Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science
“Education, its role in increase of economic potential.”
1.1 Primary education
1.2 Secondary education
1.3 Higher education
1.4 Adult education
1.5 Alternative education
1.6 Emotional/Human education
2.1 Learning modalities
Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also
something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge,
positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its
fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to
Education means ‘to draw out’, facilitating realization of
self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application
of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to
teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology,
philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology
—often more profound than they realize—though family teaching may
function very informally.
Education systems are established to provide education and training, in
most cases for children and the young. A curriculum defines what
students should know, understand and be able to do as the result of
education. A teaching profession delivers teaching which enables
learning, and a system of polices, regulations, examinations, structures
and funding enables teachers to teach to the best of their abilities.
Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals
as well as knowledge, which is known as social engineering. This can
lead to political abuse of the system, particularly in totalitarian
states and government. Education is a broad concept,it refers to all the
experiences in which people can learn something. Instruction refers to
the intentional facilitating of learning toward identified goals,
delivered either by an instructor or other forms. Teaching refers to
learning experiences facilitated by a real live instructor. Training
refers to learning experiences toward preparing learners with specific
konwledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied immediately.
1.1. Primary education.
Primary school in open air.
Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first years of formal,
structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or
seven years of schooling starting at the age of 5 or 6, although this
varies between and sometimes within countries. Globally, around 70% of
primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this
proportion is rising. Under the Education for All program driven by
UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment
in primary education by 2015, and in many countries it is compulsory for
children to receive primary education. The division between primary and
secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at
about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have
separate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of
secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Mostly
schools which provide primary education are referred to as primary
schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into
infant schools and junior schools.
1.2. Secondary education.
In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary
education consists of the second years of formal education that occur
during adolescence. It is characterised by transition from the typically
compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional,
selective tertiary, “post-secondary”, or “higher” education (e.g.,
university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system,
schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary or high
schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational
schools. The exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.
The exact boundary between primary and secondary education varies from
country to country and even within them, but is generally around the
seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs
mainly during the teenage years.
1.3. Higher education.
Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage or post secondary
education, is the non-compulsory educational level following the
completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high
school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Tertiary education is normally
taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as
vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the
main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these
are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education
generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic
Higher education includes teaching, research and social services
activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it
includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary
education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred
to as graduate school). Higher education in that country generally
involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification.
In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to
50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher
education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a
significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and
educated personnel for the rest of the economy.
1.4. Adult education.
Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many
countries. However, education is still seen by many as
something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as
adult learning or lifelong learning. Adult education takes on many
forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning.
Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other
self-instructional materials. The rise in computer ownership and
internet access has given both adults and children greater access to
both formal and informal education.
Mode of Education. 1-formal education, 2-informal education , 3-Non
Formal Education – the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded
education system, running from primary school through the university and
including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of
specialized programs and institutions for full time technical and
Informal Education – the truly lifelong process whereby every individual
acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience
and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment
from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place the
library and the mass media.
1.5. Non-Formal Education.
Any organized educational activity outside the established formal
system- whether operating separately or as an important feature of some
broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning
clienteles and learning objectives.
1.6. Alternative education.
Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or
educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to
all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age
groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of
education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage
pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed
for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies
Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform
and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally
different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some
have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others
are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied
with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which
include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and
home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small
class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a
sense of community.
1.7. Emotional/Human education.
As academic education is more and more the norm and standard, companies
and individuals are looking less at normal education as to what is
deemed a good solid educated person/worker. Most well educated and
successful entrepreneurs have high communication skills with humanistic
and warm “emotional intelligence”.
2.1. Learning modalities.
There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last two
decades. Dunn and Dunn focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may
influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the
same time as Joseph Renzulli recommended varying teaching strategies.
Howard Gardner identified individual talents or aptitudes in his
Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter focused on
understanding how people’s personality affects the way they interact
personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each
other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and
Anthony Gregorc’s Type Delineator follows a similar but more simplified
It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning
“modes”. The learning modalities are probably the most common:
Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.
It is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality,
different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness. A
consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a
variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so
that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that
is effective for them.
Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey
its essence to a new generation of students. The goal is to establish a
sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are
exposed to different life experiences. The passing of knowledge from
generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of
society. Good teachers can translate information, good judgment,
experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can
understand and retain. As a profession, teaching has very high levels of
Work-Related Stress (WRS) which are listed as amongst the highest of any
profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of
this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are
put into place.
Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers
and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries both to
complement established education practices and develop new ways of
learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This
gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in
learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of
programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that
demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia,
and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning
environments. Technology is being used more not only in administrative
duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of
technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing
the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being
used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response
System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of
tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and
manage information.” These technologies include computers, the Internet,
broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There
is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve
education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings. Older
ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty
years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains
the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery
mechanism in both developed and developing countries.
The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in
developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited
infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Usually, various
technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery
mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both
radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate
the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a
rural community in Sri Lanka. The Open University of the United Kingdom
(UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the
world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies
heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and,
in recent years, online programming. Similarly, the Indira Gandhi
National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded
audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing
The term “computer-assisted learning” (CAL) has been increasingly used
to describe the use of technology in teaching.
High rates of education are essential for countries to achieve high
levels of economic growth. In theory poor countries should grow faster
than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies
already tried and tested by rich countries. But economists argue that if
the gap in education between a rich and a poor nation is too large, as
is the case between the poorest and the richest nations in the world,
the transfer of these technologies that drive economic growth becomes
difficult, thus the economies of the world’s poorest nations stagnate.
Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the
materials becoming more influenced by the rich international
environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing
an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the
Socrates-Erasmus Programme stimulates exchanges across European
universities. Also, the Soros Foundation provides many opportunities for
students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Some scholars argue that,
regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than
another, experiencing a different way of education can often be
considered to be the most important, enriching element of an
international learning experience.
1) “English on economics”, С.А.Шевелева, 2001.
2) “Английский для студентов экономических специальностей”,
Е.В.Глушенкова, Е.Н.Комарова, 2003.
3) “Учебное пособие по деловому английскому языку на базе сборника
диалогов «Business Connections»”, О.Б. Андреева, 2005.
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