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Английское прилагательное в подъязыке научно-популярной статьи

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27

Ф????? ????о ? ???в?ию

Г??????? ???????е ????? ???о ????????о ?????я

А???й ???????й ?????т

(ГОУВПО «А?У»)

Ф???? Ф??????й

К??? А????й ф????

С?????? П??од и ???????е

КУРСОВАЯ РАБОТА

? ??: П??????е в ??я?? ???-?п?я?? ???

? ????? С????а ?????о я??

И?о???ь ???т ??? 693

Н.А. Ч????

Р?????ь ?в. ?ф., ???

Л.П. Д????

РЕФЕРАТ

К???я ??? ???? 30 с., 30 ??????? ?????, 2 ????ия.

Имя ???????, ??????? ??ь, ???-??ля?? ????, ??ля???я, ???-??ля?ая ??ья,
??я?к ???-??ля?? ???, ??????ая ???я, ????и???, ???????ь, ?????о-э?????ая
?е?а, э???????, ?????.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

В???е

1. О????? ??я?? ???-??ля?? ?а?и

1.1 Ж?р ???-??ля?? ??? ?к ??????ь ???-??ля??о ???ля

1.2 С???а ???ия ????? в ???-??ля?? ???

2. Имя п??????е

2.1 П??????е в ???и ??????? ???? ??

2.2 А???г???й ????л ???????о

3. Э???????? ?????ие ???????? ???????о

З?лю??е

Б???????? ???

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Н??о-?????я ??лю?я, ????я ? ??й ?к ????? ??????? ??в, ???а к ??, ?о ??
????? в ??и ???? и ???? в ??м ?????о ???? и ??????ь ? ??ля???я (????
???й ????? в ????ой и ????й ??е ???й ?????? ????и ???????).

В ?я? с э?м ????ся ???с к ???-??ля??у ??т?ю ?к ??????и ???????? с???
?????? ???? ??ия.

В??с о ????х ???-??ля??о ??? в ??оя?е ??я ??т ????? ?р??р. Н??о-??ля?ая
????? ??а ? р?? ?????о ???; ??о и ?????е ???ают ?? ?? ???о ???-??ля??о
???. С??м ??? ??м ???-п??я??о ??? ?? ??т, ?????ю?й ???-??ля?? ??м.

У???? ???? к ???-??ля?? ?о????е ? ???ы ???, ???я ????о ????ня? ?????и
???-??ля??о ???ля, ??????ая ?о к ????м ???? ?????, ??о ?????ой ??????я
??я?? ???-??ля?? ??ьи.

Н??о-??ля?ая ??ья ????ля? ??? ???с ?я ???ия, ????у ?????т к ????????
??????о-??????? ?? ???, ?????аю?? ??????? ???о-????????о и ???? ???????
??? и ???ую?? ? ??? ??????ю ???ю, ? и ???ю ?????я. В ?я? с ?м, ???? ???
????ля?ся ???? ???????о ?к ??а, ???ю?? м?????? ??????х ???в и ?????ью
???? ?????о- э?????? ????е.

П??????е – ?? ? ???? ????х и ???х ?я ?????ия ??? ??, ?о ?я?? с ряд?
??оя???в, к??? ????ают ?к ?????ю ????у ???????, ?к и ? ?????? в ???.

И?????? ???????о ?к ???ва ???? ???????о, с?????-????? ????я к ??????
яв??ю ???ля?ся ? ???????и и ???????и ????????, а ??? ???????ью, ???? ?
??????? ???иям и ??????й э?????о-????х ???? ???в в ????е.

Н???: В ????н? ????? ??но-??ля?? ??ьях ????е?е ?? в э?????? ???? ????ля?
??й ?оя??? ??????? ??? ????я ??? и ???. М?? ???ь, ?о э?????ая ??я????,
?????я л?????и ?????, ?????? и ?????а ?я ??я ????? ???й ??ы.

П??? ?????ия: ???????? ???о-????е??о ??? ??????? в ????? ???-??ля?? ???.

О??т ?????ия: ?я ??????? и ????с? ?о ???????ия в ???-??ля?? т??е.

Ц?ь ?????ия: ???о?? ??????? ???и ???????о в ??я?? ???-??ля?? ???.

З??и ?????ия:

1. О???????ь ??я?к ???-??ля?? ??? ?к ??о???? ???-??ля??о ???ля..

2. О??? ???? ???ия ????? ?к ??й ? ?????? ???-??ля?? ???.

3. Р????? ????о-??????? ????л ???????о.

4. И????? ???и ??и ???????о в ??? ???-?п?я?? ???.

1. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПОДЪЯЗЫКА НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНОЙ СТАТЬИ

1.1 Ж?р ???-??ля?? ??? ?к ??????ь ???-??ля??о ???ля

С?л?? ?????ю И.В. А???, ??????? с?? – ???й, ?????й, ???й, ?э??с?й, ?????
и ???????? – я?яю?я ?????? я??, ??ая ? ???х ???? ??? ??????? ?????я? в
???е и ?????и, в ??????? ?????ях, а ??? и в ????.

К??й ? ??????? ??? ????ля?ся ? ??е ???е и ????? ??и??о-???е ??????и:
?????е, ???? и ?к ??е – ??? ? ????я в ??е ??????? ???? ??? а??а ???. Т??
???м, ??? ????? ??т, с ???м ??т ?? ??????ь, ???? ?????? ????и ???и и
????ля, и ????? ??е ???й ?о ?????с?, к ???й ? ?????т.

Н??о-??ля?? ???? – ?? ? ?????-???х ??????? ???? ??я, ??ля?ая ? ????и
????? «???????» ??ч ?????? – ??????и «????» ?????й ???й ????? ? я?к
??????? ??ия, а ??? – ??ч ??ля???и ???х ??? ?я ?р?? ????и. П??я???
?????я ??? ?????, ?к: ?????? и ???????о?ь.

Х????? ?????ью ???-??ля??о ???ля я?я?ся ????? в ?м ?ляр?х ???? ??: ?????
и э???????, ??????и и ???????, ??????и и ??????.

Из ??х ?? ??? – ??ля??о ??я ???т ???ь:

а) ?????ь ????я ???х ???, ?????? «??????» ????;

б) ????е ?? ????х ??х ????й ? ????? ????;

в) ????? ??????е ?? ????ой ??и ?????? ???? ?????;

г) ????? ???? ???? ??????я ????, а ?и ?????м ?????? ????? ??я?я? ? ????;

д) «? ??????? ???? ???и, ????? ?????ия; ??????ь ??? «??? ???лю ???????
????х ????ей и «???? ? ????? ???? ????ия;

е) ??????е ??????х ???в (в ?м ??е ???х) ?????и ???ия ???ля;

ж) ????? к ???????, ?????с? ????я и ????е ???.

Со ???ы ?????-???й ?е э? ????ся:

1) в ???й ??? и ???й, ?м в ??? ???м ???, ???и ??????и; в б????? ???в ???
??????и;

2) в ???? ??????? ?????й, ????? ???? ?????х ?????й;

3) в ???? ??? ????и к «?????? ????», ?????ю?м ???? ??т?я и ????ю?м ?д,
??? ???я ??и;

4) в ??е ???м, ?м в ????? ???м ??е, ??????и ???в ????й ?????, ????
????й;

5) в «?????» ?????ия ???х ????, ???? ??х, и ????о ???м ??????и а?????
???и;

6) в ???? ????м ????и к ????м ?????й ?? (???о-???????? и ???????) и ?.

В?м э?м и ????я ???й и яс?й, а ??е и я?? ??ь ?????о, ??ля??о ????я ???х
???.

В ??? ???-??ля??о ???ля ??ляют ?? ???-??ля?? ???. С??я в ???-??ля?? ???е
я?я?ся ???? ?????????, ?к ?к ?а в ??у?? ??е ???я? ???? ??у ????й ?????ся
с ??? ????ия? в люб? ??е ?я????и.

О???????? ???-??ля?? ??? ? ??е ???????е ??, ?к ??? и ?ъя??? ???х ???м,
??????т ?????? ???о ???? ??а к ??????? ?? ???. В ????? ????ся ?????е
??????о-??????е ??????ое ?????, ?????й ??к ???? ???т ???-???????? ??ь.
Ц?е????и, ??? ??????? в ???м ??????, ??ают ???? ???? ?????го ??а
???-??ля?? ???: ????????, ??????ь, ?????чн??, ??р????ь.

В отличие от научной прозы в научно-популярной литературе значительно
меньше специальных терминов и других собственно научных средств. Здесь
автор-специалист обращается к читателю, не знакомому в достаточной мере
с данной наукой, поэтому информация преподносится в доступной, и нередко
– в занимательной форме.

С?????ая ???? ?????о ????ия ???-??ля?? ??? ?? ???лям ?????ь ??? ?ня? ?
??р??е.

1.2 С???а ???ия ??з??и в ???-??ля?? ???

С?е??? ?? ?ня?м, ??????ь ????? ? ?????? ?????????й ???ь ???ля ???ят к
???ию ???, ?????ую??ся ??????и ????я? в ??? ?к???? и ??????? ???в:
??????? э???? ?????й ??, ??????? ????? и э?????о-????х ???в.

И?????? ?????й ???и я?я?ся ???м ???ия ?????я ?????и ??но-??ля??о ??? и,
??е ??, ?????ет ????ю «??а ???ля» и «??а ?та?ля», ?о я?я?ся ?????
?????о-??????? ????м ???-??ля??о ??я.

В ????и, ???? в ??т ???? и ????к ???? ??? ???ь ???ля в ???оя????и
????я?х ?????й и ?????в: “For so many people, the process of oil
painting is easier said than done”.

Е?и ?????е э???ы п???ы ???ь ?????е ?????и, ? о???е ???? ??? ???????о
??я?е?ю ?????й ?????. Л??????? ??м?? ????? ?? ???но ? ??л???? ?? в ?????
????. Н???н?е ???е э?????? ????? ??а – о?????? ???я?е ??????о ???? и ??й
????и ??а. Т??о ??е ??е??е ??у ????ия ????о-????? ??с???? и ??н??, ??ю?х
???я?е ??е ?????, ?????-?я???, и ???т э?????о-???? ??????е, а в ???????х
???? – э?????ую ???о?ь. E.g. pitiless sunlight, a low dreamy air.

Э??????? в ???м ??? ?????. П????? ??????ая э???????. Для ????ия
э???с???и ????ю?я ????е ???????ы (all, ever, even, quite, really,
absolutely, so): very far from conservative, much less limited, almost
all of which, very effective, much the same, most essential, very
diverse sorts, long before the war и т. д.

Д???о ??о в ???х ???? – ??ля??о ??я ??о ????ь ????я, ???е, ?к ???о, ?
???? я?? ???в и ? ???ют ??й ?????й ????и ????я:

The computer serves in much the same way as a sheet of paper in
providing a medium for recording what the mind is incapable of storing –
large and complex descriptions of designs as they progress.

Ч??е ?????? ????й ? ????. С???? ?у?т ??? ?я ??я??о и ????? ???ия ?ъ??
?????ия, а ??е ?я ????я в э?м ???е ??й-? ??й ?????й о?????, ????у ???й
??р ??т ?к??ь ?и ????. Э? ????е ?????я ????я ??, ?о ????е, ?к ???????
??м, ???? ? ????и ?о??а ??й-?? ??й ??ы у ?????? ????в (я???) ?и ???
?????й д??х ??:

“If we look upon heat as a rhythmic dance of the atoms, perhaps we may
also contemplate the possibility of a single atom executing a pas
seul…”

З?? ??о ???????я ?к ??ц ???, т.е. в ???? ???ва ???? ??? ?? ??а — ????с?
???ия; ?е ??? ??ы ?????ую?я ??? ??????.

П? ??? ????й ??я?я?ся ???я ?????ия: ?white blood cells or leycocytes
have nothing to do with the Traffic Department. They are rather the
members of the National Guard. And their job is to protect the cell
community from out side invasion.

С???ия ??т ?? ???????и (????) и ????я??, ?????и (я????). В ??? ??? ?и
???? ???????ь ???т с ??? ??к ??ия, ? ??? ??? ????я ??? ???ют ??? ?? ????
(as like as two pearls), ?? ? ???? (like) ??? ?ть ???? ????. У????е
(????я?е) ????я ? ???ы ?я я?? ????? ???-??ля?? ?????, ????? ????? в ????
??ую?? ??ая? ??????я: as good as one”s word; as like as chalk and
cheese; as old as mankind:

“All of you know that the idea of communicating intelligence without
visible means is almost as old as mankind”.

Р??? (???????) ???ния, ????ю?я:

а) ?я ??????й ????й ?????т?и ?я????и ???о:

“Rankine”s name is not mentioned…, although to the English engineer
this seems like leaving out the name of Colambus in a history of the
discovery of America”.

б) ?я ??????? ??к? ?????ия:

“These individuals (neuters) act as soldiers doing apparently no work,
but keeping watch over the nest and attacking intruders with great
boldness”.

Во ?? ??аях ?????ия ???х ????й ??р ?оя?я? ?? э?????? ????е к ??????,
????у ??з ???? э??????и ????и: ? ????т ? ???ля (????я) в ?? ??й ??????и
и ??????; ? ?? ????ля?ся ?????ю и ?????т ???а ??? ???, ?о ????т ?
?????е.

Г??? ?? в ???-??ля?? ????и ????ю?я ?????? и ???? э???, ?т??ы и ??????я:

Cyberspace is liquid, liquid cyberspace, liquid architecture, liquid
cities. Liquid architecture is an architecture that breathes, pulses,
leaps as one form and lands as another.

Для ???х ?????? ????? ?к я???я, ?к и ???я ????. П??я ?????т ??????м
????м я??, ?е ????ь в я?? ?к ??о ??е, и ?????ся ???м в в?е «???? ???. Э?
???? ?????, ?????а, ??? ???????о, ?????о-????? ???. В?рая ??? ??а,
?????а, ??т ????? ????.

Е?????й э??? «??????, ???? ?и ?????? я???х ???р, э? ??????е ?? ?и ??о
?????я, ?ею?го ????? ????, ??д ???????м, ??я?м в ????. Т?, to throw
light ??у?? в ?р???: to throw a considerable light, to throw a new
light, throw important light:

“Among the pebbles and gravel were several fragments of true volcanic
lava, which throw a considerable light on the course of the Arctic
current…”

“…on this process (the respiration of the abyssal fauna) also the
results of the analyses of the gases throw very important light”.

В ???-??ля?? ???х ???я ???? ? ?ая? ? ?? ?????? ???? ?????ия; ?а ?я?я?ся
??? ?к ??????? ???? ?я ???ия ?????? ???й ???????.

Р??ая ???? в ???х ???х ?ж? ?? ?????й и ??????й. П???яя ??????ся ??м
?р??.

Н???р:

“This blossoming out in the field of genetic aspects of metabolic
control is of recent origin…”

Э?????ая ???а ?????ия ???т ?? ????? в ?м ???, ??а ????, ??? ?????й, ????
ряд ???в, ?? ? ???х я?я?ся ?????м:

“The admixture of a little sulfur or carbolic acid could do no hurt; but
my observation is that potash or soda is sufficient whenever the
application can be made directly upon the fungus. The whole matter is
exceedingly obscure; but I am well convinced that we shall finally
conquer, and that in some way by overcoming the destructive influence of
a minute, though sufficiently aggressive fungus enemy”.

Ц????? ???м в ??ой ???? я?я?ся ??з ??а — enemy, ???й ???ля?ся ?к
aggressive. Д??????е ??? ???ю?я ????и to overcome, to conquer, ???????
destructive.

М???а ?к ??????? ??м ???е?? ???яе?я в ??? ?????? ?лях, ???ю?х ???м
???-??ля??о ??????я. Т?? ??????? ???е ???н??й ???????ия ???? в
???-??ля?? ??? ????т ? ?????? ????ь?й ??? к ??????ю ???? ?бъ???о-э??????
??? в ???й ?????.

А?? ???-??ля?? ??? ?я???? ????ся ????? ?ня?я?. Е? ?? – ???ь ???лю ??????
????е к ?и???? ???, я??иям, ??????тям, ???ть, ?о э? ??ы в ?с?й ???и
????ы, ??????, ?о ?и, ?????, ????ают ???ия ? ??? ??????, ? ???о
лю??????о ????. С э?й ??ю ?м ???т ???ия ?????ся э?????о-э?????? ???.
Н???р:

“The handsome silvery-looking tree is the White Willow. If only the wild
flowers could be changed, just for one single day, into the people who
have come to them for help, or had strange dealings with them! What a
fascinating spectacle we should see.”

О???? ??? ?я?я?ся в ???-??ля?? ???х и в ?я? с ???? ???й ???и ?????? ??
?и ??о ????. О??а ??т ?? ???? ?я? и ????. Пря?я ??? ????ся в ???? ????я
э???м.

Э??т я?я?ся ??? ????м ???ия ????? в ???-??ля?? ??????. Он ???я? ?? я?ую
э?????ую ??????? ???? ?и я??ию. О????ь э??? в ???й ???и ???ля?ся ?о
я???м ?????. В???я, в ???е ????????х ????й, э??т ?????т н????ую ???ю
???у.

Т?? ???м, у?????е ?????х э???? ?????й ??, ??????? о????и и э?????о-????х
???в ???? ????, ?о ???????я ????а ??? ???-??ля?? ??? и ?????я ею
п??????я ??????? я?яю?я ?к ? ??оэ????и ???, ???ляю?? ???? ??? я???х
???в.

2. Имя ???????

2.1 П??????е в ???и ??????? ???? ??

П?к??у ??????? ? ?еют ??й ??ы ?????, ? ? ????е ?? ?и и?? ???о-???????
???? ????е??? в ?? ?????? ????а ????????, с ???м ?о ????ся. П? ????и
???????? ????? ????и у ??????? ?? ??о ???????я ?????? ???? (loud music,
black coffee, new shoes, toxic waste) , а с ??????, ?????и ???????? в
???? ???ую?я ??????е ????? (an insoluble problem, a fair decision, a
melancholy mood, a controversial topic).

П? ????и с ?????и ???в????и, ??????? ?? ??о ??у?ют в ??? в ???и ?????о
??д??ия. Л????е ?????я ?я?яют ????н??е ?????е ???? и ???? ???т?, я???. В
????ях round table, green leaf, large hand, little girl, blue eyes,
solid matter и т.д. ??а round, green, large, little, blue, solid – ?????
?????я.

В ?м ???, ?? ??ч??е ?????е ?????? ? ??? в ????о-?????, ? и в э??????
з???и, ?о ????ся э???м.

Т?, ?п??р, ??????? green в ????и a green youth я?я?ся э???м, ????у в э?м
????и ?????я ?????е ????о-?г???е ???? “green” ???й и ?я??? с ?м э??????
????.

Ч?е ??о э??? ??ют ???? ?и??т???и в ?????? ???и, ??о???? ?и ???????.
И?????? ??????? в ???и э??? ???ля?ся ? ???????и и ???????и ????????, а
??? ???????ью, ???? ? с??????м ???иям и ????а?ей э?????о-????х ???? ???в
в к????.

О?? ??о э??? ???ю?я ? ??м ???, а ??????ия?, ???е, в ?я? с ? ?????? ??ц?й
и п?????? ?????, ????ают ???? ?о??о ??а. Н???р, well-watched,
fairly-balanced.

П??????е, ???????, ?к я???е э???, ????? ?ряют ?? ????о-??ч??е ???? и ?е
??? ???аю?я с ???ля?? ???. В ????? ???ю?я ?????? ???????? ???ы, в ???х
???ля?? и ?????е ??аю?я в ?? ?ня?е, ????, true love, dark forest и ?.

2.2 А??????? ????л ???????о

П??????е, ???е ???е??ют ????? ???ы ? ????? ??с?? ?? ? ?? ? ???? ????х
???в. О??о ?и ??????и у ?х ??т ????ь ????е ???.

Н???р: dark horse – в ?я?м ???? ?????а?е ? ??т ????х ?????, а в ???????
– ?ё?ая ???? ???? ???? – ??о. В? ??????? ???т о ???й ?? ??????? в ????
??????? э???в. С??? ??е???, ?о ??????? э??т ????ля? ??й ????т ?????,
???? ?????я ?????й ???ы, ??? ?о ????? ??ен? – э? ????е, ?р???е ????
я???? ??а, ?????ую?го ???к ?и ????.

О???? ???????, ???е ?лю?ют в ?? ??? ??????е ??, т.е. ??????? ?к ?????
???й ???, л?? ????ают ??????ие ???: ???с ???? с ???? ?????о ?? ? ???
???ы ???ля? ?? ? о???х ???? ??????и: crude line – ??ая л?ия и crude
smile – ??ая ???а. Пря?я ??я – straight line и ?я?й ??т – straight
answer.

П???т??? ???ю?е ??????е ?и ??????е ???? о ?м, ?о о? ????, т.е. ????е ?и
?????е (time-tested method, out-of-date method), ???? ????м ?????м
???ия.

О??а ??т ?? ???? ?к в э?????й, ?к и в ?п???? ??е.

Н???р:

Electric guitar packages are typically an all in one answer to the
problem of getting someone started with an electric guitar. Is it the
best way to go for a beginner though?

Б???ря ??????ю ???????о “good” в ??е ?????? ???и ?????ь и ???????
?оя?я?ся в э?????й ??е. Н???я ? ?, ?о ?? ? ?? ??????? “best” ??т я?о
????ую ??????ю ?????ь, в ??? ??? ?о ?????т ??????ю ????ию. Э? ?я?? с ?м,
?о в ??? ??? ??????? “best” ???з??я в ?????и, ?ся?м ???? ???ч??? ???а.
О?????? ?????? э?х я???х ???в ???? ???лю ??я?? с ??й ??и ??ия ? ????я?е
?????я и ?????, а ??е ???ля? ?о ????ся о ???????? ????я?? ??ия ? ?????у
в ??? ???у. В ? ? ??я ??????е ???????о “good” в ??е ?????? ???и в
?????и, ?ею?м ??у ??????о ???а, ???ит ???ля к ???я?ю ????й т?? ??ия,
?????? ????ю ??? с ????м.

О??а ??т ??ь ??????й ???? и ?????ся в ??м ??? с ???ю ???????: terrible,
ghastly, nightmarish. Н???р:

” We’ll examine the microclimate down around our feet, which is far
different from the one around our heads. And we’ll take a look at the
terrible temper tantrums of the vast sea of air.”

” A tourist passing through Polk Country in south-eastern Tennessee
suddenly came over a rise and saw a sight that could have come straight
from a science fiction movies. As far as his eye could see, the area was
devastated. Shrubs and trees, barren of leaves, were waving ghastly arms
at a grey sky, and there wasn’t blade of grass on the ground. The area
had the nightmarish appearance of some lifeless planet…”

О?????о-????я ??????? ???? ??т ?? ???? ? ??? ???????и с ???оя???м
э?????? ????м, ? ??е и э?????о-?????и ???????и:

“The scarcity of water is probably the most serious limiting factor for
any Martian biology.”

“One of the strongest statements that can be made about Martian biology
is that if there is life on the planet there must be at least one
photosynthetic species.”

П??????е strong и serious ???б?? в ?????? ???и ????я, и э?, ?????, ?ё
??? ?????т ???ь э?????? ???и ???о ???.

И?к, ???, ?????ая ??? ???????и, ??в?а ? ?м, ?о ???? ???? ????т ??з ???
?д?????-э??????о ???я?я. П??????е в ??м ??? ????ся ????м э?????? ????й
???????.

3. ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНОСТИ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОГО

The biologist Iain Douglas-Hamilton is walking up on an elephant, a
sizable young female, nubile and shy. Her name, as she’s known to him
and his colleagues, is Anne. She stands half-concealed within a cluster
of trees on the knob of a hill in remote northern Kenya, browsing
tranquilly with several members of her family. Around her neck hangs a
stout leather collar along which, at the crest of her shoulders, like a
tiny porkpie hat, sits an electronic transmitter. That transmitter has
allowed Douglas-Hamilton, flying in by Cessna, proceeding here on foot
through the tall grass and acacia scrub, to find her. Crouching now, he
approaches upwind to within 30 yards. Anne gobbles some more leaves.
She’s oblivious to him, or maybe just not interested.

Elephants can be dangerous animals. They are excitable, complex, and
sometimes violently defensive. Douglas-Hamilton is a world-renowned
expert who has studied them for 40 years. Don’t try this at home.

He wants a clear look at the collar. He has heard reports that it may be
too tight-that she has grown into it since having been
tranquilizer-darted, fitted, and thus recruited as a source of research
data. Ordinarily, Douglas-Hamilton does his elephant-watching more
cautiously, from the safe containment of a Land Cruiser, but no vehicle
can drive this terrain, and Anne’s comfort and health are at issue. The
collar should hang loose, with a dangling counterweight below. He wants
to be sure that Anne’s isn’t snugged up to her throat like a noose. But
at present, amid the thicket, she’s showing him only her imperious
elephantine butt. So he creeps closer.

Three other men lag back. One is David Daballen, a bright young Samburu
protйgй of Douglas-Hamilton’s, who often accompanies the boss on
missions like this. The second man is a local guide holding a Winchester
308 rifle. The third is me. As we watch Douglas-Hamilton edging forward,
we notice another female elephant, big one, probably the group’s
matriarch, sidling around craftily on his right flank. We duck low to
escape the matriarch’s view. We freeze. As this female comes on,
suspicious and challenging, Douglas-Hamilton seems unconcerned with her,
but Daballen begins to look nervous. He is calculating (he’ll tell me
later) how fast an elephant might be able to charge across such a rocky,
rubble-strewn slope.

Then the big female commits herself to a sequence of gestures suggesting
nonchalance, if not outright contempt: She pisses torrentially, she
defecates galumphingly, and she turns away. Anne herself swings daintily
out of the brush. She steps toward Douglas-Hamilton. The gap between
them is 50 feet. For a few seconds the young female graces him with a
frontal(?я?й) view of her large forehead, her floppy ears, her pretty
tusks, as though posing for beauty shots in the glow of a flash. She
gives him a profile. He raises his camera and clicks off several frames.
Then she too turns and ambles away. Through his lens, in those seconds,
he has seen that the collar hangs just as it should. The alarm was a
false one. Anne is in no danger-or anyway, no danger of chafing or
choking.

As we withdraw, circling back toward our vehicle, I think: So that’s how
it’s done. Show a little caution, a little respect, get the information
you need, back off. And everybody is happy. After four decades
Douglas-Hamilton knows this species about as well as anyone in Africa.
He has a keen sense, well earned by field study and sharpened by love,
of the individuality of the animals-their volatile moods, their subtle
signals, their range of personalities and impulses. Nothing about his
interaction with Anne has prepared me for the moment, some weeks later,
when I’ll watch him charged, caught, thrown, and nearly tusked through
the gut by an elephant.

SOON WE’RE ALOFT again in Douglas-Hamilton’s Cessna, flying low over the
contours of the landscape. It’s his preferred style, flying low; why go
up a thousand feet when you can caress the topography? So we rise and
descend gently over the rocky slopes, the ridges, the dry acacia plains,
the sand rivers, returning northeast toward a place called Samburu
National Reserve. Just beyond the reserve sits a gravel airstrip and,
not far from that, his field camp. We’ll be home before dark.

Samburu National Reserve is one of the little known jewels of northern
Kenya, taking its name from the proud tribe of warriors and pastoralists
in which David Daballen, among others, has his roots. The reserve is a
relatively small area, just 65 square miles of semiarid savanna, rough
highlands, dry washes (known locally as luggas), and riparian forests of
acacia and doom palm along the north(????) bank of the Ewaso Ngiro
River. Lacking paved roads, sparsely surrounded by Samburu herders, it
teems with wildlife. There are lions, leopards, and cheetahs, of course,
but also Grevy’s zebras, reticulated giraffes, beisa oryx, gerenuks,
Somali ostriches, kori bustards, and a high diversity of showy smaller
birds such as wattled starlings, and lilac-breasted rollers. But the
dominant creatures are the elephants. They play a major role in shaping
the ecosystem itself-stripping bark from trees or uprooting them,
keeping the savanna open. They intimidate even the lions. They come and
go across the boundaries of the reserve, using it as a safe haven from
human-related dangers in a much larger and more ambivalent landscape.

Х?я ????а ???????о ??я ?????ся ? ?????? ????е?я ????а я???х ???в, ?? о
?к??? ? ?х ??о ???? ?к ? обя????х, т.е. ?????ю?х ?? ? в ???, ? в ???яю?м
?????е т???, ??я?х в ?, ?и ?? ??????о-???? ?????е. Для ??я?? ??но-??ля??
??? ??????? я?я?ся ?????ую?м в ?? ??, ?о ?о????т ????? ?о ???? ???й
?дъя?? ???-??ля?? ???, а ???: ??????й и ??ля?????й.

Н?и ?? ???????? ??ья —-, ??????ая в ???е —. В ????? ???а ?? ?????о,
?о ??? ??? ???-?п?я?? ??? ???е ?????? ???????о ?к ???оя???, в ????
?????я, ?к и в ???е ??????х ??в????? и ??????? ???в. Е? ?????? ?я?? с
??????ью ????о п????? ???ю ????ию в ?????о д???? и ??????й ??е.

Для ??, ??ы ???ь ???с к п???у ????я, а ??е ???? ?? ????е к ??????, ??р
??? ??? в ??т ??? э?????о- э?????ую и ????ю ???у.

Н???р:

“Having said that? There is no denying that an electric guitar is a sexy
instrument? And some people will no be denied.

В ??? ???е ??????? “sexy” ??т ??????ю ?????ь.

“Playing any instrument for the first time could be painful experience
for any unwilling audience and an affront on your ego!

В э?м ???е ??????? “painful”, ?ею?е ?? ? ?? я?о ????ую ??????ю ?????ь, в
??? ????е ?????о с ??????й ?????й.

В ??? ?????и ? ??м ??ю?? э???ы ??????й э?????? ?е?и ?????х я??? и ????:

“Not only would it be an unparalleled technological achievement, but it
would be striking scientific event that would enlarge our view of nature
and ourselves and provide unique evidence bearing on the origin of
life.”

В ?н?х ? ?????ях ?е?а ??? ??????й ???и, ??? э??о???я ? ???а ??ь я?о
????:

“The Martian environment is a harsh one by terrestrial standards. The
mean temperature is -55° C, compared to +15° C for the Earth.”

Для ??????? ????? ???е ?????о-????х ???? и ?????ую?х ?????.

1. П??????е

Э?????о-э?????ая ???а ????ля? ??й ?т ??т ????? ???а я??, ???й ?я?н ?
???ию с ??????и ????и и, ?к ???о, ???ет ??????е ?и ??????е ????е.

В ?я? с ??????м ??????х ???в ???????о ??ь ?? ?и ??о ?????ия в ??????
???и ???т ? ????а ???ляю?х ??, ? ??? ??????я ? ???м. С?????? п??????? ?к
??а, ????? ??ж?ь ?????о-э?????? ????е, ??? ???? э?й ??и ?? ????? ????й
?????.

А????я ???я ????? ???????я ??????? ????х ??????? ???в. В ??????? ???х (?
????ю с ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? я??) ??е ????? э??? ??????о
(?????о, ???????о) и, ??????о, э?????о-?????.

С??????й ??? ???.

Д??е ?????? в ???и ????? ???й ??ы ?? ????о ?ою в ??е ?я??ия ????,
?????аю?х п?????? э?????? э????, э?????о-?р???й ???и в ????? ???й ??т.
М?ю ?? ????? ??, ?я??ь, ??е ???ти??? ???? ????ют ??? ???х ???, ??ы ????
??м??ю ????ь, “???ь” ???? ???, ???ь ?ия?е ? ???ля, и ?я??ь, ?к э? ????
???ю?я с ???й, ” ???й” ???? ???? ????я.

И?к, ???? ??о и?????я с?? ??ья, ??????ая в ???е “Science”,

№4, 1976 и ???ая в ???к ????? ?????х ???в, ???й ?л ????н А.И. Чё?? и
???н в ?????? “Н??” в 1979 ??. П???й ??? ????я??й ??? я??я ?т ??, ?о в
?й ???? я?о ?????ю?я ????и ??и???ия э?????? э???? в ???е ??????е. С??я
??? ????? ?????с?? ?????, ??аю?? ? э?????ую ??????. Н??ь ??? э?й ?????
н??? ??? ???? ? с ?х э?????о- э?????? э????, ???е ?я?? ? ???ию с ??????и
????и, и, ?к ???о, ???ют ????я ??? к я??иям, ?????м ? в ?о ???. Э?
???????, ???ю?е ????ю ?е?у ?????х в ???й ??? ???.

а) П??????е

И?к, ?к ?е ?? ???? ??, в ?я? с ??????м ??????х ???в ???????о ??ь ?? ?и
??о ?о????я в ?????? ???и ???т ? ????а ???ляю?х ??, ? ??? ????в?ия ?
???м. С?????? ???????о ?к ??а ???? ???? ??е???-э?????? ????е ??? к
????ой ? ???. С?? ???????, ???ю?х в ??? ???м ??? ????ю ????ю ???????,
????о ??ля?ся ??? ??????? э?????? ???, ????:

Т?, в ??? ?????ях ? ??м ??ю?? э???ы ??????й э?????? ??? ?????х я??? и
????:

В ??? ? ?????ях ??? ??? ??????й ???и, ??? э???а?ная ? ???а ??ь я?о ????:

С??? ???? ??? ???? ? ?а ??ую?х ???а. П??????е ?????ы в ????д?й ???и
????я, и э?, ?????, е? ??? ?????т ???ь э?????? о??? ???о ???? ???:

И?к, ???, ?????ая ??? ????е???, ???? ? ?м, ?о ???? ???? ????т ??з ???
??????о-э??????о ???я?я. А?? ?к ? ?вя??? ???лю ?ою ????????, ?? ???я?я и
???ия. П??????е в ??м с??е ????ся ????м э?????? ???н? ???????.

И?к, ??о ???, ?о ?и ?????н? ????й ?к ???в- ???? ?? ??ья ?????т ????ую
э?????ую ???у, ???? ????ся ??е ????м, ????? для ??ия ? ??? ?я ??????, ?
и ?я ?????.

Э? ? ?? ?????я ?и ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???в, ??????х ??. И, ???ая ???
??? “The Search for Extraterrestrial Life”, ??о ???ь, ?о
э?????о-э?????ая ???а ????? ????ую ????ь, ???я? т?? ? “???и” и “?????”
?о ?я ??е ???? ??а ????й.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

В ????? ???й ??е ??ы ?????? ??? ????, ???ия ?? ???? ?????? с ???, ????ют
ря?м с ??????ью ????й ??; э? ?е ??ы ?к ? ??аю?я ?? с ???, ? ??ю?ют ??
??а. С??? ????ь, ???, ?о ?????я ????я ?? в ??????? ????и ????? ??????
?????? ?ры ???, и ??? в ?я? с ?м, ?о ??ы ?????й ?????и ??????о ????ают,
э?????ая ?????? ???т??? ????я ???? ???я?ся и ??и??ся.

Ц???????е ??????е ?????? о??и, т, е. ?????е ??р??? я??ия ??з ??? ??????
???я?я, ?????? ???ию ??????? ??и, в о??е ???й ??т ????ая ?????ия ф??.
С???? ?????? и ??????? ????? ?????й с ???????ью э??о???-????вн? ??? ???т
???ую ??????? ???й ???, ??е, ?н???и и т. д.

В ??????м ????е ???????й ?? ????я ????я ????м в я???ю ??ь ???й ???, с
??й ???ы, ??о- ?????й и, с ??? ???ы, ?к н????й ???-???й ???и. О?е???е
?????й ???й ?????? и ?к ????? ?????х ??, ?????ую??я ?????й ???? ??????ю
с ??о- ?????й ???? ????ля? ??й ?з? ?????ую?е ????е ???тил?? э????. О? ?
????я ?к ??о??, ??ю?е ????ю ?? ???й ??? ????я а) ??й ??????? ??????и и
б) ??ю??ю ???? ????й. По???е ?оя?яю?я в ?м, ?о ?????я ???а ??? ??м, ?
???м ??тно ???ают ??????и-????? э???ы.

О??о ?????я ??????ая ?????я ?????я, ??????е ?????а ?? в ? ????
????о-????? ???иях, ???е ???? ??а ???? и ?????ых ?я ???й ??ы ?????в,
??н?, ????? и ???????ь ????я ???яют я?к ????? ????????? ??р??ы в ??х ???
??я ???й ??ы.

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. А. З????я. С????а ?????о я??. О??ы ??а: У??? ???е. И??ие 4-е ??.и ?п.
– М.: К?К??, 2006. – 224с.

2. .Р. Г????. Т?? ?к ??? ???????? ?????ия/И.Р. Г????.-5-е ?д. – М.:
Е???? УРСС, 2005. – 144с.

3. .А. Л???й. Л????? ???: ???е ???е/Ю.А. Л???й. – М.: В??я ш??, 2006.
–2007с.

4. .А. К???в. Н??ая ??: ??????? и ???а ??????я (? ??а ???):??????
???е/Г.А.К???в- Б??в???: ?д-? А?У, 2005 – 51с.

5.Н.М. Р????. С????а ?????о ???? ???. – М.: Е???? УРСС, 2005 – 211с.

6. Ю.М. С???в. О??ы ????? ?????о я??: ???к ?я ????? ?????х я??в: 2-е ?д.
??. и ?п. – М.: АСТ, 2004. – 221с.

7. С????а и ?????? ???????/В.И. М???в [и ?.]; ?д ?д. ??. В.И.

8. Ф???в, К.А. Л????? ???: К?с ??? СПб.: И?-? С.-П????. ?-?, 2003 .- 334
с.

С???к Г.Я. С????а ???: У??? ???е – М.: Ф??а, Н??, 1997.-256 с.

С??????ь и ????? в ???: М?????й ???к ???х ???. В??к 7 / ?в. ?д. М.П.
К?ю??. – П??: П?м. ун-т, 2004. – 392 с.
http://window.edu.ru/window/library?p_rid=50593

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