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История Германской письменности

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Aii?in 1. Ae?aaiaaa?iaineea ieaiaia e eo ycuee. Enoi?ey Aa?iaineie
ienueiaiiinoe

Eeanneoeeaoeey ae?aaiaaa?iaineeo ieai?i

1. Aeiaeeeu.

A ieo aoiaeeee. Ao?aoiaeu, Ea?eiu, Aa?eiu, Aoooiiu.

Iie iaeoaee a ainoi/iie /anoe ?annaeaiey aa?iaioeaa.

2. Eiaaaiiu.

A ieo aoiaeeee Eeia?u, oaaoiiu, oaaee, aiaeu, naenu, thou, o?ecu.

Iaeoaee ia Naaa?i-Caiaaea Aa?iaineeo oa??eoi?ee, ia iiaa?aaeuea
naaa?iiai ii?y e ia ino?iaa THoeaiaeey.

3. Enoaaaiiu.

A ieo aoiaeeee A?oeoa?u, Oaiaau, Naeee. Iaeoaee a i?e?aeineeo iaeanoyo.

4. Iaaeeiu e Aanoa?iu. Naeeeenue a ainoi/iie /anoe.

5. Aa?ieiiiu.

A ieo aoiaeeee ia?eiiaiiu, eaaaeu, eaiaiaa?aeu, aeeaiaiu.

Iaoiaeeeenue ia thaa aa?iaineeo iinaeaiee.

6. Aeeeaaeiiu – neaiaeeiaaneea ieaiaia, aeeee

iainiaeaiii io ae?oaeo aa?iaineeo ieai?i.

Oiiieiaiey ia eiaaaiiao, yneeaiiao e aa?ieiiiao anoue o Oaoeeoa.

Eeanneoeeaoeey Ae?aaiaaa?iaineeo ieaiaiiuo ycueia

Iaiyoieee ae?aaiaaa?iaineie ienueiaiiinoe noi?ie?iaaeenue a ia?eiae
?ani?ino?aiaiey eaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, ia iniiaaiee
ienueiaiiuo iaiyoieeia auaeaeeeenue ycueiaua a?oiiu:

1. Ainoi/iay – Iaiyoieee Aioneiai ycuea 4 – 6 aae.

2. Naaa?iay a?oiia (Neaiaeeiaaneay) – ia?aua ienueiaiiua iaiyoieee

aei 10 aaea. Yoe iaiyoieee yaeyee niaie ia?acoeu ?oie/aneie
ienueiaiiinoe. Ia/eiay n 10 aaea caeanue ?acee/atho ae?aaiaaeaoneee,
ae?aaiaoaaaeneee, ii?aaaeneee, Eneaiaeneee.

3. Caiaaeiay a?oiia i?aaenoaaeaia ia/eiay n 7 aaea iaiyoieeaie ia
ae?aaiaaiaeeeneii, ae?aaiao?enneii, Ae?aaiaieaeiaiaiaoeeii.

Aa?iaineea ycuee naaa?iie e caiaaeiie a?oii nio?aieeenue aei
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy e noaee iaoeeiiaeueiuie ycueaie.

Enoi?ey Aa?iaineie ienueiaiiinoe. Naeaeaoaeuenoaa i aa?iaineeo ycueao a
aeiienueiaiiue ia?eiae

Aa?iaioeu iiyaeeenue caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey ienueiaiiinoe. Iie
nii?eeanaeenue n ?acee/iuie ia?iaeiinoyie, ia Naaa?a – n oeineeie e
neaayineeie ieaiaiaie, ia thaa – n ?eieyiaie. Iniaaiii iiiai
caeinoaiaaiee a oeineii ycuea.

ringas- oeiineee. hrings- aioneee. ring- ae?aaiaaa?oiaiaiaoeeee.

rikas. reiks. rich.

Yoe e ae?oaea neiaa nio?aieee a oeineii ycuea oa noooeenu e ieii/aiey,
eioi?ua ?aiueoa auee a ae?aaiaaa?iaineeo ycueao. Ia/eiay n 4 aaea
eiioaeou ?eieyi n aa?iaioeaie aic?anoatho. A ycuea ?ei. Eiia?.
iiyaeyaony an? aieueoa caeinoaiaaiee ec aa?iaineeo ycueia – i?aaeiaou
auoa, eiaia, aii?oaeaiey.urus – coa?, alces – eine, barditus – iaiaa.

Ana yoe neiaa iiyaeeenue a eaoeineii a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea o aa?iaioeaa
naiae ienueiaiiinoe au? ia auei.

Naiue aieueoie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aa?aa?neea i?aaaeu – naiae
caeiiia iau/iiai i?aaa aa?iaineeo ia?iaeia 5-9 aaea.

?oie/aneia ienueii – yoi ae?aaiaeoee aeae aa?iaineie ienueiaiiinoe. Yoi
iaei/ee ni ciaeaie ia ieo. Yoe ?oiu iiaee /eoaoue oieueei ae?aoeu. ?oia
– oaeia, ?aoiyi – oaioaoue. ?oie/aneee aeoaaeo ian/eouaaao 24 ciaea. Yoe

ciaee i?aaenoaaeyee niaie eiiaeiaoeeth aa?oeeaeueiuo e ai?eciioaeueiuo
eeiee. Iacia/aiea ?oi ninoiyei a oii, /oiau ia?aaeaeaoue aeaaeaeueoea io
ceuo nee, Iie ienaeenue ia aea?aaa, au?acaeenue a eaiia.

?oie/aneeo iaiyoieeia nio?aieeinue iaei. Aieueoa anaai eo a
Neaiaeeiaaee.

*enei ?oi o Aiaei-Naenia – 28. A Ae?aaia?oie/aneay ianiue (9-10 aae)
niaea?aeeo 33 ?oiu.

Buchstabe – aoeaa, iaei/ee.

lesen – /eoaoue.

to read – oaaaeuaaoue.

Caoai Aa?iaioeu ciaeiiyony n eaoeineei, a aiou – n a?a/aneei. A
Neaiaeeiaaee ?oiu ieacaeenue aieaa onoie/eauie.

A na?aaeeia 19 aaea ?oie/aneee aeoaaeo aiciee ia naaa?a Eoaeee e
i?iaeaeaaeny aaa?o a thaeioth e caiaaeioth Aa?iaieth.

Aii?in 2. Eaoeineia ienueii

?ani?ino?aiaiea ienueiaiiinoe a aa?iaineeo ycueao i?ienoiaeeei a 6 – 11
aaeao a ia?eiae O?enoeaiecaoeee.

Eaouiue a yoio ia?eiae auea ycueii oea?eae. Aeey caiene oaeoia Caiaaeiua
e Naaa?iua Aa?iaioeu noaee eniieueciaaoue eaouiue, a ainoi/iua ieaiaia –
Aiou – eniieueciaaee a?a/aneee. Iaeiaei a ia?eiae ?ani?ino?aiaiey
ienueiaiiinoe ieacaeinue, /oi nouanoaoao ianiioaaonoaea aoea e caoeia.
Oaeei ia?acii, a caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae aeaiiie ia?iaeiinoe eaouiue
ei??aeoe?iaaeanue.

A 8 – 9 aaea ai o?aieneii ainoaea?noaa aue ?ac?aaioai iiaue o?eoo ia
iniiaa eaoeineiai ycuea – ea?ieeianeea ieioneoeu. Ii i?inouanoaiaae aei
12 aaea e caoai aue caiai?i ia aioe/aneee. A eiioea 15 aaea a Eoaeee
iiyaeeny ie?oaeue o?eoo – aioeeaa.

Ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeny e naaiaeiy eniieuecoaony a caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

A 11 aaea iiyaeeinue iiaia ienueii ia aaca eaoeineiai aeoaaeoa –
aioe/aneia.

Aii?in 3. Ia/aei eco/aiey aa?iaineeo ycueia

16 – 17 aaea ciaiaiaoaeueiu oai, /oi a yoi a?aiy ia/aee oi?ie?iaaoueny
iaoeee e iaoeeiiaeueiinoe.

A yoio ia?eiae ia?acothony ia?aua a?aiiaoeee ycueia – Aiaeeeneiai
aeaoneiai, Oaaaeneiai. Auoiaeyo ia?aua neiaa?e. A 16 aaea a Aiaeee
iiyaeeny neiaa?ue o?oaeiuo neia. A 1755 – oieeiaue neiaa?ue Aeaeiiniia.
Aeoeaiay neiaa?iay ?aaioa aaae?ony a Aa?iaiee, Oaaoeee, Aeaiee.

A yoi a?aiy aic?in eioa?an e ae?aaiei ?oeiienyi. Oai?aoeei –
eeiaaenoe/aneay iuneue a yoio ia?eiae iaoiaeeony iiae aeeyieai
oeeinioneeo eaeae e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai yiie?ecia. I?aaenoaaeoaeai aue
Aeaea?o. Iiae aeeyieai yoeo eaeae inouanoaeyeenue iiiuoee iino?ieoue
eiae/aneoth a?aiiaoeeo ycueia. I?aaenoaaeoaeai yoiai oa/aiey aue
iaiaoeeee oeeinio e iaoaiaoee Eaeaieoe. Iineaaeiaaoaee yiie?e/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia aeeaia eniieueciaaiea ycuea, ia eco/aiea
ioaeaeueiuo aa?iaineeo ycueia. Yoi iaaaei o/?iuo ia ia eo cia/eoaeueiii
noiaenoaa. Oae a ia/aea 17 aaea Oeen nicaeae ia?aoth niiinoaaeoaeueioth
a?aiiaoeeo aa?iaineeo ycueia: aioneiai, aiaei – naeniineiai,
o?aienei-Iaiaoeeiai. Ciaeiinoai n ae?oaeie eiaeiaa?iiaeneeie ycueaie, a
/anoiinoe n naine?eoii, niinianoaiaaei aicieeiiaaieth
n?aaieoaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai iaoiaea, eioi?ue aiciee a 18 aaea. Naine?eo
iiiiaae iauynieoue iiiaea yaeaiey ycueao. Auneacuaaeenue
i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi ana ycuee i?iecioee io iaai. Ia yoii ienaee
aeaeioin e Oeaaaeue. ?iaenoaaiiua /a?ou iaia?oaeeeenue e o iaaa?iaineeo
ycueia – a?a/aneiai e ia?neaeneiai – yoi oe?aieei i?aaeiieiaeaiey i
aaeeinoaa i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycueia, iaeiaei iauae enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
nenoaiu au? ia auei.

Aicieeiiaaiea NEI.

NEI noi?ie?iaaeny a 19 aaea, iniiaiiieiaeieeaie auee Aiii e ?ane. Aiii
iienae ni?yaeaiea aeaaieia a eaoeineii, ia?neaeneii, aa?iaineeo ycueao.
Ii iaia?oaeee i/aiue iiiai noiaenoa, yoi aeaei aio i?aai ooaa?aeaeaoue i
eo aaeeiii i?ienoiaeaeaiee.

?ane oai?aoece?iaae iieiaeaiea i noiaenoaa ycueia e oeacae ia
oiiaoe/aneea noiaenoaa. Aeoeaiia o/anoea a noaiiaeaiea NEI i?eiye
ienaoaeue sseia A?eii. Ii i?eiaiee iaoiae iienaiey iaiaoeeie a?aiiaoeee
e ae?oaei ycueai.

N yoiai iiiaioa NEI aeoeaii ?ani?ino?aiyeny.

Aii?in 4. Iiiyoea ?iaenoaa ycuea, ycuea – iniiau

I?aaeiinueeie i?eiaiaiey NEI auea eaeay i ?aniaaea iaeiiai ycuea ia
naiueth ?iaenoaaiiuo ycueia. Iauee ycue, ec eioi?iai ?acaeaaeenue
ae?oaea ycuee, iacuaaeny ycueii – iniiaie eee i?aycueii. Eaouiue –
i?aycue ae?aaia?iiaineiai. Iaoa?ey nianoaaiii ycuea iiiyoia oieueei
oiaaea, eiaaea aeaeeiu ana yoaiu aai ?acaeoey oia?oae oi?iu e iiaia
?acaeoea a ycuea. Iiieii iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey ycuea, ia iaai
iiaoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiea noano?aou – ycue ieaiiee, aeeythuee ia ycue –
caoaao/ee.

Onoaiiaeaiea ?iaenoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea onoaiaaeeaaaony
iaoiaeii eciaeinn – a?aieoe iaueo oiiaoe/aneeo e a?aiiaoe/aneee
i?eciaeia.

Iaeanoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey eciaeinna – a?aae. Ainnoaiiaeaiiua i?e iiiiue
NEI ycuee iacuaathony a?oaoeiaie.

Ia iniiaaiee NEI auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea eiaeiaa?iiaeneea ycuee e a?oiiu.

Oaooneee ycue.

Oioa?neee ycue.

Eiaeeeneay a?oiia, e?aineay, a?a/aneay, eaeueoneay, ?iiaineay,
aa?iaineay, aaeoeeneay, neaayineay, Eoaeeeneay.

Aeaaineee ycue.

A?iyineee ycue.

Aeaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey iniiaaia ia i?eioeeiao eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey ec
iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneiai ycuea iniiau. A N?aaieoaeueiii ycueiciaiee
eiathony ianeieueei oai?ee ?aniaaea ycuea iniiau. A 1861 aiaeo Oeaeoa?
auaeaeioe oai?eth ?iaeineiaiiai aea?aaa. Ii oeaeoa?o ycue iniiaa
?aniaeny ia:

1. Neaayii – Aa?iaineee e A?ei – a?aei – eoaei – eaeueoneee. A?eeneee e
a?aei – eoaei – eaeueoneee.

Aeaiiay oai?ey neeoeii i?inoa e ia io?aaeaao anao neiaeiinoae
iaaeuycueiauo ioiioaiee.

Ae?oaay oai?ey i?eiaaeeaaeeo Oieaeoo. Aieiiaay oai?ey. Eaaeaeue ycue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caaii a oeaie ia?aoiaeia io iaeiiai ycuea e
ae?oaiio.

Ioaeaeueiua /a?ou yaeaiee iiaoo i?iieeaoue ia oieueei a ninaaeiea ycuee,
ii e aeaeaei ca eo i?aaeaeu. Iaeiaei yoa oai?ey ia auaea?aeeaaao
e?eoeee, oae eae iaaeaeo ninaaeieie ycueaie nouanoaotho ?acee/ey. Yoi 2
aeiieie?othuea oai?ee.

Aii?in 5. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea NEI

Ai 2 iieiaeia 19 aaea a ycueiciaiee eioaineaii i?iaiaeeeenue
enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe eiiia?aoeaenoeee. Cao?aaeaaeenue oiiaoe/aneee,
eaene/aneee, a?aiiaoe/aneee o?iaie. A yoio ia?eiae ?acaeaathony
?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee. Iaeiie ec oeie a oi a?aiy yaeyeanue
oeiea ieaaeia?aiiaoeeia. Auaeaeaaeanue eaeay, /oi anyeia oiiaoe/aneia
yaeaiea niaa?oaeinue ii caeiiai, ia ciathuei eneeth/aiee. Anee ycueiaia
yaeaiea ia iiaei auoue iauyniaii nouanoaothuei i?aaeeii, neaaeiaaei
eneaoue iiaue caeii. Iaoeue.

Iineaaeiyy o?aoue 18 aaea iiieii iiieii ii?oieiaee ia/eiaea eco/aoue
neioaenen. A 1871 ?aaioa Aeaeue A?thea Neioaene/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.

A?aaeue – iiuo naiaioeee. Aea Ninnth? – i ia?aiia/aeueiuo aeaniuo a
eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueao. A yoe aea aiaeu Iaea ioaeeeoao ?aaioo Iniiaiua
iniaaiiinoe aa?iaineie a?aiiaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi NEI
aeoeaii eniieuecoaony e aea?o oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou a eco/aiee ycueia.

Neaaua noi?iiu NEI.

1. Yoio iaoiae aue i?eaieai aeey iienaiey noiaenoa a ycueao, ii ia aeey
iienaiey ?acee/ee.

2. I?e n?aaiaiee oaeoia ?iaenoaaiiuo ycueia /anoi aa?oony ?aciua yoaiu
eo ?acaeoey.

3. Iaeoi?ua iniaaiiinoe eee eiiiaaoeee a ycueao i?eieiathony ca
oianeaaeiaaiea io i?aycuea – yoi oaea ?acaeoea, a ia enoi?ey.

4. Ia ana o?iaie ycuea iiaeii enneaaeiaoue n iiiiuueth NEI. Aaiaoe/aneia
?iaenoai iaaeaeo ycueaie iiaeii aeieacaoue, eiaaea naycue iaaeaeo
cao/aieai e cia/aieai iaiioeae?iaaia, oi anoue oneiaia.
Iaiioeae?iaaiiuie yaeythony ii?oieiae/aneee e oiiaoe/aneee, a
neioaene/aneee – iaeaieaa iioeae?iaai. Oaeei ia?acii NEI iicaieyao
iienaoue oiiaiiue, ii?oieiae/aneee, eaene/aneee no?ie i?aycuea
aa?iaineeo ycueia.A 20 aaea NEI acaeiiaeaenoaiaae n eeiaai – aaia?aoeae,
enoi?eei – oeiieiae/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie. Aieueooth iiiiuue ieacaea
a?aaeueiay eeiaaenoeea. NEI oi?ioi ?aaioaao a ieaia iienaiey aeeaeaeoia.

Aii?in 6. Iaoiaeeea NEI

A nei ?ac?aaioaii ianeieueei i?e?iia, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eco/aiey ycueia.

1. Aeieacaoaeuenoai iaoa?eaeueiiai ?iaenoaa ycueiauo oaeoi?ia.

Aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa cia/aiea eiatho ?aaoey?iinoue e nenoaiiinoue
niioaaonoaee.

Caeii ia?aiai ia?aaeaeaeaiey niaeaniuo onoaiaaeeaaao niioaaonoaea
eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai ayoa e aa?iaineiai ccc.

Niaeaniue ayoa anoue oieueei a naine?eoa, a ae?oaeo niaeaniuo aio
niioaaonoaotho ae?oaea niaeaniua. Aianoa n oai yoe niioaaonoaey
iiaoi?ythony ?aaoey?ii a iaeiii e oii aea ii?yaeea. A oaeii neo/aa
aiai?yo i caeiiiia?iinoe ioiioaiee a yoeo ycueao.

naine?eo. aoa?ai. eaoeineee, a?a/aneee. oa?i.

naine?eo. a?aoa?.

Aiaeiae/iia noiaenoai onoaiaaeeaaaony a ii?oieiaee. Ia?aaeeaia
ni?yaeaiey aeaaiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

1. aa?/o, aa?oeoue.

Eaoeineee. Aa?oi, aa?oe, aa?oeo, aa?oeion, aa?oeoen, aa?ooio.

Aioneee. Aa?na, aa?nen, aa?nen, ay?nai, ay?nen, ay?naiae.

A aeaiiuo i?eia?ao iaia?oaeeaaaony noiaenoai ieii/aiee.

2. Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy ?aeiino?oeoeey.

Ainnoaiiaeaiea a?oaoeia i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee n?aaiaiey ycueiauo
aaeeieoe ?iaenoaaiiuo ycueia (aiaoiyy ?aeiino?oeoeey) eee ia iniiaaiee
?aciiyoaiiuo oaeoi?ia iaeiiai ycuea (aioo?aiyy).

naine?eo. oaina. ae?aaiaeneaiaeneee. I?ioioeiii a iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii
aue ia?aiia/aeueii ayoa.

I?eia? ec ii?oieiaee.

Aioneee. aeaan. Ae?aaiaaieeeneee. aeye.

A neaiaeeiaaneeo ycueao caoe ? ?acaeaaeny ec caoea c. Yoi iacuaaaony
?ioaoeeciii.

Aioo?aiiyy ?aeiino?oeoeey iaiaae?aeia. A eaaeaeii ycuea eiaaony iiiai
a?oaeciia. Aeey oiai /oiau i?iecaanoe ?aeiino?ooeeth iaaei iiiai oaeoia.

3. Ii?aaeaea6iea o?iiieiaee. Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aiaie i?iyaeaiey ycueiauo
oaeoi?ia ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao.

Iai?eia?, eiaeiaa?iiaeneea i, o, e, ia?aoiaeeee a aa?iaineea o, n, o eee
caiieea uaeaaua a, c, a. Ia?aoiae ec aeooiai a caiieee caaenae io
oaea?aiey.

Naine?eo. a?aoa?. ieoa?.

Auaiae. A yoio ia?eiae oaea?aiea auei naiaiaeiui, niioaaonoaaiii nia/aei
i, o, e ia?aoiaeeee a aeooea o, n, o, a caoai a caiieea a, c, a.

4. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey a?aaea ycueiaiai yaeaiey.

Eaaeaeia yaeaiea eiaao a?aieoeu naiaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Onoaiiaeaiea
yoeo a?aieoe yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei o?aaiaaieai nei.

Iai?eia?.

Aioneee. aainon, oin. Aa?oiaiaiaoeeee. aain, oin. Ii ae?aaiaaiaeeeneee.
ain, on. ae?aaiao?enneee. ain, on.

Yoe i?eia?u oeacuaatho ia a?aaeu auiaaeaiey i ia?aae o?eeaoeaiui n, o.
I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo oaeeeiiaiea i?aaeoanoaothuaai aeaniiai.

Aioo?e caiaaeiiaa?iaineie a?oiiu yoa eciaeinna ioaeaeyao
ae?aaiaaiaeeeneee, o?enneee, naeniineee io anao inoaeueiuo.

Ii eeanneoeeaoeee yoe ycuee aoiaeyo a eiaaaiineee a?aae. I?eaaae?iiua
i?eia?u yaeythony /anoueth nei. Yoio iaoiae, onoaiiaeaiey a?aaea
ycueiaiai yaeaiey, yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa no?iaeo a iao/iii
ycueiciaiee.

Aii?in 7. Iauea eiaeiaa?iiaeneea /a?ou aa?iaineeo ycueia

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi aa?iaineea ycuee aicieeee eae ?acoeueoao
naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey iaeiie ec aeeaeaeoiuo a?oii eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai

ycuea – iniiau. Neaaeu i?aycuea iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue oaea i?e n?aaiaiee.

1. Oaea?aiea e nenoaia oiiai.

Oaea?aiea auei oiie/aneei. Aunioa oiia auea niunei?acee/eoaeueiui
eiiiiiaioii, oi anoue iia eiaea oiiieiae/aneoth cia/eiinoue.

Oaea?aiea a aa?iaineeo ycueao auei naiaiaeiai. Caoai naiaiaeiia
oaea?aiea iinoaiaiii niaiyeinue oeene?iaaiiui e noaei iaaeaoue ia ia?aue
ei?iaaie neia. Ni a?aiaiai oiiaeueiia oaea?aiea niaieeinue
aeeiaie/aneei. Naaiaeiy oiie/aneia oaea?aiea nio?aieeinue a Oaaaeneii,
Ii?aaaeneii e aeaoneeo aeeaeaeoao.

2. Nenoaia aeaniuo. Aeey iicaeiaai iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneiai ia?eiaea iiaeao
auoue ainnoaiiaeaia nenoaia ec iyoe aeaniuo e e?aoeia e aeieaia, o, a,
i, a.

Ia?yaeo n yoei nouanoaiaae e ?aaeooee?iaaiiue aeaniue, eioi?ue
ano?a/aeny a aacoaea?iie iiceoeee. Oaa i?eioi.

*anoioiinoue aeieaiou e e?aoeinoe o ?aciuo aeaniuo auea iaiaeeiaeiaie.
Iniiaiuie e?aoeeie auee a e i. E?aoeay a ano?a/aeanue ?aaea.

A iauaaa?iaineii ?acee/ea iaaeaeo e?aoeeie e aeieaeie aeaniuie
nio?aieeinue, ii iie i?aoa?iaee cia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea.

Ni/aoaiey iniiaiuo aeieaeo e e?aoeeo aeaniuo n niii?iuie
?anniao?eaaeinue a eiaeiaa?iiaeneii eae aeeooiiae. Aeeooiiae aeaeeeenue
ia aeieaea e e?aoeea. Aeieaea auee iaonoie/eau e i?aa?aoeeenue a
e?aoeea.

3. Niaeaniua.

Ii niiniao a?oeeoeyoeee niaeaniua aeaeeeenue ia a?oiiu.

1. niii?iua. e, eth, ?, i, i, e.

2. uaeaaua. n

3. niu/iua.

A eiaeiaa?iiaeneii o ieo auee 2 ooieoeee. A ni/aoaiee n aeaniuie iie
auee niaeaniuie, eia/a auiieiyee neiaiia?acothuoth ooieoeeth.

A iauaaa?iaineii ianeiaiaua e, eth, ?, e, i, i, nio?aieeenue aac
eciaiaiee, a neiaiaua i?aia?aciaaeenue. e e eth ia?aciaaeenue a aeaniua,
a inoaeueiua iioa?yee neiaiia?acothuoth ooieoeeth. Oaeei ia?acii, a
nenoaia niaeaniuo auaeaeyee neaaeothuea ?yaeu.

niu/iua. i, o, e, ea, a, ae, a, aa.

i?eaeuoaoaeueiua. ayoa, ayoaa.

4. Ii?oieiae/aneay nenoaia. Ii?oieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a neiaa a
iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii.

Iiiaea /a?ouaa?iaineiai ii?oieiae/aneiai no?iy oianeaaeiaaiu io
iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneiai, eioi?ue aue ycueii oeeoeaiiai no?iy.

Nouanoaeoaeueiua e i?eeaaaoaeueiua ninoiyee ec ei?iy, noooeeana e
ieii/aiey.

Ei?aiue aue iineoaeai naiaioe/aneiai cia/aiey, noooeen ia?aciauaae
iniiao, ieii/aiea oeacuaaei ia ?iae, /enei, iaaeaae.

Naine?eo. Aeaai. A?e/aneee. ceaii. Eaoeineee. aeiion.

Iniiaiia?acothuee noooeenu a, i, e auee i?aaiia/aeueii iieacaoaeyie
i?aaeiaoa. A eiaeiaa?iiaeneii oaea nouanoaiaaei 3 ?iaea.

Aieueoeinoai aeaaieia oaeaea eiaei o??oii?oaiioth no?oeoo?o.

Naine?eo. Aian – aianeaoe. Eaoeineee. oaiai – oaianei. A?a/aneee. oa?ien
– oa?ieoy.

A eiaeiaa?iiaeneii nouanoaiaaei iiiyoea oaiaoe/aneie e aoaiaoe/aneie
iniiau.

Eiaiiua e aeaaieueiua iniiau auee oaiaoe/aneeie anee ieai/eaaeenue ia a
eee i.

Aoaiaoe/aneea ieai/eaaeenue ia niii?iue eee ooiiue.

A?a/aneee. Oa?iiai – oa?oy. Eaoeineee. Oa?eion – oa?o.

A iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii eiaeinue iiiaeanoai neia, o eioi?uo auee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oi?iu neeiiaiey, a oaeaea noiieaoeaiua ia?aciaaiey.

Oaeoe/anee a ycuea nouanoaiaaei ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneia iiiaiia?acea.
Iauaaa?iaineee oianeaaeiaae io eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai oeaeoeaiue no?ie, ii a
ae?aaiaaa?iaineii oaea ia/eiaee i?aiaeaaeaoue aeaooii?oaiiay no?oeoo?a.
A aeaeueiaeoai ieii/aiey iiaeaa?aaeenue ?aaeoeoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oeia neeiiaiey inouanoaeyeinue iaoiaeii aiaoiae
?aeiino?oeoeee, aeey yoiai i?eaeaeaeenue ?oie/aneea iaaeiene, aioneee,
eiaeiaa?iiaeneea ycuee, iaoiaeii aioo?aiiae ?aeiino?oeoeee, aiaeece?oy
inoaoi/iua oi?iu neia, ia?aaeeaia aioo?e ioaeaeueiuo aa?iaineeo ycueia.

A iauaaa?iaineii ycuea ?acaeoea oei a o??o iai?aeaieyo.

1.Caiaia aoaiaoe/aneeo iniia oaiaoe/aneeie.

2. Ia?aie/aiea ia?aaoey?iuo ia?aaeeai e caiaia eo ?aaoey?iuie.

3.?ino oaeaeueiiai aana i?iaeoeoeaiuo iniia.

I?ieieae. 5.Iauaaa?iiaeneea /a?ou a nenoaia aa?iaineiai eiaie.

A eiaeiaa?iiaeneii auei 3 oeia neeiiaiey.

1. Neeiiaiea nouanoaeoaeueiuo e i?eeaaaoaeueiuo.

2. Neeiiaiea ianoiei?iiiai oeia, ee/iuo, aii?ineoaeueiuo, oeacaoaeueiuo
ianoieiaiee.

3. Ee/iua ianoieiaiey 1 e 2 eeoea e aica?aoiua iaonieiaiey.

I?eia/aiea. I?eeaaaoaeueiua ia eiaee nianoaaiiiai neeiiaiey, iii
i?iecioei io eaoaai?ee eiaie. A eiaiiii neeiiaiee i?aiaeaaeaee
oaiaoe/aneea iniiau ia y e i, a oaeaea aoaiaoe/aneea ia niii?iua e
ooiiua.

A iauaaa?iaineii ana 3 oeia neeiiaiey nio?aiaiu, iaeiaei a nenoaio
neeiiaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiiai aianaiu eciaiaiey.

Yoi eanaeinue iiyaeaiey eiaiiiai oeia neeiiaiey i?eeaaaoaeueiiai,
eioi?ue niaiaaeae ni neaaui neeiiaieai eiaie nouanoaeoaeueiiai.

Yoa oaiaeaioeey nio?aieeanue a nia?aiaiiii ycuea.

A ae?aaiaaa?iaineii nouanoaiaaee neaaeothuea oeiu neeiiaiey.

1. eiaiiia. (aeaeeeinue ia neaaia e neeueiia). ii neeueiiio neeiiyeenue
nouanoaeoaeueiua, ii neaaiio – i?eeaaaoaeueiua.

2. oei neeiiaiey oeacaoaeueiuo ianoieiaiee (e?iia ee/iuo 1,2 eeoea). Ii
yoiio oeio neeiiyeenue aieueoeinoai ei?i i?eeaaaoaeueiuo (ia?aaeeaia

neeueiiai neeiiaiey).

3. Neeiiaiea 1, 2 eeoea ee/iiai ianoieiaiey e aica?aoiua ianoieiaiey.

Iiiyoea oaiaoe/aneie e aoaiaoe/aneie iniiau en/acei, a iiyaeeenue
iniiau, ieai/eaathueany ia aeaniua e niaeaniua.

I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii auei 8 iaaeaaeae.
Ae?aaiaaa?iaineea ycuee nio?aieee 4 iaaeaaea. A iaeioi?uo ycueao auee
inoaoi/iua yaeyaiey eino?oiaioa?iiai e caaoaeueiiai.

6. Iauea eiaeiaa?iiaeneea /a?ou a nenoaia aa?iaineiai aeaaiea

Eiaeiaa?iiaeneee aeaaie eiae iniaaiiinoe, ia nio?aieaoeany a iieiii
aeaea ie a iaeiii ec eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia. Eiaeiaa?iiaeneee aeaaie
au?aaeae aeaenoaea a ii?aaeae?iiii aeaeiaii i?ioaeaiee. A?a/aneay iniiaa
i?acaina iaicia/aea aeeeaoeueiinoue aeaenoaey, e io ia? ia?aciaaeanue
oi?ia ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. A?a/aneee. eyeii – y Inoaaeyth. e oi?ia
i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie – yeyeiii. Yeyeiii icia/aao aeaenoaea eae oaeiaia –
y inoaaee. ?acoeueoao a i?ioaaeoai a?aiaie. I?acain au?aaeaao
aeeeoaeueiue aeae aeaenoaey. Ai?eno – au?aaeaiea iaaeeeoaeueiinoe
aeaenoaey.

I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea ai a?aiaiiii ieaia inouanoaeyeinue ieii/aieyie.
Iniiaa i?acaina e ai?enoa ia eiaee iauaai iinoiyiiiai i?eciaea, a auee
?acee/iu o ?aciuo aeaaieia, ionthaea ia?aciaaeenue iaeeiiaiey. A
iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneii ycuea auee.

1. eiaeeeaoeaiia eee ecuyaeoaeueiia iaeeiiaiea.

2. eiia?aoea eee iiaaeeoaeueiia.

3. iioaoea eee aeaeaoaeueiia.

4. eiiuthieoea eee nineaaaoaeueiia.

Auee e caeiae.

1. Aeaenoaeoaeueiue.

2. Iaaeeaeueiue (n?aaeiee).

Eaoaai?ey /enea auea i?aaenoaaeaia 3 oeiaie. Aaeeinoaaiiia,
aeaienoaaiiia iiiaeanoaaiiia.

A iauaaa?iaineii any nenoaia aeaaiea aeaeieciaieeanue. Ia?aaoey?iua
oi?iu caiaiyeenue ?aaoey?iuie. Ia?aciauaaeenue eeannu neeueiuo aeaaieia

ii i?eciaeo /a?aaeiaaiey – aaeaooo.

A iauaaa?iaineii onoaiaaeeaaeanue nenoaia neaauo aeaaieia n
aeaioaeueiuie noooeenaie ae eee o, eioi?ua aicieeaee a oi?iao
i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie. Yoi yaeyaiea auei iiaoanoaii aa?iaineeo ycueia e
?ani?ino?aieeinue.

Aioneee. Ooeen – iieiue. ooeueyi – iaiiiyoue. ooeeeaea – iaiieiee.

naeai – iacue. naeaii – iacaoue. naeaioa – iacae.

Eiaeiaa?iiaeneea aeaeiaua /a?ou auee ia?ainiuneaiu a iauaaa?iaineii eae
a?aiaiiua.

*oi oaeia ?oiu?

I?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi?ey ?oi. Enoiee ?oie/aneiai Eneonnoaa – eae e
ca?iaeaeaiea naieo ?oie/aneeo neiaieia – ei?iyie ooiaeyo a ae?aaiaeoea
a?aiaia. I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aiai aa?iaineiai
?oie/aneiai no?iy – Oooa?ea – aeaoe?oaony ia?auie aaeaie iaoae y?u.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, yoi a?aiy iiaeii n/eoaoue a?aiaiai, eiaaea ?oie/aneia
Eneonnoai noi?ie?iaaeinue a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii iiyaeeinue e
nouanoaiaaei iioii a Naaa?iie Aa?iia – oioy e n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie –
aei iicaeiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iaeiaei enoiee ?oie/aneiai aeoaaeoa
cia/eoaeueii ae?aaiaa. Oe?iei ecaanoii, /oi ae?aaiee /aeiaae iieeiiyeny
aiaai, aa?ee a iaaeth, a oaea/o. Ionthaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
naiua ia?aua ciaee, ia/a?oaiiua /aeiaa/aneie ?oeie eee au?acaiiua ec
einoe e aea?aaa, eiaee eiaiii iaae/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ae?aaiaeoea iaiyoieee
oaeiai ?iaea ioiinyony e aeaoe?othony XVII-XVI ouny/aeaoeyie aei iaoae
y?u. I?eia?aie oaeeo iaiyoieeia iiaoo iineoaeeoue neiaieu, iioiaeea ia
?oiu, ia/a?oaiiua io?ie ia iaiiioiaii /a?aia, iaeaeaiiii ia Oe?aeia,
ciaee, auna/aiiua ia aa?iiaeneeo neaeao, eee “nieia/iua eieana”,
au?acaiiua ec einoe e iaia?oaeaiiua ia Noiae?neie noiyiea iaiiaeaeaeo io
Aeaaeeie?a. Oaea n?aaee noieue ae?aaiae a?aoeee iu iiaeai iaia?oaeeoue
neiaieu, eioi?ua noaee i?a-oi?iaie aoaeoueo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaae/aneeo
ciaeia, a oii /enea e ?oi. Aa?iyoii, iinoaiaiii yoe neiaieu niae?aeenue
e iaeaieeaaeenue, iiaeaa?aaynue eeanneoeeaoeee e eciaiaieyi. I?eia?ii e
VI-V ouny/aeaoeyi aei iaoae y?u ioiineony iiaeuai eoeueoo?u a
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeeny iiuiui ?acaeoeai ?aianae e
eneonnoa, a oii /enea e ?acee/iuo aieoaaiuo eneonnoa e oaeinoa. Io oiai
a?aiaie aei ian aeioee aeeiyiua oeao?ee aiaeanoa, ea?aieea, inoaoee
nayoeeeu, o?aiia e iinaeaiee.

Ea?aieea yoie eoeueoo?u, iaia?oaeaiiay ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie
Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu

– a ?oiuiee, Aieaa?ee, *aoineiaaeee, Aaia?ee, aiaaoa iaae/aneeie
ecia?aaeaieyie, iiiaea ec eioi?uo neaaeoao, aa?iyoii, n/eoaoue i?yiuie
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie ?acaeoey eae ?oie/aneiai aeoaaeoa, oae e iaaeoaaeoiuo
aa?iiaeneeo iaae/aneeo neiaieia. Iicaea, a III-I ouny/aeaoeyo aei iaoae
y?u, neiaeeaoeany ?aiaa nenoaiu iaae/aneeo ciaeia noaee iiiaiiiao
i?aa?auaoueny a nayuaiiua aeoaaeou, eioi?ua iniuneeaaeenue a oa a?aiaia
eiaiii eae iaai? nayuaiiuo neiaieia n i?enaiaiiuie ei oiiaoe/aneeie
cia/aieyie, /oi iicaieyei eniieueciaaoue yoe ciaee aeey ienueia. Oae
aicieeee ?iaenoaaiiua oeieeeeneee e yo?onneee aeoaaeou, a iicaeiaa –
a?a/aneee e eaoeineee. Aiaeiae/iia i?ienoiaeaeaiea eiaao e ?oie/aneia
ienueii, ainoiaeyuaa e aeoaaeoai naaa?ieoaeeeneie a?oiiu – o.a. e
aeoaaeoai naaa?iuo yo?oneia e eoaeeeneeo aaiaoia.

N i?aia?acii ?oi – naaa?ieoaeeeneei ienueiii – ia?iaeu Oeaio?aeueiie e,
aiciiaeii, Naaa?iie Aa?iiu iiciaeiieeenue ia iicaeiaa aoi?ie iieiaeiu I
ouny/aeaoey aei iaoae y?u. A 1812 aiaeo, ai a?aiy ?aneiiie aeec Iaaao
(Aano?i-Aaia?ey) auei iaia?oaeaii aieaa aeaoo aeanyoeia a?iiciauo
oeaiia, aeaoe?iaaiiuo IV aaeii aei iaoae y?u. Yoe iaoiaeee ii?aaeaeytho
ia?aoiaeiue yoai ?acaeoey Eneonnoaa, eioi?iio iinayuaia ianoiyuay eieaa
– yoai o?ainoi?iaoeee eoaeeeneeo neiaieia a naaa?iua ?oiu. Aeaei a oii,
/oi iaaeienue ia iaeiii ec oeaiia, auiieiaiiay aeoaaeoii, ia?aoiaeiui io
eoaeeeneiai e ?oie/aneiio, ii ycueo yaii i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaeeai aoaeoueo
neaiaeeiaaia. Iaaeienue o?aineeoa?e?oaony eae Harigast i Teiva; iaa
neiaa, niaaeeiaiiua i?aaeeiaii eee nithcii i, yaeythony eiaiaie
nianoaaiiuie, i?e/ai iineaaeiaa – Teiva – /aua anaai o?aeooaony eae
aa?eaio eiaie iauaaa?iaineiai aiaa aieiu e iaaa Oeaa. Aa?iyoii, e
na?aaeeia II aaea io iaoae y?u aue noi?ie?iaai eeanne/aneee
iauaaa?iaineee ?oie/aneee no?ie – Oooa?e. Ia?aiia/aeueii, eae iieacaee
enneaaeiaaiey, ii iiyaeeny a Aeaiee, aai ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Neaiaeeiaaee
ioiineony i?eia?ii e III a. iaoae y?u. E IV – V aaeai i. y. I?iecioei
?ani?ino?aiaiea e ia eiioeiaioa.

sscue ae?aaiaeoeo ?oie/aneeo iaaeienae – i?iiaaeooi/iia caaii iaaeaeo
aa?iaineei ycueii-iniiaie, oi?iu eioi?iai iiaeii oieueei
?aeiino?oe?iaaoue, e ycueaie ae?aaiaeoeo ienueiaiiuo iaiyoieeia
?acee/iuo aa?iaineeo ia?iaeiinoae.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Oooa?e – ia aeoaaeo a iau/iii iiieiaiee yoiai
neiaa, a eiaiii ?oie/aneee no?ie eee ?yae, o.a. aeanoei cae?aieaiiue
ia?a/aiue ?oi, n eo oiiaoe/aneeie e iaae/aneeie cia/aieyie e eiaiaie.
Oooa?e niaea?aeeo 24 ciaea, ?acaeouo ia o?e a?oiiu – aooa (att);
eaaeaeue aoo ninoieo ec ainueie ?oi. Ii oiiaoe/aneei niioaaonoaeyi ?oi
ia?aiai aooa – f, u, th, a, r, k,… – yoio no?ie e iieo/ee naia
iacaaiea – Futhark

Ii?yaeie ?aniieiaeaiey aoea Noa?oaai Oooa?ea aeanoei oeene?iaai, oioy e
ioee/aaony io ii?yaeea a?aei-eaoeineeo aeoaaeoia. Aaaeiinoue ii?yaeea, a
eioi?ii ?aniieiaeaiu ?oiu, iaia?oaeeaaaonyi?e aeaoaeueiii enneaaeiaaiee
cia/aiee ?oi. A yoii neo/aa iiaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi ?oie/aneee ?yae
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naycioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. Eciaieoue aai
ii?yaeie – cia/eo eneaceoue e eeoeoue niunea yoio ia?acaoe, oae eae
caeanue no?iaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iaoneiaeaia naycueth n a?aiaiiuie
oeeeeaie. Aaeeinoaaiiia eneeth/aiea a yoii ii?yaeea ninoaaeytho aeaa
iineaaeiea aoeau, 23-y e 24-y, Odal e Dag. Eiiaaea eo iaiytho ianoaie.

Ii oai ia iaiaa ?oie/aneee no?ie iinoiyiii iaiyeny a caaeneiinoe io
yiioe e io aaia?aoe/aneiai ?aniieiaeaiey iinaeaiee ia?iaeiinoae, aai
i?eiaiyaoeo. A V aaea i.y. ?oie/aneia ienueii e ?oie/aneay iaaey i?eoee
ia A?eoaineea ino?iaa aianoa n aa?iaineeie ieaiaiaie aiaeia e naenia.
A?eoaineea iaae e ae?aoeu ia oaeiaeaoai?eeenue Oooa?eii e nicaeaee naie
nianoaaiiue ?oie/aneee no?ie, noaaoei ia?a?aaioeie e aeiiieiaieai
enoiaeiiai (Oooa?ea). Yoe ?oiu (eioi?uo ian/eouaaeinue oaea 28)noaee
ecaanoiu eae ?aiiea aiaei-naeniineea. Iicaeiaa, e IX aaeo, aue nicaeai
aua iaeei aiaei-naeniineee ?oie/aneee no?ie, niaea?aeauee oaea 33 ciaea
– iicaeiea aiaei-naeniineea eee ii?ooia?eeneea ?oiu. Eae e ia A?eoaineeo
ino?iaao, a Neaiaeeiaaee ?oiu oiaea iinoaiaiii iaiyeenue, ii
neaiaeeiaaneea ae?aoeu iioee ii ia?aoiiio iooe. Nio?aiyy aeey iaae/aneeo
iaaeiaiinoae Oooa?e, iie au?aaaouaaee ana iiaua e iiaua ?oie/aneea
aeoaaeou, i?eiaiyaoeany ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii eae n?aaenoai
ienueiaiiinoe. Oae, ia?aua ia?a?aaioaiiua aeoaaeou niaea?aeaee 16
ciaeia, aeeceeo ii ia/a?oaieth e ?oiai Oooa?ea, iineaaeiea (XI – XII
aa.) – 15 e iaiueoa ciaeia, eiiaaea ia eiathueo n Oooa?eii ie/aai
iauaai. Anaai a Neaiaeeiaaee auei nicaeaii ieiei aeanyoea aeoaaeoia:
ianeieueei a aeaoneii noeea e iaiiiai aieueoa – a oaaaenei-ii?aaaeneii.
Yoe neaiaeeiaaneea ia?a?aaioee Oooa?ea iacuaatho eiiaaea Ieaaeoeie
?oiaie. Ieaaeoeie ?oiaie auiieiaii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaaeienae ia
iaiyoiuo eaiiyo a Neaiaeeiaaee; iauaa eiee/anoai oaeeo eaiiae, anee
iiaen/eoaoue eo, i?aauoaao, o?e-/aou?a ouny/e, ii ?aiueoa eo
nouanoaiaaei, ianiiiaiii, iaiiiai aieueoa, iaeiaei a?aiy aianei naie
ei??aeoeau. Eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey a aieueoeinoaa naiai yoe iaaeiene
aeaoe?othony XI aaeii, e, nei?aa anaai, ia naycaiu n iaaeae, a yaeythony
/enoi iaii?eaeueiuie nii?oaeaieyie, oioy aei neo ii? o o/?iuo iao
oi/iiai ioaaoa ia aeaiiue aii?in, oae eae iaeioi?ua ?oiu ia oaeaeinue
?anoeo?iaaoue, cia/aiea ae?oaeo oioue e ecaanoii, ii eo eioa?i?aoaoeey
nii?ia.

N ?ani?ino?aiaieai o?enoeainoaa e eaoeineiai aeoaaeoa ?oie/aneia ienueii
auno?i iioa?yei naia cia/aiea iniiaiiai n?aaenoaa ienueiaiiinoe, oioy
i?inouanoaiaaei iinea yoiai aeinoaoi/ii aeieai. Ianiio?y ia
«aioeycu/aneee» iano?ie iaae?athuaai neeo o?enoeainoaa, auoanieoue
eniieueciaaaoeany a oa/aiea iiiaeo e iiiaeo aaeia ?oie/aneea ciaee
ieacaeinue aeaeaei ia i?inoi. *enei iaiyoieeia ?oie/aneiai ienueia,
aeaoe?othueony ia/aeii I ouny/aeaoey i.y., o.a. nicaeaiiuo oaea iinea
?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeainoaa a Neaiaeeiaaee ia?iiii. Yoi naycaii n oai,
/oi a oeaio?a aa?iiaeneiai o?enoeainoaa, ?aniieiaeaiiii a Caiaaeiie E
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia, aaeanue aaniiuaaeiay aieia ni anai iao?enoeaineei,
oiaaea eae ia «ia?eoa?ee» inoaaaeanue aiciiaeiinoue nio?aieoue iaiyoieee
ae?aaiae ienueiaiiinoe. Ii?ie aeaaea iiai?ieee o?enoeainoaa oaeeii
ne?uaaee o naay aaue, naycaiiua n ?oiaie, /ai, aiciiaeii, nianee eo io
iaieioaiiai oie/oiaeaiey.

Oai ia iaiaa, ycu/aneea ?oiu i?iieeee a o?enoeaineee ?eooaeueiue
iaeoiae. I?ae?aniue oiio i?eia? – auna/aiiay ec naaoeiai eaiiy
e?anoeeueiay eoiaeue ec oea?eae Ao?na?thae a Niieaiaea. Ia /aoa yoie
eoiaee, auoanaiiie eae aaeeiia oeaeia ec aeiea ian/aieea e aeaoe?oaiie
XIII aaeii, auaeoa iaaeienue, auiieiaiiay eeanne/aneeie ieaaeoeie
?oiaie: “A?eiauea?i naeaeae iaiy, Aeaeeoii Nayuaiiee iaienae iaiy, e
caeanue (y) aoaeo noiyoue iaeia a?aiy” Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee
eniieueciaaiey ?oi a iicaeiaa a?aiy noaei, ia n/eoay /enoi iaae/aneeo
oeaeae, nicaeaiea ?oie/aneeo eaeaiaea?ae. ?ani?ino?aiaiu iie auee ii/oe
ii anaio naaa?o eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iiu, a oaeaea a iaeanoyo, ninaaeieo
naaa?iui no?aiai. A Ii?aaaee yoe eaeaiaea?e iacuaaee primstav, a Aeaiee
– rimstok (io rim – “eaeaiaea?ue” e stok – “iaeea”). A Neaiaeeiaaee
oaeea eaeaiaea?e eniieueciaaeenue aei na?aaeeiu XIX a., a Ea?aeee e
naaa?iuo ?aeiiao ?innee – cia/eoaeueii aeieueoa. A oeaeii aea
i?ae?auaiea eniieueciaaiey ?oie/aneeo ciaeia eae aeoaaeoa ioiineony e
XIV – XV aa.. Iaeiaei ?oie/aneay o?aaeeoeey ieacaeanue /?acau/aeii
onoie/eaie, e ioaeaeueiua neo/ae i?eiaiaiey ?oi caoeene?iaaiu e ai?acaei
iicaea. Oae, a Neaiaeeiaaee aeey iaii?eaeueiuo iaaeienae e iino?iaiey
caeeeiaiee ?oiu eniieueciaaeenue aieioue aei XVI a., a ia ino?iaa
Aioeaiae – aua e a XVII a.. Aieaa oiai, nouanoaotho aeaiiua, /oi a
ioaeaeaiiuo iaeanoyo Oaaoeee aeey iniaaiii aaaeiuo caienae ?oiu ec?aaeea
eniieueciaaeenue e a na?aaeeia aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey.

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