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Білінгвізм. Моўная інтэрферэнцыя

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AAEA?ONE? AeCss?AEA!IU OI?AA?N?OYO ?IOA?IAOUE? ? ?AAeU?YEAEO?II?E?

Eaoaae?a aaea?oneae ? ?oneae iic OAeI ? IA

?yoa?ao ia oyio:

«A?E?IAA?CI. II!IAss ?IOY?OA?YIOeUss»

Iiine, 2008

1. NOOIANOeUe ? ANAAE?AANOe? A?E?IAA?CIO

I?aaeaia iiciaaa aeuoeoey c iaoae ?ynioae?oeu n?iiy aaeiin?oeoea aea
aaeiie c iaeaieueo aeooaeueiuo ? neeaaeaiuo. ?acai c oui ayoa i?aaeaia
?nioa ia oieuee? c iaoae e?a?ia, aea ? c a?noi?u? no?niaaaiiy ?iouo
ia?iaeac, ?o eoeueoo? ? iic o oiaoiaoeuyiaeueiuo e?a?iao iaiaoe.

Iaaiaeea aeaiuo Aeaaeyi?? iaaoe O?aioeu?, ianaeuei?oeoaa cyiiiaa oa?a
aaai?uoeue ia iaio /ui ia 2796 iiaao, ye?y aa’yaeiicaathoeoea c 11
aye?e?o ? eaey 50 iaeuo iiciuo a?oi, a cna, ooi aaai?uoeue ia ayouo
iiaao, auea?unoicaathoeue aae 7 aea 8 ouny/ aeuyeaeoac. Iyiaoee?y ae
ao/iiuy noeay?aeaeathoeue, ooi no/aniuy ia?iaeu naaoo aaai?aoeue ia
iiaao, eieueeanoeue ye?o ia?aauoaa 4000, a cnyai iaaooeu ayaeiia eaey
6000 aeuauo ? i??oauo iic.

Noaa?yiia iiciae ea?ou naaoo c eiaeiui aei?i noaiia?oeoea ni?aaae on?
aieueo oeyaeeae, ai i?aeou/ia ia Cyie? iyia aaeiaiiciuo e?a?i ? iaaao
aoeiuo aa?aaeic. Iai?ueeaae, Eiiaeai aiae?ene?y ao/iiuy iacuaathoeue
“e?iaa?nou/iui Aaa?eiiai”, ai, iaaiaeea caanoae i?i?noy?noaa aaeoeaoeu?
Aye?eaa?uoai??, o ?i aaai?aoeue ia 147 iiaao, oioeue, c?acoiaea,
iaeaieueo ia aiae?eneae. Oeoia/uoeoea ayoa oui, ooi auoaaeoeu c aueuo
a?uoaine?o eaeii?e i?uaace? c naaie ? naaa iiau.

?ioui i?ueeaaeai iiaea auoeue Oaaeoea?uy: e?a?ia oaeay ?noeue, a iiau
oaaeoea?neae iyia. Ia caoaaeca ayoae ?ynioae?e? aaai?aoeue
ia-o?aioeocneo, ia iicaei? – ia-?oaeueyineo, a c aieueoanoe? eaioiiac –
ia-iyiaoeeo, i?u/ui o eiaeiui “iyiaoee?i” eaioiia naie aeuyeaeo (ae.:
Ia?oycneay, 2003, 210).

Iyia, ye ayaeiia, ? aia?ueaineae iiau. Aecy?aeaciae iiaae 16 e?a?i
Iacaei?aae ? Oeyio?aeueiae Aia?ue? c’yceyaoeoea ?niaineay iiaa. Aecaa
aoeiaeouy aecy?aeaau Iiaaaa Naaoo (Ceo/aiuy Ooaou Aia?ue? ? A?ac?e?y) –
aiaea- ? ia?ooaaeaiiciuy. I? aaeia c e?a?i Aia?ue? ia ea?unoaaoeoea
naa?e ni?aaeaa/iae iiaae. A?aaneay iiaa noaea iiaae ?aaea eoeueoo?ia
?iciuo ia?iaeac aae ?iaeueneaaa aea Aoeaiou/iaaa ae?yia. Aieueoanoeue
aueuo eaeii?e i?uiyea iiao eie?oi?o eaeai?caoa?ac, a ?iaeuy c ya
iaaecau/ae aaaaoae eoeueoo?ae ? aye?e?i? o?aaeuoeuyi? iacaaea
aiae?eneoth iiao aaeiie c aecy?aeaciuo. Iaaao o Noa?ui Naaoea, o Ac?iia
?aae e?a?i ia iaa naa?e ni?aaeaa/iae iiau. Iyia iiau aaeuea?eneae: o
Oeaiae?u? aaai?aoeue ia oeaiaiaeneae, a c Aaeii?? – ia o?aioeocneae
iiaa. O Acno?u? ea?unoathoeoea iyiaoeeae iiaae, o Ethenaiao?ao –
iyiaoeeae ? o?aioeocneae. Oe?eaaaa noaiia?o/a neeaeany c aueie
oiaoiaoeuyiaeueiae THaaneaa??, aeca Na?a?y, Oa?aaoe?y, Aini?y,
Aa?oeaaaa?ia ? *a?iaai?uy ea?unoathoeoea aaeiie iiaae – na?aaoa?aaoeeae.
C ae?oaiaa aieo, ia oieuee? ia?iaeu Oaoeaiaeu?, Oyena, ye?y
caaoiaecyoeue o neeaae Aye?eaa?uoai??, aea ? ia?iae ??eaiaeneae
?ynioae?e? ia?aeoic ia aiae?eneoth iiao (ae.: Ia?ouiac, 1989, 13).

C?acoiaea, ooi caa?aaeyiia naa?e ni?aaeaa/iae iiau ? ni?aaeaa/iae
eoeueoo?u – oaeo iac?ouciu, aea c ?yaeueiae a?noi?u? /aeaaaoeoaa ?i
ooo/ye aueeth/yiia, /ui i?aa?ea. Ia?iaeu naaoo ciaoiaecyoeoea c
ianoayiiui eaioaeoea aaec?i c aaeiui, anaae?aa yoianu nonaaei?y, ye?y
/anoa iathoeue aaeio oy?uoi?uth i?aaeuaaiiy aai ciaoiaecyoeoea c
neeaaeca aaeiie aecy?aeaau. Iiciuy eaioaeou, ye?y aeueoothoeoea
yeaiai?/iui?, eoeueoo?iui? ? ?ioui? noaycyi?, iao?aaothoeue auao/yiiy ?
auea?unoaiiy c iiciae i?aeouoeu aecatho ? aieueo iic. ?niothoeue ? ?iouy
iaouau aaaeiaeaaiiy aecathia oe? iaeaeuee?i? iiaai? (ao?uiaiia
aaeoeaoeu?, iao?yau iaaoeiaae aecaeianoe? ? a.ae.).

Ia c’yceyaoeoea aueeth/yiiai ? ?ynioae?ea Aaea?onue, oaio ooi yia
oaenaia cyceya naaie oiaoiaoeuyiaeueioth aecy?aeaao c ou?iea
?aniacnthaeaeaiui aeaooiicai (a?e?iaa?ciai).

Caa?iainy, aaeiae, nia/aoeo aea acia/yiiy iaiyoeoey aeaooiicy. Caiaeia c
O.Aaei?aeoai, aeaooiica – ayoa i?aeouea iaia?aiaiiaaa ea?unoaiiy
aecathia iiaai?. A.Ae. Aaiaeaeaoac aeaa aieueo iaae?aaycioth
oa?aeoa?unoueo aeaooiicy. Ia?aci.: “A?e?iaa?ci (eaoe. bi- aeaa, lingua-
iiaa) – ayoa aeaooiica, a. ci. no?niaaaiia c /aeaaaea oe? aa cnyai
ia?iaea aecatho iic, cau/aeia ia?oae – ?iaeiae, ? ae?oaie – iaauoae”.
Eae? aaaeaiia aecatho iic oeanoe?aa aniaiui /eaiai nioeuoio, oi ayoa
?iaeua?aeoaeueiu a?e?iaa?ci, eae? aeaooiiciui? c’yceythoeoea oeyeuy
a?oiu, eaeaeouau, oi aaai?ea ?aeca i?a eaeaeouciu a?e?iaa?ci, eae? ae
aeaooiica iaou?aia ny?iae on?o i?aaenoaci?eic iaoeu?, oi ayoa
iaoeuyiaeueiu a?e?iaa?ci. I?u iaoeuyiaeueiui a?e?iaa?cia c e?a?ia
ao?oeueia i?uciathoeoea aecaa aecy?aeaciuy iiau (o Aaea?on? – aaea?oneay
? ?oneay, o O?ieyiaeu? – o?ineay ? oaaaeneay, o Eaiaaeca – aiae?eneay ?
o?aioeocneay).

Eae? aecaa iiau caeuaathoeoea ?caeyaaia aaeia aae ae?oaie (iai?ueeaae,
ia i?aoeu – aaeia iiaa, aeiia – ae?oaay), oi aaai?ea ?aeca i?a /unou
a?e?iaa?ci, eae? ae aecaa iiau caeuaathoeoea cia?aiaoeo (caeaaeuoeue aae
eaioi?eaouciae n?ooaoeu?), oi ayoa ciaoaiu a?e?iaa?ci. Ciaoaiu c naath
/a?ao iaaecyeyaoeoea c caeaaeianoe? aae nooiai? ?acoiaiiy iinuea?oai
iiau iy?iaeiae iiau ia ?yoeyiouciu (/aeaaae ?acoiaa ae?oaoth iiao, aea
ia iiaea ia ?e aaaa?uoeue), ?yi?aaeoeouciu (/aeaaae ?acoiaa ae?oaoth
iiao, aaeiaceya oyeno) ? i?aaeoeouciu (/aeaaae ?acoiaa ae?oaoth iiao,
aaeiaceya oyeno ? naianoieia aoaeoa ia ?e neacu).

?iaeua?aeoaeueiaa aeaooiica ia aaaayceiaa aaacia/aa ianaaaa aeaooiica,
?, iaaaeaa?io, iaoeuyiaeueiaa aeaooiica iiaea ?niaaaoeue i?u
?iaeua?aeoaeueiui aaeiaiic?. Iai?ueeaae, Oaaeoea?uy – oiaoiiciay e?a?ia,
o yeie aecy?aeaciui? c’yceythoeoea iyiaoeeay, o?aioeocneay, ?oaeueyineay
? ?yoa?aiaineay iiau. Aaeiae aieueoanoeue aeuoa?ic ayoae e?a?iu
aaeiaeathoeue oieuee? yeie-iaaoaecue aaeiie c iacaaiuo auoye iic (ae.:
Eoeaoaiaoe, 1989, 18-19).

Aeaooiica – c’yaa neeaaeaiay, oiaoaaeiaay. ssia iiaea ?acaeyaeaoeoea c
o?io aniaeoao: in?oaeaa?/iui, iaaeaaaa?/iui ? naoeuye?iaa?nou/iui.

In?oaeaa?/iu aniaeo aeaooiicy caycaiu c anaae?aanoeyi? in?oaeaa?/iaaa
neeaaeo ?iaeua?aea, c yai ?acoiiaui? caeieueianoeyi?, c i?aaeaiai?
ia?aeeth/yiiy c aaeiaai iiciaaa eiaea ia ae?oa?.

Iaaeaaaa?/iu aie aeaooiicy cae?aiaa ?iciuy aniaeou iaao/aiiy ae?oaie
iiaa, o oui e?eo ? cieuc aaeiie iiau ia i?aoeyn canaaaiiy ae?oaie.

Naoeuye?iaa?nou/iu aniaeo a?oiooaoeoea ia oae?o ia?aiao?ao, ye:

– noa?a auea?unoaiiy ia?oae ? ae?oaie iiau;

– nooiaiue aaaeiaeaiiy iiaai?;

– iaai? naoeuyeueia-ooieoeuyiaeueiuo eaiiaiaioac iic, ye?y
auea?unoicaaa aeaooiiciu ?iaeua?ae (e?oa?aoo?iay iiaa, aeuyeaeo, aea?aii
? a.ae.)

– ?acia?eaaaiia eaioi?eaouciuo ooieoeue iai?ae iiaai?;

– eaiouiaaio aoiieaiuo aeaooiicai /eaiac nioeuoio ? ou?uiy auea?unoaiiy
ae?oaie iiau;

– aoeyiea aeaooiiciui? ?iaeua?aeai? ceaniaaa aeaooiicy ye
naoeuyeueia-e?iaa?nou/iaaa oaiiiaia.

Ia oy?uoi?u? Aaea?on?, ye naaae/aoeue oiaoe?e?y oaeou, ?iciuy ouiu
aeaooiicy ? iaaao oiaoiicy cacn?aeu aue? aaaeiui? yeaiaioai? a?noi?u?
aaea?oneaaa ia?iaea. Oae, o ia?uyae Aye?eaaa eiynoaa E?oicneaaa ?niaaaea
aaea?onea-oea?eicianeaayineaa i?nueiiaaa ? aoniaa aeaooiica, yeia
cci?eea yo/y c noa?aaeuoia?oneoth yiioo. Cia/ia iaoeiae i?ayceyeany
aaea?onea-iieueneaa aeaooiica, ooi i?aoeyaaaeany aiaeue /aou?u
noaaiaeaec?. Aeaaie? aae/oaaeueiui auei oaenaia aaea?onea-eaoe?ineaa
aeaooiica, oeanoe?aaa ia?aaaaeia aaeoeaaaiui eieai ianaeuei?oeoaa.
I?aeoueaaaeany aaea?onea-oaoa?neaa, aaea?onea-yc?yeneaa,
aaea?onea-e?oicneaa aeaooiica ? ?io. Ooi aeaou/uoeoea aaea?onea-?oneaaa
aeaooiicy, oi ciiau aeey yai ca?aaeaeyiiy cci?ee? iaeaeuee? iaciae, o
eaioeu XVIII no., eae? ianey aeaeo/yiiy Aaea?on? aea ?an?? ?oneay iiaa
noaea aecy?aeaciae ? ia ya oy?uoi?u? (ae.: Aoeuea, 1989, 4).

Oae?i /uiai, iiciay n?ooaoeuy ia Aaea?on? c iyciuy a?noa?u/iuy ia?uyaeu
oa?aeoa?ucaaaeany ye oiaoiiciay.

No/aniay iiciay n?ooaoeuy ia Aaea?on? oa?aeoa?ucoaoeoea ia?aaaaeia
no?niaaaiiai ? auea?unoaiiai aaea?oneae ? ?oneae iic ? iiaea auoeue
aucia/aia ye aaea?onea-?oneaa aeaooiica. Iaoeuyiaeueiaa aaea?onea-?oneaa
aeaooiica i?aaenoaceaia:

– ?iaeua?aeoaeueiui aaea?onea-?one?i aeaooiicai, eae? iiaa/ c ?iaeiae
aaea?oneae iiaae aeaooiiciu ?iaeua?ae auea?unoicaaa ? ?oneoth iiao;

– ?onea-aaea?one?i aeaooiicai, eae? iiaa/ c ?oneae iiaae aeaooiiciu
?iaeua?ae auea?unoicaaa aaea?oneoth iiao;

– ?iaeua?aeoaeueiui aaea?one?i oe? ?one?i aaeiaiicai.

Iiaa/ c aaea?onea-?one?i aeaooiicai ia oy?uoi?u? Aaea?on? c ianoeao
noianiaaa i?aaeuaaiiy aaea?onac c iaeyeai?, e?oicoeai?, eaouoai?,
oe?a?ioeai? ?nioa aaea?onea-iieueneaa, aaea?onea-e?oicneaa,
aaea?onea-eaouoneaa, aaea?onea-ce?a?ineaa aeaooiica. Aeey iaaaea?oneaaa
ianaeuei?oeoaa yii iaa oa?aeoa? iieuenea-aaea?oneaaa,
e?oicnea-aaea?oneaaa, eaouonea-aaea?oneaaa ? a.ae. Iaeieuee? c ayouo
?a?iao ooieoeuyioa ? ?oneay iiaa, iiaeia aaaa?uoeue, iai?ueeaae, i?a
iynoeiaaa aaea?onea-iieuenea-?oneaa ? a.ae. oiaoiica.

N?iiy ? aaea?oneay, ? ?oneay iiau auea?unoicaathoeoea c aieueoanoe?
aaaeiaeouo noa?, aaeiae o eieueeaniuo aaeiin?iao ia?aaaaeaa cn? ae
?oneay. Oaeia noaiia?o/a aoa?aeoa?ucaaac o naie /an A. oii Aoiaaeueo,
ye? cacia/uc, ooi “iiaa ia?iaea ?noeue yai aeoo, a aeoo ia?iaea ?noeue
yai iiaa, ? oeyaeea cya?oeue naaa ooi-iaaoaecue aieueo oianiaa”. O iiaa
aeoioethaoeoea aeooiciay yia?a?y ia?iaea. ssia c’yceyaoeoea aaeiciae
aaeciaeath ? n?iaaeai iaoeu?. Iiaa – aaiaou/iu eiae iaoeu?, yia yaeiaa
i?ioeaa c no/aniui, i?aa?aioa aoaeo/uith ? caaynia/aaa auoeoe? iaoeu? c
aa/ianoe?.

2. II!IAss ?IOY?OA?YIOeUss ? ssA A?AeU

O n?ooaoeu? aeaooiicy ccaaiaaecayiia iic, ye?y eaioaeoothoeue,
i?uaiaec?oeue aea ?ioy?oa?yioeu?. ?ioy?oa?yioeuy – (eaoe. inter
“iai?ae”, ferens, ierentis “ye? iyna, ia?aiin?oeue”) ocaaiaaecayiia
yeaiaioac ?iciuo iiciuo n?noyi aa ciiaao a?e?iaa?cio. Ayoa
ccaaiaaecayiia au?aaeaaoeoea c aaeo?eaiiyo aae ii?iac ?ioae iiau,
i?aeaieueiui (ianayaeiiui) ia?aiynaii? c ya n?noyio anaae?aanoeae
?iaeiae iiau. Oc?iaaiue ?ioy?oa?yioeu? caeaaeuoeue aae nooiai?
aaaeiaeaiiy ae?oaie iiaae, aae oiaiiy nayaeiia aae?ici?aaoeue oaeou
?iciuo iic ? ?io. Aaea?onea-?oneay ? ?onea-aaea?oneay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy –
c’yaa aeaaie? ?aniacnthaeaeaiay ? cae?aiaa cna noa?u iiciae n?noyiu:

– oaiaoueo (oaiaou/iay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae?, iai?ueeaae, o ?oneae iiaa
aeaooiiciaaa ?iaeua?aea nono?aeathoeoea oae?y aaea?oneaiiciuy oaiaou/iuy
?unu, ye oea??aeuy [?] ? [/] ia ianoeu ?one?o iyee?o [?’] ? [/’],
aecaeaiia ? oeaeaiia, y?ea au?aaeaiaa aeaiia ? a.ae.;

– aeoeyiooaoeuth (aeoeyioiay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae? aeaooiiciu ?iaeua?ae
?aciaceya, iai?ueeaae, ia aaea?oneae iiaa, a auea?unoicaaa iaoe?ne
?oneae iiau: ca? ai?o (caiano ca ai??o), ae??iyiu (caiano ae?iy?iu),
aaec??iaoeoeaoeue (caiano aaec?ia?oeoeaoeue), ni?ia? (caiano ni??ia) ?
a.ae.;

– eaen?eo (eaen?/iay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae? a?e?iaa, iai?ueeaae, o
aaea?oneae iiaa caeuaaa au?acu ouio aane?anaiia (aae. iyaecaey),
aeaaaaea?o (aecyeoe), oe? eae? a?e?iaa o ?oneae iiaa caeuaaa au?acu ouio
Naaiaeiy neeueiay caaay (?on. iaoaeue);

– neiaacoaa?yiia (neiaacoaa?aeueiay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae? a?e?iaa
oaeuaaa neiau, o ye?o iac??aaoeoea ianoiaaecaiia neiaacoaa?aeueiuo
n?iaeeac, iai?ueeaae, o ?one?i iaceaii? oae?i? ?ioy?oa?yiai?
c’yceythoeoea aacethaeiinoue (?on. aacethaeea), aoeaoe/iue
(aoeaoe/aneee), aeoiye (aeoaiiee), ii-/aeiaa/uee (ii-/aeiaa/anee); oe? c
aaea?one?i iaceaii? a?e?iaaac auiaeou (aae. auiaeeu), ao?uiou (ao?uieu),
eaio?ae??aaaoeue (eaio?aeyaaoeue).

– ia?oaeia?th (ia?oaeaa?/iay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae? a?aiaou/iaa
aoa?ieaiia ?one?o ? aaea?one?o eaenai ia aaeiaayaeaa ii?ia. Iai?ueeaae,
a?e?iaa, aaai?a/u ia-?oneo, iiaea iyi?aa?eueia caeuaaoeue ?iaeaauy oi?iu
iacici?eac (cieioie iaaeaeue caiano cieioay iaaeaeue, ii?aaiiue oeiaeue
caiano ii?aaiiay oeiaeue), eai/aoe? iacici?eac iiiaeiaaa e?eo (ic??u
caiano ic??a, ieiu caiano ieia) ? a.ae.

– n?ioaen?n (n?ioaen?/iay ?ioy?oa?yioeuy), eae? i?u ea?unoaii? ?oneae
iiaae a?e?iaa oaiaec?oeue o ya n?ioaen?/iuy eaino?oeoeu? aaea?oneae
iiau, iai?ueeaae, aei/eeia noiea caiano noiea aei/a?e, nuiia einothi
caiano einothi nuia, niayoueny n iaai caiano niayoueny iaae iei ? a.ae.

Ae?cea?iaeianiu oa?aeoa? aaea?oneae ? ?oneae iic aaoiice?aaa
oiaoe?eanoeue ? cnoiee?aanoeue iaiueae i?u iaceaii? c oie oe? ?ioae
iiaa. Aaeiae yiu, ye i?aa?ea, ia cieuaathoeue ia i?aoeyn ?acoiaiiy
aueacaaiiyc ye ia aaea?oneae, oae ? ia ?oneae iiaao. Oaio i?aaeaia
?ioy?oa?yioeu? aeey aaea?onea-?oneaaa aeaooiicy noa?oeue, ia?aaaaeia, ye
i?aaeaia eoeueoo?u aaea?oneae ? ?oneae iic aa ciiaao aeaooiicy.

3. NIAOeUO?*IUss ?UNU AAEA?ONEAE IIAU ! IA?A!IAII? C ?ONEAE

Aa ciiaao ianaaaaa aaea?onea-?oneaaa a?e?iaa?cio aaeuei? aaaeia
aucia/uoeue ouy ?unu, ye?i? oa?aeoa?ucoaoeoea aaea?oneay iiaa c
ia?aciaii? c ?oneae.

Ia?oaeaa?/iuy anaae?aanoe? aaea?oneae iiau

Iaae ia?oaeaa?/iae ?ioy?oa?yioeuye ?acoiathoeoea oaeou aaeo?eaiiy aae
a?aiaou/iuo ii?i ?iaeiae iiau.

1. Aniiciae i?u/uiae aaeo?eaiiyc aae ii?iu i?u aucia/yii? ?iaeo
iacici?eac c’yceyaoeoea cieuc ?oneae iiau, /aio ni?uya aaeiieueeaaay oe?
ae?ceay aoi?ieaianoeue neic o ?iaeianiuo iiaao: aae. ae?ia, cai?n,
iaaeaeue, iacieue, iae?i, ianui, iaeui, ia?ai?n, iiaei?n, naaaea, noyi,
ouiaeue – ioae/uine? ?iae; ?on. ae?iaue, caienue, iaaeaeue, iicieue,
iaeeiue, ianuiue, ia?aienue, niaaea, noaiue, oeiaeue

– aeaii/u ?iae; aae. iano?ie, yaeue – ioae/uine? ?iae; iano?iaiea,
yaeiei – i?ye? ? a.ae.

2. Aaecia/athoeoea iaiuee?, aaoiiceaiuy aeaooiiciae n?ooaoeuye, o
i?uaaoianoe? ?acuoiaeaeaiiai e?eaaae i?uiaeaaeianoe? aniaiuo iacici?eac
o aaea?oneae ? ?oneae iiaao, iai?ueeaae: iacici?e? a?oaec?, aecaa?u,
eaiiie?, e?oiu c aaea?oneae iiaa ia iathoeue oi?iu aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo, a
c ?oneae iiaa aaeiu (eiiiiey, e?oia) iathoeue oi?io oieuee? aaec?ii/iaaa
e?eo, ae?oa?y (a?oaeue, aeaa?ue) – ? aaec?ii/iaaa ? iiiaeiaaa e?eo; o
aaea?oneae iiaa /a?i?ea – aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo, o ?oneae iiaa /a?ieea –
iiiaeiaaa e?eo.

3. Iacici?e? 2-aa neeaiaiiy c Ae. ? I. neeiiao aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo ?
iacici?e? 1-aa neeaiaiiy c I. neeiia aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo iathoeue ianey
iyee?o aniic eai/aoae –?: cyie?, iiaei?, o cyie?, ia o?aiaa? (?on.
caiea, a caiea, ia o?aiaaa). O aaecia/aiuo neeiiao ayoae aea a?oiu
iacici?eac c aniiaae ia caaeiaycu/iuy, eae? iaoe?ne iaaeaa ia ia
eai/aoae, aoe? [a],[e],[o] /a?aothoeoea na na?noey/ui? [c], [oe], [n]:
ei?aa – ei?ca, yeaiii?ea – yeaiii?oeu, yiioa – yiina (?on. eieaa,
yeiiiieea, yiioa).

4. Iacici?e? ioae/uineaaa ?iaeo ia -a(-y) (c iaoe?neai ia aniiaa) o O.
neeiia aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo iathoeue eai/aoae -ai(-ai): na noa?anoai, c
aecyaecueeai, c Eieai, c Ny?iaeai, a c Ae. ? I. neeiiao aaec?ii/iaaa
e?eo eai/aoae -o(-th): aa Aan?eth, aecyaecueeo, aeaoeyioo.

5. O I. neeiia iiiaeiaaa e?eo iacici?e? 2-aa neeaiaiiy iathoeue
eai/aoe? -u, -?: iae?, eynu, aa?aaeu, ac??u, aieiu.

6. Aaenooianoeue /a?aaaaiiyc ia eaioeu aniic iacici?eac 2-aa neeaiaiiy
c aaec?ii/iui ? iiiaeiui e?eo: a?ao – a?aou, nui – nuiu. Ia?aci. ?on.:
a?ao – a?aouey, nui – nuiiauey.

7. Iaycianoeue o iacici?eao aeaii/aaa ? i?yeaaa ?iaeo c ?. neeiia
iiiaeiaaa e?eo eai/aoeac -ac(-yc): a?uoaac, eaoaae?ac, naiaaeaoeyc,
iinoaoeyc, iae?c (?on.: a?eoa, eaoaae?, iieae).

8. Aaenooianoeue e o oi?iao I. neeiio aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo i?uiaoi?eac ?
neic, ye?y neeaiythoeoea, ye i?uiaoi?e?: n?i?, aye?e?, iai?naiu,
iaeaoi?u, naiu, oinou (?on.: neiee, aieueoie, iaienaiiue, iaeioi?ue,
naiue, oanoie).

9. Ooaa?yiia oi?iu auoyeoae nooiai? ia?aciaiiy yeaniuo i?uiaoi?eac c
aeaiaiiaae noo?enac -yeo(-aeo), -o: auoyeou, aaaeiaeou, neaaaeou,
aieueou (?on.: auoa, aaaeiaa, neaaaa, aieueoa).

10. Iai?aaeoeoucianoeue ea?ioe?o oi?iac i?uiaoi?eac ? aaiaaeaaaiaa
caeuaaiia ea?ioe?o aecaai?uiaoi?eac, aaenooianoeue caa?ioiuo
aecaai?uiaoi?eac. Ia?aci. aae.: Ieai aueaiaiu, ?on.: Ieai auiieiai. ?on.
“caieiathueeny”, “eciaieaoeeny” c aaea?oneae iiaa aaeiaayaeaa “ye?
caeiaaoeoea”, “ye? ciyi?cny”.

11. O oi?iao ioae/uineaaa ? i?yeaaa ?iaeo caeiaii?eac iie, oaie, naie,
/ue o ?. ? Ae. neeiiao aaec?ii/iaaa e?eo aaenooi?/aa e?oa?a a c
eai/aoeao: iaeio, oaaeio, naaeio, iaeai, oaaeai, naaeai.

12. E?/yai?e? iacoa?a, iacoa?u ianeeaiyeueiuy.

13. E?/yai?e? aeaa, aecaa iathoeue aniaiuy oi?iu aa cn?o neeiiao: aeaoo
– aecatho, aeaoi – aecathi, aeaoia – aecathia.

14. E?/yai?e aecaayiinoa iaa aaeio iyciaiioth oi?io; o ?oneae iiaa ?i
iaa aecaa oi?iu – aeaayiinoi ? aeaayiinoa.

15. *a?aaaaiia caaeiaycu/iuo a, e c ouiy/ui? ae, / i?u ni?aaeyii?
aecayneiaac caaaaeiaaa eaaeo: eyao – eyae – eyaeoea, iyeo – iy/u –
iy/uoea (?on.: eyao – eya – eyaoa, iaeo – iaee – iaeeoa).

16. Aecaai?uneic? iacaeii/aiaaa o?uaaiiy coaa?athoeoea c aeaiaiiaae
noo?enac -o/u(-th/u), -a/u(-y/u) aae aniic ethaiaa aecayneiaa
oeyia?aoiyaa /ano: eyoath/u, aiei/aath/u, caayaath/u, i?iny/u (?on.:
eaoay, iiea/eaay, caaaaay, i?iny).

4. N?IOAEN?*IUss ANAAE?AANOe? AAEA?ONEAE IIAU

Aeooith iiau, ya “aeaaa?ath” c’yceyaoeoea a?aiaouea. ssia auyceya
iaoeuyiaeueiu oa?aeoa? iiau, ya naiaanaae?aanoeue. A?aiaouea – ayoa
n?noyia i?aa?e iayaeiaiiy neic o iaceaii?, ?o ciyiaiiy, ooi aaoiiceaia
iao?yaai? ayoaaa iayaeiaiiy.

A?aiaouea, o aae?iciaii? aae ?iouo ?acaecaeac iiaaciacnoaa,
oa?aeoa?ucoaoeoea aieueoae iai?ai?eaeueianoeth aeey ?ioaiiciuo oieuaac.
Aaeiae ia?ooyiia a?aiaou/iae aoaeiau aieueo aaeth/a aaea?aaaoeoea ia
iiaa, /ui i?ai?eiaiia c iiao /oaeacaiiuo neic.

N?ioaen?n (ye ?acaecae a?aiaoue?) auao/aa a?aeu noaycae, ia aniiaa ye?o
a?aai?cothoeoea neiaaceo/yii? ? neacu. Neiau c neiaaceo/yiiyo caycaiu
iai?ae naaie iaaeia?aaeeaaaeueiae noayccth aeaianaaaiiy, i?uiueaiiy ?
e??aaaiiy.

Aeaianaaaiia – oae? a?ae noayc?, i?u ye?i caeaaeiaa neiaa iaauaaa oi?iu
?iaeo, e?eo ? neeiio, oeanoe?auy aaeiciaio neiao. Aeaianothoeoea aea
iacici?eac i?uiaoi?e?, ia?aaeeaauy e?/yai?e?, caeiaii?e?,
aecaai?uiaoi?e?: oeieueiuy aaaeu, ia o?yoe?i iaaa?na, oaie aiia?,
aunooaiaa naia.

I?uiueaiia – oae? a?ae noayc?, i?u ye?i caeaaeiaa neiaa caycaaaoeoea c
aaeiciui ia nyina. I?uiueathoeue cau/aeia iyciaiiuy neiau ? oi?iu
–i?uneic?, aecaai?uneic?, ?io?i?ouc: c?aa?oeue noieaiia, anoe? noiy/u,
oiaiia i?aoeaaaoeue.

I?u e??aaaii? caeaaeiaa neiaa caeuaaaoeoea c oi?ia iyciaaa cneiniaaa
neeiio: aa?aa/u ean, nono?yoeoea c ?th. E??aaaiia auaaa i?uiacici?eaaaa:
oaa/uoeoea c nya?ai, ?noe? c eano ? aani?uiacici?eaaaa: ca??aoeue
noi?oeu, aeyaecaoeue niaeoaeeue.

O iaaeia?aaeeaaaeueiae noayc? ia ciaoiaecyoeoea ? ia c’yceythoeoea
neiaaceo/yiiyi?:

1) aecaei?e ? aueaci?e;

2) aaeia?iaeiuy /eaiu neaca;

3) neoaeaiauy /anoe?iu iiau.

Iaeaieueo iaou?aia ? cnoiee?aa ccaecayiia ?oneae iiau auyceyaoeoea c
eaino?oeoeuyo e??aaaiiy, aeey ye?o oa?aeoy?iu oy?aa niaoeuo?/iuo ?un.
Aaecia/ui iaeaoi?uy c ?o.

1. Aecayneiau aaoe?aanoe? aecyeaaaoeue, iaaecyeaaaoeue, aaeaecy/uoeue,
i?aaa/uoeue, auaa/aoeue, aea?aaaoeue – niaeo/athoeoea c aaea?oneae iiaa
c iacici?eai? aeaaaeueiaaa neeiio: aecyeaaaoeue nyno?u, aea?aaaoeue
nya?o, i?aaa/oea iia. O ?oneae iiaa aaeiaaaaeiuy aecayneiau e??othoeue
a?iaaaeueiui neeiiai: aeaaiaea?eoue nano?o, i?inoeoue oiaa?eua, ecaeieoa
iaiy.

2. Aecayneiau aea?oaaaoeue, niyyoeoea, iani?oaoeoea, ei?oeue,
caecaeaaaoeoea, oeaouoeoea, aec?a?oeoea, aeoi?oeoea, ?aaaoaoeue
e??othoeue ?iaeiui neeiiai c i?uiacici?eai “c”: aea?oaaaoeue c
aec?oeyoe?, iani?oaoeoea c nya?ice?, a aaeiaaaaeiuy ?one?y aecayneiau –
oai?iui c i?uiacici?eai “iaae”: oooeoue iaae ?aa?ieii, niayoueny iaae
nano?ie.

3. Aecayneiau ?ooo ?noe?, aaa/u, aoaoeue, ieuoeue, eyoeaoeue ? ?io. ?
aieaauyceaiiy ianeaoeue, aui?aa?oeue, aaei?aa?oeue, eae? yiu iathoeue
iyoaaaa cia/yiia, e??othoeue iacici?eai? a?iaaaeueiaaa neeiio c
i?uiacici?eai “ia”: ?noe? ia aaaeo, ianeaoeue ia nyno?o. Eae? iacaaiuy
aecayneiau niaeo/athoeoea c iacici?eai? – iacaai? yaaae, a?uaic ?
neiaai? yaaaeu, a?uau, oi ayouy iacici?e? caeuaathoeoea oaenaia c
a?iaaaeueiui neeiia, aea c i?uiacici?eai “o”: ?noe? c noi?oeu,
aaei?aa?oeue o a?uau. O ?oneae iiaa c aaiaeaoo auiaaeeao – eaeoe ca
aiaeie, iineaoue ca nano?ie, ioi?aaeoue ca a?eaaie.

O aaea?oneae iiaa eaino?oeoeu? iaenoe? ca aaaeie, aaa/u ca nyno?ie
iaeacaathoeue ia ia iyoo aecayiiy, a ia e??oiae, iai?aiae (iaenoe? ca
aaaeie – iaenoe? ia oey/yii? ?ae?, aaa/u ca nyno?ie – aaa/u cneaae).

4. Aecayneiau na cia/yiiai aecayiiy oe? noaio (oaaec?oeue, eyoaoeue,
nono?aeaoeoea, aa/uoeoea ? iaae.) e??othoeue ianiui neeiiai iacici?eac c
i?uiacici?eai “ia”: oaaec?oeue ia aa/a?ao, eyoaoeue ia ia/ao, aa/uoeoea
ia noaioao, nono?aeaoeoea ia auoaaeiuo. O ?oneae iiaa aaeiaaaaeiuy
aecayneiau iao?aaothoeue aae caeaaeiaaa neiaa aeaaaeueiaaa neeiio c
i?uiacici?eai “ii”: oiaeeoue ii aa/a?ai, eaoaoue ii ii/ai, aeaeaoueny ii
noaaioai, ano?a/aoueny ii auoiaeiui.

5. Aecayneiau iaceaiiy, aeoie?, ia/ooeoey (aaaa?uoeue, oaioaoeue,
aeoiaoeue, iaiaei?oeoea, eeaiaoe?oeoea, oaaeyaaoeoea ? ?io.) cau/aeia
e??othoeue iacici?eai? a?iaaaeueiaaa neeiio c i?uiacici?eai “i?a”:
aaaa?uoeue i?a iaaeai?’a, aeoiaoeue i?a aynio, eeaiaoe?oeoea i?a
aaoeueeic. O ?oneae iiaa aaeiaaaaeiuy aecayneiau e??othoeue ianiui
neeiiai c i?uiacici?eai “i(ia)”: aiai?eoue i iiaiaea, aeoiaoue i aania,
aaniieieoueny i ?iaeeoaeyo.

6. O neiaaceo/yiiyo c aaeiciui neiaai – i?uiaoi?eai oe? i?uneicai o
oi?ia auoyeoae nooiai? ia?aciaiiy caeaaeiaa neiaa caeuaaaoeoea c
a?iaaaeueiui neeiia c i?uiacici?eai “ca”: aieueou ca yai, noa?yeou ca
nyno?o, ooo/ye ca cn?o. O ?oneae iiaa c oae?o neiaaceo/yiiyo caeaaeiaa
neiaa iaa oi?io ?iaeiaaa neeiio aac i?uiacici?ea: aieueoa aai, noa?oa
nano?u, auno?aa anao.

7. Aecayneiau aaeai?oeue, aaeai?oeoea iao?aaothoeue oai?iaaa neeiio c
i?uiacici?eai “c”: aaeai?cny c Oaiyth, aaeai?e? c iyethaae. O ?oneae
iiaa ayoui neiaaceo/yiiyi aaeiaayaeathoeue neiaaceo/yii? c iacici?eai?
ianiaaa neeiio c i?uiacici?eai “ia”: aeaieeny ia Oaia, aeaieee ia
iaethaeiie.

8. O aaea?oneae iiaa aieueo iaou?aiu aaeiananoaciuy iyiycia-anaaiauy
neacu. Iai?.: aae. Aeii iaaoaeaaae? – ?on. Aeii iino?iai.

9. E?/yai?e? aeaa, o?u, /aou?u niaeo/athoeoea c iacici?eai? c iaciciui
neeiia iiiaeiaaa e?eo: aeaa aeaeoiaiou, o?u ianoaiiau, /aou?u aaie?
(?on.: aeaa aeieoiaioa, o?e iinoaiiaeaiey, /aou?a aaiea).

10. Cia/yiia i?uiaeaaeianoe? c aaea?oneae iiaa au?aaeaaoeoea cia/ia
/anoeae, /ui o ?oneae iiaa, i?uiaeaaeiui? i?uiaoi?eai?: ioaeac
acoaiaa?eue, aeu?yeoa?ac aeii (?on.: aaoiiiaeeue ioaea, aeii
aee?aeoi?a).

E?OA?AOO?A

1. Aca?ea A.O., Aan?eacneay A.N., E?ooaeaa?/ I.I. Aaea?oneay iiaa:
niaoeuyeueiay eaen?ea. – Ii.: AAeIO, 2004. – 207 c.

2. Aioaithe E.A. Aaea?oneay iaaoeiaay oy?i?iaeia?y: Oa?i??aaaiia,
no?oeoo?a, oia?aaeeaaaiia, eaino?oyaaiia, ooieoeuyi??aaaiia. – Ii.:
Iaaoea ? oyoi?ea, 1987. – 240 n.

3. Aaea?oneay iiaa: O 2 /.: * 1: Iaae?o/. aeey iaao/yioeac
iaaeao/ue?o/ac ? eaeaaeaeac / ss.I. Aaeaiia?/, E.A. Aeaeia?/, N.E.
Aa?aei?e ? ?io.: Iaae aaoeuei. ?yae. E.I. A?uai?’aaae. – 3-a auae.,
ia?ai?aoe. ? aeai. – Ii.: Auo. oe., 1998. – 330 n.

4. Aoeuea A.I. Iiciay n?ooaoeuy c ANN?. Aaea?oneay e?iaa?nouea, auione ?
36, – Ii., 1989. – N. 3-10.

5. Aoeuea A.I. Neici?e ?ioaiiciuo neic. – Ii.: Ia?iaeiay anaaoa, 1993. –
398 n.

6. Aoeuea A.I. Neici?e ?ioaiiciuo neic: O 2 o. O. 1: A-E – Ii.: AaeYI,
1999. – 736 n.

7. Aoeuea A.I. Neici?e ?ioaiiciuo neic: O 2 o. O. 2: I-ss – Ii.: AaeYI,
1999. – 736 n.

8. AINO 16487083. Aeaeii?iecaiaenoai e a?oeaiia aeaei. Oa?ieiu e
ii?aaeaeaiey. I. 1987.

9. Aeaauaeiaa Y.I. Aeaeii?iecaiaenoai: O/aaii-i?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai
/ Y.I. Aeaauaeiaa, A.A. ?uaaeia. – 6-a ecae., noa?aioei. – Ii.,
Oao?aNenoain, 2002, – 288 n.

10. Aeieeaaeu Aaei?onneiai ainoaea?naoaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa eioi?iaoeee e
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee: Yeaeo?iieea, iaoa?eaeu, oaoiieiaee, eioi?iaoeea,
yeiiiieea e oi?aaeaiea. – Ii., 2005. – ? 4, – 100 n.

11. Eac?on A.A. Aeaeoiaio ia-aaea?oneo. Ni?aaaaiaenoaa. Aooaaeoy?uy.
?uia/iay yeaiii?ea. – Ii.: Aaea?onue, 1994. – 160 n.

12. Eaania I.O. Yeaiaiou eaaioiaie iaoaieee e noaoenoe/aneie oeceee:
O/aa. iiniaea ii eo?no «Oeceea» aeey nooae. anao niaoe. e oi?i iao/.
AAOE? / I.O. Eaania. – Ii.: AAOE?, 2004. – 63 n.: ee.

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