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Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services

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Table of contents

Introduction

1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal substantiation of
realization of innovative activity

1.1 Economic bases of innovative activity

1.2 Legal bases of innovative activity

1.3 Working out and the analysis of the innovative project

2. The technique of the estimation of efficiency of the innovative
project

2.1 Existing technique of an estimation of the investment project

2.2 Offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative
project

2.3 Comparison of standard and offered models of an estimation of
efficiency of the innovative project

3. The estimation of efficiency of the innovative project in public
health services

3.1 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by a standard
technique

3.2 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by an offered
technique

3.3 Comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on
standard and offered models

4. Management of the personnel of the scientific organizations

4.1 Personnel of the scientific organisations

4.2 Motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisations

4.3 Problem of a choice of the optimum schedule (mode) of work in the
scientific organisations

5. Bases of safety of ability to live

5.1 Legal bases of a labour safety

5.2 Planning of actions for a labour safety

The conclusion

The literature list

Introduction

In modern conditions successful activity of medical institutions is in
many respects defined by activity of economic service since the changes
which have occurred in all spheres of our society, could not lay aside
public health services. In the conditions of transition to the market
without strengthening of an economic orientation of activity of the head
it is difficult to count on stable work of establishment. So, is
precipitate to sign contracts, to enter new medical services and to make
other important decisions without corresponding economic examination. In
this connection for medical institutions there is actual a question of
the analysis and economic activities planning. Many of methods of
economic (especially financial) analysis are not new in itself, but
those are only in relation to public health services. Application
(adaptation) of these methods to features of concrete area? A problem
difficult enough, demanding the big work and qualification [12].

In the present degree work the innovative project of manufacture of
iatrotechnics on the basis of treatment-and-prophylactic establishment
will be considered. Offered in the given degree work to consideration
the innovative project is developed for a substantiation of manufacture
and realisation of the new medical device? The biotest?, intended for
diagnostics and treatment of many of disease on a method to the
developed R.Follem. This direction in medical branch has started to
develop only in the last some years, and its further expansion is
planned. Development of this direction has the big prospects in view of
that R.Follja’s method allows to treat many diseases, including
congenital, and medical institutions engaged in diagnostics and
treatment on R.Follja’s method which will be the basic buyers of the
device? The biotest?, can organise the activity in such a manner that
technology use would make notable profit.

Medical institutions, private clinics and simply separate doctors
constantly expand a field of the activity, all new and new services
render, and aspire to receive from them benefit. Device “Biotest” allows
to organise the whole medical office on research and treatment, helps
with many branches of medicine. For example R.Follja’s method is applied
in stomatology to diagnostics of compatibility of the material, seals
offered the patient and crowns, with its organism. The purpose of degree
work is the substantiation of expediency of introduction of the
innovative project on manufacture of the new device? The biotest?.

For achievement of this purpose in work following problems are solved:

1) to Describe the theoretical? Economic and legal? Bases of innovative
activity.

2) to develop own model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative
project.

3) to spend the comparative description of standard and offered model of
an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project.

4) For the considered innovative project? Device manufactures? The
biotest?? To spend an efficiency estimation by both techniques, standard
and developed in the present degree work.

5) to consider the important questions concerning innovative activity,
such as questions of management of the personnel in the scientific
organisations and ability to live safety issues at realisation of
innovative activity. In the appendix to the present degree work the
Passport of the innovative project is resulted.

1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal substantiation of
realization of innovative activity

1.1 Economic bases of innovative activity

Before to speak about the economic bases of innovative activity, we will
short describe the basic terms and the concepts connected with
innovative activity (in the field of public health services) [26].
According to a management of Fraskati (the document is accepted in 1993
in the Italian city of Fraskati) the innovation is defined as the end
result of the innovative activity which has received an embodiment in
the form of a new or advanced product (service), introduced on the
market, new or advanced technological process, or in the new approach to
social services. In other words the innovation (innovation) means result
of the creative activity directed on working out, creation and
distribution of new kinds of products, technologies, introductions of
new organizational forms etc. [31]. In this connection it is necessary
to consider the term an innovation as registration of result
fundamental, applied or experimental researches in any field of
activity, promoting development and increase of efficiency of this
activity [47]. Besides opinions of authors of various editions, in
terminology questions it is necessary to consider standard documents. So
in the project of the Federal law? About innovative activity and the
state innovative policy? Following definitions of concepts considered in
the present degree work [62] are given:? An innovation – the end result
of the creative activity which has received realisation in the form of
new either advanced production, or the new or advanced technological
process used in an economic turn;? Innovative activity? Creation of the
new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological process,
realised in an economic turn with use of scientific researches, workings
out, developmental works, or other scientific and technical
achievements;? The state innovative policy? The component of a social
and economic policy directed on development and stimulation of
innovative activity;? Venture innovative funds? The noncommercial
organisations established legal and (or) physical persons on the basis
of voluntary property payments and (or) voluntary investment in exchange
for a share in the share capital, the creations focused on financing,
development in manufacture of new kinds of production and (or) the
technologies connected with a high risk;? An infrastructure of
innovative activity? The organisations rendering subjects of innovative
activity of service, necessary for realisation of innovative activity.
In connection with the above-stated the central concept for the present
degree research? The innovative project? It is necessary to define as
follows. As the innovative project we will understand the introduction
business plan (manufactures and sales) innovative working out (the new
goods, service or technology). The business plan, in turn, is both a
substantiation of economic feasibility of introduction of an innovation,
and planning of actions for realisation of the project [46]. Following
kinds of activity concern innovative activity [63]: performance of the
research, developmental and technological works directed on creation of
new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological process,
realised in an economic turn; Carrying out of marketing researches and
the organisation of commodity markets of innovative products; creation
and development of an innovative infrastructure; preparation and
retraining of personnel for innovative activity; protection, transfer
and acquisition of the rights to objects of intellectual property both
the confidential scientific and technological information; realisation
of technological re-equipment and manufacture preparation; realisation
of tests, certifications and standardization of new processes, products
and products; the initial period of manufacture of new or advanced
production, application of new or advanced technology before achievement
of a standard time of recovery of outlay of the innovative project;
financing of innovative activity, including realisation of investments
into innovative programs and projects; other kinds of works which
necessary for realisation of innovative activity and are not
contradicting the legislation of the Russian Federation. Further from
the conceptual device we will pass to the description of the economic
bases of innovative activity. Above it was already told about necessity
of steadfast consideration of the questions connected with an economic
aspect of activity of treatment-and-prophylactic establishments. The
first, what it is necessary to note in this connection? This increase of
the importance of economic service in activity of the medical
institutions, connected with increase of the importance of financial
indicators. Other moment? This essential change last years character of
economic work, increase of its complexity and labour input? Complexity
and labour input of economic work in public health services is
connected, first of all, with expansion of sources of financing, various
principles of planning [40]. The Major factors influencing occurrence of
new directions in economic work of medical institutions, Changes in
public health services economic mechanism are following [53: 1]). 2) the
Computerization of establishments of public health services. 3) changes
of the status and the organizational-legal form of medical institutions,
their transformation into full managing subjects with the wide rights in
questions of the organisation of the work. One of the major kinds of
economic work traditionally is planning. In modern conditions its
relative density. However in modern conditions instead of charges of
medical institutions priority value starts to get costs planning on the
medical aid rendering, called to provide coordination of resources with
volumes of the rendered services, instead of quantity of capacities (the
areas, cots, states etc.) [20]. By consideration of new tendencies in
approaches to the analysis of economic activities of medical
institutions what varies not only toolkit of the economic analysis, but
also a methodological basis is essentially important? The economic
analysis of work of medical institution acts as the analysis of activity
of the independent and full managing subject, instead of simply consumer
of resources as it was earlier [39]. Rather new sphere of activity of
economic service is pricing. This problem has got the practical
importance in connection with introduction of a new economic mechanism
and obligatory medical insurance [35]. In the conditions of market
relations at an establishment of the sizes of a payment it is necessary
to consider a supply and demand both on a labour market, and in the
market of medical services [48].

1.2 Legal bases of innovative activity

Innovative activity is carried out according to the Constitution of the
Russian Federation and the Civil code of the Russian Federation. The
Project of the Federal law on innovations and innovative activity
Besides, prepares. To regulate innovative activity according to this Law
and laws accepted according to it and other standard legal certificates
of the Russian Federation, laws and other standard legal certificates of
subjects of the Russian Federation, and also the international contracts
of the Russian Federation, concerning innovative activity [64]. If the
Federal Law on innovative activity while exists only in the project in
many regions of Russia Regional laws on innovative activity [63]
operate. Regional laws on innovations and innovative activity and the
Project of the Federal law are under construction approximately on the
same structure, therefore for illumination of legal bases of innovative
activity it will be pertinent to state the maintenance and substantive
provisions of the Project of the Federal law on innovations and
innovative activity, having resulted the maintenance of this Project
[62]. We will consider substantive provisions of this Project. First of
all, in the Project it is supposed to consider following concepts: an
innovation? The end result of the creative activity which has received
realisation in the form of new either advanced production, or the new or
advanced technological process used in an economic turn; innovative
activity? Creation of the new or advanced production, the new or
advanced technological process, realised in an economic turn with use of
scientific researches, workings out, developmental works, or other
scientific and technical achievements; the state innovative policy? The
component of a social and economic policy directed on development and
stimulation of innovative activity; venture innovative funds? The
noncommercial organisations established legal and (or) physical persons
on the basis of voluntary property payments and (or) voluntary
investment in exchange for a share in the share capital, the creations
focused on financing, development in manufacture of new kinds of
production and (or) the technologies connected with a high risk; an
infrastructure of innovative activity? The organisations rendering
subjects of innovative activity of service, necessary for realisation of
innovative activity [63]. In the Project makes a reservation that
innovative activity is carried out according to the Constitution of the
Russian Federation, the Civil code of the Russian Federation, the
present Federal law and laws accepted according to it and other standard
legal certificates of the Russian Federation, laws and other standard
legal certificates of subjects of the Russian Federation, and also the
international contracts of the Russian Federation, concerning innovative
activity. If the international contracts of the Russian Federation
establish other norms, than provided by the present Federal law norms of
the international contracts [63] are applied. In the Project it is
noticed that following kinds of activity concern innovative activity:
Performance of the research, developmental and technological works
directed on creation of new or advanced production, the new or advanced
technological process, realised in an economic turn; carrying out of
marketing researches and the organisation of commodity markets of
innovative products; creation and development of an innovative
infrastructure; preparation and retraining of personnel for innovative
activity; protection, transfer and acquisition of the rights to objects
of intellectual property both the confidential scientific and
technological information; realisation of technological re-equipment and
manufacture preparation; realisation of tests, certifications and
standardization of new processes, products and products; the initial
period of manufacture of new or advanced production, application of new
or advanced technology before achievement of a standard time of recovery
of outlay of the innovative project; Financing of innovative activity,
including realisation of investments into innovative programs and
projects; other kinds of works which necessary for realisation of
innovative activity and are not contradicting the legislation of the
Russian Federation [63]. Subjects of innovative activity are legal
bodies, irrespective of the organizational-legal form and a pattern of
ownership, physical persons? Citizens of the Russian Federation, the
foreign organisations and citizens, and also persons without
citizenship. Subjects of innovative activity can carry out functions of
customers and (or) executors of innovative projects and programs,
investors, consumers of results of innovative activity, and also the
organisations serving innovative process and promoting development and
distribution of innovations [62]. The state according to the current
legislation guarantees to subjects of innovative activity: The state
support of innovative programs and the projects directed on realisation
of the state innovative policy; the state support of creation and
development of subjects of an infrastructure of innovative activity; the
state support to preparation, retraining and improvement of professional
skill of the shots which are carrying out innovative activity;
intellectual property protection, protection against an unfair
competition and monopolism; access freedom to the information on
priorities of the state innovative policy; freedom of distribution and
gathering of the information on innovative requirements and results of
scientific and technical and innovative activity, except for the
information containing state, office and the trade secret [64]. Public
organisations and associations in which charter innovative activity is
provided, can carry out on the competitive beginnings it at the expense
of means of the federal budget, budgets of subjects of the Russian
Federation and to get the state support. Public authorities of the
Russian Federation, authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation by
preparation of projects of standard legal certificates and programs in
the field of innovative activity can involve public organisations and
associations [62]. The basic form of relations between subjects of
innovative activity are the contracts (contracts) concluded according to
the current legislation of the Russian Federation [63].

The disputes arising at realisation of innovative activity, are
considered in an order established by the legislation of the Russian
Federation and the legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation
[62]. Public authorities in an order established by the legislation of
the Russian Federation and the legislation of subjects of the Russian
Federation, can stop or suspend innovative activity in cases of
spontaneous and other disasters, introductions of state of emergency in
territory of the Russian Federation, and also if continuation of
innovative activity can lead to infringement established by the
legislation of the Russian Federation and the legislation of subjects of
the Russian Federation of ecological, sanitary-and-epidemiologic and
other norms and rules, the rights and interests legal and physical
persons [62].

1.3 Working out and the analysis of the innovative project

By means of the innovative project the important problem on finding-out
and a substantiation of technical possibility and economic feasibility
of innovative activity dares. Despite a variety of projects, their
analysis usually follows some general scheme which includes the special
sections estimating commercial, technical, financial, economic and
????????th feasibility of the project. [49]. Essentially the essence of
the analysis of the innovative project consists in the answer to two
simple questions [52:

1]) whether we Can sell a product which is growing out of realisation of
the project?

2) whether we from it can receive sufficient volume of the profit
justifying the investment project? The analysis of efficiency of the
innovative project conditionally breaks on [52]: the market analysis,
the analysis of the competitive environment, working out of the
marketing plan of a product, maintenance of reliability of the
information used for the previous sections. As innovative projects are
carried out at already existing markets, in the project their
characteristic should be resulted. The marketing analysis should include
the analysis of consumers and competitors also. The analysis of
consumers should define consumer inquiries, potential segments of the
market and character of process of purchase. For this purpose the
developer of the project should carry out detailed research of the
market. Besides, it is necessary to carry out the analysis of the basic
competitors within the limits of market structure and restrictions, on
it influencing [29]. In drawing 1.1 the general sequence of the analysis
of the innovative project is presented. It is necessary to notice, what
the resolution used on the scheme? The project deviates? Has conditional
character. The project should be really rejected in the initial kind. At
the same time the project can be altered because of, for example, its
technical impracticability and the analysis of the modified project
should begin from the very beginning.

Let’s describe high lights of the analysis of efficiency of the
innovative project [37]. The technical analysis [37] Problem of the
technical analysis of the innovative project is:? Definition of the
technologies most suitable from the point of view of the purposes of the
project? The analysis of local conditions, including availability and
cost of raw materials, energy, a labour? Stock-taking of potential
possibilities of planning and project realisation. The technical
analysis is usually made by group of own experts of the enterprise with
possible attraction of narrow experts. Standard procedure of the
technical analysis begins with the analysis of own existing technologies
[51]. The rule of a choice of technology provides the complex analysis
of some alternative technologies and a choice of the best variant on the
basis of any aggregated criterion [56]. The financial analysis of [37]
investment projects Given section is the most volume and
labour-consuming. The general scheme of financial section of the
innovative project follows simple sequence [37]. 1) the Analysis of a
financial condition of the enterprise in preparation of the innovative
project. 2) the analysis of break-even of manufacture of principal views
of production. 3) the forecast of profits and monetary streams in the
course of realisation of the innovative project. 4) an estimation of
efficiency of the innovative project. We will stop short on key
questions of financial section of the innovative project. The financial
analysis of the previous work of the enterprise and its current position
usually is reduced to calculation and interpretation of the basic
financial factors reflecting liquidity, credit status, profitableness of
the enterprise and efficiency of its management. Usually it does not
cause difficulty. It is important to present also in financial section
the basic financial reporting of the enterprise for a number of previous
years and to compare the basic indicators on years [51]. The break-even
analysis includes regular work under the analysis of structure of the
cost price of manufacturing and sale of principal views of production
and division of all costs into variables (which change with change of a
volume of output and sales) and constants (which remain invariable at
change of a volume of output). The Main objective of the analysis of
break-even? To define a break-even point, i.e. a sales volume of the
goods which corresponds to zero value of profit. Importance of the
analysis of break-even consists in comparison of a real or planned gain
in the course of realisation of the investment project with a point of
break-even and the subsequent estimation of reliability of profitable
activity of the enterprise [27]. The Most responsible part of financial
section of the innovative project is actually its investment part which
includes [37]:? Definition of investment requirements of the enterprise
for the project? Establishment (and the subsequent search) sources of
financing of investment requirements? Estimation of cost of the capital
involved for realisation of the investment project? The forecast of
profits and monetary streams at the expense of project realisation? An
estimation of indicators of efficiency of the project. The most
difficult is the question of an estimation of a recoupment of the
project during its term of realisation [5]. The volume of monetary
streams which turn out as a result of project realisation should cover
size of the total investment taking into account a principle? Costs of
money in time?. Each new stream of money received in a year has the
smaller importance, than equal to it on size the monetary stream
received year earlier. As the characteristic measuring the time
importance of monetary streams, the norm of profitableness from
investment received acts during realisation of the investment project of
monetary streams [5]. The economic analysis [37] be integrated procedure
of an estimation of economic efficiency can it is presented in the form
of the following sequence [37: 1]) to Present results of the financial
analysis. 2) to make new classification of expenses and incomes from the
point of view of the economic analysis. 3) to translate financial values
in economic (they do not coincide because of discrepancy of the prices
and expenses for external and home market). 4) to Estimate cost of other
possibilities for use of resources and reception of the same product. 5)
to exclude all calculations on internal payments (as they do not change
the general riches of the country). 6) to Compare annual economic
streams of means with initial volume of the investment (it will be a
final analysis). The institutsionalnyj analysis of [37]
Institutsionalnyj the analysis estimates possibility of successful
performance of the investment project taking into account
organizational, legal, political and administrative conditions. This
section of the investment project is not quantitative and not financial.
Its main task? To estimate set of the internal and external factors
accompanying the investment project [37]. The estimation of internal
factors is usually made under the following scheme. 1) the analysis of
possibilities of industrial management. Well-known that bad management
in a condition to fill up any, even over the good project. Analyzing
industrial management of the enterprise, it is necessary to be focused
on following questions [37]:? Experience and qualification of managers
of the enterprise? Their motivation within the limits of the project
(for example, in the form of a share from profit)?

Compatibility of managers with the purposes of the project and the cores
ethical and project cultural values. The analysis of a manpower. A
manpower with which it is planned to involve for project realisation
should correspond to level of technologies used in the project [42]. The
analysis of organizational structure. The organizational structure
accepted at the enterprise should not brake project development. It is
necessary to analyse, as there is at the enterprise a decision-making
process and as distribution of responsibility for their performance is
carried out. It is not excluded that it is necessary to allocate
management of realisation of the developed investment project in
separate administrative structure, having passed from hierarchical to
matrix structure of management as a whole on the enterprise [51]. The
basic priorities in respect of the analysis of external factors are
mainly caused by a policy of the state in whom following positions [37]
are allocated for the detailed analysis:? Conditions of import and
export of raw materials and the goods? Possibility for foreign investors
to put means and to export the goods? Laws on work? Substantive
provisions of financial and bank regulation. This points in question are
most important for those projects which assume attraction of the western
strategic investor [37]. The analysis of risk [37]. The essence of the
analysis of risk consists in the following. Without dependence from
quality of assumptions, the future always bears in itself an uncertainty
element. The most part of the data necessary, for example, for the
financial analysis (elements of expenses, the prices, production sales
volume, etc.) Are uncertain. In the future forecast changes as to the
worst (profit decrease), and in the best are possible. The risk analysis
offers the account of all changes, both towards deterioration, and
towards improvement [48]. In the course of project realisation following
elements are subject to change: cost of raw materials and accessories,
cost of capital expenses, service cost, cost of sales, the prices and so
on. As a result of target parametre, for example profit, will be casual.
The risk uses concept of likelihood distribution and probability. For
example, the risk is equal to probability to get negative profit, that
is the loss. The wider range of change of factors of the project, the
?e??o is subject to risk the project [57]. As a rule, definitively
innovative project is made out in the form of the business plan. In this
business plan all questions listed above, as a rule, are reflected. The
business plan of the innovative project, first of all, should meet
requirements of that subject of innovative activity on which decision
the further destiny of the project [36] depends. So, in chapter 1 of
degree work theoretical bases of innovative activity in public health
services have been considered, and, the basic terminology is entered,
the economic reasons of innovations and legal maintenance of innovative
activity are described. From chapter 1 it is possible to draw a
conclusion, what a principal cause causing innovative activity in
economy in general and in public health services in particular? The new
market relations compelling each concrete enterprise to search
additional sources of financing. These economic bases in turn generate
the legislative base providing a legal field of innovative activity.

2. The technique of the estimation of efficiency of the innovative
project

2.1 Existing technique of an estimation of the investment project

Existing (standard, classical) the technique of an estimation of
efficiency of the innovative project includes [35:

1]) calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV);

2) calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI);

3) calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of
the investment (IRR);

4) decision-making on project realisation. We will describe each step of
this technique.

At the heart of process of acceptance of administrative decisions of
investment character the estimation and comparison of volume of
prospective investments and the future monetary receipts lie. As
compared indicators concern the various moments of time, a key problem
here is the problem of their comparability. To concern it it is possible
differently depending on existing objective and subjective conditions:
rate of inflation, the size of investments and generated receipts,
horizon of forecasting, a skill level of analysts etc. The international
practice of an estimation of efficiency of investments essentially is
based on the concept of time cost of money and is based on following
principles.

1) the estimation of efficiency of use of the invested capital is made
by comparison of a monetary stream (cash flow) which is formed in the
course of realisation of the investment project and the initial
investment. The project admits effective if return of the initial sum of
investments and demanded profitableness for the investors who have given
the capital is provided.

2) the invested capital no less than a monetary stream is resulted by
this time or by certain settlement year (which as a rule precedes the
beginning of realisation of the project).

3) Process of discounting of capital investments and monetary streams is
made under various rates of discount which are defined depending on
features of investment projects. At definition of the rate of discount
the structure of investments and cost of separate components of the
capital are considered. The essence of all methods of an estimation is
based on the following simple scheme: Initial investments at realisation
of any project generate monetary stream CF1, CF2…, CFn. Investments
admit effective if this stream is sufficient for? Return of the initial
sum of capital investments and? Maintenance of demanded return on the
invested capital. 1) calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost
(NPV) [29] Calculation of this factor is based on comparison of size of
the initial investment (IC) with a total sum of the discounted pure
monetary receipts generated by it during predicted term. As inflow of
money resources is distributed in time, it is discounted by means of
factor r, established by the investor independently, proceeding from
annual percent of return which he wants or can have on the capital
invested by it. Let’s admit, the forecast becomes that the investment
(IC) will generate during n years, revenues at a rate of CF1, CF2,
CF…. The general saved up size of the discounted incomes (PV) (Present
Value) and the pure resulted cost (NPV) (Net Present Value) Pays off.

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ffcff7ffffffffffffef9ffffe7fbfffffffcffb7f7cfffff3fdfff8ffffffffffffffff
ffffffffff3e7feff9fe7ffffff9f3ff7fcff3ffffffffffffcf9ffbfe7f9fffffffd3fb
7e7cffdff3fcfff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffff3e7feffdfe7ffffff9f3ff7feff3ff
ffffffffffcf9ffbff7f9fffffffeffb7e7cffdffbfcfff8ffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff3e7feffcfe7ffffff9f3ff7fe7f3ffffffffffffcf9ffbff3f9fffffffeffcfe7cffdf
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ffcf9fc07f179ffffffffffffe7cfe03f8bcfff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffff3e7fef
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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffbe7feffcdee3fffffdf3ff7fe6f70fffffffffffef9ffb
ff37bd3fffffe0000f7cffdff9bdd9f8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffbe7feffffef7ff
fffdf3ff7ffff7bfffffffffffef9ffbffffbd7ffffff7ffcf7cffdffffde7f8ffffffff
fffffffffffe7fffffde7ffffffdf7fffffef3ffffffefdffffffffffff79fffffff7d7f
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ffffdfdffffffffffff61ffffffefcbffffffdffffb0fffffff7e7f8ffffffffffffffff
fffdbfffffef7ffffff7f7ffffff7bffffffbfeffffffffffffbdffffffdfc3ffffffeff
ffdeffffffefe9f8fffffffffffffffffffdbfffffffffffffffe7ffffffffffffffff6f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff7ffffffffffffff7f8c3de0feffffffff0783dbfff
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fffff7f8efdf9ff7ffffffe7befdbffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9e79f
ffffffffffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffff8f7cf9ff3ffffffefde7e7ffbffffffff
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f78f9ff1ffffffcffe7ffffbfc0000000000007fdfe0000000000000ff7fffff7f000000
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ffffffcfff37ffc07ffffffffffffffe03fffffffffffffff80ffff80fffffffffffffff
ffffffc7fffffffffffffff8fb37ce737ff80fcfff07fffbfffffffffe3fffffdfffffff
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ff3bfffbffffffffff7fffffdffffffffffbffffff7fffff7fffffffffd7ffffffffff1f
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ff7fffff7fffffffffd7fffffffffe3ffffffffffe7ffff8fc7be733dffffff3ef9effff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Where n? Quantity of the periods of time on which the investment, r is
made? Norm of profitableness (profitableness) from an investment. It is
obvious that if: NPV> 0 the project should be accepted; NPV <0 the project should be rejected; NPV = 0 the project not profitable and not the unprofitable Project with NPV = 0 has nevertheless additional argument to own advantage: though well-being of owners of the company in case of project realisation will not change, the volume of output will increase, i.e. the company will increase. At forecasting of incomes on years it is necessary to consider all kinds of receipts, both industrial character, and non-productive which can be with the given investment project.It is necessary to notice that indicator NPV reflects a look-ahead estimation of change of economic potential of the enterprise in case of acceptance of the considered project. This indicator is additive in time, i.e. NPV various projects it is possible to summarise. This very important property allocating this criterion from others and allowing to use it as the core at the analysis of an optimality of the investment project. At comparison of two or several investment projects, obviously, it is necessary to choose that project which has higher value NPV [39]. 2) Calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI) [39] Pays off a profitability index (Profitability Index) (PI) under the formula:PI = ?k [Pk / (1 + r)k] / IC,Where IC? Sizes of the initial investment; Pk? The prospective cumulative income; r? Norm of profitableness (profitableness) from an investment; k? Quantity of the periods of time (years). It is obvious that if: PI> 1 the project should be accepted; PI <1 the project should be rejected; PI = 1, the project neither profitable, nor unprofitable. Unlike the pure resulted cost the profitability index is a relative indicator, it characterises level of incomes on a unit of cost, i.e. efficiency of investments? The more value of this indicator, the above return of each rouble invested in the given project. Thanks to it criterion PI is very convenient at a choice of one project from a number alternative, having about identical values NPV, in particular, if two projects have identical values NPV, but different volumes of demanded investments, that, it is obvious that that from projects which provides the big efficiency of investments, or at acquisition of a portfolio of investments with the maximum total value NPV [26] is more favourable. 3) Calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment (IRR) [31] (Internal Rate of Return) (IRR) understand value of factor of discounting As internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment r at which NPV the project it is equal to zero: IRR = r, at which NPV = f (r) = 0.picscalex1000100090000039a08000000004c05000000004c05000026060f008e0a574d 46430100000000000100bbe200000000010000006c0a0000000000006c0a000001000000 6c0000000000000000000000c30000003500000000000000000000000c14000085050000 20454d46000001006c0a00000c0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000 1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000 2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000 6000000046000000a002000094020000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900 0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f 214007000c0000000000000008400005ec010000e00100000210c0db0100000000000000 0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d49484452000000c4 000000360100000000b0870bd400000002624b47440000aa8d23320000000c636d50504a 436d7030373132000000074f6db7a5000001654944415438cbcdd2bd4ec3301000e03065 cc23e435908adad7aa14216ff016f0088c74c2201ea0234808b9520726ea40046e74f599 73dcd63f4918111e1cebbed83afb2e3323a3cefe8f5cec4e46646eaa543e995da04648a5 ed446b94a98013d397ef6e01068b9e30275a0ce7f6ab8cdc14401b39285a41ba679595dd 4d8bda5cc7d2f88088a5f58144763ec0f7dfbcbc7c2c489849450821459de1ec0078107e 2324a7acbdb0a370c948a25c9ddcf28dbde9320eaf0a2bef56de0c667ee484ace2af4ed2 c12af66245f64e63e7ecc94a5c169b1fc9d20a4f0f434427f4973abedc8ea6ede9940ea2 37a0f586747b96ef7289c18b22a5f04c82d4a3950a45d355af48a847111a1d0890dc31ed 0442a9a9dad34e14aaf62be9032705166d13889dad80165ab4a627f7e5980cee11cd5ea4 96c91ee844818444666016a5360ff5ba5e43241c7c2b34912c26be442a92f9c4975546c2 3e82fa84a299191cb6e3c7c4fc8dfc00c96feeb18d72837b0000000049454e44ae426082 0840010824000000180000000210c0db0100000003000000000000000000000000000000 1b40000040000000340000000100000002000000000000bf000000bf0000444300005842 03000000000080b3000080b3ffff4343000080b3000080b3ffff57422100000008000000 620000000c00000001000000150000000c00000004000000150000000c00000004000000 51000000680600000000000000000000c300000035000000000000000000000000000000 00000000c400000036000000500000003000000080000000e8050000000000002000cc00 c40000003600000028000000c40000003600000001000100000000000000000000000000 00000000020000000000000000000000ffffff00ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fcffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fd7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101ff7ff1fff7ffffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 ff783bffefffffffffffffffffeffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffb83bffdfffffff fffffffffff7fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffbffbff9ffffffffffffffffff3ffff fffffffffffffffff0010101ff3ffbffb81ffdffc1f0e3f0e3fbffffffffffffffffffff f0010101fffffbff3e7ffdfff7fbeffbeff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffdff3ff 3e7ffdfffbfdeffdeff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff3e7ffdfffbfddffd dff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff3e7fc01ffbfddffddff9ffffffffffff fffffffff0010101ffffffff3e7ffdfffbfddffddff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101 e0001fff3e7ffdfffdfe0ffe0ff9f3fffffffffffffffffff0010101f0001fff3e7ffdff fdfef7fef7f9f5fffffffffffffffffff0010101fbffcfffbe7ffdfffdfefbfefbfbfdff fffffffffffffffff0010101fdffcfff9e7ffffffdfefbfefbf3fdffffffffffffffffff f0010101feffefffd87ffffffeff7bff7bf7fefffffffffffffffffff0010101feffffff ee7ffffff83c07fc07effefffffffffffffffffff0010101ff7ffffff7ffffffffffffff ffdffcfffffff8383effdffff0010101ffbffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffefe fe7fcffff0010101ffdfffffffffffffffffffffffffff7fffffff7f7d7fcffff0010101 ffefffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe00fff7f7d7fd7fff0010101ffe7ffffffffffff ffffffffffffffffffffff7f7b7fdbfff0010101ffe7fffe000000000000000000000007 ffffff7f7bbfddfff0010101ffcfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe00fffbfb7bfedff f0010101ff9fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbfb7bfeefff0010101ff3fffff fffffffffffffe7fffffffffffffffbfafbfef7ff0010101fe3ffffffffffffffffffebf ffffffffffffffbfafdfefbff0010101fc7fffffffffffffffffffbfffffffffffffffdf dfdfefdff0010101fcffdfffffffffffffffffbfffffffffffffff071f87c30ff0010101 f9ffdfffffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101f3ff9fffffffffff ffffffdffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101e0001ffffffffffe0ff0ff9fffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffdf7fbffffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101fffffffffffffffbfbfdffeffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff fffffffbfffdfffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffbfffddfff fffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fff67ffffffffffbfffddfffffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101fff6fffffffffffbfffe0ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 fffb7ffffffffffdfffeeffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fff97ffffffffffd fdfeeffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fff27ffffffffffefdfefbffffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffff78ff7bffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101ffffffffffffffff86fc01fffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff00101014c000000640000000000000000000000 c3000000350000000000000000000000c4000000360000002900aa000000000000000000 0000803f00000000000000000000803f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000 454d462b024000000c000000000000000e00000014000000000000001000000014000000 0400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c023600c400030000001e000400 000007010400040000000701040019030000410b2000cc003600c400000000003600c400 0000000028000000c4000000360000000100010000000000000000000000000000000000 020000000000000000000000ffffff00ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fcffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101fd7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101ff7ff1fff7ffffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ff783bff efffffffffffffffffeffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffb83bffdfffffffffffffff fff7fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffbffbff9ffffffffffffffffff3ffffffffffff fffffffff0010101ff3ffbffb81ffdffc1f0e3f0e3fbfffffffffffffffffffff0010101 fffffbff3e7ffdfff7fbeffbeff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffdff3ff3e7ffdff fbfdeffdeff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff3e7ffdfffbfddffddff9ffff fffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff3e7fc01ffbfddffddff9ffffffffffffffffffff f0010101ffffffff3e7ffdfffbfddffddff9fffffffffffffffffffff0010101e0001fff 3e7ffdfffdfe0ffe0ff9f3fffffffffffffffffff0010101f0001fff3e7ffdfffdfef7fe f7f9f5fffffffffffffffffff0010101fbffcfffbe7ffdfffdfefbfefbfbfdffffffffff fffffffff0010101fdffcfff9e7ffffffdfefbfefbf3fdfffffffffffffffffff0010101 feffefffd87ffffffeff7bff7bf7fefffffffffffffffffff0010101feffffffee7fffff f83c07fc07effefffffffffffffffffff0010101ff7ffffff7ffffffffffffffffdffcff fffff8383effdffff0010101ffbffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffefefe7fcfff f0010101ffdfffffffffffffffffffffffffff7fffffff7f7d7fcffff0010101ffefffff ffffffffffffffffffffffffe00fff7f7d7fd7fff0010101ffe7ffffffffffffffffffff ffffffffffffff7f7b7fdbfff0010101ffe7fffe000000000000000000000007ffffff7f 7bbfddfff0010101ffcfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe00fffbfb7bfedfff0010101 ff9fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbfb7bfeefff0010101ff3fffffffffffff fffffe7fffffffffffffffbfafbfef7ff0010101fe3ffffffffffffffffffebfffffffff ffffffbfafdfefbff0010101fc7fffffffffffffffffffbfffffffffffffffdfdfdfefdf f0010101fcffdfffffffffffffffffbfffffffffffffff071f87c30ff0010101f9ffdfff ffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101f3ff9fffffffffffffffffdf fffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101e0001ffffffffffe0ff0ff9fffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffdf7fbfffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 fffffffffffffffbfbfdffeffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffb fffdfffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fffffffffffffffbfffddfffffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101fff67ffffffffffbfffddfffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101fff6fffffffffffbfffe0ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fffb7fff fffffffdfffeeffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fff97ffffffffffdfdfeefff fffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101fff27ffffffffffefdfefbffffffffffffffffff fffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffff78ff7bfffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101 ffffffffffffffff86fc01fffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff f0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffff00101010c00000040092900aa000000000000003600c400 00000000040000002701ffff030000000000Where CFj - an entrance monetary stream during j th period, INV? Value of the investment. The sense of this factor at the analysis of efficiency of planned investments consists in the following: IRR shows expected profitableness of the project, and, hence, as much as possible admissible relative level of expenses which can be a?????? with the given project. For example, if the project is financed completely at the expense of the loan of commercial bank value IRR shows the top border of admissible level of the bank interest rate which excess does the project unprofitable. Thus, IRR is as though? A barrier indicator?: if cost of the capital above value IRR? Capacities? It is not enough project to provide necessary return and return of money and therefore the project should be rejected [32]. 4) (ARR) [12] This factor has Calculation of effectiveness ratio of the investment two characteristic features: he does not assume discounting of indicators of the income; The income is characterised by an indicator of net profit PN (balance profit minus deductions in the budget) [19]. The algorithm of calculation is exclusively simple, as predetermines wide use of this indicator in practice: the investment effectiveness ratio (named also in registration rate of return) (Accounting Rate of Return) (ARR) pays off division of mid-annual profit PN into average size of the investment (the factor undertakes in percentage). The average size of the investment is division of the initial sum of capital investments into two if it is supposed that after term of realisation of the analyzed project all capital expenses will be written off; if presence of residual or liquidating cost (RV) its estimation should be considered in calculations is supposed.ARR = PN / [1/2 (IC + RV)],The given indicator is compared to factor of profitability of the advanced capital counted by division of the general net profit of the enterprise for a total sum of means, advanced in its activity (a result of average balance net) more often. The method based on use of effectiveness ratio of the investment, also has a number of the essential lacks caused, basically, that it does not consider time components of monetary streams. In particular it does not do distinction between projects with the identical sum of mid-annual profit, but the varying sum of profit on years, and also between the projects having identical mid-annual profit, but generated during various quantity of years. 5) decision-making by criterion of the least cost After a statement of the general scheme of standard model of an estimation of efficiency of investment projects, we will state some conclusions. There are investment projects in which it is difficult or it is impossible to calculate the monetary income. This sort of projects arise at the enterprise when it is going to modify the technological or transport equipment which takes part in many versatile work cycles and it is impossible to estimate a monetary stream. In this case as criterion for decision-making on expediency of investments operation cost acts.2.2 Offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative projectFeature of subjects of research considered in the present degree work consists what the general model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project in public health services till now is not made? This problem at thesis for a doctor's degree level on economy. In frameworks of usual degree research it is possible to offer only the model focused on the concrete innovative project. In this connection? To complete the picture? Before actually statement of offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the project it is necessary to describe in brief the project, i.e. to make the short resume of the project. The innovative project considered in the present degree research consists in the organisation of manufacture and sale of the diagnostic device? The biotest? ???????i for a finding ???e??? points, carrying out y???????? the express train of diagnostics of a condition of a human body by results of measurements of parametres of biologically active points, testings of preparations and therapy according to R.Follja's technique. The Scope - the diagnostic device of the doctor of the therapist, the homeopathist, the anaesthesiologist, etc. Novelty of the project (innovation, an innovation) consists what release of the product, analogue not having to in Russia, abroad is supposed? The device very cheap and reliable.The device device. The case is made of shock-resistant polystyrene. On the obverse panel are located: 1 - the microampermeter 2 - the switch of operating modes of the device 3 - the switch? Diagnostics/therapy? 4 - the step switch of frequencies of therapy 5 - the indicator of inclusion and the category of the power supply 6 - light indicators of a finding of biologically active points (definition of degree of falling of an arrow) On a lateral surface of the device is located a regulator of amplitude of influence of electroimpulses. The device block diagramme? The biotest? It is presented on fig. 3 and includes: - the device of search of biologically active points - the measuring amplifier - the microampermeter - the setting generator with a frequency divider - target pressureRemote terminal units: passive round electrodes; an active electrode; a foot electrode; a plate for testing of preparations and medicines Additional devices. Under the demand of the customer the device is completed with a charger (C.O.) . The charger is intended for gymnastics of accumulators (if they are present instead of electric batteries at a food compartment). As delivery of a diagnostic office of the doctor is possible. The device enters into it for device connection? The biotest? To the COMPUTER. The device of the coordination of the device has been for this purpose specially developed? The biotest? And the COMPUTER and as the software allowing completely is written to automate work of the doctor. Assortment. 1 kind of the device will be issued? The biotest? With ????? the indicator, completely corresponding to the above-stated description of Advantage of the given device in comparison with analogues available in the market. Device "Biotest" was developed strictly on the basis of R.Follja's method. The device has included all most necessary qualities such as simplicity, ???n? both ease in circulation and device adjustment, small weight of a product, reliability and durability of a product, small power consumption, a food from battery power supplies "finger-type" which are widely accessible, aesthetic appearance of the device and its remote terminal units. Device life cycle? The biotest? Basically it will be defined by life cycle of the most applied method of R.Follja. Development tendencies will consist in device improvement, addition in it of new functions, improvement of available characteristics, change of appearance of the device. As it is planned to develop new updating of the device? The Biotest Th? With ????? the indicator + the additional digital indicator of level, degree of falling of an arrow and some other parametres. The offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project will include: 1) an estimation of competitive advantages of the goods (service), offered by the considered project; 2) an estimation of a market capacity of sale on which the considered project, including as the basic indicator the sales volume forecast is focused; 3) calculation of the capacity necessary for realisation of the project, and its comparison to a predicted sales volume; 4) calculation of the project of volume of investments necessary for realisation; 5) calculation? Break-even points?, i.e. critical for a recoupment of the project of volume of output; 6) summarising calculation of the basic indicators of the project, such as profit (total and pure); profitability of production; profitability of funds; the full cost price; labour input; the predicted price for production; a critical sales volume and release; efficiency of capital investments; a time of recovery of outlay; a stock of financial durability. A core of offered model is the analysis of break-even and a project recoupment. The break-even analysis includes regular work under the analysis of structure of the cost price of manufacturing and sale of principal views of production and division of all costs into variables (which change with change of a volume of output and sales) and constants (which remain invariable at change of a volume of output). The Main objective of the analysis of break-even - to define a break-even point, i.e. a sales volume of the goods which corresponds to zero value of profit. Importance of the analysis of break-even consists in comparison of a real or planned gain in the course of realisation of the investment project with a point of break-even and the subsequent estimation of reliability of profitable activity of the enterprise. The most responsible part of financial section of the project is actually its investment part which includes? Definition of investment requirements of the enterprise for the project? Establishment (and the subsequent search) sources of financing of investment requirements? Estimation of cost of the capital involved for realisation of the investment project? The forecast of profits and monetary streams at the expense of project realisation? An estimation of indicators of efficiency of the project. In the course of an estimation of a recoupment of the project the question of the account of inflation is critical. Really, the monetary streams developed in time, it is necessary to count in connection with change of purchasing capacity of money. At the same time there is a position according to which the final conclusion about efficiency of the investment project can be made, ignoring inflationary effect. In one of heads it will be shown that inflationary change of a price level does not influence an estimation of the pure value of monetary streams led to the present moment on which base the basic indicator of efficiency of the investment project is defined.2.3 Comparison of standard and offered models of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative projectTwo models applied to an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project were above described. A problem of this point? To give their comparative description. These models in two basic directions will be compared: by results and under the maintenance. Concerning comparison by results. Certainly, both these models bring the purpose the answer to an attention to the question, whether it is necessary to put up money in the considered innovative project or not; but these two models differently answer this question. In what here similarities and distinctions? It also is a problem of the comparative description of models by results. Comparison of models under the maintenance assumes transfer qualitative and the quantitative parametres used in both models, and also a conformity establishment between these two sets of parametres. Also it will be necessary to draw the general conclusion under the analysis of two models: what are? Pluses? And? Minuses? Applications of everyone them them what of them it is necessary to prefer at the analysis of the considered project, etc. Let's remind that the standard model assumes: 1) calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV); 2) calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI); 3) calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment (IRR); 4) decision-making of realisation of the project. The offered model assumes 1) an estimation of competitive advantages of the goods (service), offered by the considered project; 2) an estimation of a market capacity of sale on which the considered project, including as the basic indicator the sales volume forecast is focused; 3) calculation of the capacity necessary for realisation of the project, and its comparison to a predicted sales volume; 4) calculation of the project of volume of investments necessary for realisation; 5) calculation? Break-even points?, i.e. critical for a recoupment of the project of volume of output; 6) summarising calculation of the basic indicators of the project, such as profit (total and pure); Profitability of production; profitability of funds; the full cost price; labour input; the predicted price for production; a critical sales volume and release; efficiency of capital investments; a time of recovery of outlay; a stock of financial durability; 7) decision-making on realisation (or to a deviation) the project. As it is possible to see, in sense of the purpose of application both these models have the purpose to answer a question, to accept to realisation or to reject the considered innovative project. On a way of the answer to this main point of model differ. Distinction consists what the standard model basically uses relative factors, and offered model? The absolute. To show this difference it is possible on a simple example: the standard model will tell that it is necessary to put money, as each enclosed rouble will bring 20 copecks of the income (i.e. Let's enclose 1 rouble, we will receive 1 rouble of 20 copecks), whereas the offered model of an estimation of efficiency will tell what to put up money in the innovative project costs, as the enclosed 1000 roubles will return as 1200 roubles. It is obvious, what this distinction not essential since at use of that and their other model it is possible to add with corresponding indicators? Standard model absolute, offered? The relative. The standard model uses relative indicators owing to tradition; the offered model uses absolute indicators from convenience reasons? At application of offered model it is possible to draw a conclusion of such grade that for realisation of the innovative project it is necessary to involve 14011 c.u. that through 7 months to receive 19873 c.u. Under the maintenance of indicators two considered models basically coincide. We will prove it. The standard model does not give possibility to execute an estimation of competitive advantages of the goods (service) offered by the considered project. However the standard model should contain this indicator as intermediate result? If the project is not directed on manufacture of a competitive product the project will be unprofitable and inefficient. A similar situation with a market capacity indicator? This indicator is not necessary for application of standard model, however, it does not mean that the offered model wins at standard, having this indicator. Capacity calculation is designated as an obligatory indicator at application of offered model. This indicator is not present as a part of standard model, however for calculations of factors of standard model anyhow it is necessary to know the capacity requested by the project. For this reason for application of standard model more low we will use this factor, but counted within the limits of application of offered model. Calculation of necessary volume of investments is necessary for application of both models: in offered model it is taken out as a separate indicator, in the standard? Is present at quality of parametre (intermediate result) at calculation of all indicators of standard model. Means, at application of standard model we will address partly to results of application of offered model. The break-even point pays off at application of offered model, but anything similar is not present in standard model. It is caused by what a break-even point? An indicator absolute whereas the standard model uses relative indicators. As to such characteristics of the project, such as profit (total and pure), profitability of production, profitability of the funds, the full cost price, the labour input, the predicted price for production, a critical sales volume and release, a time of recovery of outlay, a stock of financial durability? All of them are present at offered model, and at standard model there are only relative indicators, namely: efficiency of capital investments and analogue of an indicator of profitability of production. If the purposes of application of models coincide, some indicators and intermediate results are crossed, in what a difference between them and what for it is necessary to use two models? First of all, the numerical characteristics given by models, not should differ strongly from each other as we consider their application to the same project: If the standard model gives any numerical indicator its accuracy will be difficult for improving owing to that the standard model has already proved. We will draw conclusions by results of considerations of techniques of an estimation of efficiency of innovative projects. How it was possible to notice, the standard model is less labour-consuming in the application? In it, undoubtedly, there is an advantage of standard model before offered model. However, the basic difference between standard and offered models what the offered model gives more information on the concrete project? And in it the big advantage of offered model before the standard. For example, the standard model of an estimation of efficiency of the project cannot answer on a question, in what volume it is necessary to make production that the project was profitable? The standard model uses this indicator, but does not count it whereas the offered model at first counts it, and then uses. So, both those and other models can tell that, for example, as a result of three years of realisation the project will be profitable whereas the offered technique can tell that the project will pay off in 7 months. The offered model also has one essential lack? All basic indicators pay off on the basis of the sales volume forecast. But it is the forecast, obviously, can be only approximate. Hence, all basic indicators of offered model will be approximate. In the following chapter the comparative analysis of application of standard and offered model on an example of the concrete innovative project will be given.3. The estimation of efficiency of the innovative project in public health services3.1 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by a standard technique1) Calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV) For application of a standard technique of a case of the innovative project considered in the present degree work, all basic numerical data will undertake from point 3.2 of the present work. So the forecast, let us assume, becomes that the investment (IC) will generate within 3 years, revenues at a rate of CF1, CF2, CF.... The general saved up size of the discounted incomes (PV) (Present Value) and the pure resulted cost (NPV) (Net Present Value) Pays off.picscalex100010009000003000c000000006207000000006207000026060f00ba0e574d 464301000000000001005da50000000001000000980e000000000000980e000001000000 6c00000000000000000000009c010000290000000000000000000000402a00004b040000 20454d4600000100980e00000c0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000 1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000 2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000 60000000460000002c04000020040000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900 0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f 214007000c0000000000000008400005780300006c0300000210c0db0100000000000000 0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d494844520000019d 0000002a0100000000401cbb7600000002624b47440000aa8d23320000000c636d50504a 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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff80c00000040092900 aa000000000000002a009d0100000000040000002701ffff030000000000Here n - quantity of the periods of time on which the investment is made, r - norm of profitableness (profitableness) from an investment. It is known that if: NPV> 0 the project should be accepted; NPV <0 the project should be rejected; NPV = 0, the project not profitable and not the unprofitable. For our projectpicscalex99010009000003dd02000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000 00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000 0000b0200000000050000000c02200540341200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000 000c0ffffffb4ffffff00340000d40400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650 000300109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014025 002860c0500000013025002b61210000000fb02bcfd09010000000090010000000204020 01053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a7304791401000000280010000 000fb02bcfd0901000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010 20004000000f001010008000000320a7304261b010000002900050000001402500269140 500000013025002b61c10000000fb02bcfd0901000000009001000000020402001053796 d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a7304791e010000002 80010000000fb02bcfd0901000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c000204000 0002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a730426250100000029000500000014025 002691e0500000013025002a22615000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000000004020 01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000081040000002d01010004000000f00102000 8000000320ac002a433010000002e0008000000320ac002c432010000003000080000003 20ac0029c30010000002e0008000000320ac0028c2f010000002e0008000000320ac0021 c2d01000000330008000000320ac002b32c010000002c000a000000320ac0025a2805000 00031373134390009000000320a75047322030000003136360008000000320a750403220 10000002e0008000000320a7504232101000000300008000000320a7504d61e010000003 1000a000000320aa30155200500000031343031310009000000320a75047318030000003 136360008000000320a75040318010000002e0008000000320a750423170100000030000 8000000320a7504d6140100000031000a000000320aa3015f16050000003134303131000 9000000320a21040b10030000003136360008000000320a21049b0f010000002e0008000 000320a2104bb0e01000000300008000000320a21046e0c0100000031000a000000320aa 3016e0d050000003134303131000a000000320ac002ab060500000031343031310015000 000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616 e000081040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a9a03b7250100000033000 8000000320a9a03c11b01000000320010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020 402001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ac0026 331010000003e0008000000320ac0022327010000003d0008000000320a7504dd1f01000 0002b0008000000320ac002151d010000002b0008000000320a7504dd15010000002b000 8000000320ac0021513010000002b0008000000320a2104750d010000002b00080000003 20ac002320b010000002b0008000000320ac002b605010000002d0008000000320ac0024 e04010000003d0015000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d657 3204e657720526f6d616e00cc81040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac 002e72f01000000e50008000000320ac002c82e01000000f30015000000fb0240fe00000 00000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000081040000002 d01010004000000f001020009000000320ac0024e00030000004e5056000a00000026060 f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020 22253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000Here and more low in work we will believe that 1 c.u. = 1$. We will notice also, what at the moment of 01.04.04 Central Bank rate of the Russian Federation of the American dollar made 28 rbl. 13 copeck Here in the first composed number 14011 of c.u. with a minus corresponds to the full cost price of the project, r=0,166, or, what the same, r=16,6 %? Level of profitability (profitableness) of the project. For our project the settlement size is more than zero, the project profitable means. 2) calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI) Pays off a profitability index (Profitability Index) (PI) under the formula:PI = ?k [Pk / (1 + r)k] / IC,Let's remind that if: PI> 1 the project should be accepted; PI <1 the project should be rejected; PI = 1, the project neither profitable, nor unprofitable. For our project it is had:Here 8721 c.u.? Net profit size. In brackets three composed as we investigate the project within three years? 2005, 2006 and 2007 whereas we begin project realisation in 2004. For the considered project this size is more than unit, hence, the project profitable. 3) calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment (IRR) (Internal Rate of Return) (IRR) understand value of factor of discounting As internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment r at which NPV the project it is equal to zero: IRR = r, at which NPV = f (r) = 0.picscalex1000100090000031d0200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c020005401e1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffff001e0000b50400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 500240000500000013025002c40510000000fb02bbfd0901000000009001000000020402 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a570499070100000028001000 0000fb02bbfd0901000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a5704940d01000000290005000000140250028907 0500000013025002eb0e10000000fb02bbfd090100000000900100000002040200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a5704c01001000000 280010000000fb02bbfd0901000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a5704bb16010000002900050000001402 5002b0100500000013025002fd1715000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000000402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000087040000002d01010004000000f0010200 0a000000320ac002cc190500000031343031310008000000320a58041c11010000003100 0a000000320aa20126120500000031343031310008000000320a5804f507010000003100 0a000000320aa2010a090500000031343031310008000000320a23042800010000003100 0a000000320aa201d2000500000031343031310015000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001 000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000087040000002d0102000400 0000f001010008000000320a7d03321701000000330008000000320a7d03150e01000000 320010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ac0028a18010000003d0008000000320a 58042c12010000002b0008000000320ac002530f010000002b0008000000320a58040509 010000002b0008000000320ac0022c06010000002b0008000000320a2304380101000000 2b0015000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e000087040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a580490130300 0000494e4e0009000000320a5804690a03000000494e4e0009000000320a23049c020300 0000494e4e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000700 00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001 0200030000000000.Where CFj - an entrance monetary stream during j th period, INV - value of the investment. Strictly speaking, this factor dismisses not so much, how many the equation, having solved which, we will find the norm of profitableness INN is minimum necessary for realisation of the project. For our project it is had a following equation:. We will notice that in the left member of equation three composed owing to that consideration is conducted for three years. A trial and error method we find that for performance of following equality it is necessary, that approximate equality was observed. It means that the norm of profitableness of 8,1 % whereas from following point it will be visible that norm of profitableness of our project of 16,6 % is necessary for a project recoupment. It means that it is necessary to recognise the project profitable. We will draw conclusions by results of calculations of the basic factors of model under the decision on acceptance or a project deviation is accepted after consideration of values resulted above factors. As we saw, all these factors have yielded that result that the project profitable and it should be accepted to realisation.3.2 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by an offered techniqueIndustrial competitive advantages. For device manufacturing? The biotest? Components will be used inexpensive, not scarce, ???????a, but at the same time qualitative, basically import manufacture. In this connection the device will have high consumer properties at the low cost price. A market estimation. The market of the medical equipment in Russia is not sated enough by the equipment of the given direction [23] whereas the developed device has no strong contenders both on Russian, and in the foreign market. It promotes fast advancement of the device on the market of Russia and the near abroad. Changes in the given market can occur under the influence of following external factors: - occurring in the currency market - preference of consumers As it is necessary to pay attention of change to the internal factors influencing a condition of the given market: - a competition; - change of internal structure of participants of the market. All it leads to constant changes in the given market that and as consequence constant improvement and expansion of assortment of production, and as to expansion of a variety of the services given together with the offered goods constantly promotes qualitative improvement of structure of participants. Novosibirsk scientists carry out statistical researches, applicable for the marketing analysis of the market of medical services [24]. On the spent statistical researches the schedule of distribution by consumers of given production on categories has been constructed:15 % - the Doctors who are engaged in individual activity of 30 % - the Medical institutions applying non-standard methods of diagnostics and treatment of 55 % - the Medical institutions rendering additional paid services of a Fig. 3.1.? Distribution of consumers on categories From the resulted data we see, what more than half (55 %) consumers of medical services address in the establishments rendering additional paid services? But these establishments just also are potential buyers of production for which the investment project [61] is developed. That fact is interesting that in the Russian market at present there are all some competitors [25]: * Peterlink Electronics. It is the German company, she offers very high-class devices working only complete with the COMPUTER and the software. Production of this company has no such necessary property as compactness and mobility. The firm offers completely equipped offices intended only for work with this device. Completely equipped office costs approximately $20000. Such expenses are presumed only by the provided medical institution. * Kindling. It too the company from Germany. About it there is an information small amount. Devices of this company are delivered and work both from the COMPUTER and without the COMPUTER but as have no property of compactness and mobility. The complete set of the equipment of the given company costs approximately from $5000 to $6000 depending on a complete set. * Start-1. It is the Russian firm. Makes complexes both from the COMPUTER, and without the COMPUTER. It is known that the complex without the COMPUTER costs approximately $1400. The basic advantage of all three listed companies consists that in their devices there is a quantity of additional functions, but this advantage is not the main thing. Lacks of all three companies consist that: - Devices do not have properties of compactness, mobility, and they are difficult in circulation; - the high prices for complexes. Advantages of our device are its such properties as: mobility, compactness, possibility to work both in stationary, and in field conditions, possibility to work both complete with the COMPUTER, and without the COMPUTER, very low price at quality not conceding to competitors, but in our device are collected only the basic functions which are the most necessary. A lack of the given device is absence in it of additional functions available for competitors. A company lack is its not so wide popularity on the given segment of the market, but this lack constantly decreases. The table in which the advantages set forth above and lacks are shown is more low resulted.Let's notice that at the moment of April, 1st, 2004 1 American dollar on a Central Bank rate of the Russian Federation made 28 rbl. 15 copeck Of the table it is visible that the considered device has big advantages in comparison with the competitive. The goods of competitors are calculated basically on a narrow circle of the consumers having their possibility to buy, and many have such possibility far not. At the same time the considered device has low enough price at the basic requirements not conceding to competitors, and in some parametres them even surpasses. Demand forecasting. For the forecast we will take advantage of mathematical modelling of demand for the developed device? The biotest?. The essence of an applied mathematical method consists in extrapolation of the statistical data about presence of similar devices in medical institutions of a city and area for 2002-2004 on volume of demand for the considered device in 2005. For extrapolation carrying out it is necessary to calculate a trend line. Calculation of a straight line of demand. The general equation of a straight line [8]y=a0+a1t,Where at? The predicted volume of demand, t? Time moment (year, day, month, etc. in which us the demand volume), a0 and a1 interests? Unknown factors of a straight line of demand subject to calculation. Two unknown person of factor of a straight line of demand we will find from two linear equationsna0+a1t=y,(3.5)a0t+a1t2= yt.(3.6)Here i? Quantity of the considered moments of time (for example, as in our case, three years). At application of the described model of forecasting of demand for a developed product, we will take advantage of results of own researches which consisted in data gathering about presence of the devices realising a method of Follja in medical institutions of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region. The idea of the forecast of demand consisted in that, having the information on presence similar developed in the present work of devices, to assume that on the offered device demand will develop under the same mathematical laws. For drawing up of the equations of the predicting we will take advantage of the following table in which results of telephone surveys of assistants to head physicians on economy of various medical institutions of a city of Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region are brought:From the schedule it is visible that in 2005 theoretical volume of demand for the device? The biotest? In Novosibirsk and the Novosibirsk region will make 600 units of production. Working out of the organizational project of manufacture. 5 day working week and 8 hour working day necessary quantity the person Is supposed, occupied on an industrial site (the basic workers) makes 2 persons. Specificity of the given work assumes, that the employees occupied on an industrial site possess high qualification in radio electronics and installation of electronic components. The control system of all firm is under construction by a principle of linear organizational structure which allows to conduct an effective control behind firm work as a whole. More low in the table calculation of annual fund c/i heads, experts and employees is resulted.Capacity calculation. For normal work of firm the one-replaceable operating mode with 8 hour working day is recommended. Duration of working week of 5 days. It is necessary to notice that duration of work of firm during the day makes 9 hours. Here it is necessary to include an hourly break on rest in work. The break to be put after first 4 business hours. Taking into account what the total quantity of days for holidays, target, within a year makes holidays of an order of 112 days, we receive, what quantity of the working days in a year of 365 days? 112 days off = 253 working days. From here the fund of a usage time of the equipment for 8 hour changes taking into account time for service makes 1820 hours. Knowing fund of an operating time of the equipment, we will define annual throughput. 2 persons work for us. The average norm of time for assemblage of one device makes 6 hours. Hence capacity (throughput) in a year makes: Q?ae. = (1820:6) *2=607 piece/year As it has already been noted, the predicted sales volume makes 600 pieces / year. Hence, the factor of loading of the equipment makes: E?a?. = 600/607=0.99, i.e. 99 %. It is necessary to note risk which should be considered in offered model. As it has been told above, a core of offered model of an estimation of efficiency of innovative projects is demand forecasting. If real demand differs from predicted throughput of assembly shop can be regulated a multiplier corresponding to quantity of the personnel. So, if real demand will make, for example, 900 pieces throughput will need to be counted not under formula Q?ae. = (1820:6) *2=607 piece/year, and under formula Q?ae. = (1820:6) *3=910 sht/year that corresponds to that workers should be 3, instead of 2 persons. It means that the offered model is steady against risk of change of demand as it will be easy to be arranged by quantity of the personnel under real demand. Calculation of volume of investments. For calculation of necessary volume of financing it is necessary to define structure of expenses which are necessary for firm work. They look as follows: 1) Expenses for premise rent for the first month are defined from calculation that rent cost for 1 square metre of a premise a year makes 300 c.u., we receive rent cost: Na??u = 300 * (24+30*0.15)/12 = 712 u.e./mes As output makes 15 % from total amount of manufacture of all enterprise that from rent not industrial premises is taken 15 %. 2) Expenses for the equipment and stock.In this table, as well as further, one standard unit corresponds to 1 US dollar, i.e. approximately 30 roubles. 3) expenses for initial purchases of accessories at the rate on 1 month of work. For definition of expenses we believe that every month in firm the identical number of devices equal 1/12 of part of annual release is issued. The annual volume of release is accepted 600 units. Hence in a month 50 devices will be issued. Expenses for purchase of accessories for each device approximately are equal 38 c.u. From here is received that expenses for creation of stocks of materials for work within a month are equal 38*50=1900 c.u. 4) Initial publicity expenses undertake with such calculation that it is necessary to dispatch a direkt-mail at least all 1/3 of Moscow medical institutions fair brochures. It is supposed to spend for it about 500 c.u.The analysis of economic indicators. For carrying out of the given analysis it is necessary to make a report of the basic economic indicators. Them concern such, as: profit (total and pure); profitability of production; profitability of funds; the full cost price; labour input; the predicted price for production; a critical sales volume and release; efficiency of capital investments; a time of recovery of outlay; a stock of financial durability. 1) the size of total profit on sales of the considered device within the first year of work will make 14011 c.u. provided that the predicted break-even sales level will be provided. For definition of size of net profit it is necessary to define the tax to property of the enterprise which reduces base of the taxation under the profit tax. Cost of property of the organisation develops from: - costs of rent of a building - 8550 c.u.; - costs of the equipment minus 7 % of deterioration 3400 * (1-0.07 =3162 c.u.; From here property cost makes: 8550+3162=11712 the Tax to property (2 %) makes c.u.: 11712*0.02 = 234 c.u. the Tax to the maintenance of available housing of 1.5 % from a gain 14011*0.015=210 c.u. the Tax to general educational needs of 1 % from payment fund 14994*0.01=150 c.u. the Base of the taxation under the profit tax is equal: 14011-234-210-150 = 13417 c.u. the Profit tax makes by the current moment 35 % and is equal: 13417*0.35=4696 c.u. the net profit Size makes 13417-4696=8721 c.u. Profit at the disposal of the organisation (a difference between net profit and returned investments): 8721-6512=2209 2) the Size of profitability of production makes c.u.: r = I:O = 14011/84600*100 = 16.6 %, that is on 100 roubles of sold production are necessary 16.6 roubles of profit. 3) size of profitability of production assets: (I: (IO + IN) *100) where average cost of a fixed capital (IO) equals: IO=8550+3400=11950 c.u. average cost of material circulating assets (IN) is equal: IN=22800 c.u. From here the size of profitability of production assets is equal: (14011 / (11950+22800)) *100 % = 40.3 % 4) the Full cost price of production is equal 70554 c.u. 5) Labour input of let out production is equal to the sum of time spent for each unit of production on a separate workplace: O=6 hours. 6) the predicted price for firm production is equal 141 c.u. 7) the Critical volume of a gain from sales makes 55695 c.u. at which the critical sales volume makes 395 devices. 8) efficiency of capital investments is defined as the relation of profit to capital investments (investments): A = I / To = 8721/6512=1.34 9) the Time of recovery of outlay - size return efficiency of capital investments: O = 1 / A = 0.75 years or 9 months. 10) the stock of financial durability of the organisation is defined as follows: W??i. = (Dmax-Dmin)/Dmax*100 %, where Dmax - the maximum revenue of production sale; Dmin - the revenue at a critical break-even sales level; W??i. = (84600? 55695)/84600*100 % = 34 %. It means that there is a possibility to lower the income of sales on size of 34 % from the planned. If to speak about rate of return (20 %) it is optimum for firm, the considerable which share of sales is provided directly though all attention is concentrated to buyers with a low prosperity. Net profit, being at the command it is quite enough enterprise to pay back capital investments within the first year of work. The low norm of profitability of the sold goods will be compensated by a stable break-even sales level. Labour input of production on time allows firm to provide the demanded volume of release, not ????oy thus a considerable quantity of employees. The price for production, should draw attention of potential buyers with low level of a prosperity as it is enough low in comparison with competitive by the current moment. The critical sales volume makes 66 % from the planned. This fact allows firm to stabilise the position in the market within the first year of work even in case of struggle from outside competitors. Efficiency of capital investments is estimated in 134 %. That is after the first year of work the size of net profit, firm being at the command will make 134 % from the enclosed capital. The small time of recovery of outlay of the capital allows firm already by the end of the first year of work to get the profit going on development of the organisation, instead of return of the enclosed means. The stock of financial durability of the company makes 34 % that allows the company to work in the conditions of a competition without losses. That is there is a possibility to lower the planned income of sales on size of 34 % from the planned. On the basis of the considered indicators it is possible to draw a conclusion that the project is effective for following reasons: 1) Low profit, but stable sales; 2) the Low prices for production; 3) Low level of a critical sales volume in comparison with the planned; 4) High efficiency of capital investments; 5) the Short time of recovery of outlay of the capital; 6) the Sufficient stock of financial durability. All it will allow firm to occupy stable position in the market within the first year of work and will provide a break-even sales volume.3.3 Comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on standard and offered modelsWe can spend comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on standard and offered models only having compared an end result of application of these models? I.e. the answer to a question, whether it is necessary to put up money in the project? And to compare values of the indicators calculated at application of standard model with similar indicators of offered model. 1) to factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV) from standard model there corresponds an indicator of net profit plus size of initial investments. That is in standard model an indicatorpicscalex990100090000033604000004004601000000000400000002010100050000000 102ffffff00040000002e01190005000000310201000000050000000b020000000005000 0000c02400540311300000026060f001c00ffffffff00004e0010000000c0ffffffaffff fff00310000ef0400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000400109000000f a02000016000000000000022200040000002d0100000500000014025002730c050000001 3025002b512050000000902000000020500000014028304821410000000fb02b5fd09010 00000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0001040000002d01010009000000320a0 0000000010000002800000005000000140283046a1b10000000fb02b5fd0901000000009 001000000020002001053796d626f6c0001040000002d01020004000000f001010009000 000320a000000000100000029000000050000001402500274140500000013025002d21c0 5000000140283049f1e10000000fb02b5fd0901000000009001000000020002001053796 d626f6c0001040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a00000000010000002 80000000500000014028304872510000000fb02b5fd09010000000090010000000200020 01053796d626f6c0001040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a000000000 1000000290000000500000014025002911e0500000013025002dd260500000014025e030 81c15000000fb02ddfe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e6577205 26f6d616e000000040000002d01010004000000f00102000a000000320a0000000002000 0003233140a4602050000001402a801640d15000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000 0000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020004000000f 00101001e000000320a000000000f00000031343031313134303131313430313100e000e 000e000e0008f05e000e000e000e0009406e000e000e000e0008003050000001402c0028 c0615000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e6577205 26f6d616e000000040000002d01010004000000f00102001c000000320a000000000e000 000313430313131373134392c332e2ee000e000e000e000691ee000e000e000e000d9008 e003402110180030500000014021c045e0c15000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000 0000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020004000000f 001010010000000320a000000000600000031302e3136365902e0007000e000e00080030 5000000140263040a1515000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696 d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01010004000000f0010200190000003 20a000000000c00000031302e31363631302e3136365902e0007000e000e000b4045902e 0007000e000e0008003050000001402c0024e0015000000fb0240fe00000000000090010 10000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020004000 000f00101000c000000320a00000000030000004e5056002d011101402c15000000fb024 0fe0000000000009001010000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc000 40000002d01010004000000f00102000a000000320a0000000002000000f3e51f0180030 50000001402c0023f0410000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796 d626f6c0001040000002d01020004000000f001010010000000320a00000000060000003 d2d2b2b2b3d5801820501081d0a170a80030500000014021c046b0d09000000320a00000 000010000002b008003050000001402630417160a000000320a00000000020000002b2b1 d0a80034601000026060f0082024d6174685479706555557602050100050244534d54350 0001357696e416c6c4261736963436f6465506167657300110554696d6573204e6577205 26f6d616e00110353796d626f6c001105436f7572696572204e65770011044d542045787 4726100120008214f465f455f4150f4100f475f4150f21f1e4150f4150f4100f445f425f 48f425f4100f4100f435f4100f48f45f42a5f48f48f4100f4100f40f48f417f48f4100f4 12a5f445f45f45f45f45f410f0c010001000102020202000200010101000300010004000 00a01000200834e00020083500002008356000204863d003d02048612222d02008831000 2008834000200883000020088310002008831000204862b002b03000b000001000200883 100020088340002008830000200883100020088310000010002008831000204862b002b0 2008830000200822e0002008831000200883600020088360000000204862b002b03000b0 000010002008831000200883400020088300002008831000200883100000100030001030 0010002008831000204862b002b02008830000200822e000200883100020088360002008 8360000020096280002009629000003001c00000b010101000200883200000000000a020 4862b002b03000b000001000200883100020088340002008830000200883100020088310 00001000300010300010002008831000204862b002b02008830000200822e00020088310 00200883600020088360000020096280002009629000003001c00000b010101000200883 300000000000a0204863d003d02008831000200883700020088310002008834000200883 9000200822c00020088330002009802ef02009802ef02008343040200822e00020083350 40200822e0000000b00000026060f000c00ffffffff010000000000000009000000fa020 00000000000000000002200040000002d01010010000000fb021000070000000000bc020 00000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01030004000000f0010200030000000 000Whereas in offered model a similar indicator 2209 + 14011 = 16220 c.u., where 2209 c.u.? Profit at the disposal of the organisation (a difference between net profit and returned investments). A difference in the sum here that the offered model in calculations uses the predicted size of a sales volume. It is the forecast becomes on the basis of linear approximation which, as it is known, yields approximate results. It is necessary to notice, what the divergence of values of these factors makes all (1? 16200/17149,3) *100 % = 5,52 %. It allows to draw a conclusion about enough split-hair accuracy of offered model in general and the sales volume forecast in particular. 2) to an index of profitability of investments (PI) from standard model there corresponds an indicator of efficiency of capital investments: the Standard model gives value of factor whereas the offered model gives A = I / To = 8721 / 6512=1,34. A divergence? 4 %, i.e. accuracy of offered model it is high. 3) the Standard model assumes calculation of internal norm of profitableness which for the considered project is equal. The similar indicator in offered model is not present, however is told that profitability of the project 0,166. In other words, the standard technique says that that the project was profitable, value of internal norm of profitableness a minimum whereas the offered model says is necessary that the project has norm of profitableness 0,166. Here it is impossible to compare accuracy of calculations, it is possible to tell only that conclusions of these two models do not contradict each other. For more evident comparison of models we will result the comparative table of values of the basic factors of models.So, having compared values of the basic indicators of two models, we will notice, what definitive conclusions of their application to the considered project too do not differ from each other? Both that and other model have drawn the conclusion that in the considered project it is necessary to put up money.4. Management of the personnel of the scientific organizations4.1 Personnel of the scientific organisationsIn the present point of degree work the personnel of the scientific organisations from two points of view: from the point of view of motivation of work and from the point of view of special subculture. The question on interrelation of these points of view is interesting: on the one hand, the personnel of the scientific organisations, as well as the personnel of other spheres of activity, has usual human wants in food, habitation, etc., on the other hand, belong to closed enough social class. The given theme mentions two interconnected variables: the personnel and the organisation, in essence, the individual and group, also are brought by an attention to the question on motivation of the personnel in achievement of the purposes of the organisation, i.e. about influence on behaviour of the individual according to problems and the group purposes. There is a necessity of the analysis of motivation as systems of factors or the motive forces influencing social behaviour of the individual, and the analysis of the group affecting the individual. In details to list all? Forces?, which ??? our acts, hardly probably. Therefore the author considers expedient to stop on the following approach:? Numerous evident displays of uniformity in social behaviour speak at all orientation on what? Or considered? The significant? Norm, but also not custom, and it is simple that fact, what the given type of social behaviour, in essence, most of all on the average corresponds, by an objective estimation of individuals, their natural interests, and what they focus the behaviour on these interests?. (M.Veber) [11]. Thus, the basic source of behaviour of the person is its interest. In this connection it is necessary to understand with a number of the interconnected concepts? Motivation components: requirement, interest, motive, the purpose, value. As requirement we will understand a lack something necessary for existence and development of the individual (group). Under interest? The realised requirement. Under motive? The realised actual requirement inducing the person to activity for the purpose of its satisfaction. The purpose? It something realised as means of satisfaction of requirement and acting owing to it in the form of value for the given subject. Value? It is the importance of this or that subject or the phenomenon for satisfaction of requirement [176, with. 22].Thus, the person is not born with ready motivation, its formation is I many respects caused by a situation, factors of social and economic character.4.2 Motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisationsAs already it was told above, the motivation of the personnel of the scientific organisations in a sense does not differ from motivation of representatives of other trades. We will consider this motivation. Base of modern theories of motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisations is the theory of requirements developed by American psychologist A.Maslou (1908? 1970) [19]. A.Maslou has assumed that the person is based on satisfaction of a series of the requirements built in hierarchy or a pyramid from five groups. In an increasing order it: - physiological or base requirements (food, heat, a refuge, safety, sex etc.) ; - Requirements of safety (protection, an order); - social requirements (dialogue, an accessory to group); - requirements for respect (self-esteem and respect of others; the status, prestige, glory); - requirement for self-realisation (creative results, achievements, career) [16]. I??o has made the assumption that in the elementary case of requirement are satisfied one for another i.e. as soon as one requirement is satisfied, it acts as motivation for satisfaction of the following. But if at satisfaction of group of requirements, arises what? Or the new base requirement, the person will pay the attention first of all to it. From the point of view? Motivations in work? The employer considering that the person lives only bread uniform, will be nonplused, as its workers will be unfortunate and ???????u. According to A.Maslou, the person only there lives bread uniform where in general there is no bread. It is necessary to remember three important positions of the theory of Maslou: 1) the Hierarchy of requirements reminds development of the person since the childhood till an old age: the baby requires food and heat, safety and love; in process of growth there is a gradual development of self-esteem and, at last, appears? Itself the motivated? The adult. 2) disappearance of the satisfied requirements and occurrence of others in the form of motivation is not realised process: as soon as you have got a job, you will forget at once all last hardship and will start to think of career, etc. if it does not occur, you will feel unfortunate as though and at all have no work. 3) Maslou notices that five steps are not something independent. There is a certain degree of interaction between them. The theory of Maslou is under construction on the assumption that while necessity for satisfaction of base requirements for hierarchy as is important, as, for example, requirement of a human body for the vitamins, the healthy person will be guided, basically, requirement of self-realisation of the potential. If with the person interfere in satisfaction of requirements of lower level, requirements of higher level cannot arise. A.Maslou's theory has brought the all-important contribution to understanding of that underlies aspirations of people to work. The head should understand that to motivate the person it should give the chance to it to satisfy its major requirements by means of that line of action which promotes achievement of the purposes of the organisation. It is necessary for head to investigate carefully requirements of the subordinates for the purpose of satisfaction in interests of business and group [21, with. 218].4.3 Problem of a choice of the optimum schedule (mode) of work in the scientific organisationsThe structure of workers of the innovative enterprises is not homogeneous. So, along with science officers in these organisations engineers, and also technicians and laboratorians work. Besides, and work of scientists is not homogeneous for the maintenance. It can include original and typical works, and also the works of organizational character connected with the coordination and the control over activity of experts. Certainly, as the work schedule cannot be universal for all categories of workers of scientific division and even for experts of one category. At introduction of new types of operating schedules it is necessary to pay attention not only to a kind of work of experts, but also on economic gains (expenses on heating, illumination, rent of premises, a food of workers, payment of parking places etc.) and technical possibilities (presence of phones, faxes, personal computers etc.) . Besides, new types of operating schedules can be considered and as original not monetary methods of stimulation of productivity. So, for example, according to German researchers, about 20 % of workers a flexible operating schedule consider as a primary factor of positive motivation. As a whole the work schedule is characterised by stability. Usually people work 5 days in a week, 40 hours per week, from 9 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock in the evening, have standard lunch time. Along with obvious advantages, such mode has also lacks: traffic jams, turns at lifts are created. Besides, people often have stresses because are late for work, they have conflicts to the chief. As new types of an operating schedule usually name: the flexible hours, the compressed working week (the summarised working day), a partial employment. The flexible operating schedule is understood as the work schedule at which the worker can choose time of arrival-leaving in certain limits which are established by a management. The compressed working week represents the work schedule in which there is an exchange between quantity of the hours fulfilled daily, and quantity of the working days within a week. So, the usual number of hours can be fulfilled not for five days, and for four (for ten hours daily) or for three days (for twelve hours daily). The Partial employment (partial hiring)? It is work with performance of the same duties, but during smaller time. The greatest distribution to the scientific organisations the flexible hours (have got flexible time, flexible working hours). It is under construction in the different ways: and #61485; the Daily choice of time of the beginning and the work termination; and #61485; Variable duration of the working day; and #61485; Allocation of the general (???????i) time (i.e. Time established by the head when all employees should be on work). Depending on flexibility degree, it is possible to allocate various types of schedules. We will consider them in a direction from least to the most flexible. All of them are used in practice. The flexible cycle demands from workers of a choice of certain time of the beginning and the work termination, and also work under this schedule during the certain period (for example, weeks). The sliding schedule allows to change time of the beginning and the work termination, but thus it is necessary to work a full time? 8 hours. Variable day allows to change duration of the working day (for example to work one day of 10 hours, and another? 6 hours but so that as a result in a weekend it has turned out only 40 hours or for a month of 160 hours). The sliding schedule and variable day are most effective in a branch science. Abroad analogue it are laboratories of industrial firms and a private small-scale business. Very much the flexible hours demand presence of workers during the general time (for example, from 10 o'clock in the morning to 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but only on Monday and Friday). Flexible placing allows to change not only hours, but also a work arrangement? It is possible to work at home, in branches, etc. The flexible hours cannot be used in the event that the work period depends on work of any equipment, for example, for the workers performing skilled and experimental works. The great value, along with a choice of an optimum operating mode for the scientist has time effective utilisation. It is possible to allocate three reasons aggravating congestion: and #61485; Small degree of delegation of responsibility; and #61485; incorrectly selected priorities; and #61485; too big absorption in daily efforts. For optimisation of use of time principles of Pareto and Eisenhower have great value. In 1897 The Italian economist Pareto has invented the formula showing that all blessings are distributed non-uniformly. In most cases the greatest share of incomes or the blessings belongs to a small number of people. M.S.Lorentz (the American economist) has illustrated this theory with the diagramme. The doctor D. M.Dzhuran has applied the diagramme to classification of problems of quality on not numerous essentially important and numerous insignificant and named this method the analysis of Pareto. Application of a principle of Pareto is expedient and at working hours planning. In this case means that concentration of attention on the vital activity most of all influences achievement of desirable results. The rule 20/80 from here follows: concentration of 20 % of time on the most important problems can lead to reception of 80 % of results. The others of 80 % of time provide only remained 20 % of results. Eisenhower's principle is important for definition of the importance of problems. Eisenhower subdivided problems on their importance and promptness into problems And, In and N "A-problems": very important and urgent? To carry out immediately. "In? Problems": important, not urgent? To define, in their what terms it is necessary to carry out." S-problems ": less important, but urgent? To delegate. Affairs which are not neither important, nor urgent should not distract attention of the head. In connection with the aforesaid, the great value gets definition of optimum parities between workers of various qualification. Optimum it is possible to consider such parity at which science officers do not carry out functions unusual for them. There are recommendations according to which optimum parity between technicians and engineers should make 0,3 / 1 at performance of researches and 1,7 / 1 at performance of developmental works. On the average this parity should make 1 / 2. Questions of formation of target groups in scientific personnel In a general view understand as group of two and more persons who co-operate with each other in such a manner that each person influences others and simultaneously is under the influence of other persons. It is noticed that association of workers in groups allows to solve a number of problems: As much as possible to use creative potential; to involve workers in managerial process. Target groups (time creative collectives), created of engineers and science officers have the features in comparison with quality mugs as before groups more difficult purposes are put. Practice of formation of target groups of the scientists working in various research divisions of firm is extended. Creation of such groups for working out of any one important problem gives the chance to be beyond existing departments and laboratories that is the important factor of increase of an efficiency of scientific research. Target groups of experts (time creative collectives) differ from circles of quality that operate on the basis of in advance formulated problem and always carry a temporality. They can be created for different terms: from 2-3 and more years. It defines also selection of participants of groups. Groups are created as for study of separate organizational or technical questions, and for the decision of difficult cardinal problems. The overall performance of groups is influenced by following factors: the size, structure, group norms, unity, a conflictness, the status and a functional role of its members. Before formation of target group (time creative collective) it is necessary to carry out the morphological analysis which leads to splitting of the general problem into a number of subtasks and reveals possible alternatives of their decision. Each subtask breaks into stages. To generate collective of executors, it is necessary to have the list of all subtasks which should be solved in the course of work performance; characteristics of each subtask with definition of requirements to their potential executors. Besides it is necessary to have a databank on all possible executors of work. At division of a task in view into subtasks each executor should know the concept of designing of all object. The new tendency is allocation of personnel services for needs of the time organizational structures which are engaged in process of innovations. Such personnel services also carry a temporality and move on divisions according to stages of realisation of the project. The actual organizer of work on attraction and personnel development is the head of the innovative enterprise who embodies the idea and is financially interested in innovation introduction. The head of division defines quantity of executors of each subtask, recognising that one executor performs from two to three stages of work. Selection of executors is carried out proceeding from complexity of performed work. Thus the potential of executors should be a little above, than demanded. At a stage of working out and realisation of the ideas which have been put forward by target groups, sometimes there are the so-called design groups, different in the big scales of carried out works and ???e number of executors. In any target group select the most prepared experts. But even at the most careful selection almost always there is a distinction between them on readiness degree to performance of a problem assigned to them. In this connection training of less skilled executors at more qualified should be provided. Short-term employment on which each expert has an opportunity better will sometimes be organised to imagine sense of a collective problem and the basic approaches to its decision. Still ???a value gets preliminary training at creation of the design groups which work has more long-term and complex character. In these cases for experts special seminars can be held. The seminar program should cover acquaintance of its participants with features of the organisation of works in design group, with specificity of planning, with establishment principles ??????? in performance of works, methods of search of optimum decisions on the basis of the analysis of real situations. The attention is given also to working off of practical skills of teamwork in group. At a seminar there is an acquaintance of experts to the future project head which should spend some employment. It allows it to come into contact and to prepare participants of design group for forthcoming activity. Upon termination of a seminar to its participants the special certificate on the right to work over the project can stand out. In the USA creation of interfirm target and design groups is observed also. Usually in their structure experts from the external research organisations are involved. As a result of such cooperation from firm innovative structures in which are occupied both members of groups, and scientific shots can separate. In this case it is possible to define the innovative enterprise as target group which is created for industrial development and adjustment of sale of production based on the new technical concept.5. Bases of safety of ability to live5.1 Legal bases of a labour safetyLabour safety? System of safety of a life and health of workers in the course of the labour activity, including legal, social and economic, organizational, sanitary-and-hygienic, medical-hygienic, rehabilitation and other actions. We will describe the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of a labour safety the Legislation of the Russian Federation on a labour safety consists of corresponding norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Legal bases of a labour safety [27, with. 123-127] and published according to them ???????? and other statutory acts of the Russian Federation and republics as a part of the Russian Federation. Guarantees of realisation of the rights of workers on a labour safety and standard requirements on a labour safety are established by acts of republics as a part of the Russian Federation, cannot be below guarantees and standard requirements, are provided by Legal bases of a labour safety [27, with. 125]. Actions of the present Bases extends on:? The enterprises, establishments and the organisations (further? The enterprises) all patterns of ownership irrespective of sphere of economic activities and departmental subordination;? Employers;? The workers consisting with employers in labour relations;? Workers of co-operative societies;? Students of educational institutions of the higher and average vocational training, pupils of educational institutions of average, initial vocational training and the educational institutions of the basic general education passing an industrial practice;? The military men involved for work at the enterprises;? The citizens who are serving time on a sentence of court in their work at the enterprises. On the citizens of the Russian Federation working on hiring in other states, the legislation on a labour safety of the states-employers, and on foreign citizens and persons without the citizenship, working on the enterprises which are in jurisdiction of the Russian Federation extends, the legislation on a labour safety of the Russian Federation if other is not provided international by contracts (agreements) of the Russian Federation extends. We will describe main principles of a state policy in the field of a labour safety the State policy in the field of a labour safety provides joint actions of bodies of a legislative and executive power of the Russian Federation and republics as a part of the Russian Federation, associations of employers, trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other representative bodies authorised by workers on improvement of conditions and labour safeties, to the prevention of an industrial traumatism and occupational diseases. The basic directions of a state policy in the field of a labour safety are:? A recognition and maintenance of a priority of a life and health of workers in relation to results of industrial activity of the enterprise;? Coordination of activity in the field of a labour safety, other areas economic, social policy, and also in the field of protection of a surrounding environment;? An establishment of uniform standard requirements on a labour safety for the enterprises of all patterns of ownership irrespective of sphere of economic activities and departmental subordination;? The government of activity in the field of a labour safety, including the state supervision and the control of observance of legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety;? Public control over observance of legitimate rights and interests ??o6??? in the field of a labour safety on the manufacture, carried out by workers through trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and others authorised by workers representative bodies;? Interactions and cooperation of state bodies, supervision and the control over employers, trade unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other authorised workers, representative the bodies interested in working out and practical realisation of a state policy in the field of a labour safety;? Carrying out of the effective tax policy stimulating creation of healthy and safe working conditions, working out and introduction safe technicians and technologies, means collective and an individual defence of workers;? Application of economic sanctions with a view of observance by the enterprises and workers of standard requirements on a labour safety;? Maintenance of workers with the special clothes, special footwear, means collective and an individual defence, the treatment-and-prophylactic food, necessary prophylactics at the expense of means of employers;? Obligatory investigation of each accident and occupational disease on manufacture;? An establishment of indemnifications and privileges for a laborious work and works with harmful or dangerous working conditions, ineradicable at a modern technological level of manufacture and the organisation ore;? Protection of interests of the workers who suffered from unfortunate case on manufacture or have received occupational disease, and also members from families;? Preparation of experts in the field of a labour safety, including in educational institutions of the higher and average vocational training;? An establishment of the state statistical reporting about working conditions, about accidents on manufacture and occupational diseases;? Informing of workers on a condition of conditions and a labour safety at the enterprises;? Realisation of actions for propagation of an advanced experience in the field of a labour safety;? The international cooperation at the decision of problems of a labour safety. The state in the name of bodies of a legislative and executive power taking into account consultations of associations of employers. Professional the unions in the name of their corresponding bodies and other authorised workers, representative bodies develops, carries out and periodically reconsiders the co-ordinated policy in the field of a labour safety. Some words about guarantees of the worker on the rights on a labour safety. Each worker has the right to a labour safety, including:? On a workplace protected from influence of harmful or dangerous production factors which can cause an industrial trauma, occupational disease or working capacity decrease;? On compensation of the harm caused to it by a mutilation, occupational disease or other damage of the health, connected with execution of labour duties by it;? On reception of a trustworthy information a prize of the employer or the state or public bodies about a condition of conditions and labour safeties on a workplace of the worker, about existing risk of damage of health, and also about the accepted measures on its protection against influence of harmful or dangerous production factors;? On refusal without any unreasonable consequences for it from performance of works in case of occurrence of direct danger to his life and health before elimination of this danger;? On maintenance with means collective and an individual defence according to requirements of legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety at the expense of means of the employer;? On training to safe methods and receptions of work at the expense of means of the employer;? On professional retraining at the expense of means of the employer in case of a suspension of activity or closing of the enterprise, shop, a site or liquidation of a workplace owing to unsatisfactory working conditions, and also in case of disability in connection with unfortunate a case on manufacture or occupational disease;? On carrying out of inspection by bodies of the state supervision and the control or public control of conditions and a labour safety, including on demand of the worker on its workplace;? On participation in check and consideration of the questions connected with improvement of conditions and a labour safety. The state in the name of bodies legislative, executive and judicial authority guarantees the right to a labour safety to the workers participating in labour process under the labour contract (contract) with employers. Conditions labour (contract) contract should correspond to requirements legislative and other statutory acts about a labour safety. In the labour contract (contract) authentic characteristics of working conditions, indemnifications and privileges are specified to workers for a laborious work and works with harmful or dangerous working conditions. For the period of a suspension of works at the enterprise, in shop or on a site, a workplace in a consequence of infringement of the legislation on a labour safety, standard requirements on a labour safety not because of the worker, behind it the work place, a post and average earnings remain.5.2 Planning of actions for a labour safetyIn connection with inclusion of questions of a labour safety of workers of branch in the Concept of development of public health services and a medical science in the Russian Federation, considering the numerous offers arriving from controls, establishments of public health services and the trade-union organisations, on the basis of the Recommendations confirmed by the decision of Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation from 29.12.96? 74, Ministry of Health of Russia has prepared the project of the Program which has been considered and approved at session of Board of Ministry of Health of Russia 23.12.97. The program consists of 4 sections: 1) Legal and standard maintenance of protection works. 2) organizational and technical maintenance of a labour safety. 3) training of workers on a labour safety, a supply with information in the field of a labour safety. 4) scientific maintenance of a labour safety. The Program purpose? Working out of prime measures under the prevention of an industrial traumatism and the professional ache diseases, elimination of the negative moments in the organisation of this work. Program section 1 provides work on revision operating and working out of new rules and typical instructions on a labour safety and safe operation of branches, offices, laboratories, the equipment of establishments of public health services and Gossanepidnadzor. Financing of these works is supposed to be carried out at the expense of means of the Federal budget. Section 2 provides working out of programs of improvement of conditions and protection work at level of controls and establishments of public health services of subjects of the Russian Federation (there where such programs are not developed yet). In section 3 creation of system of improvement of professional skill concerning a labour safety for heads, experts, attendants, working out differentiated (according to volume of performed work) training programs on a labour safety is provided. Training of heads will be carried out on the basis of the Russian medical academy ???????i formations and on places, the medical institutions having the permission to the right of training concerning a labour safety. The basic actions of section 4 are researches of working conditions and preparation of scientifically well-founded offers on a work and rest mode, and also on granting of privileges and indemnification workers of the branch, working in especially harmful and dangerous working conditions. These actions it is planned to carry out forces of a branch science. It is supposed to provide financing at the expense of means of Federal fund of obligatory medical insurance. Planning of actions for a labour safety consists in working out of instructions on a labour safety, actually planning of actions, the control over carrying out of these actions and observance of instructions, and also to investigation of accidents and the illnesses connected with dangerous factors at realisation of professional work. Instructions on a labour safety can be developed for workers of separate trades, and for separate kinds of works. Instructions are developed for workers on the basis of typical instructions, safety requirements stated in operational and repair documents of the equipment, used on the given enterprise, and also in the technological documentation of this enterprise taking into account conditions of production. Instructions by trades and on separate kinds of works are developed for workers according to the list which is made by a protection service of work of the enterprise with participation of heads of divisions.The conclusionSo, the innovative project considered in the present degree research consists in the organisation of manufacture and sale of the diagnostic device? The biotest?, for a finding points, carrying out the express train of diagnostics of a condition of a human body by results of measurements of parametres of biologically active points, testings of preparations and therapy according to R.Follja's technique. The Scope? The diagnostic device of the doctor of the therapist, the homeopathist, the anaesthesiologist, etc. Novelty of the project (innovation, an innovation) consists what release of the product, analogue not having to in Russia, abroad is supposed? The device very cheap and reliable. Besides questions theoretical (economic and legal) the bases of innovative activity, questions of management the personnel in the scientific organisations and safety issues of ability to live, the central part of the present degree work was:? Working out of own model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project;? The comparative description of two techniques (traditional and offered) estimations of efficiency of the innovative project;? Carrying out of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project of manufacture of the device? The biotest? By both techniques;? Comparison of results of an estimation of efficiency of the project by both techniques. We will short formulate conclusions on these positions. Existing (standard, classical) the technique of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project includes: 1. Calculation of factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV); 2. Calculation of an index of profitability of investments (PI); 3. Calculation of internal rate of return or norm of profitability of the investment (IRR); 4. Decision-making on project realisation. The Offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project will include: 1. An estimation of competitive advantages of the goods (service) offered by the considered project; 2. Estimation of a market capacity of sale on which the considered project, including as the basic indicator the sales volume forecast is focused; 3. Calculation of the capacity necessary for realisation of the project, and its comparison to a predicted sales volume; 4. Calculation of the project of volume of investments necessary for realisation; 5. Calculation? Break-even points?, i.e. critical for a recoupment of the project of volume of output; 6. Summarising calculation of the basic indicators of the project, such as profit (total and pure); profitability of production; profitability of funds; the full cost price; labour input; the predicted price for production; a critical sales volume and release; efficiency of capital investments; a time of recovery of outlay; a stock of financial durability; 7. Decision-making on realisation (or to a deviation) the project. How it has been noted in degree work, the standard model is less labour-consuming in the application? In it, undoubtedly, there is an advantage of standard model before offered model. However, the basic difference between standard and offered models what the offered model gives more information on the concrete project? And in it the big advantage of offered model before the standard. For example, the standard model of an estimation of efficiency of the project cannot answer on a question, in what volume it is necessary to make production that the project was profitable? The standard model uses this indicator, but does not count it whereas the offered model at first counts it, and then uses. So, both those and other models can tell that, for example, as a result of three years of realisation the project will be profitable whereas the offered technique can tell that the project will pay off in 7 months. The offered model also has one essential lack? All basic indicators pay off on the basis of the sales volume forecast. But it is the forecast, obviously, can be only approximate. Hence, all basic indicators of offered model will be approximate. We will describe results of application of these models to an estimation of efficiency of the concrete innovative project. 1. On the importance for an estimation of efficiency of the project in two considered models are comparable factor of the pure resulted cost (NPV) from standard model and an indicator of net profit plus size of initial investments. That is in standard model an indicatorWhereas in offered model a similar indicator 2209 + 14011 = 16220 c.u., where 2209 c.u.? Profit at the disposal of the organisation (a difference between net profit and returned investments). A difference in the sum here that the offered model in calculations uses the predicted size of a sales volume. It is the forecast becomes on the basis of linear approximation which, as it is known, yields approximate results. It is necessary to notice, what the divergence of values of these factors makes all .The literature list1. A??a A.A. O????a ?????: ????ey ?????ey ???u. – I.: O??? e ?????, 2002. – 431 c.2. A?????y e ??????? ?????o ?????: ???e ?????. – I?????: O????a ?????i?ey iy?e a. I?????a, 2001, O.2. – 408 n.3. A??c o????-?cy???? ?y????e ???ey?y / I. I. Eth??i, A. A. E??a, A. A. Aeuey??.; I? ?ae. I. I. Eth???. – I.: THIEOE, 2004. – 219 n.1. A??o E. N??????a ?????. - I.: Y????,1999. – 318 n.2. A???? A.A. N??????e ?????. - I.: THIEOE, 2002 – 213. n.3. 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