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Canada and tourism

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2

Contents

Introduction 2

Canada in Brief 3

Canada as a country with developed tourism industry 4

Transportation in Canada 4

Accommodation 9

Catering service 11

Cousine 11

Caterers 12

Tourism industry 17

Conclusion 22

Literature 24

Introduction

Canada is the second biggest country in the World – it takes one week
non-stop to drive across the country coast to coast. Only parts of this
huge territory are unhabited, as most Canadians live within 200
kilometers of the USA border.

Although one can feel the American modern life influence, Canada
generally is safer and quieter than the USA. We are not allowed to carry
guns! Canada has a much smaller population and more wilderness than our
neighbors to the south.

Canada is very multicultural, with over 100 ethnic/linguistic minorities
accounting for 40% of the population. It has always prefered
multiculturalism over assimilation, but now suffers identity problems:
one multicultural nation, or many different nations in one country?
Quebecer and natives, respectively 25% and 2% of the population, clearly
(and legally) define themselves as a nation.

The main cities are interesting and very multicultural. Forests,
mountains, coastlines, islands, vast wilderness, and arctic areas are
also fantastic. The central Prairies will appeal to those that love big
sky view and open plains.

The West coast is great, it has beautiful nature and laid-back people,
but the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes valley has more history.

The canadian Hospitality Club network, proportionally to the population
size, is the most important in the Americas. Otherwise there are lots of
camping grounds and cheap hostels.

The climate is cold and icy in winter except on the West Coast. In
summer it is warm to hot in the south, cold in the Arctic East side,
warm in the Artic west coast.

Top Things to See and Do: Vancouver and Vancouver Island, Inside Passage
to Alaska, Coast Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Lake Louise, Badlands,
Yukon-Whitehorse dogsledding, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec Old
walled city, Sault Ste. Marie, The Canadian Shield, Gaspesie,
Mont-Tremblant. Neighboring countries: USA and Russia.

Canada in Brief

Landscape: Mountains, Prairies, Desert, Arctic Tundra, Glaciers,
Valleys, Foothills, Rivers, Lakes, 9,976,000 sq km (3.9 million sq mi).

Population: 30 Million.

Capital city: Ottawa, Ontario (pop: 1,010,500).

People: British descent (28%), French descent (23%), Italian descent
(3%), aboriginal peoples (2%), plus significant minorities of German,
Ukrainian, Dutch, Greek, Polish and Chinese.

Languages: English, French and 53 native languages.

Religion: Catholic (45%), Protestant (36%) and minorities from most of
the world’s major religions.

Government: Parliamentary democracy.

Prime Minister: Paul Martin.

GDP:  US$774 billion.

GDP per head: US$25,000.

Primary sectors: services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%,
agriculture 3%, other 3%.

Annual growth: 3%.

Major products/industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food
products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals,
fish products, petroleum and natural gas.

Major trading partners: USA, Japan, EU (UK, Germany, Netherlands), China
and South Korea.

Political Divisions: Key Attractions, Transportation, Wildlife.

Canada as a country with developed tourism industry

Transportation in Canada

There are five primary modes of transportation in Canada – air, road,
rail, water and pipeline. Depending on the circumstances, one mode of
transportation usually dominates over the others. Air transportation is
becoming increasingly important in today’s world. TransCanada Airline,
which began in 1937 was Canada’s first airline. In its humble
beginnings, it had 10 passenger airplanes and one crop duster. In 1965
the company changed its name to Air Canada, and today has 157 aircraft
serving 545 destinations around the world, and is Canada’s largest
airline. Air Canada’s main competition –Canadian Pacific Airlines
–began operation in 1942. By 1969, the new airline had links to the far
East, Australia, and South America. In 1968, Canadian Pacific Airlines
became CP Air. In total, Canada has 515 airports with paved runways, 878
with unpaved runways and 17 heliports. Ontario alone has more than 60
airports with scheduled flights and 20 that service jet aircraft.
Ontario handles 40% of Canada’s national passenger traffic through the
Lester B. Pearson Airport in Toronto. This airport serves 45 different
countries around the world. It is also ranked fourth in North America in
terms of the number of international passengers using the airport. The
heliports are used primarily by Helicopter Transport Services which
opened in Timmins, Ontario in 1974, and now operate throughout Canada
and the United States. The helicopters are used for news broadcasts, air
ambulance services, executive transport, aerial construction, police
aviation and sightseeing. However, they are used most extensively in the
resource sector, serving the forestry and mining companies. While
airplanes are very attractive for longer journeys, most people prefer
the automobile for shorter distances.

Road transportation is most competitive over small distances and offers
the most spatially unrestricted form of transport in Canada. Following
World War II, large sums of money were poured into the construction of a
road network in Canada. In 1962, the TransCanada Highway was officially
opened. At 7 821 kilometers, the TransCansda Highway is the longest
national highway in the world stretching from St. John’s, Newfoundland
to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The highway varies from a
two-lane road to a limited access divided highway, which breaks into two
different routes in northern Ontario and out west. The main southern
route stays within one hour of the Canada-US border and runs along the
northern shores of the Great, while the more scenic route runs farther
north along wild rivers, untouched lakes, many small towns and various
kinds of wildlife. At Portage- la- Prairie just west of Winnipeg, the
highway breaks into two routes again with the main route crossing the
southern edge of three prairie provinces and the northern route running
up through Yorkton and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan where it becomes the
Yellowhead Highway. Throughout its entirety, the TransCanada Highway is
marked by highway signs bearing a green and white maple leaf. Mile zero
is marked by a monument in Victoria on Vancouver Island. Starting here
and traveling east, the highway passes through the Kicking Horse Pass in
the Rocky Mountains, Kamloops and the prairies, the forests of the
Canadian Shield and the Atlantic provinces.

The only province that does not have a portion of the highway is Prince
Edward Island. Along with the TransCanada Highway, Canada has numerous
smaller provincial highways and roads. In 1995 there was an estimated 1
million kilometers of highways in the country — 358 371 kilometers
paved and 662 629 kilometers unpaved. In Ontario, there are 72 000
kilometers of paved roads and highways, putting 40% of the total
population of North America within a 24 hour drive of the province.
Highway 401 is Ontario’s main highway, allowing people to travel from
Windsor, Ontario to Montreal, Quebec. It has a minimum of four lanes but
reaches 14 lanes in Metropolitan Toronto. Secondary highways (502 – 673)
exist only in northern Ontario, and are often not paved and are used to
connect remote areas to major provincial roads. Tertiary highways are
also exclusive to northern Ontario, are mostly gravel and connect all
the remote areas that secondary highways do not reach. Territory
highways have a tendency to end suddenly at a river, lake or other
feature. Before highway travel and automobiles became the main ways of
traveling, the train was widely used as a means of getting goods and
people from one place to another.

The first railway began operation in 1854 and was the primary method of
moving unprocessed resources from remote areas to industrial centers. In
1881, Canada’s first transcontinental railway — the Canadian Pacific
Railroad — was established by a Calgary-based company. This railroad
covers 25, 000 square kilometers and connects the Atlantic and Pacific
coasts with the interior of North America. It links major Canadian
cities and 16 Midwest and northeastern US states. Canadian Pacific
Railway (CPR) is a freight railway that transports food (sugar, canned
goods, molasses, fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables etc.), consumer
manufactured products (firebrick, concrete, girders, household
appliances, rubber, cotton etc.), and also handles larger volumes of
two-way traffic within North America for importers and exporters. The
second transcontinental railway in Canada is the Canadian National
Railway (CNR) . Established between 1917 – 1923, the railway
incorporates the Old Grand Trunk Railway, Grand Trunk Pacific,
Intercolonial, Canadian Northern and National Transcontinental Railway.
CNR connects Halifax in the east to Vancouver and Prince Rupert in the
west with the Gulf Coast through Chicago and New Orleans. Covering some
72 963 kilometers of track, the railway has more than 85, 000 railcars
and carries mainly coal, grain and petroleum. Canada also has railways
that specialize in passenger transport.

Canadian Passenger Rail Service provides rail transport to many places
in Canada through its connections with other passenger train companies
in the country. The Algoma Central Railway provides passenger service
from Sault St. Marie to Hearst, while AMT operates in Montreal. The
Ontario Northland Railway offers travel from North Bay up to Moosonee
and the Quebec North Shore and Labrador, and the West Coast Express
services western Canada. BC Rail is the third largest freight/passenger
service train behind CNR and CPR. Formally know as the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway in 1912 and the British Columbia Railway in 1972, it
became known as BC Rail in 1984. It has 1 573 kilometers of line from
North Vancouver to Fort Nelson and operates mainly on the west coast.
VIA Rail runs trains throughout Canada on a need only basis.

There are four main categories of VIA Rail trains operating within
Canada: 1) corridor trains that run from eastern Quebec City to Windsor,
Ontario 2) western trains that make trips from Toronto to Vancouver,
stopping in Sudbury, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Jasper and Kamloops
— a journey that takes three days 3) eastern trains — the ‘Chaleur’
and the ‘Ocean’ which travel between Montreal and Gaspe and Montreal and
Halifax, respectively. 4) northern trains — Skeena, Saguenay & Abitibi
and The Hudson Bay –that run in Alberta, Northern Quebec and Manitoba
respectively. Water transport in Canada occurs mainly on the Great
Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway System, which is a series of locks, canals and
channels which link the Atlantic Ocean and the St. Lawrence River to
Ontario and the upper Great Lakes.

The system extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the city of Lakehead on
the west shore of Lake Superior. The seaway provides access to 15 major
and 50 minor ports from late March to early December, and consists of
more than 245 752 square kilometers of navigable waters. The seaway
directly serves Canada’s two largest provinces, Quebec and Ontario, as
well as a number of US states including New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. More than 40
provincial and interstate highways connect the seaway ports with key
cities in the US and Canada, and nearly 30 railway companies serve the
ports by moving bulk, break-bulk, and heavy cargo. Approximately, 90% of
the cargo carried by ships on the seaway is bulk cargo such as grain,
iron ore, coal and petroleum (10%). Grain is the largest cargo by volume
(40%) as it is primarily a US and Canadian export. Iron pellets are also
shipped from mines in Labrador, Quebec, Ontario and Minnesota to mines
located on the great lakes. Approximately 60% of the traffic in the
seaway is from overseas. Canada Steamship Lines operates 12 vessels on
the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System. Their vessels consist of
self-unloading bulk carriers with inland, coastal and deep-sea traveling
capabilities.

The company has the largest fleet of self unloading vessels in the world
that carries 30 million tonnes of bulk load annually; one ship is
capable of discharging 6 000 tonnes per hour in a continuous operation.
The company is headquartered in Montreal and has offices in Halifax,
Winnipeg, Burlington and Singapore. Since 1845 it has been supplying
North America with raw materials for their steel and thermal station
power plants. In the beginning, Canada Steamship Lines served only the
Great Lakes regions but has now expanded to the east and west coasts,
the Caribbean, South America, Europe and the far East. The Canadian
Energy Pipeline Association represents companies who transport more than
95% of crude oil and natural gas in Canada. Its member companies, which
include Foothills Pipe Line Ltd., NOVA Gas Transmissions and Trans
Canada Pipelines Ltd., operate more than 100 000 kilometers of Canada’s
540 000 kilometers of pipelines. The company has operations in British
Columbia, NorthWest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba,
Ontario and Quebec, and in 1997 the total volume of natural gas exported
was 5. 6 trillion cubic feet. Pipelines are important because they
connect oil and natural gas producers in remote areas of Canada with
urban markets. They allow gas produced on one side of the country to be
used to heat homes on the other side. For example, much of the crude oil
produced in the western provinces is shipped by pipeline to Quebec and
eastern Canada. Pipelines are also the most cost efficient way of
transporting oil and natural gas. The cost of moving oil through a
pipeline is 10% of the cost of the barrel, which in 1997 was $27. 00
(Cdn). Oil and natural gas travel through pipelines under pressure. From
here the raw materials are sent to transmission lines. These in turn
carry the oil and gas to large oil and gas corporations which then send
it out to homes and businesses through smaller distribution lines. One
of the companies that is a member of the Canadian Energy Pipeline
Association is Foothills Pipeline Ltd. . Formed in the mid-70’s in
Calgary, the company is now one of Canada’s largest transporter of
natural gas; it can transport up to 2. 5 billion cubic feet of natural
gas each day through its 927 kilometers of pipeline.

Of all the natural gas exported from Canada to the US, Foothills
Pipeline transports 1/3 of it and in 1998, moved 938 billion cubic feet
of natural gas into the United States. TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. is
also one of North America’s leading natural gas transporters. It has 13
955 kilometers of interprovincial pipelines, numerous pumping plants
located all over the country and supplies 45% of North America’s natural
gas. By the year 2000 a new pipeline will be built called the Alliance
Pipeline. It will be 3 100 kilometers in length and will be used to
transport natural gas from western Canada to Chicago, Illinois. The
pipeline will begin at Fort St. John, British Columbia and will extend
through Alberta to Chicago where it will join the North American
pipeline grid. The Canadian portion of the pipeline will consist of 340
kilometers of 1 067 millimeter and 1 220 kilometers of 914 millimeter
diameter steel pipe. There will be seven main compressor stations and
mainline block valves spaced every 32 kilometers These five main modes
of transportation — air, road, rail, water and pipeline –are extremely
important to the Canadian economy. At one time or another each dominated
the Canadian transportation sector. Because of Canada’s large
geographical area one type of transportation cannot provide service to
every part of the country. Therefore all five modes necessary components
of Canadian transportation.

Accommodation

A wide range of hotels is available for temporary stays upon arrival in
Canada. A Canadian hotel is defined as having inside access, private
rooms, and daily cleaning service. It is always best to make
reservations in advance, and during the peak tourist season, it is
essential. From May until August, hotels are booked most heavily (90 per
cent full), and finding a reasonable place to stay without a reservation
can be challenging if not impossible. Although most reservations can be
made with a week’s notice, be sure to check ahead for any major
festivals or events as it will be more difficult to reserve rooms during
these times.

Hotel services, price and quality vary. Rooms in larger cities will
generally be more expensive. In general, however, you will find hotels
in Canada to be clean, comfortable and reasonably priced. Most hotels
accept major credit cards, and reservations can be made either directly
or by a travel agent in your home country.

Here are some general estimates for the cost of hotel accommodation per
night. Please note that prices vary according to occupancy rates,
location and season.

Low price range: $45-$75 CDN (It is advised to carefully check
accommodation in this price range, as good quality hotels at these
prices can be difficult to find, particularly in large cities.)

Moderate price range: $55-$135 CDN

Expensive price range: $135-$250 CDN

Five-Star Hotel price range: $250 CDN & upwards

Bed-and-Breakfast

Another temporary accommodation option is the bed-and-breakfast. Rooms
are located in private homes or locally-run establishments, and the cost
includes your own room and a generous breakfast. Many rooms do not have
private toilets and baths. Bed-and-breakfast accommodation comes in a
variety of forms – it can be in a heritage home, modern townhouse, rural
farmhouse, or seaside home. Most establishments are registered with a
professional association, and are a great way to meet local people.

Average cost of a room in a bed-and-breakfast: $35 to $105 CDN per
night.

Youth Hostels/YWCA/YMCA

Hostelling is a temporary and inexpensive way to stay in major cities.
Accommodation is basic but economical, and primary facilities (toilets,
baths and kitchens) are shared. Rates are calculated daily, and costs
are less than other accommodation choices. A Canadian hostel must be
inspected and approved by the Canadian Hostelling Association.

Average cost of a room in a hostel: $10 – $20 CDN per night.

For further information, you can contact the International Youth
Hostelling Association in your own country; or for information on
hostels in Canada, contact:

Hostelling International – Canada

400-205 Catherine Street

Ottawa, Ontario

Canada K2P 1C3

Tel: (613) 237-7884 or 1-800-663-5777

Fax: (613) 237-7868

E-mail: [email protected]

The YWCA/YMCA hotels are also inexpensive, clean, safe and comfortable.
Many of these establishments also have pools and fitness centres. Keep
in mind, though, that hostels and YWCA/YMCAs fill up quickly during the
summer months, so you should plan ahead.

Average cost of a room in a YWCA/YMCA: $24 – $45 CDN per night.

For more information contact:

YWCA of Canada

590 Jarvis Street

5th Floor

Toronto, ON

Canada M4Y 2J4

Tel: (416) 962-8881

Fax: (416) 962-8084

E-mail: [email protected]

Catering service

Cousine

Canadians like to eat. Recent statistics show we are some of the
chubbier people on the planet. Two factors contribute to our state of
girth: long, harsh winters which make it difficult to venture outside to
get much exercise beyond shovelling the driveway and our, fatty, fried
food diet. Here then is a tour of Canadian cuisine. Poutine – Invented
in the late 1950’s in Quebec, this artery clogging dish consists of
thick cut french fries and cheese curds covered in turkey gravy.

Many restaurants offer imitations (the McDonald’s and Burger King
versions are abominable) but accept no substitutes – only turkey gravy
and cheese curds will do. Doughnuts – also spelled “donuts”- this food
isn’t especially Canadian but a hockey player named Tim Horton opened a
chain of 24 hour donut shops which have become omnipresent sight on off
ramps across this land.

Bagels – other than that the best ones are, without doubt, found in
Montreal, these too are more Yiddish than Canadian (not that the two are
mutually exclusive of course) but another hockey great, Darryl Sittler,
is attempting to outdo Tim Horton by opening up a chain of bagel shops
across Canada.

Try the spinach cream cheese. It’s quite good. Beer – According to the
Canada Food Guide, one should have mostly grains in their diet.

The hops and barley in beer should handle that. Maple Syrup – Mrs.
Butterworth and Aunt Jemima are shysters.

Real maple syrup costs, like, ten dollars a bottle and tastes far nicer
on your pancakes.

Caterers

There are two main sectors within the catering industry; contract
caterers and social event, or banquet caterers. The contract catering
market is dominated by large national firms and chain operations, like
Marriott Corporation, which manage and operate foodservice facilities
such as cafeterias and camps on a contract basis. Institutions, industry
and businesses comprise the main markets for contract caterers and many
operations focus on serving a specific market’s foodservice needs.

Industrial contract caterers specialize in providing foodservice to
workers at industrial sites such as mines and oil rigs and also provide
foodservice at remote sites such as tree planting locations. Business
caterers focus on operating full-scale cafeterias as well as vending and
mobile carts that provide foodservice to employees of a variety of
businesses. Institutional caterers serve Canada’s large number of
hospitals and nursing homes, universities and colleges, public school
and prison facilities.

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30000000000

A comprehensive survey of foodservice operations across the country
shows a brisk demand for catering. Operators of every stripe are finding
ways to exploit the trend, seeing their talented staffs and idle
kitchens as sources of untapped potential. Even the most unlikely
players are getting into the act. Managers of institutional feeders such
as schools, hospitals, and corporate dining halls have stepped outside
their traditional roles and into the world of catering.

The growing market for catered events has fueled an effort to use all
available capacity. We’re not just talking about weddings and bar
mitzvahs. Business events now dominate the market for catering.

Catered events are increasingly taking place within walking distance
from the caterer’s kitchen — on premises. This surveys also shows that
catering jobs come in all sizes, and most of them are relatively
intimate.

So you might ask yourself: why am I not catering? Or, if you are
catering to groups in your dining room or loading a truck with trays
every weekend, how can you do it better?

Frequency. Catering is a volume business. Social caterers and hoteliers
typically cater at least one event every day, usually more. They have a
voracious appetite for bookings and the capability of handling up to 100
functions a month.

As worn out as operators of fine dining restaurants might be, more than
one-third cater in excess of 13 functions per month. Most of these take
place in their restaurants.

Among the non-commercial operators, hospitals, colleges, and contract
employee feeders wrack up the catering jobs. They serve patients,
students and employees. And, they cater events, usually for fewer than
50 people, on their premises. These kitchens are running a type of room
service with small groups eating and meeting in rooms throughout the
facility.

The survey also shows sharp differences in the aggressiveness of
kitchens run by contract operators over those managed by the
institutions themselves. Most contractors tackled more than 13 events
per month; whereas, almost 60% of the self-run operations settled for
less.

Who works the jobs? Entering the catering business to offer staff more
hours will probably work. Restaurants and hotels rely on existing
wait-staff for catering jobs, often reinforcing them with casual hires,
including family members. Social caterers show an especially high
tendency to tap family, since their work force must ebb and flow in
response to bookings.

Busiest seasons: “If you’re not prepared to take a hit in January and
February and think this is a flat-line business, then you shouldn’t be
in this business,” says Shelly Pedersen, a longtime caterer and
President of the National Association of Catering Executives (NACE).
But, catering’s seasonality makes sense. Family restaurants, with their
casual fare, see catering opportunities rise with summer temperatures.
Schools respond to busy classrooms and academic activities in spring and
fall. Most other catering operations post their best receipts in winter
— largely due to intensive holiday catering. Balancing Pedersen’s
warning against the fat winter numbers, one can fully appreciate the
frenzied holiday party season.

Business vs. social: Hidden in the unremarkable splits between the
business and the social markets is a surprising strength among family
restaurants in catering business functions. They report that more than
71 per cent of their catering dollars come from business and corporate
clients.

Businesses and corporations obviously keep the catering phenomenon
alive. Even schools (66 percent of them) cater business events. In fact,
there are more schools handling corporate events than handling community
meetings, according to the survey.

Social caterers most often answer the call for ethnic theme parties.
According to Kramer, the rise in international corporate affiliations
has opened the field for ethnic themes. If a firm opens a new branch in
China, for instance, get ready for dragons and fireworks. She also
points out the care with which ethnic themes must be executed.
“Corporations have to be in tune with their audience. Once you’ve done
enough research, you can create a theme with wonderful ambiance. Anytime
you can theme an event and be socially, politically, and morally
correct, you’ve got a hit.

On-premises vs. off: Family restaurants serve more catered meals outside
than inside. And even fine dining restaurants attribute 41% of their
catering sales to off-premises events.

Social caterers rely on attractive facilities and settings for their
parties. With demand rising, good rooms are scarce. Therein lies an
opportunity that restaurants are seizing with banquet rooms and
off-night functions. Besides, off-premise catering often presents unseen
dangers. “The science of the food is different,” says Shelly Pedersen.
“As are the equipment needs and the demands on the staff.”

Average size group: The flexibility and experience of social caterers
seems to allow them to handle large crowds. Volume can widen profit
margins and social caterers, who fight for budget against rent and
liquor costs, often make their money head by head. On the whole,
gatherings of 100 or less dominate the catering service.

Table service vs. buffet: The popularity of buffets continues with one
notable exception. Within these figures, resorts and hotels report
serving half their catered meals at table. Family restaurants boost
buffet scores among commercial operators, since they offer table service
at less than ten per cent of the events they handle. Even among fine
dining restaurants, however, buffets remain more popular than table
service.

Ginger Kramer sees the popularity of buffets continuing and increasing
along with the demand for theme parties. “Themes are hot”, she says.
“And it’s much easier to attach a theme to a buffet than to a single
plate.” She also points to the greater variety available at a buffet and
its effect on social dynamics. Buffets allow party-goers to mingle
throughout the room. Table service confines them to one table.

Where’s the money? Commercial operations vary in their commitment to
catering; social caterers live by it; and non commercials seem to take
care of their own people. These variations make direct analysis of
profit margins hard to ascertain. But one conclusion is obvious: with 50
per cent of the commercial operators, 78 per cent of social caterers,
and a 25 per cent of non-commercial operators making more than $10,000
per year, catering is alive and growing.

The future: Results show that respondents see healthy growth in every
market for catering. The highest numbers in each category reflect the
strength of each type of caterer. Non-commercials see potential in
on-premises events, as do commercial caterers. Ginger Kramer agrees.
“There simply aren’t enough banquet facilities and special event sites,”
she says. The survey confirms Kramer’s assertion that caterers who do
both on and off-premises events will achieve the greatest business
success.

Tourism industry

At the federal level tourism is the responsibility of the minister of
state for small business and tourism through Tourism Canada in the
Department of Regional Industrial Expansion. The promotion and
development of tourism through a designated federal agency dates from
1934. The recognized national industry association is the Ottawa-based
Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIAC). It is an umbrella
organization representing private sector companies, organizations,
institutions and individuals engaged in tourism in Canada and working in
partnership with provincial and territorial tourism-industry
associations. TIAC has represented the Canadian tourism industry for 69
years and exists to lobby government, to communicate with industry, and
to increase public awareness of the importance of tourism and the need
for public support.

Tourism dates back to the early history of Canada. Writings by the early
explorers and traders contributed to the growing knowledge of the
Canadian landscape, still the primary attraction of Canada’s tourism
industry (see EXPLORATION AND TRAVEL LITERATURE). From the mid-18th to
the early 19th century TOPOGRAPHIC PAINTERS recorded an idealized
landscape, scenes that were often reproduced as engravings in travel
books published in Europe. The CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY, through its
rail and steamship services, its hotels and publicity campaigns,
attracted affluent European and American tourists to Canada. Modern
travel and the opportunity for mass travel came with the jet airplane.
Business travel illustrates the degree of change: travel and related
expenses are the third-largest expenditure of Canadian business, after
payroll and data-processing expenditures. Canadian companies spent $3
billion in 1986.

The Canadian tourism industry requires sophisticated marketing,
delivering value and service. Beginning in 1984 Canada experienced a
turnaround following 10 years of decline during which its balance of
payments deficit on the international travel account grew from $300
million to $2.2 billion. Nineteen eighty-six was an exceptional year:
foreign visitors increased 18%. The primary reasons for this growth were
EXPO 86 in Vancouver, a favourable exchange rate with the US, an
aggressive federal government advertising campaign in the US and
negative incidents in other parts of the world which discouraged N
Americans from travelling overseas. The best potential new source for
travellers to Canada is likely in the Pacific Rim countries. Arrivals
from Japan and Hong Kong are expected to show an increase, continuing an
upward trend that started in 1979. Australia remains stable. The US
continues to be Canada’s primary source of visitors; they comprise over
85% of our tourism market. Traditional European markets, including the
UK, France, W Germany and the Netherlands, are expected to produce
moderate growth over the next few years.

Contemporary Canadian tourist attractions are often the same as those
extolled by early travel writers – the fjorded coast of BC, the majestic
grandeur of the Canadian Rockies, the wide open spaces of the Prairies,
the lakes, forests and rivers of central Canada, the Atlantic coast in
its infinite variety of bays, coves, beaches and scenic vistas, the
arctic environment and people, and, of course, such old favourites as
NIAGARA FALLS. The works of humans have been added to these natural
assets through the development of modern and sophisticated cities, and
through galleries and museums, performing arts, historic sites,
FESTIVALS, and events such as Expo 86, the CALGARY STAMPEDE and winter
OLYMPIC GAMES. To most of the world Canada is known as a tourist
destination through its scenery, space and environment.

During the review period, the travel and tourism industry was under
constant pressure beginning in 2001 with the terrorist attacks. In 2003,
the industry was tainted by the war in Iraq, which caused uneasiness
about travel, the SARS outbreak in Toronto and a sluggish US economy.
SARS was contained within two months of the outbreak, despite a second
unexpected resurgence, but the damage brought on by a WHO travel
advisory was done. The impact of these events was greatest on
international tourism, followed by US visitors to Canada, but was not
expected to significantly influence Canadians’ decisions to travel.

Domestic tourism, which accounted for the bulk of the Canadian tourism
industry, remained firm during the review period, with continuing
popularity particularly among the older generation, highlighting the
desire to stay close to home, which resulted from security and economic
concerns. However, more cautious spending patterns emerged towards the
end of the review period, per capita expenditure for domestic trip fell
by 6% since 2000, but a drop of less than 1% over the review period as a
whole. Overall, the WTO ranked Canada as ninth in the world’s top 15
destinations for travel, capturing 2. 8% of the total international
travel market at its last ranking, in 2001. Demographic trends remained
largely intact. Greying populations worldwide, including Canada, will
mean demand for structured tourism products such as pre-packaged and
all-inclusive tours and cruises and quality accommodations.

Women are also increasingly becoming a larger proportion of Canadian
travellers. The accommodation market suffered towards the end of the
review period. Hardest hit was Toronto, suffering losses of C$5million
per day in April, as many major conventions cancelled their reservations
due to SARS. Accommodations across Ontario also reported losses, but not
nearly as significant as those in Toronto. Through the review period,
accommodation revenue increased by 9. 7%. Hotels struggled to keep up
occupancy levels and in 2003 there were tremendous value deals available
in hotels. In such a competitive environment, alternative, no-frills
accommodation benefited, such as hostels and guesthouses. Consumers were
also more likely to stay with international brand names, such as
Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Merger and acquisition activity dropped off
significantly in almost all areas of the travel and tourism industry.

The tone in the industry as a whole was, at best, to maintain market
share and revenue with strong efforts made to avoid losing ground
because of the tough economic environment. There were no significant
mergers and acquisitions in 2003, although as the economy improves,
through 2004 and 2005 the levels of activity may turn around.

Canada’s travel deficit, pushed down to its lowest level in more than 10
years, is benefiting from an influx of American tourism dollars.

The deficit declined by 42.1 per cent to $1.4 billion in the first nine
months of 1998, down from $2.4 billion during the same period in 1997.

Foreign spending, up 11.2 per cent from the same period last year and
valued at $11.1 billion, largely accounts for this decrease. Meanwhile
Canadian tourism spending abroad also rose 0.7 per cent to $12.5
billion.

“The record number of Americans visiting Canada combined with fewer
Canadians vacationing in the U.S. has resulted in a huge shift in the
international travel account,” explained Canadian Tourism Commission
(CTC) chairman Judd Buchanan. “This has buffered the impact of the drop
in visits and spending by tourists from many of our primary overseas
markets, particularly Japan, France and Germany.”

What key factors are responsible for this boom in Canada’s tourism
industry?

“Canadians are doing more internal travel because of the low value of
our dollar, but that’s not the motivating factor for Americans,”
explains John Olsthoorn, a spokesman for the Canadian Tourism
Commission. “The economic situation in the U.S. is positive, with low
unemployment and high consumer confidence, which means that people have
more discretionary funds.”

Olsthoorn notes that Canada also offers Americans what they want: safe
cities, the great outdoors, and friendly people. Another key factor is
the Open Skies Agreement, which has opened more Canadian airports to
direct flights from the U.S. This gives Americans more choices about
flying into Canada.

“Americans can afford to travel more and they are choosing Canada in
record numbers because it offers them what they want to see and do,”
added Christena Keon Sirsly, chair of CTC’s U.S. leisure marketing
committee and vice-president of marketing at VIA Rail Canada Inc. “Once
in Canada, many of them realize their U.S. dollar goes further and they
end up spending more.”

This is clear when you look at the changes to Canada’s travel deficit
with the U.S. Total tourism receipts from the U.S. jumped 23.7 per cent,
while Canadian tourism spending in the U.S. fell 3.2 per cent. The
overall result is that Canada’s travel deficit with the U.S. plunged
67.1 per cent to $788 million.

In contrast, overseas tourism receipts fell $230 million, while
Canadians’ overseas spending rose $347 million, increasing Canada’s
travel deficit with the rest of the world by $578 million during the
first nine months of 1998.

Marketing is the final factor in the boom in Canada’s tourism industry.
In addition to vigorously marketing Canada to potential tourists from
the U.S. and overseas, CTC has forged partnerships with Statistics
Canada (which produces the International Travel Account), the provinces
and territories, private industry and universities helping to make
Canada the world leader in tourism-economic research.

There are some facts about domestic tourism.

Domestic Tourism Demand, Third Quarter 2003 

· Domestic demand steady while foreign expenditures down

· Domestic expenditures reached $11.4 billion in the 3rd quarter of
2003, an increase of 3.2% over the previous year, which represents the
sixth consecutive year-over-year gain..

· Foreign spending in the third quarter 2003 decreased 10% to $6.3
billion compared to the same quarter in 2002. This is the third
consecutive quarterly decline in foreign spending.

· Spending at home remained weak while Canadians increased touring
abroad, thus the share of domestic spending was reduced to 64%.

· In comparison to the second quarter 2003, seasonally adjusted third
quarter 2003 domestic spending was up 4.1% and foreign spending was up
3.3% (seasonally adjusted).

· The year-over-year data contrasts the quarter-to-quarter, the first
being attributed to continued decreases in spending by international
visitors.

Conclusion

Canada is the largest country in land size in the western hemisphere
with a population of only 29 million people. Its form of government can
be characterized as a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
democracy. It comprises of 10 provinces and 3 territories, with Toronto;
Montreal and Vancouver being the largest cities. Canada is a young and
dynamic country where immigration is the foundation for economic growth
and which brings people, customs and traditions, rituals and culture to
the forefront of current Government policy.

Canada is a very large country geographically with a widely dispersed
population. The economy still relies heavily on primary resources, which
requires that goods be transported from one end of the country to the
other. Subsequently, reliable and efficient modes of transportation are
quite important in Canada, probably more so than in some other
countries.

Caterers are primarily engaged in serving meals by mobile canteens or on
private premises including halls, schools, factories, hospitals, offices
and camps. Except for small single functions, catering is normally done
on an annual contract basis.

This section has been developed to indicate how certain companies
redefine their workplace, position themselves to take competitive
advantage of emerging niches and adapt to ever increasing public and
private sector flows of information and education. It indicates both
positive and negative responses to the marketplace.

Illegal basement caterers have driven some Edmonton operators to form a
professional society in an effort to clean up the industry.

The Catering Professionals Association of Alberta is recruiting new
members to add to the 19 companies already in the group. “When you think
about it, you can put some food out without a whole lot of overhead or
expertise,” says Todd Rutter, owner of A Cappella Catering and head of
the new organization. “But the problem is to do it properly, to do it
legally and, therefore, safely, it requires much more than that.”

About 200 caterers are listed in the Edmonton Yellow Pages. An
undetermined number operate without licenses or health permits, said
Steven Probert, a public health inspector. “The guys who go legal spend
a lot of money only to be driven under financially by these illegal
operations.”

To operate legally caterers must have a valid business license, a health
permit and liability insurance. They’re obliged to make payments to
Revenue Canada and workers’ compensation. They must also meet building
code standards with proper heating and ventilation systems — all of
which cost money.

Rick Dimock, the city’s food program co-ordinator responsible for
inspections, said inspectors are always watching out for people who
operate illegally. “We know it happens, but the only way we find out
about it is if we get a complaint from someone or we run into it.”

The city implemented a new system last October whereby inspectors make
three visits a year to each of the larger companies. The new catering
association hopes that setting rigid membership requirements and
encouraging as large a membership as possible will stop people from
getting away with breaking the law.

Accommodations in Canada — the place to visit for bed and breakfasts,
lodging, hotels, motels, resorts, inns and attractions across Canada who
offer their guests a friendly mix of modern comfort, old world charm and
warm hospitality.

Visitors from outside Canada make tourism Canada’s fifth-largest earner
of foreign exchange after motor vehicles, auto parts, crude petroleum
and newsprint. The bulk of Canada’s tourism comes from Canadians
travelling in and exploring their own country. On the international
travel account, Canada has a falling share of the international market
and a $1.2-billion deficit: Canadians spent $7.5 billion outside Canada.
Catering to tourists in Canada involves many large companies and about
100 000 small and medium-sized businesses, including almost 300 000
hotel and motel rooms, more than 45 000 eating places and 4000 travel
agencies. These businesses serve over 34 million visitors a year. Every
100 000 visitors to a community can mean $9 million in revenue
throughout the local economy.

Literature

1. Restaurant Hospitality and Food Management, Supplement, Fall, 2007.

2. http://canada.gc.ca

3. Christine Lindop. Canada. Oxford University Press. 2001.

4. Canadian Press Newswire, March 6, 2005.

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