.

BRITISH SLANG AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

PLAN

I. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Tasks of the course work

1.2 Definition of slang

II. MAIN PART

2.1 The origin of slang.

2.2 Types of slang.

a) Cockney rhyming slang

b) Polari

c) Internet slang

d) Slang of army, police

e) Money slang

2.3. Phonetic peculiarities of slang

2.4. Morphological characteristics of slang

III. PRACTICAL PART

IV. CONCLUSION

V. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Slang is a language which takes off its coat,

spits on its hands – and goes to work.

Carl Sandburg

I. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Tasks of the course work

The understanding of the native speakers’ language is the international
problem for our people. Our secondary schools teach the students only
the bases of the English language. Our universities do not prepare them
to the British streets, accommodations, pubs where people use their own
language, the language that differs from that of their parents. They use
other words- they use slang. None of the most advanced and flexible ways
of teaching English of any country can catch modern quickly developing
English.

Some scholars divide the English language into two different languages:
the Standard English language and slang. This fact proves that slang
comes to be a very numerous part of English. Ignorance of slang causes a
great miscommunication between students and native speakers.

The language of the previous centuries contrasts from the modern
language. The life does not freeze in the same position. It always
develops. And it makes the language develop too. That is why the present
work is devoted to this social phenomenon.

The aim of my course paper is to analyze different approaches to the
definition of slang, to determine the most important groups of the
British slang, to show its lexical, phonetic and morphological
peculiarities.

The object of my study is the wealth of English language, ambiguity of
its vocabulary and the most common rules of slang usage in Britain.

The subjects of my research are various points of view on slang, its
history and types and linguistic characteristics common for the British
slang.

Choosing the topic of my investigation I m perfectly aware of the fact
that slang is unlimited so it is almost impossible to analyze every word
of it. I hope to summarize different points of view on slang and it is
my hope that more readers should discover this interesting layer of the
English language. Although the work could hardly cover all the aspects
of the phenomenon the task is as exciting as challenging.

To achieve the set aim I determine the following tasks:

1. to search the origin of slang;

2. to study the words’ transition through English vocabulary;

3. to study the problem of the classification of slang;

4. to understand the aim of the modern usage of slang;

5. to distinguish different kinds of slang;

6. to study the ways of slang word- formation;

7. to analyze phonetic peculiarities of slang;

8. to compare the results of the analysis.

1.2 Definition of slang

Every adult speaker has a concept of slang–knowing at the least that
some words and expressions transgress generally accepted norms of
formality or appropriateness and in some way do not fit the measure of
what “good” language is. Despite such recognition by almost all
speakers, scholars with formal training in linguistic analysis have
almost ignored slang–though they acknowledge having the same intuitions
about this type of vocabulary as do all speakers. In truth, most
linguists have given no more thought to slang than have people who claim
no expertise in language. In the English-speaking world in particular,
the description of the form and function of slang has been left largely
to lexicographers rather than to others who study language for a living.

Webster’s “Third New International Dictionary” gives the following
definition of the term slang:

1. Language peculiar to a particular group as:

a) the special and often secret vocabulary used by a class (as thieves,
beggars) and usually felt to be vulgar or inferior: argot;

b) the jargon used by or associated with a particular trade, profession,
or field of activity.

2. A non-standard vocabulary composed of words and senses characterized
primary by connotations of extreme informality and usually a currency
not limited to a particular region and composed typically of coinages or
arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant,
forced or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties usually
experiencing quick popularity and relatively rapid decline into disuse.

The “New Oxford English Dictionary” defines slang as follows:

a) the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or
disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type;

b) the cant or jargon of a certain class or period;

c) language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of
standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of
current words employed in some special sense.”

As it is seen from these quotations slang is represented both as a
special vocabulary and as a special language. This causes confusion. If
this is a certain lexical layer, than why should it be given the rank of
language or a dialect of even a patois, and then it should be
characterized not only by its peculiar use of words but also by
phonetic, morphological and syntactical peculiarities.

In general all linguists agree that slang is nonstandard vocabulary
composed of words or senses characterized primarily by connotations of
extreme informality and usually by a currency not limited to a
particular region. It is composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily
changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced, or
facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties. They are identified
and distinguished by contrasting them to standard literary vocabulary.
They are expressive, mostly ironical words serving to create fresh names
for some things that are frequent topics of discourse. [1, 249]

Slang consists of the words and expressions that have escaped from the
cant, jargon and argot (and to a lesser extent from dialectal,
nonstandard, and taboo speech) of specific subgroups of society so that
they are known and used by an appreciable percentage of the general
population, even though the words and expressions often retain some
associations with the subgroups that originally used and popularized
them. Thus, slang is a middle ground for words and expressions that have
become too popular to be any longer considered as part of the more
restricted categories, but that are not yet (and may never become)
acceptable or popular enough to be considered informal or standard.
(Compare the slang “hooker” and the standard “prostitute.”)

Slang fills a necessary niche in all languages. It can serve as a bridge
or a barrier, either helping both old and new words that have been used
as “insiders’ ” terms by a specific group of people to enter the
language of the general public or, on the other hand, preventing them
from doing so. Thus, for many words, slang is a testing ground that
finally proves them to be generally useful, appealing, and acceptable
enough to become standard or informal. For many other words, slang is a
testing ground that shows them to be too restricted in use, not as
appealing as standard synonyms, or unnecessary, frivolous, faddish, or
unacceptable for standard or informal speech. For still a third group of
words and expressions, slang becomes not a final testing ground that
either accepts or rejects them for general use but becomes a vast limbo,
a permanent holding ground, an area of speech that a word never leaves

Slang words cannot be distinguished from other words by sound or
meaning. In fact, most slang words are homonyms of standard words,
spelled and pronounced just like their standard counterparts, as for
example slang words for money such as beans, brass, dibs, dough, chinc,
oof, wards; the slang synonyms for word head are attic, brain-pan, hat
peg, nut, upper storey; drunk- boozy, cock-eyed, high, soaked, tight,
and pot (marijuana). Of course, these words are alike in their ordinary
standard use and in their slang use. Each word sounds just as appealing
or unappealing, dull or colorful in its standard as in its slang use.
Also, the meanings of beans and money, head and attic, pot and marijuana
are the same, so it cannot be said that the connotations of slang words
are any more colorful or racy than the meanings of standard words. [22]

All languages, countries, and periods of history have slang. This is
true because they all have had words with varying degrees of social
acceptance and popularity.

The same linguistic processes are used to create and popularize slang as
are used to create and popularize all other words. That is, all words
are created and popularized in the same general ways; they are labeled
slang only according to their current social acceptance, long after
creation and popularization.

To fully understand slang, one must remember that a word’s use,
popularity, and acceptability can change. Words can change in social
level, moving in any direction. Thus, some standard words of William
Shakespeare’s day are found only in certain modern-day British dialects.
Words that are taboo in one era (e.g., stomach, thigh) can become
accepted, standard words in a later era. Many prove either useful enough
to become accepted as standard or informal words or too faddish for
standard use. Blizzard and okay have become standard, while
conbobberation (“disturbance”) and tomato (“girl”) have been discarded.
Some words and expressions have a lasting place in slang; for instance,
beat it (“go away”), first used in the 16th century, has neither become
Standard English nor vanished.

Language is dynamic, and at any given time hundreds, and perhaps
thousands, of words and expressions are in the process of changing from
one level to another, of becoming more acceptable or less acceptable, of
becoming more popular or less popular.

Slang is very informal use of words and phrases for more colorful or
peculiar style of expression that is shared by the people in the same
social subgroup, for example, computer slang, sports slang, military
slang, musicians’ slang, students’ slang, underworld slang, etc. Slang
is not used by the majority of native speakers and many people consider
it vulgar, though quite a few slang phrases have already come into
standard usage. Slang contains many obscene and offensive words and
phrases. It also has many expressions that are acceptable in informal
communication. Slang is highly idiomatic. It is flippant, irreverent,
indecorous; it may be indecent or obscene. Its colorful metaphors are
generally directed at respectability, and it is this succinct, sometimes
witty, frequently impertinent social criticism that gives slang its
characteristic flavor. Slang, then, includes not just words but words
used in a special way in a certain social context. The origin of the
word slang itself is obscure; it first appeared in print around 1800,
applied to the speech of disreputable and criminal classes in London.

Language is the property of a community of speakers. People rarely
speak, or write, with only themselves as the audience. It should not be
surprising then that some components and forms of language are socially
motivated. Slang is one kind of vocabulary that serves the social nature
of language. In an important article in 1978 Bethany Dumas and Jonathan
Lighter make the crucial point that slang must be identified by its
social consequences, by the effects its use has on the relationship
between speaker and audience.

Dumas and Lighter posit four criteria for identifying a word or phrase
as slang . [7, 9].

1. Its presence will markedly lower, at least for the moment, the
dignity of formal or serious speech or writing.

2. Its use implies the user’s familiarity either with the referent or
with that less statusful or less responsible class of people who have
such special familiarity and use the term.

3. It is a tabooed term in ordinary discourse with persons of higher
social rank or greater responsibility.

4. It is used in place of the well-known conventional synonym,
especially in order (a) to protect the user from the discomfort caused
by the conventional item or (b) to protect the user from the discomfort
or annoyance of further elaboration.

They conclude that “when something fits at least two of the criteria, a
linguistically sensitive audience will react to it in a certain way.
This reaction, which cannot be measured, is the ultimate identifying
characteristic of true slang”. In other words, Dumas and Lighter’s
formulation requires that the type of lexis called slang be recognized
for its power to effect union between speaker and hearer. Whether or not
the particulars of their definition are necessary or sufficient, Dumas
and Lighter are right. Slang cannot be defined independent of its
functions and use.

Despite the difficulties of defining the term, slang does have some
consistent characteristics. [6, 12]. Slang is lexical rather than
phonological or syntactic, though, in English at least, body language
and intonation are often important in signaling that a word or phrase is
to be interpreted as slang. Nor is there a peculiarly slang syntax.
Slang expressions do not follow idiosyncratic word order, and slang
words and phrases typically fit into an appropriate grammatical slot in
an established syntactic pattern. Furthermore, the productive
morphological processes responsible for slang are the same ones
responsible for the general vocabulary, i.e., for English, compounding,
affixation, shortening, and functional shift.

II. MAIN PART

Slang derives much of its power from the fact that it is clandestine,
forbidden or generally disapproved of. So what happens once it is
accepted, even in some cases embraced and promoted by ‘mainstream’
society? Not long ago the Oxford English Dictionary characterized slang
as ‘low and disreputable’; in the late 1970s the pioneering
sociolinguist Michael Halliday used the phrase ‘anti-language’ in his
study of the speech of criminals and marginals. For him, theirs was an
interestingly ‘pathological’ form of language. The first description now
sounds quaintly outmoded, while the second could be applied to street
gangs – today’s posses, massives or sets – and their secret codes. Both,
however, involve value judgments which are essentially social and not
linguistic. Attitudes to the use of language have changed profoundly
over the last three decades, and the perceived boundaries between
‘standard’ and ‘unorthodox’ are becoming increasingly ‘fuzzy’.

Today, tabloid newspapers in the UK such as the Sun, the Star and the
Sport regularly use slang in headlines and articles, while the quality
press use slang sparingly – usually for special effect – but the
assumption remains that readers have a working knowledge of common slang
terms.

There has been surprisingly little criticism of the use of slang (as
opposed to the ‘swear-words’ and supposed grammatical errors which
constantly irritate British readers and listeners). The use of slang
forms part of what linguists call code-switching or style-shifting – the
mixing of and moving between different languages, dialects or codes.
[14]

2.1 The origin of slang

Slang was the main reason for the development of prescriptive language
in an attempt to slow down the rate of change in both spoken and written
language. Latin and French were the only two languages that maintained
the use of prescriptive language in the 14th century. It was not until
the early 15th century that scholars began pushing for a Standard
English language.

During the Middle Ages, certain writers such as Chaucer, William Caxton,
and William of Malmesbury represented the regional differences in
pronunciations and dialects. The different dialects and the different
pronunciations represented the first meaning for the term “slang.”

However, our present-day meaning for slang did not begin forming until
the 16th or 17th century. The English Criminal Cant developed in the
16th century. The English Criminal Cant was a new kind of speech used by
criminals and cheats, meaning it developed mostly in saloons and
gambling houses. The English Criminal Cant was at first believed to be
foreign, meaning scholars thought that it had either originated in
Romania or had a relationship to French. The English Criminal Cant was
slow developing. In fact, out of the four million people who spoke
English, only about ten thousand spoke the English Criminal Cant. By the
end of the 16th century this new style of speaking was considered to be
a language “without reason or order”. During the 18th century
schoolmasters taught pupils to believe that the English Criminal Cant
(which by this time had developed into slang) was not the correct usage
of English and slang was considered to be taboo [16].

Because most people are individuals who desire uniqueness, it stands to
reason that slang has been in existence for as long as language has been
in existence.

A slang expression may suddenly become widely used and as quickly die
(23-skiddoo). It may become accepted as standard speech, either in its
original slang meaning (bus from omnibus, taxi, piano, phone, pub mob,
dandy) or with an altered, possibly tamed meaning (jazz, which
originally had sexual connotations). Some expressions have persisted for
centuries as slang (booze for alcoholic beverage). In the 20th century,
mass media and rapid travel have speeded up both the circulation and the
demise of slang terms. Television and novels have turned criminal cant
into slang (five grand for 5000). Changing social circumstances may
stimulate the spread of slang. Drug-related expressions (such as pot and
marijuana) were virtually a secret jargon in the 1940s; in the 1960s
they were adopted by rebellious youth; and in the 1970s and ’80s they
were widely known. But this must be done by those whose mother tongue is
English. They and only they, being native speakers of the English
language, are its masters and lawgivers. It is for them to place slang
in its proper category by specifying its characteristic features.

Many words formerly labeled as slang have now become legitimate units of
the Standard English. Thus, the word “kid” (=child), which was
considered low slang in the 19th century, is now a legitimate colloquial
unit of the English literary language.

It sounds unbelievable but not so long ago the words: of course, to take
care, to get up, lunch were considered to be slang. “Lunch” entered the
language after World War I is not used in some books that prefer
“dinner” to “lunch”.

2.2 Types of slang

Slang users tend to invent many more synonyms or near-synonyms than
might be thought strictly necessary: for example, criminals may have a
dozen different nicknames (gat, crone, iron, chrome) for their guns, or
for informers (canary, grass, snout, stoolie); drinkers can choose from
hundreds of competing descriptions of a state of intoxication (hammered,
hamstered, langered, mullered) [18]

It is convenient to group slang words according to their place in the
vocabulary system and more precisely in the semantic system of the
vocabulary. If they denote a new and necessary notion they may prove an
enrichment of the vocabulary and be accepted into Standard English. If
on the other hand they make just another addition to a cluster of
synonyms and have nothing but novelty to back them, they die out very
quickly, constituting the most changeable part of the vocabulary.

Another type of classification suggests subdivision according to the
sphere of usage, into general slang and special slang. [1,250]General
slang includes words that are not specific for any social or
professional group, whereas special slang is peculiar for some such
group: teenager slang, university slang, public school slang, Air Force
slang, football slang, sea slang and so on.

General slang is language that speakers deliberately use to break with
the standard language and to change the level of discourse in the
direction of formality. It signals the speakers intention to refuse
conventions [7,12] and their need to be fresh and startling in their
expression, to ease social exchanges and induce friendliness, to reduce
excessive seriousness and avoid cliches, in brief, to enrich the
language. General slang words have a wide circulation as they are
neither group – nor subject – restricted. [8, 16]

You’ll hear Brits refer to their currency as quid, much in the same way
American dollars are “bucks” and Canadian money is called “loonies.”

If someone asks to borrow a fag off you, give them a cigarette.

In Britain, a kiss is called a snog. If someone is knackered, that means
they are exhausted. If someone is referred to as “a minger”, that means
that they’re unattractive. If someone tells you to “Bugger off!” well,
it is suggested that you go away.

Instead of “Hi, how are you?” go with the quick and easy British
“Alright?” No answer is expected.

Emphasize greatness. These include “barry,” “ace” and “kewl.” The latter
kind of sounds like “cool” but you’ll know the difference in your heart.

Insult others. Calling someone an “arseface” or a “pilchard” will be
even more the merrier if they have no clue you are insulting them to
their face.

Throw in the emphatic “bloody” a lot. Bloody this, bloody that and
bloody everything. The British are also known to put it in the middle of
words for even more emphasis, such as “absobloodlylutely.”

Describe drunks. Slang is always full of euphemisms for “drunk” in any
language. The British versions include “airlocked” and “bevvied up,” as
in “full of beverage.”

Special slang is language that speakers use to show their belonging to a
group and establish solidarity or intimacy with the other group members.
[8, 15] It is often used by speakers to create their own identity,
including aspects such as social status and geographical belonging, or
even age, education, occupation, lifestyle, and special interests. It is
largely used by people of a common age and experience to strengthen the
bonds within their own peer group, keeping the older generation at a
distance. [6, 17]It is also used by people sharing the same occupation
to increase efficiency in communication; or by those sharing the same
living conditions to hide secret information from people in authority.
It is finally used by people sharing an attitude or a life style to
reinforce their group cohesiveness, keeping insiders together and
outsiders out.

Special slang tends to originate in subcultures within a society.
Occupational groups (for example, loggers, police, medical
professionals, and computer specialists) are prominent originators of
both jargon and slang; other groups creating slang include the armed
sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and even religious
denominations. Slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of
group members. They may thus contribute to a sense of group identity and
may convey to the listener information about the speaker’s background.

While some slang words and phrases are used throughout all of Britain
(e.g. knackered, meaning “exhausted”), others are restricted to smaller
regions.

a) Cockney rhyming slang

Cockney Rhyming Slang originated in the East End of London.

Rhyming slang is a form of slang in which a word is replaced by a
rhyming word, typically the second word of a two-word phrase (so stairs
becomes “apples and pears”). The second word is then often dropped
entirely (“I’m going up the apples”), meaning that the association of
the original word to the rhyming phrase is not obvious to the
uninitiated.

Rhyming Slang phrases are derived from taking an expression which rhymes
with a word and then using that expression instead of the word. For
example the word “look” rhymes with “butcher’s hook”. In many cases the
rhyming word is omitted – so you won’t find too many Londoners having a
“bucher’s hook” , but you might find a few having a “butcher’s”.

The rhyming word is not always omitted so Cockney expressions can vary
in their construction, and it is simply a matter of convention which
version is used.

In this list of example Cockney slang for parts of the body, you’ll
notice that some expressions omit the rhyming word but others do not.

EnglishRhymes withCockneyFeetPlates of meatPlatesTeethHampstead
raceBoat raceMouthNorth and southNorth and south

The proliferation of rhyming slang allowed many of its traditional
expressions to pass into common usage. Some substitutions have become
relatively widespread in Britain, for example “scarper”, meaning to run
away is derived from “Scapa Flow” meaning “to go”. “To have a
butcher’s”, which means to have a look, from “butcher’s hook. For
example “use your loaf” is an everyday phrase for the British, but not
too many people realize it is Cockney Rhyming Slang (“loaf of bread:
head”). There are many more examples of this unwitting use of Cockney
Rhyming Slang. [19 ]

Television has raised awareness of Cockney Rhyming Slang to far greater
heights. Classic TV shows such as “Steptoe and Son”, “Minder”,
“Porridge” and “Only Fools and Horses” have done much to spread the
slang throughout Britain and to the rest of the world.

Modern Cockney slang that is being developed today tends to only rhyme
words with the names of celebrities or famous people. There are very few
new Cockney slang expressions that do not follow this trend. The only
one that has gained much ground recently that bucks this trend is “Wind
and Kite” meaning “Web site”.

This style of rhyming has spread through many English-speaking
countries, where the original phrases are supplemented by rhymes created
to fit local needs. Creation of rhyming slang has become a word game for
people of many classes and regions. The term ‘Cockney’ rhyming slang is
generally applied to these expansions to indicate the rhyming style;
though arguably the term only applies to phrases used in the East End of
London. Similar formations do exist in other parts of the United
Kingdom; for example, in the East Midlands, the local accent has formed
“Derby Road”, which rhymes with “cold”: a conjunction that would not be
possible in any other dialect of the UK.

Examples of Rhyming Slang

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b) Polari

Polari (or alternatively Parlare, Parlary, Palare, Palarie, Palari,
Parlyaree,from Italian parlare, “to talk”) was a form of cant slang used
in Britain by actors, circus or fairground showmen, criminals,
prostitutes etc., and latterly by the gay subculture. It was revived in
the 1950s and 1960s by its use by camp characters Julian and Sandy in
the popular BBC radio shows Beyond our Ken and Round the Horne, but its
origins can be traced back to at least the 19th century (or, according
to at least one source, to the 16th century). There is some debate about
how it originated. There is a longstanding connection with Punch and
Judy street puppet performers who traditionally used Polari to talk with
each other. [17].

Polari is a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca),
Romany, London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and
thieves’ cant. Later it expanded to contain words from the Yiddish
language of the Jewish subculture which settled in the East End of
London, the US forces (present in the UK during World War II) and 1960s
drug users. It was a constantly developing form of language, with a
small core lexicon of about 20 words (including bona, ajax, eek, cod,
naff, lattie, nanti, omi, palone, riah, zhoosh (tjuz), TBH, trade,
vada), with over 500 other lesser-known items.

In 1990 Morrissey titled an album Bona Drag– Polari for “nice outfit”–
and the title of his “Piccadilly Palare” single that same year is an
alternative spelling of what would be “Piccadilly Polari.”

Also in 1990, comic book writer Grant Morrison created the character
Danny the Street (based on Danny La Rue), a sentient transvestite street
for the comic Doom Patrol. Danny speaks largely in Polari.

The 1998 film Velvet Goldmine, which chronicles a fictional retelling of
the rise and fall of glam rock, contains a 60s flashback in which a
group of characters converse in Polari, while their words are humorously
subtitled below.

In 2002, two books on Polari were published, Polari: The Lost Language
of Gay Men, and Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang (both
by Paul Baker). Also in 2002, hip hop artist Juha released an album
called Polari, with the chorus of the title song written entirely in the
slang.

WordDefinitionAC/DCa coupleajaxnearby (from adjacent?)alamohot for
you/himaunt nelllisten, hearaunt nellsearsaunt nelly fakesearringsaunt
nell danglersearringsbarneya
fightbattsshoesbibibisexualbijousmall/little (means “jewel” in
French)blagpick upbluecode word for “homosexual”Bodbody

c) Internet slang

Internet slang (Internet language, Internet Short-hand, leet, netspeak
or chatspeak) is a type of slang that Internet users have popularized,
and in many cases, have coined. Such terms often originate with the
purpose of saving keystrokes. Many people use the same abbreviations in
texting and instant messaging, and social networking websites. Acronyms,
keyboard symbols and shortened words are often used as methods of
abbreviation in Internet slang.

In such cases, new dialects of slang, such as leet or Lolspeak, develop
as ingroup memes rather than time savers. In leet speak, letters may be
replaced by characters of similar appearance. For this reason, leet is
often written as l33t or 1337.

The Internet has transformed the way we manipulate our systems of signs
and the relationships between producers and consumers of information.
Its effect on slang has two aspects. Firstly, online communication has
generated its own vocabulary of technical terminology, essentially
jargon (spam, blogging, phishing) and informal, abbreviated or humorous
terms (addy, noob, barking moonbat etc.) which qualify as slang. [9, 12]
The amount of new cyberslang is fairly small, but the Internet has also
allowed the collecting, classifying and promoting of slang from other
sources in.

Another technical development – text messaging – has triggered changes
in the culture of communication, especially among young people, and
brought with it, like telegrams, CB-radio or Internet chatrooms, a new
form of abbreviated code. It has excited some academic linguists but it
hasn’t, however, contributed anything meaningful to the evolution of
slang. [15].

Word or phraseAbbreviation(s)Accountacc, acct or acntAddressaddy or
addAndn, an, nd, or &Anticipatentcp8Alrightaight or ight or aiteAre you
there?rut or u derAt the momentatmAs far as I knowafaikBackbBe right
backbrbBe back laterbblBe back soonbbsBecausecuz, bcuz, bcz, bcos, bc,
cos, coz, cz or bcozBest friend or Boyfriendbf or b/fBetweenbtwn or
b/wBy the waybtwCousincuzin or cuzDefinitelydef or deffoDoes it look
like I give a shit?DILLIGASDon’t knowdunnoDon’t worrydwFalling off chair
laughingfoclForever4eva or 4evr or fo evaGirlfriend or GoodFriendgf or
g/fGot to gog2g or gtgGreatgr8Have a nice dayH.A.N.D.Hold onhld on or
h/oHomeworkhw, hwk or hmwkHow are youhruI can’t remembericrI knowainoI
know, right?ikrI love youily, luv u, ilu, luv ya, i wub u or i

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14 Авг 2008
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