? ???? ?????и, и ??????м ????я ???а с ????м
?б???м ?????м ?к ??ы ????? ?????о ????? в ?х ??аях, ??а в ???? ???а в
??? ??е ??ля?ся ??е – ??ж?? ????я ???? к ???ию ?и ???я ??????? ???ия
?????. По ????ю ? ????й ??ью ????? ???? ???м?о – ?я???и ????и – ???ы и
???е ????я, ???аю?е в ????й ??и ????? ?????о ?????, ??е я?и ?????. Е?и
????е ???ы ??о с????? с ?????????и ?я??и, ? в ????х ??????ях ?????
?????о ????? ?о ??ая ??ь ?????а ? ???????и ?я??и, и ????е ????? ????е в
??м ??е ???т???о, ?м ???е” [10, с.261].

И???? ????я?ся ?к ч?? ????? ?????о ????? в ????и с ????? ????и, ? ???и
д??? ????и, ???е ?з ????? ? ?ют ???о ??? (?к и ?????ую?е ???ы в р???
я??), а ??е в ????и с ??а????? с ????-?я??.

The great majority are perfectly content to do the ordinary thing.

(Maugham, p.67).

… He means to say”, said Sob… (Dichens, p.830).

… but I was not allowed to go in return to his house. (Maugham, p.53).

… and I am so glad to know that you spoke of him so nicely. (Maugham,
p.57).

Hand it all, one can afford to be generous! (Maugham, p.47).

He flourished in a bad period and he was inclined to be long-winded.

(Maugham, p.48).

Thaddeus had contrived to look hurt (Quick, p.302).

С????й ????в ?????? ??о ????т в ?? ????ия в ?? ??, ?о, ???я? с ??? ???
???а, ? ??о ???? ????е ????е. И???? ?????я в ??? ??????ой ?н?? в ????и с
????и в ??????? ???, в ??????м и ?и ???н? ???м ????м. О???? ????в ? ??т
????ь в ?? ???оя???? ????ия к ???у, ? ????т к ???????? ?и ?????ю в ????
???о ??а ???? ????ия.

И???? в ???и ?я?? ????ия:

“… You compel me to say it;… ”. (London, p.290).

A study of twelve men in broad light proved them to be nearly of a type.

(Dreiser, p.531).

“Well, you tell that Hermann of yours to mind his own business;…”

(London, p.283).

I’ ll thank you not to insult him. (Quick, p.311).

He found his partner to be very disagreeable. (Dreiser, p.332).

“… she might lead him to believe that she was fond of him;… ” (J.
Galsworthy, p.76).

И??и?в в ???и ???о ????ия (???? ???? cause, get, lead, make + ????в).

Г??? cause, get, lead и make, ?? ? ?? ??уют ?а ????ия (1-е – ???????е ?и
?????е и 2-е – ????в), ?еют ?? ??е ???? ????ь (??е-? ????) ”, ????я?
(??-?? ?о-?? ???) “.

П? э?м ??? cause ?????я ????ь к, ???ь (??) ????, ????. В ??м ??? ????в
????ся ?????? ???????м.

И??а ??????я cause ?и ?р??е ??к?ь, ????в ? ????? ??? ??? (????м) в ?м
???и, в ???м ??т ??? cause.

Light steps in the gravel made him turn his head. (London, p.130) She
caused a telegram to be sent to him. (Galsworthy, p.58) I cannot get her
to finish her lessons. (Dreiser, p.74) С??? ????? ??т ????я?ся в
???????м ?и ??????? ?????м ?????и. В э?х ?????ях ????в ???т ???????о ?
???? (в ??????? ???), к ???? ????я ???е ???е?е. П??м ??? ???м ????ия
я?яю?я ??????е ?????я that, what, which.

П????е и ????е ?????? ?????я ???дя?я ???м ????н?м с ?ю?м ?к, ????в
?????я ??? ??? ???а, т.е. ????ся ????м ?????? ?????я. В???ю?я ???, ??а
??? ?? ???? ????ия в ?лях ?о ????я (э??ы) ??т ??д п????м. В ?к? ?????ях
????в ???т ???????о ? ???? в ??????? ??? (т.е. п?? ???? ?па assume,
consider, expect, find, know и ?.).

В???ы ?а ???? ???да ? ???й я?к ???? ?????й. а) П??? ?ч???я с ?????о и
?????; ????я ??ь ?????я ?????я ??????? ?????м ?????? с ?ю?м ч?; ??? в
??е ???т?а ????ся ??? ??? и ????ся ????м ?????? ?????я, а ??? ?? ????
????ия – ?????. б) П????е и ????е ?????о ?????я ??о ????? ???м ?????? с
?ю?м ?к, ??а ????? ???? ?????я ??т ??? ?? ???? ????ия, а ????м – ????в.

Please make up your mind, whether you want me to decorate for you, or to
retire. (Galsworthy, p.151).

Dirk wishes me to tell you… (Maugham, p.129).

I believe him to be headed toward his old place of business. (Quick,
p.300).

“I told you”, he said,” that I want this house to be a surprise, so
don’t say anything about it. (Galsworthy, p.69).

Of course, if you want me to, Orville, I’ ll go over there. (Dreiser,
p.22).

Silent, swaying to each motion of their charriot, old Solyon watched
them be driving away under the sunlight. (Galsworthy, p.32).

She made no secret of her desires, and I was bidden to translate ’ She
wants you to go home with her’’. (Maugham, p.65).

I respect you as a man of business; and you can’t expect me to believe a
word you say. (Galsworthy, p.71).

She wanted me to go – to go away with her somewhere. (Dreiser, p.94).

“I told you, – he said – that I want this house to be a surprise”.

(Galsworthy, p.69).

В ???и ?????я ???т? ????н с ???ля?? ?к ? ??м ????м, ???? ?и ????м, в ?х
??аях, ??а ???ля?? ???? ???т?м ???????м, ???????и ?и ??????? ?????я?,
???????и ?и ??????и в ?? ?????о ??а.

О???? ??у ?????? и ???ля?? в э?м ??? ??е ???е, ?м ??о ??? ? ??е
??????ия; ?о ??о ?я?я?ся ?и ???? ? ???й я?к ?и ??? ???????? ??????
??л?е?я, в ???м ??????у ?????ю в ????? я?? ??????т ??? ??? в ??????
????й ??е, ??о в ????и ? ??? с ????м з????. И?е о????е э?? ????е ?????,
?к ?к ????в, ???ю?й ????, п???? к ??и, ???ю?? ???т э?? ???ия, ???????о,
?з ??? ??й-?? ??? ??ы ???а, ???я ????а ? ? ????е к ???у ???ию, ? ????
?я? ??у ????м и ?я??м.

И???? в ???и ????ния ??т ?с? ???ля??о ????????, ?? ??т ??у ??????? ??? и
???? ? ??? ??й? И????-?????е ??ю?ет в ?бя ????й ???к ???????я, ?????и
(??? ???я) ?и ???? ???е ??я. П????ся ? ???й я?к о??????? ?????м ??????,
????е ???? ??т ???к ???????я, ???н?? (??? ???я) ?и ???? ???и. В?? ?????
???а ??????ся ??м ???м ??о ?????я.

Е?и ????в в ???и о????ия ???н ????, ?????ую?й э????т ???? в ???м я??
???т ??е ?бя ????, ? э?т ???г ?и ???? ???ся ??д ?ю?? ???; ??е ?ря???
?????? first, second и ??? ?и ??е ???????о last ?????я ??? ??? ???а в ?м
???и, в ???м ??т с???? ?????о ?????я.

Е?и ??у ???и first, last и ?????м ??т ???????е, ? ????в с ??ся??ся к ??
???и ?????я ?????м ???????м ?????? ?и ????? ????.

Е?и ????в в ??????м ??? я?я?ся ?????? к ????????, ??д ???м ??т ????е ??
there is (there are) ? ???д ??? ?????я ??? ???? ? ??а ???т, ??о ?и ??о
(????о, ?? б??, ??о ?? – в ?????и ? ???и ?????); ??е ?????я ????в, ???й
в ???м я?? ????ся ?????м в ??????? ???, в ????? ?? ????? в ???? ?????я
?????м.

И???? ??е ??????х ?с???? which и whom с ?????ю?м ???г? ?????я ?и ??? ???
???а в ???и ????? ???????? ?????? ?????я (????е ??т ???к ?????и), ?и
?????? ???????м с ????м ?я; в э?м ??? ?н????ое ?????е с ????м ? ?????я.

И???? в ???и ?????я:

“… considering that I shall be the first to build”. (Galsworthy. The
man of property, p.70).

Martin had a question of his own to propound to her. (London,pP.289).

“But there is more to be said”, he continued, after a pause painful to
both. (London, p.291).

. ., he should be easy to deal with in money matters. (… ???? ??? с ?м
??т ??у?о ???ь). – (Galsworthy, p.67).

Mrs. Driffield didn’t like people to see him when he was like that…

(Maugham, p.49).

The horror! The flight! The exposure! The police! The first to desert
him – these – all save Sondra perhaps. (Dreiser, p.72).

I find myself in a position to throw light on just that part of his
tragic career which has remained most obscure. (Maugham, p.26).

There was the political situation to be considered and there was this
general party situation to be thought of. (Dreiser, p19).

Beauty is the only master to serve. (London, p.307).

I had not the smallest indication on which to let my imagination work.

(Maugham, p.128).

Those privileged to be present at a family festival of the Forsytes have
seen that charming and instructive sight. (Galsworthy, p.17).

I lived at the hotel de la Fleur, and Mrs. Johnson, the proprietress,
had a sad story to tell of lost opportunity. (Maugham, p.183).

I’ m the last to close up (Dreiser, p.299).

It would be everything to get Irene out of town. (Galsworthy, p.66).

He was a worthy member of society, a good husband and father, an honest
broker, but there was no reason to waste one’s time over him. (Maugham,
p.358).

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ??, ????я и ????ую?х ???й.

В.Н. Я??а ??т: ? ???????? ???м ? ? ??у ??оя????, ???я ?и ??м ????ем ????
??а ??й ? ???? ?? ????ы ?????я ?????о я??. Р?ь ?? о ???????? в ????
??оя???? ???ых ?? ???а – ?????, ????я и в ????? ???ия…

Из ??????х ?????? ????? в ???????? я?? ?? ?е? ?????я ????в ??.М. Кэ???
????т, ?о ??е ???? ???? ????в ?? в ??н?????х ?мя??? ?????я 983 ??.

В ????х ??аях ????в ??т ???к ?????и. И??а ????в ??т ???в??е ????. По
?????м ???? ??о ???, ?о ??? ????о ???н в ???????? я?? ??? ????в ??, ?тя
в ???р? ??аях в ???т??ю?м ????е ??о ????ь в ????? и ??? ??оя??????
???ия.

В ???????? ????? ??????ия ?????? и ????? ?ря?а ????ят в ?х ??аях, ??а
??оя?л??о ???? ??м-?? ?????? ???. Э? ?????? ?я ??т ??ь ?и ?? ?????с?
????е ? ?? ??а и ?????? ??а ??й ???, ?ею?й ??оя?????? ????, ?е ??????
??? ?к бы ????м и ??????? ???м ???а. Т?, ??? с ?????м ??т ??ь ????
????я, ???? ???е ???у.

И??а в ???????? я?? ?????м ???а с ?????м ????ся ???? ??оя???? ??? ???ия
(???е в ????и??м ????ся ??? ??з by + ????). Но ??м ??? ??а? ???ся ????в
?? (???й ?е ?л ??? ??????н и в ????????). О??о ????в ?? с for to ? ????
?????? ????? с to. В ?е??????м я?? (???? в ???м ????????) ?е ??ы
????яю?я с ????? ???м. [18, с.153- 157].

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ?? ??т ?оя? ?и в ???, ?и в ??е ?????я. Он ???? ?
??? ?я ч?о? и ??т ????я ?ю?? – so as (to) – ?к ??ы: с ?м ??ы и in order
(to) – ?я ?? ??ы. Пе????я ?????м с ?ю?? ?я ?? ??ы, с ?м ??ы ?и ??????
???????м с ????м ?я.

И???? в ???и ??оя???? ??:

The dismal man… opened the roll of paper and proceeded, partly to read
and partly to relate, the following incident, which we find recorded on
the Transactions of the club, as “The Stroller’s Tale”. (Dickens, p.52).

The tattered remains of a checked curtain were drawn round the bed’s
head, to exclude the wind, which… made its way into the room through
the numerous chinks in the door… (Dickens, p.55).

If some seemingly vulnerable object appeared he was all attention – to
pass the compliments of the day, to lead the way to the parlor car,
carring her grip, or, failing that, to take a seat next to her with the
hope of being able to court her to her destination. (Dreiser, p.25).

That she was one of those women – not too common in the Anglo-Saxon race
– born to be loved and to love… (Galsworthy, p.64).

… she had no business to make him feel like that – a wife and a
husband being one person. (Galsworthy, p.75).

He had stopped to look in at a picture shop, for Soames was an “amateur”
of pictures, and had a little room in no 62, Montpellier Square full of
canvases, stacked against the wall which he had no room to hang.

(Galsworthy, p.65).

… taking note of the stories, articles and poems that editors saw fit
to publish. (London, p.100).

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ?е??ия ???? ? ??? ?я ???, ?к ????в в ???и
??оя???? ??. Е? ????м я?я?ся ?, ?о ? ?????я с ??е ?оя?? ???я? too –
???м, sufficiently, enough – ????? и ??????? sufficient – ?????й ?и с??
???????о ??е ?ю? as и ?????я с ??е ?оя?м ???? so ?и ?с????м such: so…
as to – ?к (??й, ????о)… ?о (??ы), such… as to – ??й… ?о (??ы).

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ????я ??т ????й ???к ?????и. С??е??? с ???я? too,
enough, sufficiently и ?., ????в ?????я ??????ой ??? ???а с ?ю?м ?я ??
??ы, ??ы.

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ????я, ?оя?й ??е ?ю? as и ?????? с ???? so (so…
as to), ?????я ??????? ??? ???а с ?ю?м ??ы.

И????, ?????? с ???? such (such… as to, in such a way as to), ????ся
??? ??? ???а – ????м ?????? ?????я с ?юз? ?о. В эт? ??? ??я ?????
???ля?ся ?м ????, в ???м ??т ???-?я?а в ????? ?????и.

И???? в ???и ??оя???? ????я:

It was enough to make get up and leave table. (Galsworthy, p.75).

“Too miserly to bum two cents’ worth of gas and save his boarders’
neck”.

(London, p.47).

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ????ую?х ???й ? ????? ?и??? ? ????ся ? ??оя????
??, ??? ? ??т ??? в ??е ??л??ия и ? ???? ????????? ??т?я. Ч?е ??о
??оя????м ????ую?х ???й ??ют ???ы form, produce – ??????, give, yield –
??? и ?.

И???? в ???и ??оя?л??а ????ую?х ???й ?????я ??????м, ?????? ???????м с
????м c, ???? в ??? ??е (????м) и ?ю?м и.

У??ия:

I assure you he wouldn’t break into a sweat were he to dine in hell with
the devil himself. (Quick, p.319).

О??а ???ия:

… and were strapped very tightly over a pair of patcher and mended
shoes, as if to conceal the dirty white stockings, which were
nevertheless distinctly visible. (Dichens, p.24).

И???? ??о ????я?ся в ???е ????х ?????й.

О??т for + ???????е (?и ?????е) + ????в.

И????, ?оя?й ??е ??с?????о ?и ??е ?????я в ????м ??? с ?????ю?м ????м
for, в???т ????, ???е ????? ???т ?и ??, ?????? ??? ???????м ?и ??????.

О??т “for + ???????е + ?ф???” ???я? ???и ????х ??? п????ия (в ???й ?????
?? ??о ???и ??оя???? ?? и? ????я).

П??? ???а ???т ? ???я?? ? ???и, ?и э?м ???г for ????ся, а ?? ??? – ????в
с ???????м (??????) с for – ?????я ??а??ым ?????? ??????? ???я?? ???
???? ???и. И???? ?????о ?????я ?????у? ???у в ??? ??е, т.е. ???и ?????
???? ????, а ?оя?е ??д ?????м ???????е – ?????у.

I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this
way. (Drieser, p.58).

That was for him to find out. (Galsworthy, p.275).

I hope you will not think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to
you like this. (Maugham, p.73).

П?? ??? ??о?в в ??????? ??? ????я?ся ??? ????? ??ж с ?????м”, ??с??яю?й
??й ????е ?????я в ??к?? ??? ?и ???????? в ??м ??? с ?????м.

О??т ????? ??ж с ?????м” ??? в ?????и р?ь ??? ??а ?????я, а ??? ????
????ия. В ???е ????? ??ж с ?????м” ???????е ?и ?????е ??ж?т ?? (?и
???т), ???аю?е ????, ????? ?????м, ?и ????ю??я э?? ???ию.

О??т ??е??й ??ж с ?????м” ??н ? ???ию ???????у ?????? ?????ю, ?тя ? ??о
??т ?? ???н ??м ??????.

Из ??????я ???а ????? ??ж с ?????м” с ?????? ?у ?????м ?????? ??о, ?о
?????е в ????м ??? him ??????т ?????у ?????? ?????я he, а ????в to come
– ????? will come.

И???? в ???е ????ый ??ж с ?????м” ??т ????я?ся и в ????л?? ???, ?????уя
????? ??а???о ?????я, ?????у ???? в с?????? ???.

В ???е ????? ??ж с ?????м” ??т ?? ?а ?и ????о ?????в, ?????ую?х ?? ?и
????? ????м п?????о ?????я. В ???м я?? ?т ???а, с?т???ую?? ???у ?????
??ж с ?????м”, и ? ?????я ? ???й я?к ??????? ?????м ??????.

… I have a particular service I want you to do to me… (Maugham,
P.57).

О??т ??????й ??ж с ?????м”.

Т????ная ????? ??ля? ??????й ??? ?????м, ????й ??????й ??ж с ?????м”, в
?????ях ?? The man was expected to win. ?ы ?с????? в ??х ??аях ??ую
?????с? ????? ?????о ?????, – ??т ??? ??????о ?????о я??”, – в ???м ??ая
?о ??ь – ????я – ?я??ет ????? с ?????м, ???ю?м ???? ???????, ????е,
????е ???-? ??, ? ????? в ?????и. Д??е ????? ???о ??????и и ???? ? ???,
а ?????? ?????е, в ???м ????в ?я?н с ????? в ???? ????й ??и ????? ?????о
????го [10, с.169].

И???? в ???е ????л?? ??ж с ?????м” ??т ????я?ся в ????х ф??х:

И???? в ??е Indefinite ???? ????, ??????е с ????м ???а в ??? ??е.

И???? в ??е Continuous ???? ????? ????, ??????е ????м ???а в ??? ??е.

И???? в ??е Perfect ???? ????, ?е???ую?е ???ию ???а в ??? ??е.

И???? в ??е Perfect Continuous ???ет ????? ????, ??????я в ???е ???а
???и, ????????о ???ию ???а в ??? ??е.

С??и ?????ия ???а “?????? ??ж с ??????:

У???ля?ся, ??а ????е ???? ??ую?? ????и в ??????м ???: to say, to state,
to report, to announce, to believe, to expect, to know, to understand,
to consider, to see, to hear.

He was thought be hones and kindly. (Dreiser, p.49).

He was known to be a young man without fortune. (Galsworthy, p.31).

П????? с ???? ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ?????я ????????м ??????. Г??л в
??????м ??? ?????я ??????о-л??м ???? (??рят, ???ют. .), ??ю?м ?? ????
?????я, ? ???м ???т ?????е ?????е с ?ю?м ?о.

The gods had given Irene dark – brown eyes and golden hair, which is
said to be the mark of a wlak character. (Galsworthy, p.57).

П????ие с ???? ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ??о ????и и ???м ?????? с
??????о-??? ???? в ?? ???? ?????я.

We are sure to come at the heart of the matter. (Dreiser, p.27).

But he is sure to marry her. (Galsworthy, p.77).

О???м ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ??р?ля?ся, ??а ????е ???? ????и to seem, to
appear, to prove, to happen, to chance.

His manner changed when I happened to mention her (Dreiser, p.137).

Everyone seemed to be talking and I sitting in silence, felt awkward
(Maugham, p.31).

Getting the butler on the wire, he inquired whether Mr. Clyde Griffiths
chanced to be there (Dreiser, p.47).

О???м ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ??р?ля?ся, ??а ????е ???? ???а????: likely,
unlikely, certain, sure, ??ую?? ? ????-?я??. Indefinite Infinitive ??е
э?х ???а???х ??? ???? ????, ??ся??я к ????.

Alroy Kear was a bachelor and now at fifty was likely to remain one.

(Maugham, p.40).

Г???, ??е ???х ??т ?оя? ????в, ?ля?я ? ?, ???е ????яю?я в э?м ???е а) в
??????м ??? и б) в ??????? ???. Г??? в ??????м ??? ????ют ????ую ?я????ь
?и ?????е ???я?е: know – ??ь, consider – ???ь, believe – ????, think –
???, see – ???, hear – ???ь и ?. В ??????? ??? ????я?ся ??? ????о ????:
seem, appear – ???ся; prove, turn out – ????я; happen, chance – ????я,
???? ?????я. И???? в э?м ???е ??т ?оя? ??е ??е ???о???й: be likely –
??я?о, ??о; be sure, be certain – ?????, ???о.

Н???? ?????и ???? ???а ??????й ??ж с ??????:

А. С??и, ??а ? ?? ????х ???? ???? ?? ?????.

П??? ???а ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ?????, ?? ??? ??т в ???????м ?и ???????
?????м ???ж??, ?е ??????е ?????е (that, what, which) я?я?ся ?????.

В??й ??? ???? ???а ??????й ??ж с ?????м” ?????, ?? ????в ???? ???? ?и
??оя?е, ?????а?е ??м ??????ям.

Б. О??т ??????й ??ж с ?????м” с ????и, ?оя?? в ??????й ??е. Е?и ??? ??
??а??о ????? ???н ??????й ??й ???а в ??????? ???, ? э? ????е ?и ????
????я ? ???у ??у. Е?и п??й ?? ????? ????? ???н ??????й ??? ???а в
??????м ???, ? ????е, ?к ???о, ?и ???? ?и ?й и ???я?ся.

В. О??т ??????й ??ж с ?????м” с ????м ????.

М???? ??? ?и ???? ????я, ?к ???о, к ???у в ??????м ?и ??????? ???,
?оящ?у ??д ?????м.

Г. П??? ??? ???????? с ???г?, ?оя?й ??у ???? в ??????м ??? и ?????м.
Г??а ???????? с ????м, ?оя?я ??е ???а в ??????м ???, ????я к э?? ????му.

Д. П??? ?????й с ??я ?????, ? ???х ?? ???е, а ??? я?яе?я ??ью ???а
??????й ??ж с ?????м”. Е?и в ?????и ?а ????х и ?и э?м ??е я?я?ся ??ью
???а ??????й ??ж с ?????м”, ? ?и ???? ??д ??? ????м ???я?ся ?????.

Е. О??т ??????й ??ж с ?????м” в ?????ях, ???? ???? there. П????ия ??
there seems to be, there are believed to exist и ?. Р??? в ?м, ?о в ?х
???? ????е ??? к ????ию ?????ия.

И???? с ??ся??ся к ?? ???и ???? ????я, ????я?? в ???? ???? ??а ?????я.

И???? в ???и ???? ??а ?????я ??? ??ля?ся ?пя?й ?и ??. К?г ????, ????яе?х
в э?м ?у?е, ???? ????н.

И???? в ???и ???? ??а ??о ?????:

1. ??????м ????; ??????? ?р?й ???а с ?ю?м ??, ??е ???? ?я ?я? с ???ую?м
?????? ?о?а ??я?я ??????? ??а ?м??, ???т ???ь, ?о ? ?.; ???оя???м ??????
? ????м в ?????н? ????? ?и ?ъя????м 1-? ?? ??????? ??а.

Tom’s mode of commencing the conversation being rather unusual, not to
say startling. (Dickens, p.223).

Every gentleman who hears me, is probably aquainted with the reply made
by an individual, who – to use an ordinary figure of speech – ‘hung out’
in a tub. (Dickens, p.118).

В ????? я?? ?????я ???оя???й ?????? ???, ??оя?й ? ???????? в ??м ??? и
?????. Су??????е в ??м ???е ????? ?? ?и ???т, ???аю?й ????, ?????
?????м, ?и ????ю??я э?? ???ию. Т?? ??? ??т в ??е ?????я и ???н ?пя?й.
П????ся ?????? с ?ю?м ???, в к??? ??? ???? ???????е. С???я???й ??н???й
??? ?????я в ю????? ???х и в ?????? ?????.

Т?? ???м, ?к ?? ???? ??, ?????? ???? ????? ?я?? с ?????м ?о в ???у ???а
????о, ?о ? ????? ?е б??е ????л ????е ???е ??ы и ????? ??????? ?????. О?
????и ??????ь ?к в ??е ?????, ?к и в ??е ?????. П??я ???а к ??, ?о
?фи??в ???л ????ю ??? и ?????ь ???я? ????м. В ????? ??????я ??? у ??
?я??? ????? ????и ???, ?? и ????й ??????, а ??е ????ь ?????ь ????
????ию.

Но ?ря? с ?????и ?т??ия?, ????в ???? ???? ?у ???е ??ы. И??ая ???????
????? ?оя?я?ся в ??????? ???и ??и в ???ж??, ?е ? ??т ???? ???и ?????о,
????ия и ??????? ??а. То ?? ???й ???? ????? ????ся ??? в ?? ???????
???ях. Т??о ??ия ?????ю?я Е.А. К???а, Н.А. К???, К.А. Г???, М.И. О???? и
??? ?????? ????к, ??и ?х В.А. К????я, Н.М. В????ая и ???.

В ???и ? ?????я и ??оя????, ???е ??? ??е ???аю?я ?и ???? ???х ??????к
?????, ? ??ь ????? ????ся ? ??и, ?о э? ???? ?? ? ?г? ?? ???? к ???м. В
???е ?????я ???т? ??т ???? ??????? ???и ?? ????х ??? ?????я.

4.2 С????е?? ?????и ?????ия ??????? с ?????м

П? ???? ?????? ?н???? в ???и ????х ??? ????ния ???яю?я ????е ???
??е???я. С????о – ??????й ???я? ????? ???? ??? я??, ??де ??о ?? в
??????иях; ??????-???а-????й – ????? ?ею?еся ????я/?????я в ????? ???ж??
с ??????? ??????? с ?????м; ?п??????й ??д ?????ия ????ля? ??? ???с,
????у в ??? я?? ?ею?я ?? ???а, ???????, ????ю?е ?к ???я ????ия ?????я,
?к и ???я ?о ???ия и ???ляю?е ????у ????ы ???о я??; ?????-???????й
?з?ля? ???? ??? ?????е э???ы я?? ?к ???? ???ы и ?к ?? ????й ??у э????и
я???й ???ы, ???????ь ???е ???? я?? – ??е ???о, ?к?????и, ?????? ???с??
я??, ??? я??м ?и я?? ???; ??????? ???? ?я?? я???е ??ы и ???ы ?????ия
?????о ??????о я?? в ??? ??х ??????, в ????х ???ях яз???о ???я [15,
с.31-32].

С??я Р.В. Р??? ???л?? ?????и в ?????й ?????й ??” ????ля? ??ю ???ц ???ия
?????в ????и???? ???а ?????ия ????? ?? и ?????й в ?? ??х: в ???х ?????
у??й ????? ?? и в ??????й р?и ????ей, ???????й в ?????иях ?????х ?????
???в. И??? к ???ию ? ????х ?? ?и ?????й, а ???х ????? ???, ? ???н, т.к
??? к ???ию я???х ???, ???й я?я?ся ??? ????? ?я ???????х ??????, ?????
?з ???а ???х ???? ???х ??????, ???е ?????о ??т ?? ???о – ??? ??? ??????е
о ?а??м ???????? я??, о ?о ????а??? ?????ях.

Э? ??? я?яю?я ??м ? ?????н? ????, ?тя и ? ???????и, ??х ??в ??? ? ???т
?????ия ?????. П? э?м ????????ая ?? ??т ???????я ?к ??е ??я???ая и
??????я ?????ия ???? ????? ?????й ??.

О???м ?????ия В.А. А????й (????????е ???? ?? ???а в ????х ??ях ??”)
????и ???? ??ы ???а, ??????е в ???? п????? в ?? ??ях: в ??е ???????
????? и в ???.

В?? ??? э?х ?? ?и?й ? с??? и ?ъя?я?ся ? ??? ??ю в ???? ??????. П? э?м
??р ?????ия ???т ? ??, ?о ????е ??????? ?????я ??т ????ь в ???? ????ля
?? ?и ??о ??ц????? ??я ????я ?й ????я?, к??ая ????? ??у ???????? ?????
??? и ?о ??????о – ???? ???????ю.

П???? ?????ия ??оя?й ???????? ??? я?я?ся ???????? ????? в ??е ???????
?????, ?э?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????ия ????? в ???и ????х ??? ?????я
?????ся ? я??в? ????е, ?я?м ? ??????? ?????ия ????? и ?????? ????й.

В ????е ??а, в ??е????м ???? ??а и ??? ????е ??о ???? ??????ая ????????ь
??????? ??.

Г??????е я??ия ?????и ?я?? ? ??? ???????о ???ия. В???няя ?р??? ???????
??, ???? и ?????и ??я ? ??т ????я в ??? ? ??????? ???й, ???я?? ?р??????и
????я?. Г??????е ??ы ???уют в ????и ??? ??????? ню??в и э??й ??, в
??????и ??а и ?? ????х ???, в ????х ? ??? ??я ????я к ???у, ????? ???м
я???х ???в ? ?? ????з? ??????? ?????и ?????ия.

С??????е я??? ????т в ??м ???? ????? я??, в ?? ??, а ??????ую ???ю я???е
???? ????ают в ????? ????и ?? с ??? в ???? ?? и? ??о ???????о ?оя??ия.
О??? и ??? ??в? э????и ? ?? ?????? ? ?а???и в ?? ?????о ???ют ????ку с
?????й.

Г??л – ???? ??я ??????ая ???рия. В ????? ??е ? ?? ??????м ?о ?а??й и
???й э?????о-???????о ????? ????ся ?????? ??????? ??.

И???? ?к ??а ???а ????ся ???м ????? ????х ???? и ??????? ??? ???????о
?оя??ия.

П???, ????е ?я ???и????й ??? ? ??????? ?????? ????? и ?????? ???в, ?ют
в????? ?????ь ???? ????? ??и????е ?????и, ?я??? с ??????? ????? в ???и
????х ??ов ?????я; ? ??? ??????? ??????и ?????н?? ??? ???м э?????о –
??????? ????л ??? ???? ??ы ???а.

У?????е ????? в ?н?? ?????о ???? я??? в ????в??й ?????, в ?????е ???в ?о
?????о ??????? ???й ???к?о ??????я, а ??е ?????м ?????о ?????ия. Д????е
э?????? ???????и в ?????ях с ?????м в ?? ?????о ????? ????я ??????ю
???н? ??????? ???в. Н???р, в ?????и To quarrel with him – how stupid of
me! (Maugham, p.99). ???? ?я? to be (To quarrel with him is (was) stupid
of me) – ?????? э?????? ??оя?е ??я. Э????я ?????я ?к? ????я ??????? ???у
??л??ия. К?? ??, э???с в ??? ???е ??ля? ?ф??? в ???

У?к 22. Н???е ??ы ???а (НФГ). П???? I (Participle I). Р?ь Participle I в
?????и. Participle I в ?? ?????я

С??? ???? ?а????х ????? к ??у (???. doc)

С???ь ? ???.

1. В ????? ?????и ??? м?? ??????ся в ?? ???: ??? и ????. О ??? ???
???а-????? ????? в У??х 6 и 9. Т??ь ?????я ? ???? ??? ???а. Их в ?????
я?? ?и:

Infinitive – ??????ая ??а ???а (?? 3)

Participle I, Participle II [‘patisipl’wAn, ‘tu:] – ????е I и ????е II

Gerund – ????

С??? ???т ?????я, к?ая ???а ??у ??? (the finite form) и ???? (the
non-finite form) ???и ???а. Мы ?е ??м, ?о ??ая ??а ???а и?? ?и ???????:
??я (Present, Past, Future), ?д (Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous) и ??г
(Active, Passive). Н??? ???а ???и у ?а?? ???т о ?м, ?о э?т ??? явля?ся
????м. У ???? ?? ?т ???и (у ?х ??? ?е х??????и: ?д и ??г), ???, ?и ?
я?яю?я ????м, а ??ют ?? ???-? ???о ??а ??л??ия, ? ??т ?????ся ????м
??к?о ?????? (???? ????: ??????) ?????я.

Д?? ??т ???????я в? ???? ??ы ???а с и????а?? ??я?х ??ь ????:

???я ??а НФГ (?з ???????х ????: going, to go);

???я ??а НФГ (?ею?я ???????е ???ы: having gone, to have gone);

????й ??? (? ?ею?й ??д НФГ ??го ???ую?? ?? ?и ??м?а);

?????й ??? (?ею?й ??д НФГ ?? ?й??ю?е ?? ?и ???т).

С? ??? “???” ???, ?о ??ая НФГ ?????ся ? ?м??я???, а в ????и с ???и ??а?,
????: to read – ??? ??н??, ? to read books – ?е ???. П???? ????? ?и
??ч?х ??ы ???а (????в, ????е и ????), ? ?? ?и ?? ????: ??????, ????? и
??????е.

2. А ??? ????м к ????? ???у ???? ?? ???а. Т? ?к ???? ??е?я ? ???т?е
(???? ??е) ?е ?? ?? (У?к 3), ???? к ????ям.

О????? Participle I.

П???? I (в ???й ??е: Indefinite Active) ????ся ? ????? ?з ???ы to ??????
????я – ing. Participle I ??????т ???? ???тию ???????о ??? (т.е. ????ю с
????? – ?, – ющ, – ?, – ящ, – ?, – ш), ????:

to play – playing – ??ю?й, ???? to carry – carrying – ???й, ??? to have
– having – и?ю?й, ???й to plan – planning – ???ую?й, ??????й to occur –
occurring – ????я?й, ??????й.

О???е ????! П? ????? ????я – ing: а) ???ая ??а е в ???? ????ся (have –
having) и б) ???ая ????я ???а?ся, ??ы ????ь ???? ?? (plan – planning,
occur – occurring). В ????х ??аях ??? ???ся ?????.

3. Р?ь Participle I в ?????и. П???? I ?и ???оя?л?? ?????? (б? ????????
?и ?я???о ???а) ??т ??? ?? ?? ??? ?????я: ?????я, ??оя?л??а и ???? ??а
?????я (о ??? ?????я – в У?? 4). В э?х ???ях ??т ????ь ?к ????е ????е I,
?к и ?о ???ы, ????:

????е: writing (people) – ???е (лю?) ???: (people) writing books –
(лю?), ???е ?иги.

О?????ая ??а Participle I ????ся ?и ??? ???ы not ??д ?????, ????:

influencing (?ияю?й) – not influencing (? ?ияю?й) going (???) – not
going (? ???).

П???м к ???у ???й Participle I в ?????и.

4. Participle I в ?? ?????я

4.1 В ?? ??д??ия (??й?) ????е ????е ??т ?оя? ? и ??е ???ля??о ??а, ??? –
т??о ??е, ????:

the reading boy – ??ю?й ???к the boy reading a book – ???к, ??ю?й ??у.

Е?ь ?а ???а ??в?а Participle I:

а) ????? ???????о ???;

б) ????м в ?????м ?????и, ???? ?ю?? ??? ???й. И ??ы ??ь, в ??м ???и
????ь ????е ?????? ?????я, ???т ????ь ??????? ?к ??? ????я, ?к и ?????
?????о ?????я. П??е ??о, ???т ???ь о ???? в ???? ??ы Indefinite у ??? и
???? ?? ???? ???, а ? ??? ????я:

Indefinite у ??? ??, т.е. ????-????х, ??? ????? о ?м, ?о э? ????е ??о
????? ?????м и ??????м ??м, в ?????и ? ????а;

Indefinite у ???? ?? ???а ???т о ?м, ?о ???? э?й НФГ ????? ?????? с
????м ?????. Д??? ???и, ??а ??от с НФГ, ?ею?й ??у Indefinite, ?????я
?????м ??????, ???ая ??а ????ся ????м в ?м ? ???и, в ???м ??т ????е
?????о ?????я.

Р???м ?а ???а ???? Participle I:

People living at that time in the town could see a great fire. – Лю?,
???е ?? в ? ??я в (э?м) ???, ??и ??? ???? ??р.

П???? I, ?ею?е ??у Indefinite Active (living), ?????я ????м п?????о
?????я в ????м ???и (??), ?к ?к ????е а????? ?????я ??т ??у ????? ???и
(could see).

A number of animals living in the soil feed on plants. – Ц?? ряд ????,
???е ??т ? ??е, ??ю?я ???ия?.

П???? I в ??е Indefinite Active (living) ?????я ????м в ??оя?м ???и
(ж??), ????у ????е ?????о ?????я ??т ??у ??оя?? ???и (feed).

П???? living в ??х ???? ??т ??у Active, и э? ???, ?о ??о, ???ля?? э?м
????, ?? ????т ???? эт?о ??а?ия.

4.2 Н????о ? ??, ???? ? ?????е ????м ?и???м ?и ????, ?о ??? ??о ?р???
?????м ?????? (?о ? и ??? в ????их ????). О??о, ?? ? ?????е ????и
Participle I ???т?м, ? ????е ?????? ??ы н??я?? и ????? ???и ???? ??а?ия
(?ею?й – ??, ?., ???й – ??. ?), ??р ???й ???т ? ??ы ???и ?????о ?????,
????:

Beauty of face is a frail ornament, a passing flower, a momentary
brightness belonging only to the skin. – К??? ?? – э? ???й ????, ???ю?й
???, ???я?е ????, ??????е ??? ??.

The person conducting the experiment made a mistake. – Ч???, ?????й
э?????, д???л ???.

4.3 Мы ?е ??р?и, ?о ????е ????е ??т ??????ся ?к ??д ???ля?? ???, ?к и
??е ??, ?о ??т ?????ую ????ю ????. За???е: ????е, ?оя?е ??д ???????м,
??? ???? ?о ??оя?ое ????, ??????? (? ???ию ?о ?????ся к ???????у), а
??дя??я ??е ???ля??о ??а, ???? ??? ????ую, ?????ю ?я ???о ???ия
??????ку, ????:

I don’t like screaming children. – Я ? лю?ю ??у?х (????х) ??й. (??я
?р?????а) Ho: I heard that child screaming. – Я ???, ?к ?т ???к ???.
(??????? ???т?? ???ия).

Т?? ????я I в ?? ?????я, ???е ????ю?я ? ???ию к ???????у, ???аю?я ????
??о. П???м ??о?е ?????е:

the rising generation – ???е ????е

a distorting mirror – ??? ???о

a turning point – ????? ???

a walking encyclopaedia – ?дя?я э?????я

the burning question – ????? ???

a leading question – ???й ???

no laughing matter – ? ??я??е ??.

Н???р:

A living dog is better than a dead lion. – Ж?ая (а ? ???я) ??? ??е, ?м
???й ?в.

Н???е ??ы ???а, к ???м ??ся?я ????е, ????в и ???? ?л?аю?я ? ??? ?м, ?о ?
?еют ????и ??, ??а, ???и и ????ия и ? ????яю?я в ?????и в ???и ?????,
?тя ??т ?? ?о ??ью.

To translate (????в) the text I used a dictionary. Ч?? ????и ??т, я
??????ся ???ём.

Smoking (????) is not allowed here. К??ь (???е) ??ь ? ?????я.

The stars shining (????е I) in the dark sky seem blue. Звё?ы, ?яю?е в
??? ??, ???я ??б?и.

И????. И???? (the Infinitive) – э? ???ая ??а ???а, ???я ???? ????. И????
я?я?ся ???? (?и I) ??? ???а и ????ля? ??? в ???е. П??а?м ????? я?я?ся
???а to: to help – ????, to read – ???. И???? ????я?ся ?з ???ы to в
??ую?х ?у?ях: П?? ???? shall, will.

He will write to his parents tomorrow. З??а ? ???т ??м ???лям.

П?? ????х ???? (??е ???а ought).

She can ski and skate. О? ??т ???ся ? ???х и ? ??х.

П?? ???? ?????? в??ия?я feel, see, hear, watch и ?.

We saw him enter. Мы ???, ?к ? ??л.

П?? ???? let (????ь), have, make (???ля?).

What makes you think so? Ч? ???ля? ?бя ?к ???? Let me take this book,
please. По????, ????е ?е ?я? э? ??у.

П?? ????й had better (??е), would rather (??е ?).

You had better go now. Л?? ?? / ?и ???. I must see you at once. М? ??
с??с ? ?????я с ??й.

В ?????м ????? я?ке ????в ??т ??ую?е ??ы.

ActivePassiveIndefiniteto writeto be writtenContinuousto be
writing-Perfectto have writtento have been writtenPerfect Continuousto
have been writing-И???? в ??е ???????о ??? ????? ????, ?о????? ??м,
????? в ?????и ?????, а в ??????м ??? – ????, ?????? ? э? ??.

I like to help. Я лю?ю ????.

I like to be helped. Я лю?ю, ??а ?е ???ют.

И???? в Indefinite Active ????? ????, ? ??няя ???? ?о ????ия. И???ив в
Continuous Active п?????т ?????? ???ия.

She likes to write letters. О? ??а ??? ???.

She must be still writing. О?, ??? ??, ?ё ?ё ??т.

Н?????й ????в ???? ????, ??????е с ????м ??о?-????? (?и ??ую?е ? ?м).

П????й ????в ???? ????, ?????ю?е ???ию, ?????у ?а??м-????м.

I am glad to study at the University. Я ?д, ?о ??ь в ?????те.

I am glad to have studied at the University. Я ?д, ?о ??ся в ??????.

Ф??? ?????

В ?????и ????в ??т ??:

П????м.

To walk in the garden was very pleasant. Г?я? в ?? ?? ??ь ?ия?о.

To read a lot is to know much. М?? ??? – ??о ??ь.

О??я????м ??.

To read the book I went to the reading-hall. Ч?? ????ь э? ??у, я ??л в
????й ?л.

О?????м.

И???? в ???и ????ния ?????я ? ???й я?к ??я ????и:

П????? ???????м ?????? с ????м ????м.

He is going to take part in the conference to be held in Moscow. Он
????ся ??я? ???е в ?????и, ???я ??? ??оя?ся в М??е.

Н????ё?? ??? ???а.

I have nothing to sky. М? ??? ???ь.

Л??й ??? ???а, ?? ?????е ????я к ?ря???у ??????у.

She was the first to come. О? ??? ???.

Д?????.

He was glad to have been given a new job. Он ?л ?д, ?о ?у ?? ??ю ???.

I decided to read this book. Я ??л ????ь э? ??у.

Ч??ю ????? (??о ?????).

You may come in. Вы ??? в??.

We ought to leave early in the morning. Мы ??? ??? ?? ??м.

My wish is to read much. М? ???е – ??о ???.

Н???е ??ы ???а ? ???аю?я ? ??м и ???. О? ? ??т ???оят??о ???я? в ?????и
???ю ?????, ? ??т ???ь в ?о ???. К ???? ??? ??ся?я: ????в, ????е и ????.

Every step towards eliminating nuclear weapons is in the interests of
every nation.

Лю?й ?г в ?????и ?????я я???о ??ия ??? ????м ???о ?????а.

Л??е ??ы ???а в ?г???м я?? ?еют ?и ????ия: ?ъя????е (the Indicative
Mood), ??????е (the Imperative Mood) и ??????? (the Subjunctive Mood).

Г??? в ?ъя????м н????и ???ют ???? ????, ???ют ??ы:

His son goes to school.

Е? ?н ??ся в ??е.

She has written an interesting article.

О? ???? ????ую ??ью.

A new building of the theatre was built in this street.

На э?й ??е ????и ??е ??? ???.

Г??? в ??????м ??о??и ???ют ?????, ???у, ??т, ?????, ???у:

“Don’t buy them”, warned our cautious driver.

“He ????е ?”, – ?????л ?ш ????? ??р.

Undertake not what you cannot perform but be careful to keep your
promise.

He ???? ? ?, ?о ? ???е ????ь, ? ????? ???? ????.

Г??? в ??????? ????? ???ют ???? ? ????, а ?????е ?и ???????:

If there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers.

Е?и ? ? ?? ??? лю?й, ? ?? ? ???х ????в.

К? ???, ?к и ???? ??ы ???а ?еют ?а ???: ??????? (the Active Voice) и
??????й (the Passive Voice).

Г??? в ??????? ??? ???ют ????, ???е ?????ся ?????:

I inform you that I have carried out the mission.

С??аю, ?о я ???? ???е.

Г??? в ??????м ??ге ???ют ????, ???е ????? ? ?? ?????:

I was informed that the mission had been carried out.

М? ????, ?о ???е ?? ????о.

Ф?? ???а ??т ???? ????е ??у ????м и ????. В ???м я?? ??ют ???ы ?????? и
??????? ??. Г??? ?????? ?? ????ют ??т?е, к??? ????о, и ?? ?о ????т:

Он ???? э? ??ью с ????м.

Г??? ??????? ?? о???ают ????, ???ая ? ?о ???я???, ??????, ???????ь:

В?? ? ??л э? ??ью с ????м. (Но ? ?г и ? ????ь ?).

В? ???а в ???м я?ке ????ся ?? ????? ?о ??ы, ?? с ???ю ????в и ????к.
В??? ???ия г??? в ????? я?? ???ю?я ????? ???????? ???а с ????? ??оя?? ?и
????? ???и ???в?о ???а.

В ????? я?? ??? ??-????х ??? ???а: ??????? ???а (Indefinite Tenses),
?????? ???а (Continuous Tenses), ?????е ???а (Perfect Tenses), и ?????е
?????? ???а (Perfect Continuous Tenses). В ??? ????й ?у?е ?и ???и:
??оя?е (Present), ????е (Past), ???е (Future).

З?лю??е

В ??? ???????? ?л??е ??ы ?????о ???а с ??и з??я ????и ???и.

В ??? ??е ???? ???? ??ч?х ?? ???а: ? ????, ??, ?? в ?????и, ???ы ?????я,
???ы, ???ы ???? ? ???й я?к.

В э?й ??е ? ????з???и, ?о ??е ???? ??ы ???а и ? ????.

И???? – э? ???ая ??а, ? ???й ???ю?я ?е ф?? ?????о ???а

Г???й – э? ?????ая ??а ???а в ????? я?? ? ?ею?я ???а в ???м я??

Т?? ???в?т ??ья ???ая ??а ?????о ???а – ????е, ???е ???? в ?? ???? ???а
и ???????о, ??е ???? ??? ??а? в ?????и ? ??т ??. Т?? ????е и?? ?е ??ы

Н???е ??ы ???а ?оя?яют ?бя ?????о ? ????ю с ??ы? ???и ???а. У ???? ??
???а ????з?я ????я ??е?, ???й ??я?? ??ая ??а. В э?й ??е ???ы ??ую?е
???ы:

1. И???? ? ??т ???оя???? ??е??о ???ия; ?о ????е ???? ????о ???и ?????
?????я.

2. В ??????иях ????? ????а ??а ???д???? ??я? ????т ? ???? ? ??????я,
???е ????ет в ???м

3. Р???? ????е ???и, ???аю?е в ????ях с ?????м, ???ют ? ???ия ??о? ?и
???????о, ? ???? ???т ????в. О??н? я?я?ся ???к ??????я

4. П????-д????я ??а ?????, ???о ??? ??? ?й ? ???, ?????? ?????? ???ия,
????????о ???ию ?????, и, ???о ????? ??е ?????, м?? ??ь ????-????е ????

5. ????е ????и в ????? ????? ?????ют ????е ?????? ??ы, ??ую?е ???о
?????ия.

6. ??ы ???ия ? ?еют ???оя???? ????? ???ия, ? ??т ???? ???? в ??оя?м,
????м и ???м ???и.

7. ????я ???и у ???ия ?к ? ?к и у ????я ? ??лю?ая, а ??????я

8. Н????е?? ??ы ???ия (reading, being read) в ???? ????ют ????, ??????е
???ию, ?????у ????м, и в з????? ? э?? ??ся?я к ??оя?? ?и ???? ???и

9. П????о??е ???ию, ?????у ????м, ??т т?? ????ся ????? ??????? ??ы ???ия
с ????? on (upon) и after.

10. ????я ???и ????ся в ???и у ????я ??????? и ????? ??

11. П????, в ????, ??т ????е ????е ????

12. П???? ????е I, в ???е ? ????я II, ??да ???? ????, ??????е ???ию
с????о

13. П? ?????? ????й I и II в ???оя???м ????м ???? ???е?е ?и и ??????? ?к
???к ???? ??т ?? ????? с ???? ?чи.

14. В ??????м ?????? ????е ???? ????я I ???т ? ???? ????а ???а, от ????
????? ????е.

15. П????е п???? ??? ????т ? ????, ???????? ???ию ??у??о и ?????е ? ?о
?????я, ?? ????е ????? ? ?????о ???а ?и ? ???а ??????о ???? х????. И,
?з??о, ????ю??я, ?? ????е ??з??о ? ??????о ???а

Б?????я

1. Л.Г. В??, Г.В. В??. Г????а ?????? ?????о я?? М 2001

2. Г??? К.А. Г????а ?????о я??: И????. С-Пб, 2000

3. Ж??? В.Н. С????? ????? я?к. Т?????? ?? ?????. М., 1956

4. И?? Б.А. С????? а????й я?к. Л., 1980

5. И??? И.П., Б???? В.В., П???? Т.Т. Т?????ая ????? ?????? ?????о я??.
М., 1989

6. К???а Е.А. Г????а ?????о я?ка в ??? и ????. СПб 2000

7. Р????к? Е.М. Э????дия ?? ????? ????. М., 1998

8. Х????а И.Б. О??ы а????й ?????. М., 1994

9. Ц???а Т.К. П?????ь ? ????? ?????о я??. М., 2000

10. У??? ?я ????в ??????? ????? Г????а ?????о я??. Л., 1973

11. Ilyish B. A. The structure of modern English, Л., 1981

12. Blokh M. Y. A course in theoretical English grammar.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020