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Eaoaae?a i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiycu/iie iiaeaioiaee

O*AAII-IAOIAeE*ANEIA IINIAEA

AeENOeEIEEIA: I?aeoeea onoiie e ienueiaiiie aiaeeeneie ?a/e (V eo?n)

OAIA: Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai no?ai eco/aaiiai ycuea

?ACAeAE: A?oeoaeoo?a Aaeeeia?eoaiee

*ANU: 20 /ania

IAEAAEAIEA

Iiynieoaeueiay caienea

Niaea?aeaiea OII

1. Oeaeue e caaea/e eco/aiey ?acaeaea

2. O/aaii-iaoiaee/aneee aeie: na?ey caaeaiee ia iniiaa aeaeaiiaoa?eaea

3. O/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee aeie: aii?inu aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai
eco/aiey n iiiiuueth aeiiieieoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u, oaiaoeea
ieie-enneaaeiaaiee ii oaia

4. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aeie: aeeeoi?neea oaenou aeaeaioeeueia

5. I?eeiaeaiey: eiiiaioa?ee e aeeeoi?neei oaenoai

IIssNIEOAEUeIAss CAIENEA

Eco/aiea eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey no?ai eco/aaiiai ycuea, a iniaaiiinoe
oaeiai aeaea eneonnoaa, eae a?oeoaeoo?a, aeieaeii i?ioiaeeoue a
ianoaiaea?oiie oi?ia. I?aaeeaaaaiue aooaioe/iue aeaeaiiaoa?eae
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eco/athuee aiaeeeneee ycue eae eiino?aiiue. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeie no?aiiaaae/aneie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay
?ane?uaaaony ia oiia caiiieiathueony c?eoaeueiuo ia?acia. Ana yoi
oneeeaaao yiioeeiiaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia nooaeaioia, ioe?uaaao
aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe iiiieiaiey ciaiee e oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo oiaiee.

Aeaeaioeeuei “The Spirit of Britain” (Aeoo A?eoaiee) aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaieciaaoue na?eth caiyoee ii i?aeoeea onoiie e ienueiaiiie aiaeeeneie
?a/e, iniiaiie i?aeoe/aneie oeaeueth eioi?uo aunooiaao niaa?oainoaiaaiea
oiaiee aoaee?iaaiey e iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie onoiie ?a/e. ?aaioa n
aeaeaiiaoa?eaeaie iineo eioaa?e?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?, oae eae i?aaeiieaaaao
i?eaea/aiea e eniieueciaaiea ciaiee e oiaiee, iieo/aiiuo nooaeaioaie i?e
eco/aiee oaeeo aeenoeeieei, eae no?aiiaaaeaiea, eeoa?aoo?a Aiaeee,
noeeenoeea.

NIAeA?AEAIEA OII

1. . OeAEUe E CAAeA*E ECO*AIEss ?ACAeAEA

· I?aeoe/aneay oeaeue – aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaaueia
aoaee?iaaiey e ?acaeoea oiaiee iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie onoiie ?a/e ia
eco/aaiii eiino?aiiii ycuea.

· ?acaeaathuay oeaeue – eiiieaeniia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oiaiee aini?eyoey
oaeoia eiiycu/iie eoeueoo?u.

· Ainieoaoaeueiay oeaeue – oaeoaeaiea iiieiaiey cia/aiey a?oeoaeoo?u eae
iaeiiai ec aeaeia eneonnoaa.

· Ia?aciaaoaeueiay oeaeue – ?anoe?aiea ciaiee nooaeaioia ia enoi?ee e
eoeueoo?a Aaeeeia?eoaiee.

CAAeA*E eco/aiey ?acaeaea:

· aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?acee/iuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo noeeyo, ecaanoiuo a
no?ieoaeueiii eneonnoaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee;

· iao/eoue ociaaaoue a?oeoaeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iua aeey
a?eoaineeo iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u;

· ?acaeaaoue oiaiey aini?eyoey e iaiauaiey no?aiiaaae/aneie eioi?iaoeee,
n?aaiaiey e niiinoaaeaiey aa n oiiiauie ciaieyie i ?iaeiie eoeueoo?a.

2. O*AAII-IAOIAeE*ANEEE AEIE: na?ey caaeaiee ia iniiaa aeaeai

STOKESAY CASTLE (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. No doubt you’ve read some novels where the action is set in the
Middle Ages. What do you think a medieval castle looks like? Share your
views.

1.2. Can you guess what these word combinations mean?

– a manor house – a gate house

– a parish church – an architectural gem

1.3. Study these new words that will help you understand the video
better.

– a huddle – woodworks

– a recess – elaborate

– opulence

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. While watching the video try to concentrate on finding the answers
to the following questions:

a) What purpose was Stokesay Castle built for?

b) Is the emphasis in Stokesay on comfort rather than on defense ?

c) Does Stokesay have the right to be called an architectural gem? Share
you views.

2.2. Try to single out one of Stokesay nooks that caught your fancy,
give the reasons why.

2.3. Complete the following according to the information on video.

Stokesay is the most _____________ early fortified manor house in
England.

This unique castle is ____________ hundred years old.

The castle has been under _____________________ program recently.

The only really-fortified part of the castle is ____________________.

What is remarkable about Stokesay is that _____________________.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. Think of your very own answers to the following:

a) Would you prefer to live in Stokesay?

b) There is a proverb: “An Englishman’s house is his castle” Does
Stokesay prove this?

c) A parallel can be drawn between Stokesay Castle and one architectural
relic in Belarus. Can you name this structure? Can you come up with its
detailed description?

3.2. Read the description of a medieval castle taken from the book
“Catherine, Called Birdy” by Karen Cushman, paying attention to all the
details. Can you feel the atmosphere of the epoch?

“…Clattering over the moat bridge, we passed through the main gate into
the castle yard. The castle seemed like a small stone city. Huddled
against the great curtain wall with its stone towers were buildings of
all sizes – a slope-roofed storage shed, a kitchen with a chimney like a
church steeple, the great hall, a brewhouse, thatched, barns and
stables, a piggery, a smithy, and the chapel.

The yard teemed with sights and sounds. Great snorting horses coming or
going just milling around stirred the rain and snow dirt into a great
muddy slop. Peasants held wiggling, squawking ducks and chickens by
their feet, shaking them in the face of anyone who might buy.
Laundresses stirred great vats of dirty clothes in soapy water like
cooks brewing up some gown-and-breeches stew. Bakers ran back and forth
from the ovens at the side of the yard to kitchen with great baskets of
steamy fresh bread. Masons chipped stones and mixed mortar as they
continued their everlasting repairs. Everywhere children tumbled over
each other and everyone else, stealing bread, chasing dogs, splashing
and slopping through the mud.

As we drew near to the great hall, the smells overpowered even the noise
– the sour smell of the sick, the poor, and the old who crowded about
the door, waiting for scraps of food or linen, the rotten sweet smell of
the garbage and soiled rushes piled outside the kitchen door, and above
all the smell of crisping fat and boiling meat and the hundreds of
spices and herbs and honeys and wines that together make a castle
dinner”.

Does Stokesay correspond to your idea of a medieval castle? Explain,
please.

3.3. There is a proverb: “An Englishman’s house is his castle”. Stokesay
seems to be the very proof of this. Do you agree? Why (not)?

KENWOOD (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. There have always been castles and mansions famous not only as
architectural gems but also as frames for renowned art collections.
Could you recollect the names of just a few of such places?

1.2. You’ll have a chance to see the portrait of a Lady Hamilton. Does
her name ring a bell? Share your ideas with your groupmates, or be
prepared to dig for more information after class.

1.3. Study the following words and make sure you understand their
meaning:

– a crest – grandeur/grandiose

– to bequeath/bequest – an array

– in one’s own right – to dazzle

– ornate – wayward

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Answer the question: where does the secret of Kenwood’s magic and
popularity lie?

2.2.Mark the sequence in which the following items appeared in the
video:

_______Henry Moore’s sculptures

_______the library

_______circular balustrade

_______the Guitar Player

_______Portrait of the artist

_______Sham bridge

_______mirrored recess,

_______Madonna and Child

2.3. Make sure you understood everything correctly. Study the brief
description below and say what is not in accordance with the narration
in it.

Rembrandt’s Portrait of an Artist is one of the least famous of his
paintings. Dated from four years before his death it reflects all the
despair of an aging painter. Yet this tragic figure still seems heroic,
though aware of the fact that his glorious days are long gone.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1. Some names of the painters mentioned in the video definitely ring a
bell. Point them out and present some information concerning their life
and creative activity.

2. Now watch the video sequence again and answer, what was so peculiar
about Lord Ivy’s taste concerning paintings.

3. Kenwood is a real treasure trove, isn’t it? But there is something
more than that. It reflects the personality of its owner; can you guess
what Lord Ivy was like? Create his personality profile.

RIEVAULX ABBEY (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. You are going to see the remains of the first ever Cistercian
monastery in England. Do you happen to know anything about the
Cistercian order? If not ask Teacher for more information.

1.2. Make sure you know these words; that will facilitate your
understanding:

– serenity – tumult

– to thrive – to abandon

1.3. Make a list of the numerous architectural terms mentioned in the
video. They are typical of descriptions of major religious buildings,
aren’t they? Compare your list with the teacher’s one:

– an arcade – a nave

– a buttress – a shrine

– an aisle – an altar

– a transept

II.WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. While you are watching the video, try to unveil the mystery: what
drew people to this lonely and secluded spot?

2.2. Continue the statements based on the information.

– It was deliberately built by the monks ____________________________

– Architecturally, it’s an example of _______________________________

– The nave is a good demonstration of the early belief in ______________

– The number of monks living here is estimated at ___________________

– The first Abbot, William, was entered in a shrine after ______________

2.3. Due to the peculiarity of natural conditions the canons of
religious architecture were violated. Which of the traditions was
violated and why?

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. Which of the adjectives can be attributed to the way of life the
monks used to lead in the Abbey? Find as much proof in the video as you
can to confirm your point of view.

Choose from: lonely, spiritual, far-away, abandoned, pious, elaborated,
religious, creative, working, impractical, traditional, peaceful,
serene, marvelous, free, tumultuous, wordly.

3.2. Now watch the video again and comment on the atmosphere that every
visitor can’t help feeling when inside the Abbey. Is that atmosphere
felt as you watch the video?

3.3. These picturesque ruins could be used as a perfect setting for a
movie based on – well, choose one of the three possibilities. Could the
film be based on (1) an anti-utopian fantasy; (2) a gothic novel; (3) an
international spy thriller? (4) sci-fi odyssey; (5) musical; (6) soapy
melodrama; (7) historical romance.

Explain your choice, please.

BELSAY HALL (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1 Read a beautiful description of a ‘room with a view’ taken from
Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca (1938). Say what the flowers add to the
atmosphere of the place and why.

This was a woman’s room, graceful, fragile, the room of someone who had
chosen every particle of furniture with great care, so that each chair,
each vase, each small, infinitesimal thing should be in harmony with one
another, and with her own personality. It was as though she who had
arranged this room had said: ‘This I will have, and this, and this,’
taking piece by piece (…) each object that pleased her best, ignoring
the second-rate, the mediocre, laying her hand with sure certain
instinct only upon the best. There was no intermingling of style, no
confusing of period, and the result was perfection in a strange and
startling way, not coldly formal like the drawing-room shown to the
public, but vividly alive, having something of the same glow and
brilliance that the rhododendrons had massed there, beneath the window.
And I noticed then that the rhododendrons, not content with forming
their theatre on the little lawn outside the window, had been permitted
to the room itself. Their great warm faces looked down upon me from the
mantelpiece, they floated in a bowl upon the table by the sofa, they
stood, lean and graceful, on the writing-desk beside the golden
candlesticks.

The room was filled with them, even the walls took colour from them,
becoming rich and glowing in the morning sun. They were the only flowers
in the room, and I wondered if there was some purpose in it, whether the
room had been arranged originally with this one end in view, for nowhere
else in the house did the rhododendrons obtrude. There were flowers in
the dining-room, flowers in the library, but orderly and trim, rather in
the background, not like this, not in profusion…

1.2. Many of the well-known plants have – well, if we may say so –
English roots. Study several descriptions and guess the English names of
the plants. (See Appendix 1 for more information.)

A. It is a plant grown for its striped leaves and blue, white, or pink
flowers. It is also called spiderwort. The name comes from modern Latin,
named for John Tradescant or his son. The name of the plant
is________________.

A. It comes from Africa. It’s a perennial plant that is widely
cultivated for its showy flowers that are often unusual or irregular in
shape. It was introduced in late 18th century and named for Charlotte of
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen of George III. It’s
called_______________________.

N It’s commonly called wax plant or porcelain flower or wax vine. In
fact, it is an Asian and Australian evergreen climbing plant or shrub
that is related to milkweed and bears waxy white flowers. It was named
after the English gardener Thomas Hoy. It’s original name
is_______________________.

1.3. A house of a person of means is often a mirror reflecting the image
of the owner. Do you agree with the statement? Give a couple of examples
to prove the above.

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Taking into account the indisputably original character of Belsay,
we can suggest the idea of Sir Charles Monk’s originality, can’t we?
Take a mental note of Sir Charles’ views on life and love, on lakes and
lawns.

2.2. Mark the sequence in which the following themes are discussed:

· Belsay gardens present a unique medley of local and tropical plants,
that looks as natural as it can be;

· Belsay Hall attracts visitors by its architectural perfection making
it one of the most magnificent estates in the Border Country;

· Belsay gardens are located in the former quarry, which supplies
special microclimate;

· the original nucleus of the estate was Belsay Castle;

· the grounds are a perfect place for crochet;

· bewitched by the Greek arch style, Sir Charles Monk renovated his
estate.

2.3. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions taken from the
tape:

– the Border Country – a romantic tableau

– an eccentric – to be bewitched by

– a medley – to quarry

– a landscape architect – the feeling of utter seclusion

– features on the wail – sumptuous gardens

III.AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. Think of all the components that make Belsay Hall a harmoniously
beautiful landmark of the Border Country. Which of them seems to you the
most stunning one?

3.3. One author described a fabulous house surrounded by picturesque
environs like “a jewel in a ring”. This metaphor can be well-applied to
Belsay Hall, cant it? Can you come up with some of your own metaphors to
refer to Belsay Hall?

DOVER CASTLE (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1. In the video you will hear several outstanding historical figures
mentioned. Some of them are: William the Conqueror, Sir Winston
Churchill, QueenMother. Do you know anything about their role in
history?

1.2.These words will help you to grasp the narrator’s speech better:

– astride – a sweeping view

– a rampart – a siege

– a keep – a stronghold

II.WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Try to catch the names of two more famous Britons mentioned in the
narration. Both were military leaders. Their names are…Can you say
anything about their role in the history of Britain? Which of them
appeals to you more and why? Don’t hesitate to defend your point of
view.

2.2. Give answers to the following questions:

a) Where and with what purpose was Dover Castle built?

b) What is its oldest surviving building? By the way, does the name ring
a bell?

c) What can you say about Hubert De Burk and his contribution to the
castle appearance and role?

d) The castle retained its strategic importance for centuries didn’t it?
Why was it put to military use during World War II?

e) What is so special and unique about Dover Castle?

2.3. Dover Castle is often referred to as the key to England. Pay
special attention to the information who and when tried to use that
“key”.

2.4. The conclusion to the narration is that Dover Castle is the most
important coastal defense work in Europe and probably one of Europe’s
best preserved strategic strongholds. Take note of the facts to prove
that.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1.Watch the video again and find detailed information for the
following:

a) Dover Castle in Early Britain;

b) Dover Castle in the Middle Ages;

c) Dover Castle in the 19th century;

d) Dover Castle during World War II and in the period of the so-called
nuclear threat.

TINTAGEL CASTLE (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. Some architectural relics owe their fame to myths or legends. Could
you recall but a few of such places located anywhere in the world.

1.2. Comment on the following passage from Thomas Malory’s Death of
Arthur. “Yet many men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is
not dead, but had by the will of Our Lord Jesus into another place; and
many men say that he shall come again, and he shall win the holy cross.
I will not say that it shall be so, rather I will say that here in this
world he changed his life. But many men say that there is written upon
his tomb this verse: HIC IACET ARTHURUS, REX QUONDAM REXQUE FUTURUS.
(Here lies Arthur, the once and future king.)” What does this text
imply?

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Two enigmatic personalities are mentioned in the video. Try to
catch their names and try to recall where and when you might have come
across the information about them. Are they just mere names or more than
that?

2.2.These words will help you understand the narrator’s speech better.
Make sure you understand them well.

– to jut out – an enigma

– a causeway – obscure

– to foster(somebody)

2.3. Complete the following statements according to the narration.

Tintagel Castle is a place without _________________on the British
Isles.

The building site must have been a former ________________________.

The evidence is that it could have been the stronghold of ____________.

Legend has it that it was in Merlin’s cave that _____________________.

Tintagel’s fame is based not on fact but on ________________________.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. Fact and fiction are intertwined in Tintagel Mythology. Separate
fact from fiction with the help of the following chart.

FactFiction

3.2. So what is it that draws crowds of curious tourists to this
enigmatic place: historic facts or legends? Try to argue your point.

3.3. If you ever made up your mind to go to Tintagel, what would be your
primary reason to do so? Explain your point of view.

3.4. Use the information in Appendix 3 to tell a magical Tale of
Tintagel.

AUDLEY END (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. There are some mansions and palaces that simply compel us to
describe them in such terms as “magnificent”, “opulent”, etc. Could you
name several places with such excellent characteristics?

1.2. Biblical themes and allusions are many in any form of art.
Architecture and painting are no exception. What do know about the Last
Supper. Why are so many works of art dedicated to this mythological
meal?

1.3. Read the information below about an outstanding English landscape
gardener. He is better known under his assumed name. Identify this name,
which is a very unexpected one, by the way, while listening to the
narration.

Lancelot Brown (1715-1783) is an English landscape gardener who codified
and popularized the principles of “English”, or “natural”, landscape
gardening. Building on the work of his predecessor William Kent, he
rejected the geometric formality of the reigning French style in favor
of more informal designs based on sweeping curves and natural groupings
of trees and lawns. His landscapes often included artificially made but
natural-looking lakes and watercourses. He landscaped more than 100
estates. Under his influence, the English style spread throughout
Europe.

1.4. These word-combinations may come appear very handy while watching
the video:

– the cream of the collection

– to complement something

– a huge undertaking

– to take pride of place

– a treasure trove

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. While watching the video try to remember all the British monarchs
whose names are connected with Audley End. Can you give any details
concerning that connection?

2.2. Complete the sentences:

1) Originally Audley End was so magnificent that…

2) Audley End is distinguished by …

3) At this or that time of its long history Audley End was linked
with…

4) …adds to its splendor

5) Different elements like the Tea Houses Bridge, etc were added to.

6) The family accommodation was … while the first floor was
distinguished for….

7) Nowadays Audley End is one third of its…, but… nonetheless.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ‘ACTIVITIES

3.1. Explain the meaning of these names and terms used in the narration.

· Lord-treasurer

· East Anglia

· Jacobine

· Venice

· Dodges’ Palace

· St Mark

· Christie’s

· Carpenter’s Gothic

STONEHENGE (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. Naturally, you must have heard a lot or at least something about
Stonehenge. What period do you think it belongs to: (1) Anglo-Saxon; (2)
Celtic; (3) Roman; (4) Norman’ Share your knowledge with others.

1.2. These words will help you comprehend the method that was used by
prehistoric engineers while constructing Stonehenge:

– sandstone – bluestone

– a sarsen – a lintel

– mortise and tenon joints

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Some of the stones that comprise Stonehenge bear names. Try to
memorise them and think what could have given rise to this or that name.

2.2. Find out what exactly makes Stonehenge so unusual in terms of
architectural design.

2.3. Complete the sentences below and then arrange them in the order
they

appeared in the video:

a) Exactly why and how Stonehenge was built and…

b) 3500 years ago this was a temple made…

c) The original entrance was marked…

d) This astonishing construction is…

e) The stones were held together by…

f) At the focus of a central bluestone horseshoe is…

e) The “heel”stone is the one over which…

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. While watching the video try to find the clues that could prompt an
inquisitive mind a somewhat different version of Stonehenge’s original
designation.

3.2. Read through the information below and explain why the mystery of
Stonehenge will never cease to captivate our imagination.

Why Stonehenge was constructed remains

3.3. Can you offer your own version what exactly Stonehenge was used
for? Exchange your versions with your groupmates and find the most
plausible one.

3.4. Now that you’ve seen the place live, share your ideas about what
exactly Tess of the d’Urbervilles might have felt when she got to
Stonehenge on that fateful night.

BATTLE ABBEY (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

1.1. October 14,1066. Does that date ring a bell? What history-making
event took place then? What do you know about King Harold or about
William the Conqueror?

1.2. These words might prove helpful in understanding the narration.

– to atone (for)

– a cloister

– a brazier

– a novice

1.3. While watching the video try to concentrate on some helpful clues
that can give a hint at what kind of man William the Conqueror could
have been. Charles Dickens in “A Child’s History of England” wrote, “O
Conqueror! Of whom so many great names are proud now, of whom so many
great names thought nothing then, it were better to have conquered one
true heart than England!” Explain why the great novelist said so.

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Complete the following sentences and arrange them in the order they
appear on the tape:

a) The monks lived in this huge building which…

b) The altar of this church should be here, where…

c) The charter house was the place…

d) It remains one of the finest…

e) William ordered the building of an abbey on the…

f) There were alterations and…

g) Much of the abbots great hall has survived and now…

2.2. What has become of the Abbey in later centuries? Is there any irony
in the fact? Please, be prepared to explain your point of view.

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. The narrator calls the abbey a fitting tribute to a moment and a
battle that changed the course of English history. Explain why.

3.2. The idea of atonement has always seemed very attractive. Can you
recall any other structure(s) built with the same idea in mind?

3.3. Research the history of some famous British Abbeys (you may start
with Westminster Abbey) and present your findings in class.

OSBORNE HOUSE (2 /ana)

I. PRE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

l.l. Queen Victoria is definitely one of the most renowned and revered
among British monarchs. What do you know about the Victorian Age
(1837—1901)? Why was that time often compared, and not unfavorably, with
the Elizabethan Age?

1.2. Pay attention to the following words that will prove to be helpful.

– ornate – tranquil – rigour

– conceive – submit – centerpiece

1.3. Explain the meaning of the following word-combinations.

– an idyllic retreat – pride of place

– dominate the eye – all walks of life

II. WHILE-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

2.1. Osborne house was above all a family vacation home. Take note of as
many facts as you can that prove this.

2.2. Mark the sequence in which the following items appear in the video:

a) the Peacock Column e) the marble-top table

b) the bathing machine f) Albert’s posthumous mask

c) the hand-operated lift g) the marble-winged Victory

d) marble copies of limbs h) the ornate billiards table

III. AFTER-WATCHING ACTIVITIES

3.1. Could one call Queen Victoria an enlightened monarch who strove to
know her subjects better? Are there any arguments for or against this in
the video?

3.2. London is rich in landmarks connected with Queen Victoria, Prince
Albert and their love for each other. Can you recall a few?

3. O*AAII-ENNEAAeIAAOAEUeNEEE AEIE: aii?inu aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai
eco/aiey n iiiiuueth aeiiieieoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u, oaiaoeea
ieie-enneaaeiaaiey ii oaia

STOKESAY CASTLE

3.1. A parallel can be drawn between Stokesay Castle and one
architectural relic in Belarus. Can you name this structure? Can you
come up with its detailed description?

3.2. Scan the pages of historical /fantasy novel and find a detailed
description of a castle. Translate it into English and present it to
your group (with the original, if possible).

KENWOOD

3.3. Some names of the painters mentioned in the story definitely ring a
bell. Point them out and present some information concerning their life
and creative activity.

3.4. Scan the pages of historical novels, reference books and
encyclopedias and prepare a mini-report on the Rumyantsev- Paskevich
Palace in Gomel. Pay special attention to the personality of its
creator.

3.5. Henry Moore’s sculptures are famous all over the world. What do you
know about the artist? Prepare a mini-report on his life and work.

3.6. Art on display in Kenwood grounds can hardly be called classical.
What is your opinion of abstract art – is it a sign of changing times or
changing mentality? Does any of the names seem familiar? (if not, some
research is in store for you)

RIEVAULX ABBEY

3.7. Prepare a mini-report on ancient specimen of Belorussian religious
architecture (you may start with Kalozha Church in Grodno).

BELSAY HALL

3.8. Study Appendix 1 and prepare a report on your favourite house
plants.

TINTAGEL CASTLE

3.9. Study Appendix 2 and prepare a report on King Arthur’s early life.

3.10. Now try to prepare a similar chart about one the many ancient
architectural relics situated on Belarusian soil.

AUDLEY END

3.11. Conduct a research on the Dodges’ Palace in Venice, Italy that
inspired so many great masters, Canaletto included.

3.12. Audley End is but one place out of many on the British roil
connected with the names of Royalty.

Make mini-research about one of such places and present your findings to
the group.

STONEHENGE

3.13. Remember where famous commemorative stones are placed on
Belarusian soil. What names or events are associated with them? Prepare
a mini-report on each.

BATTLE ABBEY

3.14. Prepare a narration to accompany a tour of British school students
to the Brest Fortress.

OSBORNE HOUSE

3.15. Reread the famous ballad Recessional (1897) by Rudyard Kipling and
add a new dimension to your commentary on it.

3.16. Rudyard Kipling’s father, Lochwood Kipling, made designs for part
of hors d’ouevre’s room. Do you think the designer’s son took great
pride in the fact? Do you think it could have shaped Kipling’s attitude
towards the great concept of the Empire where the sun never set?

4. EIOI?IAOeEIIIUE AEIE: aeeeoi?neea oaenou aeaeaioeeueia

STOKESAY CASTLE

Not far from the border with Wales stands the ancient market town of
Lladllow which grew up on the banks of the river Teem. In the late 13th
century the leading wool-merchant of his day Lawrence of Lladllow
decided to build a new home a few miles north of the town at the head of
a narrow valley that runs to the midst of the Shropshire hills. The
result is the most perfectly preserved early fortified manor house in
England.

This is an extraordinary picturesque huddle of castle, parish church and
gate house, quite simply, an architectural gem.

Built at the time of newly established peace on the Welsh borders,
Stokesay took advantage of the first chance in centuries to create a
community that had more a domestic atmosphere than a military one. It
gives a unique glimpse into how a rich merchant would have lived seven
hundred years ago.

The core of the house is the great hall, a vast room where an entire
household would have eaten together including guests and servants as
well as the family. The six large windows were glazed in the top half
but only shuttered in the low half. The magnificent timber roof,
recently restored as a part of extensive renovation program at Stokesay,
is supported by huge curved pieces of wood standing on stone core walls.
At the north end a very rare example of the surviving medieval staircase
supported by large timber brackets built into the walls and made up of
solid timber treads cut from whole tree trunks.

The stairs lead to the north tower where a spacious second floor
apartment provided extra accommodation for family or guests. The arched
recess would probably have held a lamp. Beside it is fine example of the
late 13th century decorated fireplace, on the floor medieval clay tiles,
some of which still show traces of decoration. The roofs on the north
and west walls are timber framed and by projecting out of the outer wall
give considerably more floor space.

On the other side of the great hall is the solar block, a three-storeyed
unit where principal members of the family would live. The rooms were
updated in the middle of the 17th century with Jacobine paneled
woodwork, a sure sign of opulence and decorated with grotesque carved
figures based on Flemish design.

This was a place of privacy, of intimacy in which to work or entertain
as well as keeping an eye on what was going on down in the great hall.

The only really-fortified part of the house is the south tower built on
a perfectly geometrical base. It has a battlement parapet with arrow
loops.

Although the windows are narrow, the wide splays increase their light;
the emphasis, again, is on comfort rather than defense.

The original stone gate house was replaced in the 17th century by a
timber framed building. Its highly decorated elaborate interior is
typical of the region and is similar to the gate house in Shropshire
nearby, which was built in 1620.

What is remarkable about Stokesay is not so much that it has survived in
such good condition, but rather after centuries of neglect and a civil
war which destroyed so many other manor houses of its type that it has
survived at all.

KENWOOD

It’s a perfect setting. On the crest of Hamstead Heath commanding a
superb view over London in a midst of spectacularly beautifuly landscape
is a house which contains one of the finest collections of paintings in
Britain…

Kenwood and its renowned art collection was bequeathed to the nation in
1927 by Edward Guinness, first Earl of Ivy. It’s known as the Ivy
bequest the original house dating from the 17th century was remodeled by
Robert Adam, the leading architect and interior designer of his day in
the 1760 – 70’s. Many of the rooms in Kenwood stand as works of art in
their own right. In Adam’s new wing is one of the most impressive late
18th century interiors to be found anywhere in the country. The library
or great room, considered by many to be Robert Adam’s finest room, this
is a shining example of neo-classical style that Adam made so
fashionable in the late 18th century.

The eminent Venetian painter Antonio Zucci, husband of Angelica
Kaufmann, whose paintings can also be found in Kenwood was chosen to
paint the finely ornate ceilings.

Mirrored recesses were designed to reflect the fine prospects through
the opposite windows. Balancing the room they provided an alternative to
windows; they could only have had a rather grandiose view on kitchen
garden.

Later, new rooms were designed by George Sonders who was heavily
influenced by Henry Holland’s modifications to Carlton House in Pall
Mall. The striking similar circular balustrade here in the dining room
lobby recalled Carlton’s octagone vestibule.

But it’s in the dining room that one comes across the finest of
Kenwood’s paintings. Here are the richest of the old masters’ work from
Lord Ivy’s bequest. This is one of the most famous paintings in the
world – Rembrandt’s “Portrait of an Artist”. Dated from four years
before his death it has all the grandeur of an autobiography presented
to posterity. Employed by his son to avoid creditors and living off his
daughter’s savings this tragic figure still seems heroic, confident of
his genius. A fine painting by Rubens of the Madonna and Child and St
Joseph, the child Jesus like an infant Hercules with a halo of golden
hair. Lord Mainsfield’s dressing room offers still more beautiful
paintings by great artists like Gainsborough. Lord Ivy gathered together
in his collection of paintings a dazzling array of beautiful
women/Gainsborough’s portrait of Mary, Countess How, is perhaps the most
striking image in the Kenwood collection. In one of the Gainsborough’s
most admired works his seemingly casual swirls of paint create the
impression of the most ornate lace. There is also “Lady Hamilton of the
spinning wheel”, Lord Nelson’s rather wayward future mistress by Romney.

The art on display at Kenwood is not merely restricted to paint on the
canvas. Robert Adam described the grounds as amazingly gay, beautiful,
magnificent and picturesque. On the eastern end of a 1000 pound pond, so
called because it cost 1000 pounds to make in the 1790’s is the Sham
Bridge, only inches wide. Here too is eye catching art of a different
era – sculptures by Henry Moore and other modern sculptors.

In his bequest Lord Ivy also insisted that his fabulous art collection
and magnificent landscape that surrounds it must remain open to the
public free of charge. No wonder Kenwood remains one of the most popular
as one of the most beautiful places in the whole of London.

RIEVAULX ABBEY

In 1132 in the valley of the river Rye in Yorkshire work began on the
north of England’s first Cistercian monastery. Today its ruins are the
most important of their type on the British Isles.

This has always been a lonely place, deliberately built by the monks as
far away as possible from the temptation of town and city. In time
though the community here was to become a very busy thriving one.

At the heart of the Abbey the great church with its splendid early
English arcades and three-tiered wall – a breathtaking example of
English Gothic architecture. It was built in the early 13th century and
later fine buttresses were added to support the north aisle wall and to
pin the building which had started to slide down the hill. The raised
platform of the high altar which according to convention usually faces
east, is actually nearer to the south side of the Abbey. Because of the
site of the Abbey in the Rye valley was so narrow, the monks had to
abandon the normal rules of Ecclesiastic architecture and build an new
monastery on an almost south-north access.

Built into the walls of the south transept is the remains of a passage,
which led directly to the monks dormitories. Services were often held in
the middle of the night. The oldest part of the church is the nave. This
is the earliest surviving Cistercian nave in Britain. It’s a good
demonstration of the early belief in simple and unelaborated design.
Below the nave the cloisters where monks and the lay brothers would
spend much of their day working, writing or at discussion. A cones
section of the 12th century arcade around the cloisters has been built
from original stone and it looks exactly as if would have been done 800
years ago. Beyond the cloister, an area set aside for the more practical
aspects of Abbey life. This is the lavatorium, equipped with rows of
recessed wash basins. And beside it – the huge refectory, where the
community would take its meals.

In the west wall the remains of the spiral staircase to a pulpit where
prayers were read during the meals, the eating area with a store room or
undercroft beneath had to be big. At one time no less than 140 monks and
500 lay brothers were in residence here. In the kitchen next door
there’s a hatch to pass the food through. In the 13th century the only
place in the cloisters where the fire was allowed for heating purposes
was the warming house. Fires were lit in the huge double fireplace.

A chapter house, where the community met daily to be addressed by the
Abbot, often after a reading of a chapter of the rule of St Benedict’s.
That was a traditional burial place of the Abbots. Rievaulx’s first
Abbot, William was entered in a shrine after he was made a saint.

This is still a lonely place. It also remains as its third and most
famous Abbot Alerod said: “A place of peace, serenity and a marvelous
freedom from the tumult of the world”.

BELSAY HALL

In beautiful Border Country, 15 miles to the north-west of New-Castle
and set in 30 acres of landscaped parkland and gardens, is one of the
north most striking country houses. Begun in 1807, the creation of a
wealthy eccentric, Sir Charles Monk, this is one of the most important
neo-classical buildings in Britain.

Almost as famous as the house are the gardens. To the south, a pattern
of borders echoes the extraordinary symmetry of Belsay Hall itself. It’s
planted with the informal medley of evergreens and perennials. Below,
the terraces look out over the rhododendron garden. And below that Sir
Charles, the admirer of the work of the landscape architect Sir Homphrey
Reapton, created a stunning new lake. In fact, until the building of the
new hall, Sir Charles’s ancestors, the Middletons, had lived in Belsay
Castle, the original nucleus of the estate/which had been built as a
fortified home because of centuries of fighting around the Border
Country with Scotland.

The oldest part of the estate is the tower, built before 1460, which was
certainly intended to be defensible. Features on the south wall were
also decorative to be admired by the travelers passing by on the road
which ran past in front of the castle. Beside it, in 1614, Thomas
Middleton added an unfortified range, a witness to more peaceful times.
His coat-of-arms on the carved stonework proclaiming his and his wife
Dorothy’s achievements can still be clearly seen above the porch of the
main range.

The family moved out on Christmas day 1817 and by the 1840’s much of the
building had been carefully reduced to create a romantic tableau. Work
on the new Belsay Hall with its precise geometric dimensions (it’s
exactly 100 feet square) was begun on Sir Charles Monk’s return from his
two-year honeymoon in April 1806 during which he and his new bride had
visited Greece and became bewitched by the romantic appeal of the
architecture there. The new home bore resemblance to a Greek temple. The
capitols and ten heads of the columns in this pillar hall were put in
place in 1812, each carved by a different mason. The balustrade wasn’t
inserted until the 1830’s. Other rooms, many of them now empty, reveal
Sir Charles interest in the new methods of heating with fire crates and
double floors pugged to reduce heat loss. In its day, it would have been
a very comfortable place to live. The sandstone for the house was
quarried within the park to the west of the hall, and when excavation
was complete, Sir Charles transformed the quarry into a huge picturesque
garden.

The unforgettable Belsay quarry garden is a man-made landscape, of
course, but the wild woodland style of gardening helps make it look
natural. Later it was added to by Sir Charles’ grandson, Sir Arthur
Middleton. Because it’s so sheltered, the quarry garden is a superbly
stable environment in which plant life can thrive.

Exotic plants have been carefully positioned to make them seem natural
too. Huge, water-loving plant from South America abounds. And in a
sheltered corner by the arch there’s even a palm-tree. “It’s not warm,
and it’s not frosty either, but the climate moves steadily from extreme
to extreme, so plants are flung around between the opposite extremes and
they do well. You can come in here in December, hen the – sky is black
and it’s snowing and the rhododendrons 30 feet high are in full bloom
and it’s magic”.

Beside the rhododendrons are many other species of delicate plants and
ferns which thrive in the warm moist conditions. The feeling of utter
seclusion and the absence of wind is heightened by the ranks of towering
Scottish pine, for which Belsay is famous.

In summer the sunken lawns of the winter gardens are used for crochet, a
perfect setting. For more than 150 years the scene has been dominated by
a vast Douglas fur planted here immediately after its introduction from
North America in 1827.

And so, back to the hall via the magnolia terrace, which is now being
replanted with new varieties including shrub rose and geranium.

Sumptuous gardens and medieval castle and extraordinary neoclassical
Georgian hall. After 600 years of history Belsay remains one of the most
remarkable estates in the north of England.

DOVER CASTLE

High above the bustling modern port like an ancient crown astride the
famous cliffs stands a castle, which is unrivalled in its position,
history and sheer breathtaking size. Built within the ramparts of the
prehistoric Iron Age fort Dover has the longest recorded history of any
major fortress in Britain. William the Conqueror spent eight days here
in 1066 strengthening the existent Saxon defenses although what remains
today dates from the 12-13 centuries.

The central keep of the castle is one of the finest in Europe built for
Henry II in thell80’s. The main entrance is in the huge fore building,
the most ambitious structure of its type in castle building before or
since. Built into it a pail of tiny chapels designed in what we now call
early English style: the round arches of late Norman combined with
Gothic columns. The stairs were originally partly open to the sky
commanded by the battlement above and in the middle there must have been
a draw bridge. Inside are the vast rooms of the royal apartments where
Henry II and the court who traveled with him could stay in absolute
safety and comparative warmth and luxury. At the south end of the second
floor the King had own very private chapel. It is beautifully
proportioned and similarly planned to a tiny parish church. The roof of
the keep was strengthened by Georgian military engineers over 500 years
later to carry heavy guns. It is still a superb viewpoint. From here
with a great sweeping view of a harbor and the town nearly 500 feet
below, it’s easy to see why Dover Castle became known as a key to
England. In the early 13th century new gate ways and defense works were
built on Dover outer western wall. This is a gate house of two periods.
A. conical roof was added to. a big mural tower of king John’s reign in
about 1300.

In the 1220’s the castle had a magnificent new entrance – the work of
famous Hubert De Burk, Constable of Dover, who had successfully held the
castle against the French in the siege in 1216. Constable’s gate was one
of the greatest gate houses of its day, although its top section was
modernized by the Victorians, most of it looks now just as it did 750
years ago – a doting prospect to any would-be-attackers.

After a period of comparative quiet Dover entered a new era of life in
1740’s when Georgian and later Victorian engineers set to work on the
ramparts and once again updated its defenses. In fact the oldest
surviving building within the castle wall is the Roman light house. The
Pharos is one of the tallest standing structures of its age west of the
Alps. It was strengthened, then heightened in the 15′ century as a bell
tower. Beside it the Anglo-Saxon church of St Mary-in-Castro almost
completely rebuilt in the 1860’s.

The original cruciform plan and scale of a church indicates that it
would have held minister status as a home of the community of priests.
Beside the door there is the list of priests dating back to the early
13th century.

Today the castle and its church are expecting an important visitor. The
post of Constable of Dover, once held by Hubert De Burk still exists.
Other notable constables have included the Duke of Wellington and Sir
Winston Chuchill. An annual visit to the parish church is one of the
duties of the current Constable. Her majesty Queen Elizabeth, the Queen
Mother has been Constable of Dover since 1978. She takes her duties very
seriously.

During World War II Dover Castle was once again put to military use. The
harbor below was of strategic importance and in the huge network of
tunnels buiil in the cliffs beneath the castle a new secret military
headquarters was constructed. The evacuation of the British Army from
Dunkerk was coordinated from here as well as the monitoring of the enemy
ships and allies’ shipping movement in the Channel and wireless
transmission from occupied Europe which lay a mere 22 miles away across
the Straight of Dover.

There was also an anti aircraft operations room where information on the
course of enemy aircraft from observers on the new chain of radar masts
was charted on screen and plotting tables. Up until the 1970’s the
tunnels of Dover remained prepared for being original seat of government
in case of an emergency such as nuclear attack.

Dover Castle is a unique military monument with 2000 years of military
technology inside and beneath its ancient ramparts.

It is the most important coastal defense work in Europe and probably one
of Europe’s best preserved strategic strongholds.

TINTAGEL CASTLE

Jutting into the wild and wind-swept seas of the North-Cornish coast an
ancient place of mystery and romance probably without rival on the
British Isles – Tintagel Castle. Even today Tintagel remains a complete
enigma. Overlooked from the hill-top on the mainland by the village of
Tintagel, the island is connected by a thin causeway. The word “tin”
means “fortress”, “tagel” – probably a narrow strip of land, the neck of
the island. The island is known of the medieval castle, the highest
points of which, the upper and lower walls, are actually on the
mainland. The castle was – almost certainly built by Earl Richard of
Cornwall, younger brother of King Henry III, who created his new
fortress in 1233 on the site of what have been probably a roman trading
post.

A doorway leads into the inner ward on the island proper. Tintagel’s
fame though is based not on fact but on the legends which have brought
it an extraordinary and almost magical atmosphere. According to
folklore, this was the mystical home of the ancient magician Merlin and
the birthplace of King Arthur of the Round Table. And the evidence is
that it could have been the stronghold of some post-roman Cornish ruler,
possibly a king. What’s so strange is that a castle should be built here
on an island of little strategic importance, miles away from the main
inland trading routes of Cornwall. Then it fell into disrepair – by the
14th century the great hall lost its roof. The chapel was extended when
the castle was built, originally dedicated to an obscure Celtic saint
Judith. It was still in use in 1483 and long after the castle was in
ruins. At the base of the island the spectacular Merlin’s cave, inside
which, according u to the legend so loved by the poet Tennyson, the
infant Arthur was discovered. But after the tempests when the long waves
broke all down the thundering shoals of brine and moss there came a day
as still as heaven and then they found a naked child upon the sands of
dark Tintagel by the Cornish sea. And that was Arthur. And they fostered
him till he by miracle was a proven king.

AUDLEYEND

In 1605 Thomas Howard, first Earl of Suffolk and Lord-treasurer to the
King James I started work on what was to become one of the largest and
most magnificent country houses in England. It was a huge undertaking.
Today, although only a third of its original size, this remains one of
the great houses of East Anglia.

In its day Audley End was so magnificent that even the kings of England
were worried that the Essex state had grown grander and more impressive
than their own royal palaces.

Inside Audley End is a treasure trove of paintings, furniture, and
ossign in rooms with striking variety of styles. Dominating the great
hall of the house is a massive wooden Jacobine screen superbly covered
with distinctive patterns and figures, characteristic of its age, which
may originally have been brightly painted. This was a house designed
specifically to accommodate royalty as guests, and indeed James I stayed
here in 1610 and 1614. Later, Audley End was owned by Charles II.

The family accommodation was usually confined to the ground floor of the
house, once the main reception rooms were on the first floor.

This is the dining-room, re-modeled by the third Lord Braberook, who
inherited Audley End in 1825. It’s presided over by Larkin’s magnificent
full-length portrait of the forth Lord of Braberook. Lord Braberook also
created a colorful sitting-room, in which he housed the cream of Audley
End’s collection of paintings. Taking pride of place, Venice, by Antonio
Canalli Canaletto, depicting a view of the Campanelli and Dodges’ Palace
on the bay of St Mark, illustrating Canaletto’s brilliant feeling for
light. There are outstanding landscapes by the Dutch painter Van Goyen.
This is “the Shore”, bought for 21 pounds in Christie’s in 1773.

In the north wing now looking almost exactly as it did in photographs
taken in 1891, Lady Braberook’s sitting room. The commode and cupboards
are Louis XVI. There is also fine Louis XIV’ furniture in the library,
in the bay window, a superb writing table. Below the south library,
Robert Adam’s masterpiece of interior design, a wonderful little
sitting-room for the ladies to escape to once the gentlemen got started
on the port after dinner. Adam also built the bridge on the grounds
known as the Tea-house bridge in 1782, the river Cam had already been
dammed to make a lake. A boathouse was added in the 19th century to
complement the sweeping grounds, laid by Cabability Brown so, too, was
an enchanting rose-garden. On the hill to the south a fine temple of
Concord was built in 1790 to celebrate George the 3rd recovery from
insanity. It has always been hoped that George III would visit Audley
End and the apartments were designed and made specifically for the royal
guest. The magnificent state bed was completed in 1786. But, alas, the
king never used it. Audley End had its own chapel and it is a remarkably
complete example of the style known as Carpenter’s Gothic. The painted
glass over the altar depicts the Last Supper. Except on Sundays when
they went to church family and the stuff would pray here every morning,
afterwards, breakfast would be served in another of Audley End’s huge
variety of contrasting rooms. This is the saloon with its extraordinary
Jacobine ceiling, decorated with plaster sea monsters and ships. For
their breakfast the family would sit here in the saloon’s little bay
window with its floor specially raised to take advantage of the view. A
view over what is still probably, the most memorable estate in, the East
of England.

STONEHENGE

A summer sunrise over Salisbury plain and the historical giant that is
without doubt the most important prehistoric monument in the whole
Britain is brought alive by the early morning light. 3500 years ago this
was a temple made up of an outer circle of huge blocks of sandstone
called “sarsen” dragged from a site about 20 miles to the north of
Stonehenge. The biggest sarsens weigh over 45 tons. Inside the sandstone
circle stand the smaller bluestones, brought here over 240 miles from
the Prescilley mountains in South Wales. At the focus of a central blue
stone horseshoe is a fallen stone that became known as the “altar”
stone, a semi-buried block of bluestone from Pembrokeshire. One of the
refinements which makes Stonehenge so unusual is the way the stones have
been squared to shape by pounding with stone hammers, with the lintels
held in place by the sophisticated mortise and tenon stone joints. The
original entrance is marked by a fallen slaughter stone and beyond it,
in the distance the famous “heel” stone, over which the midsummer sun
passes in the longest day of the year when viewed from the center of the
stones.

Exactly why and how Stonehenge was built and in what precise way it was
used as a temple will remain a mystery forever. What we do know is that
this astonishing construction is probably the most remarkable
achievement of prehistoric engineering in Europe.

BATTLE ABBEY

You know there is something special about this picturesque litle Sussex
town the moment you arrive. It’s grown-up beside an abbey which is built
on the site of probably the most famous battle in English history. On
these fields in October 14, 1066 an invading army of about 7000 troops
led by William Duke of Normandy fought and eventually defeated the
English army, who were defending the crest of the hill. Legend has it
that King Harold was killed by an arrow through his eye and today a
stone commemorating his death lies almost exactly where he fell.

William ordered the building of an abbey on the site of his famous
victory to atone for the death of so many people. The altar of his
church should be here, where his great enemy had fallen. Most of the
original abbey buildings were completed in 1100. There were alterations
and enlargements in the 13th century and later the 14th century,
including the tower on the west of the abbot’s guest range.

The monks lived in this huge building which unusually was built into the
slope of the hill. All parts of Williams determination of the abbey must
be built on the exact site of the battle. That’s why the novices’ room
on the south side has a particularly high-vaulted ceiling supported by a
central row of huge pillars, it allows the dormitory above to be built
on a level floor. At the other end of the buildings cut into the hill,
the monks’ common room, has a much lower ceiling which would have helped
to keep the room warm in winter. Portable braziers sometimes were
brought in during the few leisure periods the monks were allowed. The
chapter house like Rievaulx was the place where monks would gather on
stone benches once a day to discuss the abbey’s business affairs.

Much of the abbot’s great hall in the west range has survived after
being rebuilt in later centuries. It’s now part of the school. On east
front the remains of superb cloister arcading along the lower part of
the wall. In the late 1330th the gatehouse was built and it remains one
of the finest medieval monastic gatehouses in England, a fitting tribute
to a moment and a battle that changed the course of English history.

OSBORNE HOUSE

Queen Victoria called this her “dear beautiful Osborne”, a seaside home
where for fifty years she and her family enjoyed some of the happiest
days of their lives.

Osborne was built between 1845 and 1851 under the personal direction of
Prince Albert. The view across the sea reminded the Prince of the Bay of
Naples and it was perhaps this memory that made him put so much emphasis
on the Italian style that echoes through the house and the gardens.
Albert had hired a London building contractor, Thomas Cubert to develop
the estate using the simple classic lines of the newly fashionable
Italian style Cubert had used so effectively in Bloomsbury, Belgravia
and Pimblico. Every corner of the terraces had to be filled with copies
of Italianmoulds. It was all part of the plan to create an idyllic
retreat words away from the rigours of British state ceremonial.

The visitors’ entrance to the house is at the west front. Here again
classical subjects dominate the eye. The marble winged Victory in the
grand corridor was bought by the Queen for Prince Albert at the Great
Exhibition of 1851. Osborne was above all a private family house. A
picture of the family group including the five eldest royal children was
hung here in pride of place in the dining-room on Queen Victoria’s
birthday in 1849. In those days dinner was served promptly at 8 p.m. But
by the end of the century it was 9.15 when the Queen arrived and the
company could sit down to eat.

Much of the Queen’s day would have been spent upstairs in the
sitting-room where she would attend to urgent matters of state. She
would work on her dispatch boxes at her desk, while the beloved Prince
Consort would sit at his own desk submitting memoranda for the Queen’s
inspection in his capacity as her personal and private secretary. Later
when the Queen grew she had to come down from ner suite on the first
floor by a lift hand-operated by an attendant in the basement. The
formal drawing-room was downstairs. The Queen described it as an
extremely handsome room with its yellow Damask satin curtains and
furniture to match. The marble-top table depicting views of Rome was
presented to Victoria in 1859 by Pope Pious IX after her visit to Rome
with the Prince of Wales. The grand piano was often used by the Queen
and other members of the household to entertain guests which often
included visiting foreign royalty. The piano and six matching cabinets
surmounting the bookcases are decorated with porcelain plagues showing
the copies of Italian old master paintings. The Queen withdrew to the
drawing-room after dinner whilst the gentlemen retired to the billiards
room. The two rooms were cleverly adjoined so that while technically the
gentlemen were still in the Queen’s presence and required to stand,
curtains drawn across the column screen kept them out of sight to do as
they chose. The Queen, too, played billiards. She learned the game on
this ornate slit table, the frieze panels were designed by Prince
Albert. The Prince also conceived the elaborate lightning above the
table. Here as elsewhere in the house is the evidence of Albert’s great
love for Victoria. He also purchased a painting depicting Raphael
painting one of his Madonnas. It was not only Albert’s taste that
strongly influenced the design of Osborne House. Seventeen years after
Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1874, a state banqueting hall,
the Hors d’oeuvres room was added to the house. Its deeply carved
ceiling was made of fibrous plaster. Every surface is richly
embellished. 25 workmen worked over 500 hours to produce the
Peacockalone. The walls framed with tick are enriched with plaster and
papier-mache. The completion of the room in 1893 coincided with the
introduction of electricity in Osborne House. These lampstands were
specially designed for the room in recognition of this.

Part of hors d’oeuvres room, was designed by Lochwood Kipling, Rudyard
Kipling’s father. The principal craftsman was Byram Sing whose portrait
by the Austrian court artist Rudolph Svoboda hangs in the corridor
outside. Beside it, the Queen’s most famous Indian servant Abdul Karim
who came to Osborne in 1887 and rose to become her principal Indian
secretary. Despite being Empress Queen Victoria never went to India. But
in an effort to find out more about the country she commissioned Svoboda
to go there and paint portraits of ordinary people from all walks of
life. Such was her enthusiasm for all things Indian that the Queen even
learnt Hindustani.

The main house is some distance from the sea, and today visitors can
enjoy the journey through the estate towards the coast in the same
manner the royal family would have done a hundred years ago. Close to
the beach is Swiss cottage much favored by the royal children where the
family could relax in even greater privacy. Close by – the Queen’s
bathing-machine with the changing room and it own WC.

In the main house the younger royal children were confined to the
nursery suite. The centerpiece here – a superb mahogany-framed swing
cradle made for Vicky the Princess Royal in 1840. Nearly are the cots
with hinged sides and upholstered pads to protect the children. As was
the fashion, marble copies were made of the children’s limbs.

There’s the hand of Edward, Prince of Wales, aged 14 month and the foot
of Princess Victoria who was then 2 years old. The nursery suite was
situated so as to provide Victoria and Albert with an easy access from
their own private apartments. This is Queen Victoria’s bedroom. On the
headboard, above the bed, a posthumous picture of Albert who died in
1861 and beside it a holder for his pocketwatch. It was in this room
that in January 1901 the Queen herself died. It was, most people agree,
the end of an era, as well as the end of a 64-year reign, during which,
for one family at least, the most carefree and peaceful days were spent
here, in a tranquil corner of the Isle of Wight.

5. I?EEIAEAIEss

I?eeiaeaiea 1

Ia?eia IANEIAA

I EIIIAOIUO ?ANOAIEssO – NEAICUe AIAEEENEEA I*EE

Neaaeeoa, iaoaeaee oai i?aaaea oaeay caeaiay o?aaa?

Eee yoi oieueei ia ieaiea oae?

Na?aae I., nooaeaio a?. 1151 (2001)

An? a naiii aeaea oae. E o?aaa a Aiaeee (i?aaaea, aeaei auei aaniie)
caeaiay-caeaiay, e n?aaee o?aau ?anooo oa naiua daffodils, i?i eioi?ua
ienae Ai?aenai?o, e iineieueeo ?anooo iie, eae o ian iaeoaai/eee, oi eo
n oaeiaieuenoaeai oii/oo e aeotho a?iiaaeiua aiaeeeneea iaoeu a /a?iuo
?acaieie/ueeo ianeao. E eaaeaeue eoni/ae caiee – ionoue aeaaea ?acia?ii
n iiniaie ieaoie – ethaiaii aicaeaeai e ooiaeai.

Ii ana yoi ecaanoii – aeaaea anee ia oaeaeaiiua aii/eth, ii ii eieaai e
aeaeai. Ethaiiuoii ae?oaia: ieacuaaaony ethaiaue e eioa?an e ?anoaieyi
ioee/aea aiaee/ai anaaaea. *oiau iiiyoue yoi, aeinoaoi/ii eco/eoue
ethaia ?oeiaiaenoai aeey ethaeoaeae eiiiaoiuo ?anoaiee – io a caoai
caeoe a oeaaoi/iue iaaacei e iiniio?aoue ia ana neaicue “aiaeeeneea
i/ee”.

Eoae, iieenoaai yioeeeeiiaaeeth…

Ia/iai n ?anoaiey, /uee aeaeoi-i?aiaeaai-caeaiua e?oiiua eenouey
oe?aoatho iieee ethaiai oeaaoi/iiai iaaaceia. Eiaeeaoi, ecaaeiaaiiue
thaeiue e?anaaaoe, i?eaacai ec Eiaeee i?eia?ii a 1860 a. aiaeeeneei
naaeiaiaeii e niae?aoaeai ?anoaiee Aeaeiiii Aioeaeii Aae/ai. O?oaeii
neacaoue, /aai yoi ?anoaiea i?eianao aai aieueoa – ?aaeinoe eee oeiiio,
ii aai i?eaeiaeueiue aeae ianiiiaiii i?eaea/ao aaoa aieiaiea.

Eiiiaoiia ?anoaiea, iioiaeaa ia ecyuioth aei/eo, iineo yecioe/aneia eiy
? a?aoea?ey. N iiiaioa aa aieiothuae ano?a/e n niaa?oaaoei e?oainaaoiia
iooaoanoaea eaieoaiii Eoeii (aea-aea, oai naiui…) i?ioei iiiai eao.
Oaia?ue eeoue niaoeeaeenou-aioaieee (a oaia?ue e /eoaoaee Yeueoa)
ciatho, /oi Eoe aia?aua iaoae yoo e?anaaeoeo a 1775 a. ia ino?iaao
Ii?oiee a Oeoii ieaaia. A yoie yeniaaeeoeee, enoaoe, i?eieiae o/anoea e
ia iaiaa ciaiaieoue aioaiee ? ny? Aeaeicao Ayien. N eiaiai Ayiena,
i?aceaeaioa Ei?ieaaneiai Aioaie/aneiai iauanoaa, naycaii iiyaeaiea a
Aa?iia no?aeeoeee ? ?anoaiey, iioiaeaai iaeiia?aiaiii e ia oeaaoouee
eono, e ia aoeao ec aeaeoi-i?aiaeaai-neieo oeaaoia.

Ia ionoaaae io naiaai eieeaae e ny? Aeeueyi Aeaeaenii Ooea?, auaoee a
naia a?aiy aee?aeoi?ii aioaie/aneiai naaea Eueth. Ooea? “iiaea?ee” iai
aeooeaeaeeth (oaeooeeaeeth) – aea?aaoea n eiaeenouie oaiiuie eenoueyie e
i?aeanoiuie aaeuie oeaaoaie; a oaeaea ?anoaiea n aanueia no?aiiui
iacaaieai “yo?ioa iiaeaa?e/aneay” e n ia iaiaa no?aiiuie i?eau/eaie –
y?ei oeaaoouaa e caaaaiia, iii yaeiaeoi – e ca/ai aai aea?aeaoue aeiia?
Eoi eo iieiao, yoeo aiaee/ai!

Aiaeeeneea aeaiu ieeiaaea ia ionoaaaee io naieo ioaeanoaaiiuo
niioa/anoaaiieeia – yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea aa?ii e aeey aioaieee.

Nano?u Yeecaaao e Na?a Iy?e Oeooii iioaeeeiaaee a Eiiaeiia eieao
“Conversations on Botany” a 1850 a Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, eiaiii ca yoi a
eo /anoue e auei iacaaii ioe?uoia /ooue iicaeiaa iaaieueoia o?aayienoia
?anoaiea n caeaii-aaeuie eenoueyie. A iae anoue /oi-oi i/aiue naea?aeaii
aiaeeeneia Oaia?ue oeooiieth iiaeii iaeoe a ethaie oeaaoi/iie eaaea –
aio iia, a niaoeeaeueiie, othoiie ei?iaea n?aaee ae?oaeo iaaieueoeo
?anoaiee.

Aua iaeio aeaio, oaeinoieaoothny /anoe aeaoue iacaaiea oeaeiio ?iaeo
?anoaiee, caaee Iaoeeueaea Nieo, e auea iia a 1840-o aiaeao
?eniaaeueueoeae ?anoaiee a aioaie/aneii naaeo Eueth. Nieoeieaioa e?aneaa
e ai a?aiy oeaaoaiey, e i?inoi eae aeaei?aoeaii-eenoaaiiia ?anoaiea.
Eioa?anii, auea ee Iaoeeueaea Nieo oae aea anaaaea i/a?iaaoaeueia?

Anee au onoaee io eiai e iacaaiee, neaaeothuee iauaeo aieiaiey iicaieeo
aai ?anneaaeoueny. Aaaeue yoi – ne?iiiay o?aaeaneaioeey, ecaa/iia
oe?aoaiea oeieueiuo eaaeiaoia e aieueie/iuo oieeia A iacaaii yoi
?anoaiea a /anoue aeaoo ianoiyueo O?aaeaneaioia: i?eaeai?iiai naaeiaieea
ei?iey Ea?ea I – Aeaeiia O?aaeaneaioa-iooea e Aeaeiia O?aaeaneaioa-nuia,
oiaea naaeiaieea, a caoai aioaieea e iooaoanoaaiieea Io /oi, oaeeaeaiu?

Aua iaeii ?anoaiea – iaiiieiaao o?aaeaneaioeeth. Ii iacaaiea cao/eo
i/aiue oae ii-eniainee: oiey. Oai ia iaiaa, yoi naiia /oi ie ia anoue
aiaeeeneia eiy, iioiio /oi naaeiaieea aa?oeiaa Ii?ooiaa?eaiaeneiai caaee
Oiian Oie. Ii aeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 18 aaea e aue ecaanoiui
naeaeoeeiia?ii e naaeiaiaeii.

A ?anoaiea ia ?enoiea ni?aaa, oioue ?iaeii ec Eaoeineie Aia?eee, ii
iacaaii ii eiaie aeaoo Ieeueoiiia: i?oeaeaaaiaea ei?aea Oeoeaeeueyia,
aeeiioa Ieeueoiia, e ciaiaieoiai iiyoa Aeaeiia Ieeueoiia. Iiyoiio e
iacuaaaony iii – ieeueoiiey. A yioeeeeiiaaeee aiai?eony, /oi

Ieeueoiiey ? ?anoaiea ia aeey ia/eiathueo.

*oi ae, i?yii eae noeoe Ieeueoiia. Ii eoi ciaao, eoi ciaao…

Aeiia o aaoi?a – oeooiiey e eiaeeaoi. A o aan, /eoaoaeue?

I?eeiaeaiea 2

You who disbelieve in miracles and magic, you who are glued to their TV
and computer screens for hours on end, read this extract from the best
book about King Arthur and learn how young Arthur became king of all
England

Arthur, the son of Uther Pendragon, high king of Britain, was born
during a time of war and great confusion To protect the child, Uther
gave him to the magician Merlyn, who secretly brought him to a knight
named Ector Sir Ector raised the boy as his own When Uther died —
without an heir, his subjects thought — there was much disagreement
about who should be king

Then stood the realm in great jeopardy for a long while, for every lord
that was mighty of men made himself strong and wanted to be king Then
Merlyn went to the Archbishop of Canterbury and told him to send for all
the lords and knights of the realm, that they should come to London by
Christmas For Jesus, who was born on that night, would of His great
mercy show by some miracle who should nghtwise be king of this realm

So at Christmas, in the greatest church of London, all the lords came to
pray And there was seen in the churchyard a great square stone with an
anvil of steel in the middle And stuck in the anvil was a fair sword and
letters written in gold around the sword that said this:

WHOSO PULLETH OUTE THIS SWORD OF THIS STONE AND

ANVIL IS RIGHTWYS KYNGE BORNE OF ALL ENGLAND

And when they saw the writing some who wanted to be king attempted, but
none could move the sword “He is not here,” said the Archbishop, “who
shall win the sword, but fear not that God will soon make him known ” So
it was ordered that every man who wanted to be king should try the sword
And upon New Year’s Day, a tournament was held so that all knights could
joust there

And so it happened that a knight named Sir Ector rode unto the jousts,
and with him rode Sir Kay, his son, and young Arthur who was his foster
son And as they rode to the joust, Sir Kay noticed that he had left his
sword at his father’s lodging, and so he asked young Arthur to ride for
it

“I will well,” said Arthur, and he rode fast after the sword

And when he came home, the house was closed, for all were out to see the
jousting Then was Arthur angry and said to himself, “I will ride to the
churchyard and take the sword that sticks in the stone, for my brother,
Sir Kay, shall not be without a sword this day”

So when he came to the churchyard, Arthur found no knights there, for
they, too, were at the jousting So he took the sword by the handle and
lightly and fiercely pulled it out of the stone and rode his way until
he came to his brother, Sir Kay, and delivered him the sword And as soon
as Sir Kay saw the sword, he knew it was the sword of the stone and so
rode to his father, Sir Ector, and said, “Sir, here is the sword of the
stone, therefore I must be king of this land ”

When Sir Ector beheld the sword he returned to the church and made Sir
Kay swear upon a Bible how he came by the sword

“Sir,” said Kay, “my brother, Arthur, brought it to me.”

“How got you this sword?” said Sir Ector to Arthur

“Sir, I will tell you When I came home for my brother’s sword, I found
nobody at home And I thought my brother, Sir Kay, should not be
swordless, so 1 came here and pulled it out of the stone ”

“Now” said Sir Ector to Arthur, “1 understand you must be king of this
land, for never should a man have drawn out this sword but he that shall
be nghtwise king Now let me see whether you can put this sword where it
was and pull it out again ”

So Arthur put it in the stone Then Sir Ector tried to pull out the sword
and failed

“Now you try,” said Sir Ector unto Sir Kay And he pulled at the sword
with all his might, but it would not be

“Now shall you try,” said Sir Ector to Arthur

“1 will well,” said Arthur and pulled it out easily

And then Sir Ector and Sir Kay knelt down to the earth

“Alas1” said Arthur “Mine own dear father and brother, why kneel you to
me?”

“No, my Lord Arthur, it is not so I was never your father nor of your
blood, but now I know you are of a higher blood than I ever thought you
were ” And then Sir Ector told him how he had been entrusted to him by
Merlyn And Arthur was very sad when he understood that Sir Ector was not
his father

Then they went unto the Archbishop and told him about the sword And all
the lords came there to try to take the sword, but none could take it
out but Arthur Then were many lords angry and said it was a great shame
to them all and to the realm to be governed by a boy of no high blood
born And so they all argued and it was put off until Candlemas, when all
the lords should meet again

So at Candlemas many more great lords came there to win the sword, and
as at New Year’s Day, Arthur pulled out the sword easily The lords were
very angry, and many said to put it off until the high feast of Easter
But some of these great lords were so angry that it was put off even
until the feast of Pentecost

And at the feast of Pentecost all manner of men tried to pull out the
sword, but none could do it but Arthur, and he pulled it out before all
the lords and commons that were there Then all the commons cried at
once, “We will have Arthur for our king’ We will delay him no more, for
we see that it is God’s will that he shall be our king, and whoever
holds against it, we will slay him ”

And they knelt at once, both rich and poor, and asked Arthur for mercy
because they had delayed him so long And Arthur forgave them and took
the sword between both his hands and offered it up upon the altar to the
Archbishop, who made him a knight And soon the coronation was
celebrated, and Arthur was sworn unto his lords to be a true king, to
stand with true justice for all the days of this life.

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