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Английская фразеология и идиоматика в историческом развитии

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O?acaieiaey eae iauaeo eco/aiey

O?acaieiaey- yoi iaoea i o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoeao (o?acaieiaeciao),
o.a. ia onoie/eauo ni/aoaieyo neia n ineiaeiaiiie naiaioeeie, ia
ia?acothueony ii ii?iaeaeathuei no?oeoo?ii- naiaioe/aneei iiaeaeyi
ia?aiaiiuo ni/aoaiee.

O?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu (o?acaieiaeciu) caiieiytho eaeoiu a
eaene/aneie nenoaia ycuea, eioi?ay ia iiaeao iieiinoueth iaania/eoue
iaeiaiiaaiea iiciaiiuo /aeiaaeii (iiauo) noi?ii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiuie iaicia/aieyie i?aaeiaoia,
naienoa, ninoiyiee, neooaoeee e o.ae. neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi «naii
iaeiaiiaaiea – yoi ia oieueei i?ioeann iaicia/aiey aeaiioaoa, ii e
i?ioeann iiciaiey». Ia?aciaaiea o?acaieiaeciia ineaaeytho i?ioeai?a/ea
iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoyie iuoeaiey e ia?aie/aiiuie eaene/aneeie ?ano?naie
ycuea. A oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea o o?acaieiaecia eiaaony eaene/aneee
neiiiei, iie iau/ii ?acee/athony a noeeenoe/aneii ioiioaiee. O?acaieiaey
– yoi nie?iaeuieoea ycuea. Ai o?acaieiaeciao iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea enoi?ey
ia?iaea, naiaia?acea aai eoeueoo?u e auoa. O?acaieiaeciu /anoi iinyo
y?ei iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. ia?yaeo n /enoi iaoeeiiaeueiuie
o?acaieiaeciaie a aiaeeeneie o?acaieiaee eiaaony iiiai
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?acaieiaeciia. Aiaeeeneee o?acaieiae/aneee oiiae –
neiaeiue eiiaeiia?ao eneiiiuo e caeinoaiaaiiuo o?acaieiaeciia n yaiui
i?aiaeaaeaieai ia?auo. A iaeioi?uo o?acaieiaeciao nio?aiythony
a?oae/aneea yeaiaiou – i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaeoanoaothueo yiio.

Ai o?aciia?aciaaiee ia?iiioth ?ieue ea?aao /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?, oae eae
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai o?acaieiaeciia naycaii n /aeiaaeii, n
?aciiia?aciuie noa?aie aai aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeoi? aae?anaoa yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii eiiioieeaoeee. E?iia oiai, /aeiaae no?aieony
iaaeaeeoue /aeiaa/aneeie /a?oaie iauaeou aiaoiaai ie?a, a oii /enea e
iaiaeooaaeaiiua. Aua O. Aaeee ooaa?aeaeae: «Ecaa/iia ianiaa?oainoai
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia i?iyaeyaony oaeaea e a oii, /oi /aeiaae anaaaea
no?aieoueny iaeooioai?eoue ana, /oi aai ie?oaeaao. Ii ia iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi i?e?iaea ia?oaa e aacaeooia; aai aiia?aaeaiea
iinoiyiii iaaeaeyao aeeciueth iaiaeooaaeaiiua i?aaeiaou, ii yoi aua ia
ana: /aeiaae iinoiyiii i?eienuaaao anai i?aaeiaoai aiaoiaai ie?a /a?ou e
no?aieaiey, naienoaaiiua aai ee/iinoe» A.A. Aae aiineo nouanoaaiiue
ei??aeoea a auneacuaaiea O.Aaeee: «Iineieueeo a oeaio?a aieiaiey
/aeiaaea iaoiaeeoueny ii nai, oi ionthaea aai iinoiyiiia no?aieaiea
iienuaaoue ie?oaeathuee ie? ii ia?aco e iiaeiaeth naiaio. sscueiaie
aio?iiiii?oeci yaeyaony ia ia?aaeeoeii ia?aiauoiiai iuoeaiey, eae yoi
ooaa?aeaeatho iaeioi?ua oeeiniou, ii iauei caeiiii ?acaeoey n?aaenoa
iiieiaoeee a ycuea». i?eaiaeeiue a aeaiiie eieaa iaoa?eae
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoi iieiaeaiea. Iiae ycueiaui aio?iiiii?oeciii iau/ii
iiieiaaony iaaeaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeie naienoaaie i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee
iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu, iaaaniuo oae, aeeaioiuo e ieoieiae/aneeo nouanoa.

O?acaieiaeciu – auniei eioi?iaoeaiua aaeeieoeu ycuea; iie ia iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny eae «oe?aoaiey» eee «eceeoanoaa». Iiaeiaiay o?aeoiaea
o?acaieiaeciia ano?a/aaony a iaeioi?uo ?aaioao e a aeaiiia a?aiy
yaeyaony onoa?aaoae. O?acaieiaeciu – iaeia ec ycueiauo oieaa?naeee, oae
eae iao ycueia aac o?acaieiaeciia. Aiaeeeneay o?acaieiaey i/aiue aiaaoa
e o iaa iiiaiaaeiaay enoi?ey.

O?acaieiaey – /?acau/aeii neiaeiia yaeaiea, eco/aiea eioi?iai o?aaoao
naiaai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiey aeaiiuo ae?oaeo
iaoe – eaeneeieiaee, a?aiiaoeee, noeeenoeee, oiiaoeee, enoi?ee ycuea,
enoi?ee, oeeinioee, eiaeee e no?aiiaaaeaiey.

Iiaiey eeiaaenoia ii ?yaeo i?iaeai o?acaieiaee ?anoiaeyony, e yoi aiieia
anoanoaaiii. Oai ia iaiaa aaaeiie caaea/ae eeiaaenoia, ?aaioathueo a
iaeanoe o?acaieiaee, yaeyaony a eioa?anao eae oai?ee o?acaieiaee, oae e
i?aeoeee i?aiiaeaaaiey eiino?aiiuo ycueia.

O?acaieiaey

eae eeiaaenoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia.

Oai?ey o?acaieiaee O. Aaeee

?iaeiia/aeueieeii oai?ee o?acaieiaee yaeyaony oaaeoea?neee eeiaaeno
o?aioeocneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey Oa?eue Aaeee (1865 -1947). Aaeee aia?aua
nenoaiaoece?iaae ni/aoaiey neia a naieo eieaao «I/a?e noeeenoeee» e «
O?aioeocneay noeeenoeea». Aaeee aeeth/ee aeaao i o?acaieiaee a naie
eieae ii noeeenoeea. A ia?aie eieaa ii auaeaeye /aou?a a?oiiu
neiaini/aoaiee: 1) naiaiaeiua neiaini/aoaiey (les groupements libres),
o.a. ni/aoaiey, eeoaiiua onoie/eainoe, ?aniaaeathueany iinea eo
ia?aciaaiey;

2) i?eau/iua ni/aoaiey ( les groupements usuels), o.a. neiaini/aoaiey n
ioiineoaeueiinaiaiaeiie naycueth eiiiiiaioia, aeiioneathuea iaeioi?ua
eciaiaiey, iai?eia?, une grave maladie – na?ueaciia caaieaaaiea (une
dangereuse, serieuse maiadie – iianiia na?ueaciia caaieaaaiea);

3) o?acaieiae/aneea ?yaeu (les series phraseologiques), o.a. a?oiiu
neia. A eioi?uo aeaa ?yaeiiieiaeiuo iiiyoey neeaathony ii/oe a iaeii.
Onoie/eainoue yoeo iai?ioia cae?aieyaony ia?ae/iuie neiaioiio?aaeaieai,
iai?eia?, remporter une viktoire – iaea?aeaoue iiaaaeo, (courir un
danger – iiaeaa?aaoueny iianiinoe. Yoe ni/aoaiey aeiioneatho
ia?aa?oiie?iaeo eiiiiiaioia;

4) o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeinoaa (les unites phraseologiques), o.a.
ni/aoaiey, a eioi?uo neiaa oo?aoeee naia cia/aiea e au?aaeatho aaeeiia
ia?aceiaeeiia iiiyoea. Iiaeiaiua ni/aoaiey ia aeiioneatho
ia?aa?oiie?iaee eiiiiiaioia. Oaeei ia?acii, Aaeee ?acee/aao ni/aoaiey
neia ii noaiaie onoie/eainoe: ni/aoaiey, a eioi?uo eiaaony naiaiaea
a?oiie?iaee eiiiiiaioia, e ni/aoaiey, eeoaiiua oaeie naiaiaeu. Aaeee
eeoue noaiaoe/anee iaiaoee yoe a?oiiu, ii ia aeae eo neieueei- ieaoaeue
iiae?iaiiai iienaiey.

A naiae aieaa iicaeiae ?aaioa «O?aioeocneay noeeenoeea» Aaeee
?anniao?eaaao i?eau/iua ni/aoaiey e o?acaieiae/aneea ?yaeu eae
i?iiaaeooi/iua oeiu neiaini/aoaiee e ?acee/aao eeoue aeaa iniiaiua
a?oiiu ni/aoaiee: naiaiaeiua ni/aoaiey e o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeinoaa
o.a. neiaini/aoaiey, eiiiiiaiou eioi?uo iinoiyiii oiio?aaeyaiua a
aeaiiuo ni/aoaieyo aeey au?aaeaiey iaeiie e oie aea iunee, oo?aoeee
anyeia naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea. Ana ni/aoaiea a oeaeii i?eia?aoaao
iiaia cia/aiea, ia ?aaiia noiia cia/aiee ninoaaiuo /anoae. Aaeee
oeacuaaao, /oi oaeie iai?io iiaeii n?aaieoue n oeie/aneei niaaeeiaieai,
e iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi anee aaeeinoai yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii
oiio?aaeoaeueiui, oi, i/aaeaeii, a yoii neo/aa ni/aoaiea ?aaiyaony
i?inoiio neiao. Aaeee noaaee o?acaieiae/iinoue neiaini/aoaiey a
caaeneiinoue io iaee/ey o iaai neiaa – eaeaioeoeeaoi?a. Yoe iunee Aaeee
iicaeiaa eaaee a iniiao auaeaeaiey o?acaieiae/aneeo n?auaiee e
?ac?aaioee oai?ee yeaeaaeaioiinoe o?acaieiae/aneie aaeeieoeu neiao ni
a?aiaie Aaeee enneaaeiaaiea o?acaieiaee oaaioei aeaeaei aia?aae. Ii
?aaioa aieueoiai o/aiiai, iaienaiiay ia ca?a eco/aiey o?acaieiaee
niinianoaiaaea aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth o?acaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.
Eiioeaioeey Aaeee ?anniao?eaaaony ai iiiaeo ?aaioao.

I?ei?eoao niaaoneie iaoee a nicaeaiee o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie
aeenoeeieeiu

A aiaeeeneie e aia?eeaineie eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iaei ?aaio,
niaoeeaeueii iinayuaiiuo oai?ee o?acaieiaee, ii e a eiathueony naiuo
cia/eoaeueiuo ?aaioao ia noaayony oaeea ooiaeaiaioaeueiua aii?inu, eae
iao/ii iainiiaaiiua e?eoa?ee auaeaeaiey o?acaieiaeciia, niioiioaiea OA(
o?acaieiae/aneay aaeeieoea) e neia, nenoaiiinoue o?acaieiaee,
o?acaieiae/aneay aa?eaioiinoue, o?aciia?aciaaiea, iaoiae eco/aiey
o?acaieiaee e ae?. oaeaea ia noaaeony aiaeeeneeie e aia?eeaineeie
o/aiuie aii?in i o?acaieiaee eae i eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeia. Yoei e
iauyniyaony ionoonoaea a aiaeeeneii ycuea iacaaiey aeey aeaiiie
aeenoeeieeiu. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Aaei?aeoa, «enneaaeiaaiea
eaeeiiaoe/iinoe ycueia yaeyaony, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a caiaaeiuo oeieao,
iaeiei ec iaeaieaa i?aiaa?aaaaiuo e iaeiaiaa eco/aiiuo aniaeoia
nia?aiaiiie eeiaaenoeee»

Oa?eue Aaeee aaae oa?iei phraseologie a cia/aiee «?acaeae noeeenoeee,
eco/athuee naycaiiua neiaini/aoaiey», ii yoio oa?iei ia i?eia?ae i?aa
a?aaeaeainoaa a o?oaeao caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo e aia?eeaineeo eeiaaenoia e
oiio?aaeyaony a o?ao ae?oaeo cia/aieyo: 1) auai? neia, oi?ia au?aaeaiey,
oi?ioee?iaea; 2) ycue, neia, noeeue; 3) au?aaeaiey, neiaini/aoaiey. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ii?aaeaeaieyie neiaa phraseology a aiaeeeneeo e
aia?eeaineeo neiaa?yo:

The choice or arrangement of words and phrases in the expression of
ideas; manner or style of expression; the particular form of speech or
diction which characterizes a which characterizes a writer, literary
production, language, etc.

Choice of words; wording (Hornby A.S. The Oxford Advanced Learners
Dictionary of Current English. London, 1974)

Manner of using and arranging words (Longman Modern English Dictionary.
London, 1976).

1.Manner or style of verbal expression; characteristic language;

2. Expression, phrases (The Random House Dictionary if the English
Language. New York, 1970).

Aii?inu o?acaieiaee a Aiaeee e NOA o?aeoothony i?aeiouanoaaiii a ?aaioao
ii naiaioeea e a?aiiaoeea, a oaeaea a i?aaeeneiaeyo e o?acaieiae/aneei
neiaa?yi. Eiaaony ?yae noaoae, iinayuaiiuo eaeeiiaoe/iinoe
neiaini/aoaiee. Iineiaeoeai iiaacei cia/eoaeueii aieueoa. Iineiaeoeu
eco/athony a iiiai/eneaiiuo ?aaioao. Ecaeaaaeny niaoeeaeueiue aeo?iae
«Proverbium» (1965- 1975aa.) ecaeaiea yoiai aeo?iaea iauyniyaony oai,
/oi ia?aieieiaey (o/aiea i iineiaeoeao) o?aaeeoeeiiii ?anniao?eaaaony
eae ninoaaiay /anoue oieueeei?enoeee.

A Aiaeee, NOA e ssiiiee ecaeai ?yae aiaeeeneeo o?acaieiae/aneeo
neiaa?ae. O?acaieiaey oaeaea oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia ai iiiaeo oieeiauo
neiaa?yo, iai?eia?, a na?ee ienoi?aeneeo neiaa?ae, a o/aaiii neiaa?a
Oi?iae, a aia?eeaineii neiaa?a «The Random House Dictionary of the
English Lahguage» e ae?.

Aii?in i o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeia aue aia?aua
iinoaaeai auaeathueieny niaaoneei eeiaaenoii i?ioanni?ii A.Ae.
Iieeaaiiaui. A.Ae. Iieeaaiia iaiaeiie?aoii aica?auaeny e yoiio aii?ino
e ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eaeneea eco/aao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eaene/aneea
cia/aiey neia, ii?oieiaey – oi?iaeueiua cia/aiey neia, neioaenen –
oi?iaeueiua cia/aiey neiaini/aoaiee. «E aio aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue a
iniaii ioaeaea, eioi?ue aue au ecia?ei n neioaenenii, ii a oi aea a?aiy
eiae a aeaeo ia iauea oeiu, a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua cia/aiey ioaeaeueiuo
neiaini/aoaiee, iiaeiaii oiio, eae eaeneea eiaao aeaei n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie (eaene/aneeie) cia/aieyie ioaeaeueiuo neia. Yoiio
ioaeaeo ycueiciaiey, eae a niaieoiiinoe eco/aaiuo a iai yaeaiee, y e
oaeaeyth iaeiaiiaaiea o?acaieiaee (oeaaeo, /oi aeey aeaiiiai cia/aiey
i?aaeeaaaaony e ae?oaie oa?iei – eaeeiiaoeea)».

A.Ae. Iieeaaiia n/eoae, /oi o?acaieiaey «caeiao iainiaeaiioth e
onoie/eaoth iiceoeeth (iiaeiaii oiiaoeea, ii?oieiaee e o.i.) a
eeiaaenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aoaeouaai – eiaaea a iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
iinoaiiaea ?aciiia?aciuo i?iaeai iaoa iaoea eeoaia, aoaeao neo/aeiuo
i?iaaeia». I?aaeaeaeaiea A.Ae. Iieeaaiiaa inouanoaeyaony a iaoe aeie.
Aii?in i o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeia noaaee e
A.A.Aeiia?aaeia. o?oaeu A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa niinianoaiaaee iiyaeaieth
iiiaeanoaa ?aaio ii o?acaieiaee ?aciuo ycueia. Oaeia iaeiieaiea
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo oaeoia – iaeia ec i?aaeiinueie nicaeaiey
o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeiu.

A.A. Ea?ei aue ia?aui o/aiui iinea A.Ae. Iieeaaiiaa e A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa,
niiaa iiaeiyaoei aii?in i o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeia.
«O?acaieiaey eae eeiaaenoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia iaoiaeeony aua a noaaeee
«ne?uoiai ?acaeoey»…ii iia aua ia ioi?ieeanue eae c?aeue ieiae
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo o?oaeia.

A auaeaeaiea oaeie aeenoeeieeiu iai oaea iaiaoiaeeii, eai anai ynia
aeeeaoaioneay aaniiiiuiinoue, ?aciiaie e aaconiaoiinoue iiiooiiai,
neo/aeiiai ?acai?a yoiai iaoa?eaea a eaeneeia?aoee, noeeenoeea,
neioaenena».

Oaeei ia?acii, niaaoneie iaoea i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?ei?eoao a auaeaeaiee
o?acaieiaee a ea/anoaa ioaeaeueiie eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. A
iaeanoe eco/aiey o?acaieiaee ?acee/iuo ycueia iaoa no?aia caieiaao
ia?aia ianoi a ie?a. Ia yoii oaaaeeoaeueii aiai?yo aeaiiua i 13 355
?aaioao ii o?acaieiaee, iioaeeeiaaiiuo o ian ca 60 eao, niaea?aeaueany a
iyoe aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo oeacaoaeyo eeoa?aoo?u ii aii?inai o?acaieiaee.
Eiathony e ae?oaea ?aaiou, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony naaaeaiey ia eco/aiee
o?acaieiaee a NNN?.

Eco/aiea o?acaieiaee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia oieueei /eneii iioaeeeiaaiiuo
?aaio, ii e eo oa?aeoa?ii. N?aaee ieo iiiai iiiia?aoee, aeieoi?neeo e
eaiaeeaeaoneeo aeenna?oaoeee, nai?ieeia noaoae ii aii?inai o?acaieiaee,
o?acaieiae/aneeo neiaa?ae, aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo oeacaoaeae.

Iaeuecy ia oiiiyiooue iiiai/eneaiiua eiioa?aioeee e niaauaiey ii
aii?inai o?acaieiaee. Oaeei ia?acii, eiathony ana iniiaaiey
eiinoaoe?iaaoue ao?iue ?ino o?acaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a NNN?. Yoi
ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?aaiou caiaaeiuo o?acaieiaia.

A yoie nayce neaaeoao auaeaeeoue, iai?eia?, eieao TH. Oaoca?iaia,
eioi?ue ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo a Niaaoneii Nithca o?acaieiae/aneeo
eiioeaioeee ?anniao?eaaao ?yae i?iaeai iaiaoeeie o?acaieiaee: iauai
o?acaieiaee, naiaioe/aneoth eeanneoeeaoeeth o?acaieiaeciia, eo
aini?iecaaaeaiea e onoie/eainoue, o?acaieiae/aneia cia/aiea e o.ae.

Iniiaiua o?oaeu niaaoneeo o?acaieiaia o/eouaathony a ooiaeaiaioaeueiii
enneaaeiaaiee O.Ao?aa?a e ae?. «Ca aeaa aeanyoeeaoey niaaoneay
o?acaieiaey i?ioea ia?iiiue iooue io iaaieueoiai ?acaeaea a eaeneeieiaee
aei e?oiiie oai?aoe/aneie e ooeeeoa?ii – i?aeoe/aneie io?anee
ycueiciaiey. ssaeaiea auaeathuaany, eioi?iai ia ciaao eeiaaenoeea
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai». Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o?acaieiaey ia?a?inea ?aiee iaeiiai
ec ?acaeaeia, eaeneeieiaee e i?aa?aoeeanue a naiinoiyoaeueioth
eeiaaenoe/aneoth aeenoeeieeio, eiathuoth naie iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey.

Yeaeaaeaioiinoue o?acaieiaecia neiao.

Ai anao ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aaieeao ii eaeneeieiaee eiaaony ?acaeae
«O?acaieiaey, eaeeiiu, eee onoie/eaua ni/aoaiey neia». Oaeie ?acaeae
aeeth/aao nae/an a ninoaa eaeneeieiaee ii o?aaeeoeee. Yoi iauyniyaony
oai, /oi o?acaieiaey ioeoeeaeueii ia ioi?ieaia eae eeiaaenoe/aneay
aeenoeeieeia. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi o?acaieiaey a
iaoae no?aia auea a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie /anoueth o/aiey i
neiaa, e /enoi eaeneeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e o?acaieiaeciai – yaeaiea ia
noieue oaea ?aaeeia. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee aeeth/atho OA a neiaa?iue
ninoaa ycuea, a o?acaieiaeth a ninoaa eaeneeieiaee aeaaiui ia?acii ii
oie i?e/eia, /oi o?acaieiaeciu ?anniao?eaathony eae yeaeaaeaiou neia, a
eaeneeieiaey – eae eeiaaenoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia, eco/athuay neiaa?iue
ninoaa ycuea, o.a. neiaa e eo yeaeaaeaiou.

Aneaaenoaea yoiai oai?ey yeaeaaeaioiinoe OA neiao caneoaeeaaao
niaoeeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey. Iia ainoiaeeo e oai?ee eaeaioeoeeaoeee
yeni?anneaiuo oaeoia, ?ac?aaioaiiie O. Aaeee, eioi?ue oeacuaae, /oi
naiui iauei i?eciaeii o?acaieiae/aneiai iai?ioa, caiaiythuei niaie ana
inoaeueiua, yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue eee iaaiciiaeiinoue iiaenoaaeoue
aianoi aeaiiiai iai?ioa i?inoia neiai. Oaeia neiai O. Aaeee iacuaae
neiaii – eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii. Iaee/ea iiaeiaiiai neiiieia Aaeee
?anniao?eaaao a ea/anoaa aioo?aiiaai i?eciaea oeaeinoiinoe
o?acaieiaeciia.

Iiaeiaiay oi/ea c?aiey aucuaaao aic?aaeaiey. Naiaioe/aneay oeaeinoiinoue
o?acaieiaecia ia iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaia oaeei iooai, oae eae e
ia?aiaiiua ni/aoaiey neia iiaoo eiaoue neiiieiu – neiaa, iai?eia?, look
fixedly = to stare; sufferings of mind or body = pain e ae?. E?iia oiai
, iiiaea OA ia eiatho neia – eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia, a iiaoo
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoueny oieueei n iiiiuueth ia?aiaiiuo neiaini/aoaiee,
iai?eia?, drink like a fish = drink too much; in a small way = on a
small scale e ae?.

Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee, o.a.
o?acaieiaeciu ni no?oeoo?ie i?aaeeiaeaiey, iiaoo eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoueny
oieueei n iiiiuueth i?aaeeiaeaiee, iai?eia?, birds of feather flock
together – people who the same interest, ideas, etc. are attracted to
each and stay close together; the blind leading the blind – a situation
in which the person who is leading or advising others knows as little as
they do (LD).

Naiaioe/aneay oeaeinoiinoue OA iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaia i?e
niiinoaaeaiee aa cia/aiey ni cia/aieai aa eiiiiiaioia eae ioaeaeueiuo
neia, a oaeaea auyaeaieai iniaaiiinoae aa oiio?aaeaiey a eiioaenoa.
Oa?iei «yeaeaaeaio neiaa» nicaeae E.A. Ua?aa. Ii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi oaeay
a?oiia neia iaicia/aao iaeii iiiyoea e yaeyaony iioaioeeaeueiui
yeaeaaeaioii neiaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaniay a?oiia neia, anee iia
yaeyaony neiaini/aoaieai, iiaeao iaicia/aoue iaeii iiiyoea.

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeaaieueiuie OA e eo eaene/aneeie neiiieiaie –
neiaa?iuie eaeaioeoeeaoi?aie – auee oaiie iiiia?aoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey, a eioi?ii auyaeaiu nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie. Ai
anao i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo i?eia?ao oeia draw (eee pull) a (eee the) long
bow – exaggerate, shake a leg –hurry, split hairs – quibble e ae?.
onoaiiaeaii, /oi OA e eo eaene/aneea neiiieiu ii –?aciiio au?aaeatho
iaeie e oa aea cia/aiey, o.a. eiathony aeaa ?aciuo aeaea iiieiaoeee.
Neiaa oiio?aaeythony a naieo aoeaaeueiuo cia/aieyo, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey
ia?ae/iie iiieiaoeee, a OA yaeythony ia?ainiuneaiiuie iai?ioaie,
aoi?e/iuie iaeiaiiaaieyie. Yoi «aeaa i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo niiniaa
ioia?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe».

Niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeai ooaa?aeaeaao TH. ?. Aaiia?, /oi «neacaoue «a ioo
e i?ao» – ia oi aea, noi «neeueii», «aae?aaacae»; «eae n aony aiaea»
iaeuecy caiaieoue neiaii «aac?acee/ii»; neacaoue, /oi «nionoy ?oeaaa»,
eeoue au eae» – yeaeaaeaiou neia «iaa?aaeii», «iaaeeo?aoii» – cia/eo
naanoe ia iao oo au?aceoaeueiinoue , eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoao i?eaaaeaiiua
o?acaieiaeciu»

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai o?acaieiaeciia ia eiaao neia –
eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia, o.a. eaene/aneeo neiiieiia. Eiathony oi/iua aeaiiua
oieueei i i?ioeaioiii niioiioaiee o?acaieiaeciia e eo eaene/aneeo
neiiieiia ai o?aioeocneii ycuea ec 22 851 o?acaieiaecia oieueei 2867,
o.a 12,5%, eiatho neiaa- eaeaioeoeeaoi?u. Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi
a aiaeeeneii ycuea iaaethaeaaony aiaeiae/iia yaeaiea.

Iaeioi?ua noi?iiieee oai?ee yeaeaaeaioiinoe ?anniao?eaatho o?acaieiaeciu
eae eaene/aneea aaeeieoeu, eioi?ua ia ioaeaeathony a iniaie,
niaoeeoe/aneie, naienoaaiiie oieueei ei eeanneoeeaoeee, e eioi?ua
neaaeoao eeanneoeoee?iaaoue oae aea, eae eeanneoeoee?othony neiaa. Oaeei
ia?acii, naiaeeoueny ia iao any niaoeeoeea o?acaieiaeciia. Neiai, eae au
iii ie auei neiaeii ii naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a, ia ioiineoueny e iaeanoe
o?acaieiaee, yoi iauaeo eaeneeia?aoee e eaeneeieiaee. Neiaa e
o?acaieiaeciu aiinyony a ?a/ue a aioiaii aeaea. Yoio oaeo i?eaiaeeony
eae iaeei ec a?aoiaioia a iieueco oai?ee yeaeaaeaioiinoe.

Aianaiea a ?a/ue a aioiaii aeaea yaeyaony oaoeie iniiaie yeaeaaeaioiinoe
o?acaieiaecia neiao, oae eae aini?iecaaaeaiea a aioiaii aeaea –
oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa anao aaeeieoe ycuea, e iaoeaeaniia?acii ?anniao?eaaoue
eo eae yeaeaaeaiou neia. Aaaeii eeoue o/eouaaoue oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou
aini?iecaiaeeiinoe a aioiaii aeaea a caaeneiinoe i no?oeoo?ii –
naiaioe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?acee/iuo aaeeieoe ycuea. A a no?oeoo?ii –
naiaioe/aneii ioiioaiee o?acaieiaeci – ?acaeaeueiiioi?ieaiiay aaeeieoea
ycuea, cia/eoaeueii aieaa neiaeiay, /ai neiai, e yoi neacuaaaony ia aai
aeooaeecaoeee a ienueiaiiii eee onoiii eiioaenoa.

Noieue aea oaoeie yaeyaony aeia?o?ioey a?aiiaoe/aneie iauiinoe OA e
neia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iieiinoueth ia?ainiuneaiiua OA ni no?oeoo?ie
neiaini/aoaiey auiieiyao ooieoeeth ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey,
o.a. o?aciauo iiaeeaaeaueo, o?aciauo neacoaiuo e o?aciauo aeiiieiaiee.

*anoe/ii ia?ainiuneaiiua iai?iou oeia aeaaieueiuo n?aaiaiee
neioaene/anee /eaieiu. Oae, iai?eia?, a aeaaieueiuo n?aaiaieyo like a
horse – anoue iiiai e n aeaaeiinoueth; fit like a glove – auoue eae ?ac
a ii?o, iieiinoueth iiaeoiaeeoue; smoke like a chimney – « aeuieoue eae
ia?iaic», iiiai eo?eoue; swear like a trooper = ?oaaoueny, ia /ai naao
noieo; swim like a fish –« ieaaaoue eae ?uaa» e o.i. ia?aue eiiiiiaio
oiio?aaeyaony a aoeaaeueiii cia/aiee, eioi?ia oneeeaaaony
aaeaa?aeaeueiie /anoueth iai?ioa. A i?aaeeiaeaiee he smokes a chimney he
– iiaeeaaeauaa, smokes – neacoaiia, kike a chimney – ianoiyoaeuenoai
ia?aca aeaenoaey.

Iauiinoue a?aiiaoe/aneeo ooieoeee ia neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae eo
iaycaoaeueiia niaiaaeaiea. Oae, a aiaeeeneii ycuea ooieoeee a
i?aaeeiaeaiee aaeuaeoeaiuo n?aaiaiee oeia (as) dark as pitch, (as) white
as snow e o.i. oieueei /anoe/ii niaiaaeatho n neioaene/aneeie ooieoeeyie
niioiinyueony n ieie neiaeiuo neia pitch – dark e snow – white, oae eae
aaeuaeoeaiua n?aaiaiey, a ioee/ea io neiaeiuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo. Ocoaeueii
ia oiio?aaeythony a ea/anoaa ao?eaooeaiuo ii?aaeaeaiee, a oieueei eae
i?aaeeeaoeaiua ii?aaeaeaiey.

…his meat s as white as snow and makes a good fry ( M. Twain). Camphoric
acid thus obtained is in snow – white crystals (OED). It has a body like
a gnat, snow – white (OED).

Niioianaiiinoue o?acaieiaecia e neiaa

Iiaeoiae e o?acaieiaeciai eae e yeaeaaeaioai neia ia aeiioneaao
aeeth/aiey a ninoaa o?acaieiaee oeaeueii- i?aaeeeaoeaiuo iai?ioia.
Aaconeiaii, cia/aiea oeaeueii – i?aaeeeaoeaiiai iai?ioa, yaeythuaainy
aeaaiui i?aaeeiaeaieai eee aeaaiui e i?eaeaoi/iui i?aaeeiaeaieai e ?aaea
oiio?aaeythuaainy a ea/anoaa /eaia i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?eiaaeeaaeeo e eiiio
ieaio niaea?aeaiey, /ai cia/aiea neiaa eee neiaini/aoaiey. Ianiio?y ia
yoi, neiaini/aoaiey yaeythony iauaeoaie eco/aiey neioaenena, /oi ie a
eiae ia?a ia eeoaao aai iao/iinoe. I?aaeiaoii neioaenena eae ioaeaea
a?aiiaoeee yaeyaony eco/aiea niiniaia niaaeeiaiey neia a neiaini/aoaiey
e i?aaeeiaeaiey, a oaeaea eco/aiea oeiia i?aaeeiaeaiee, eo no?iaiey,
ooieoeee e oneiaee oiio?aaeaiey.

Noieue aea i?aaiia?ii eco/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiee anao oeiia eae iauaeoia
o?acaieiaee, anee yoe i?aaeeiaeaiey ia yaeythony ia?aiaiiuie
i?aaeeiaeaieyie eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueii – aaoi?neeie iai?ioaie, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony oieueei a ea/anoaa oeeoao e ia yaeythony aaeeieoeaie
ycuea.

I?aaeiaoii eco/aiey neioaenena yaeythony ia?aiaiiua, a ia onoie/eaua
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eco/aiea naiaioe/aneeo e noeeenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
onoie/eauo i?aaeeiaeaiee – iaeia ec aaaeiuo caaea/ o?acaieiaee.

E?eoa?eai iiieiaoeaiinoe e eiiioieeaoeaiinoe ia neaaeoao iieueciaaoueny
i?e ii?aaeaeaiee o?acaieiae/iinoe iioiio, /oi ii i?eaiaeeo e
ia?aaeienaeueiiio iieiaeaieth. Aeaei a oii, /oi a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii
ycuea eiaaony cia/eoaeueiia /enei aeaaieueiuo o?acaieiaeciia, eioi?ua iu
ioiinei e eeanno iiieiaoeaii- eiiioieeaoeaiuo ia?aciaaiee, yaeythueony
neiaini/aoaieyie, o.a. aaeeieoeaie, auiieiythueie iiieiaoeaioth
ooieoeeth n aeaaieaie a aeaenoaeoaeueiii caeiaa, e
oeaeueiii?aaeeeaoeaiuie i?aaeeiaeaieyie, o.a. aaeeieoeaie, auiieiythueie
eiiioieeaoeaioth ooieoeeth, n aeaaieaie a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa,
iai?eia?, break the ice (neiiaoue eaae) – the ice is broken; cross (eee
pass) the Rubicon (ia?aeoe ?oaeeii) – the Rubicon is crossed (eee
passed) e ae?. Iiaeiaiua ia?aciaaiey ia iaeaaeatho aaoiiiiiinoueth
iineiaeoe, ii ei naienoaaiii naiinoiyoaeueiia oiio?aaeaiea ia a iaiueoae
noaiaie, /ai iiaiai?eai. Oaeei ia?acii, anee ?anniao?eaaoue
iiieiaoeaiinoue eae iaeei ec e?eoa?eaa o?acaieiae/iinoe, oi iiaeiaiua
iai?iou n aeaaieaie a aeaenoaeoaeueiii yaeythony OA e aoiaeyo a nenoaio
ycuea, a n aeaaieaie a no?aaeaoaeueiii caeiaa – iao?acaieiae/aneeie
aaeeieoeaie e ia aoiaeyo a nenoaio ycuea. Iiaeiaiue auaiae, eae
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, yaeyaony iai?aaiia?iui.

I?e eniieueciaaiee oeacaiiiai auoa e?eoa?ey iiieiaoeee ec /enea
o?acaieiaeciia auiaaeaao oaeaea cia/eoaeueiia /enei
oeaeueiii?aaeeeaoeaiuo aaeeieoe iaiineiae/iiai oeia, iai?eia?, the fat
is in the fire – auoue aaaea; that cat won t jump- yoio iiia? ia
i?ieaeao; what will Mrs. Grundy sau? –/oi neaaeoo ethaee? Aoaeo/e
ecuyoui ec ninoaaa o?acaieiaee, iiaeiaiua iai?iou, ii nouanoao,
iiaenatho a aicaeooa e ia?anoatho auoue iauaeoii eeiaaenoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey, oae eae ia ecaanoii, a eaeii ?acaeaea ycueiciaiey eo
neaaeoao eco/aoue.Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, oi oa?ieiu «iiieiaoeaiue» e
«eiiioieeaoeaiue» ia yaeythony iaeiicia/iuie e iiieii cia/aiee, a
eioi?uo iie oiio?aaeythony auoa, o ieo eiathony e ae?oaea cia/aiey. Oae
«iiieiaoeaiue» oaeaea icia/aao «iacuaiie», e a oaeii iiieiaiee ethaie
o?acaieiaeci yaeyaony iiieiaoeaiie aaeeieoeae: «ethaay ycueiaay
aaeeieoea ethaiai o?iaiy inoaaony iiieiaoeaiie aaeeieoeae a neeo oiai,
/oi iia oeene?oao ia/oi iiciaiiia /aeiaaeii a niioaaonoaothuai iauaeoa»
. oa?iei «eiiioieeaoeaiue» oaeaea icia/aao «ioiinyueeny e i?ioeanno
eiiioieeaoeee». Iiaeiaiay iiiaicia/iinoue oa?ieiia yaeyaony
iaaeaeaoaeueiie, ii, e niaeaeaieth, iia aua nouanoaoao.

Ia?aaea/o iineiaeoe, yaeythueony onoie/eauie aaeeieoeaie ycuea ni
no?oeoo?ie i?aaeeiaeaiee, eneeth/eoaeueii a aaaeaiea oieueeei?a iaeuecy
n/eoaoue i?aaeeueiui. Iineiaeoeu aeieaeiu eco/aoueny eae a oieueeei?a,
oae e ai o?acaieiaee, ii n ?acee/iuo oi/ae c?aiey. Ai o?acaieiaee iie
eco/athony eae aaeeieoeu o?acaieiae/aneiai ninoaaa ycuea, iaeaaeathuea
naiaia?aciuie naiaioe/aneeie, noeeenoe/aneeie e no?oeoo?iuie
iniaaiiinoyie. Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey o?acaieiaee nia?aiaiiiai
aiaeeeneiai ycuea eiaao eco/aiea iineiaeoe eae enoi/ieea
o?acaieiae/aneie aea?eaaoeee. Oieueeei? aea eioa?anoaony iineiaeoeaie
i?aeiouanoaaiii eae i?iaeoeoii ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothueie
ia?iaeioth ioae?inoue, ia?iaeiua iau/ae e o.i.

A.E. Nie?ieoeeee iiae/a?eeaae aiciiaeiinoue aoiaeaeaiey i?aaeeiaeaiee a
nenoaio ycuea: «I?e yoii ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi iineiaeoeu, iiaiai?ee,
aoi?eciu e aiiaua ?acee/iua ec?a/aiey, aini?iecaiaeeiua aiiaue e aiiaue
eae oeaeuo aaeeieoeu. Aunooiatho a ea/anoaa aaeeieoe ycuea eiaiii
iinoieueeo iie aini?iecaiaeyony, eae n?aaenoai aeey (aieaa y?eiai,
ia?aciiai, ino?iai) au?aaeaiey iunee a i?ioeanna iauaiey.
?anniao?eaaaiua aea naie ii naaa, eae i?iecaaaeaiey (iaecaanoiuo eee
ecaanoiuo aaoi?ia), iie, nianoaaiii, aua ia eiatho oa?aeoa?a aaeeieoe
ycuea e i?eiaaeeaaeao oieueeei?o e eeoa?aoo?a, aoaeo/e, eiia/ii, aianoa
n oai ni/aoaieyie aaeeieoe ycuea, eiie?aoiuie neo/ayie i?eiaiaiey e
i?iyaeaiey oaeeo aaeeieoe».

Yoi aiieia iainiiaaiiia iiaiea A.E. Nie?ieoeeiai yaeyaony oaaaeeoaeueiui
ii?iaa?aeaieai ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi iineiaeoeu e oeaeueiii?aaeeeaoeaiua
iiaiai?ee ia aoiaeyo a nenoaio ycuea. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo o?acaieiaeciaie e
neiaaie oae nouanoaaiiu, /oi aeia?o?ioey eiathueony o ieo noiaeiuo /a?o,
noieue oa?aeoa?iay aeey noi?iiieeia oai?ee yeaeaaeaioiinoe, cao?oaeiyao
noaiiaeaiea o?acaieiaee, eae eeiaaenoe/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. Ec anaai
auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oai?ey yeaeaaeaioiinoe
o?acaieiaecia neiao ecaeeea naay. Yoi ioithaeue ia icia/aao, /oi
o?acaieiaeciu e neiaa ia eiatho ie/aai iauaai. Aaconeiaii, eiatho, ii
yoa iauiinoue ia aeieaeia caneiiyoue niaoeeoeee o?acaieiaeciia. Iiyoiio
oeaeaniia?acii ia iieueciaaoueny neiaii «yeaeaaeaio» e caiaieoue
oai?eth yeaeaaeaioiinoe o?acaieiaecia neiao oai?eae niioianaiiinoe
iaeioi?uo oeiia o?acaieiaeciia e neia, a iniiaa, eioi?ie eaaeao nianai
eiua i?eioeeiu. I?e ?anniio?aiee niioiioaiey o?acaieiaeciia ni
no?oeoo?ie neiaini/aoaiey e neia a i?aaiaoe/aneii ieaia iaiaoiaeei
eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae, i?e eioi?ii iauaeoeaii o/eouaathony naiaioe/aneea,
noeeenoe/aneea, no?oeoo?iua, a?aiiaoe/aneea e aeoeaioieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe o?acaieiaeciia e neia, a oaeaea eo o?aciia?aciaaoaeueiua e
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua no?oeoo?u. I?e yoii iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
neiaai, yaeythueieny neiaa?iuie eaeaioeoeeaoi?aie o?acaieiaeciia. I?e
aiaeeca niioiioaiey o?acaieiaeciia e neia a neioaaiaoeea aaaeii
o/eouaaoue ocoaeueiua e ieeaceiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
a eiioaenoa. Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae aeaao aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue
nenoaio caeiiiia?iuo ?acee/ee e iaueo /a?o. Naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a
o?acaieiaecia e naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a neiaa ioithaeue ia
en/a?iuaathony oieueei eo cia/aieyie. Aaaeiaeoeie yeaiaioaie
naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u iiieii cia/aiey yaeythony iino?iaiey anaai
ia?aciaaiey a oeaeii, aai a?aiiaoe/aneia ioi?ieaiea e nenoaiiua ycueiaua
nayce. Ianiaiaaeaiea naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u o?acaieiaecia e
naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u neiaa aeaao iniiaaiea ?aca?aie/eoue
o?acaieiae/aneia e eaene/aneia cia/aiey. Oae, oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
aieueoeinoaa noanoaioeaiuo OA a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea yaeyaony
au?aaeaiea eie iiiyoee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu ioaeaeueiuie
neiaaie, o.a. o aeaiiuo OA iao eaene/aneeo neiiieiia. E oaeei OA
ioiinyony: apple- pie order – ia?acoeiaue ii?yaeie; Dutch courage –
o?aa?inoue ai oiaeth; Hobson s choice – ionoonoaea auai?a; a rough
diamond- a?oaiaaoue , ii oi?ioee /aeiaae; a white elephant –
ia?aiaieoaeueiia eee ?aci?eoaeueiia eiouanoai, iaoca; iiaea?ie io
eioi?iai ia ciaaoue eae ecaaaeoueny; a wolf in shepp s clothing – aiee a
iaa/ueae oeo?a e iiiaea ae?oaea.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea o noanoaioeaiie OA eiaaony eaene/aneee neiiiei,
yoi iau/ii neiai iaeo?aeueiiai noeey, a OA yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaia.
I?eaiaeeiua ieaea i?eia?u eeethno?e?otho yoi iieiaeaiea: camel – the
ship of the desert; jealousy the green – eyed monster; lion – the king
of beasts; money – the sinews of war; rank, title – a handle to one s
name; Shakespeare – the Swan of Avon; tea – a cup that cheers but not
inebriates e ae?.

I?eaaaeaiiua auoa o?acaieiaeciu yaeythony ia?eo?acaie. Ia?eo?ac (eee
ia?eo?aca) – yoi o?ii, ninoiyuee a caiaia iaeiineiaiiai iaeiaiiaaiey
aeaiioaoa iienaoaeueiui iaicia/aieai, iiae/a?eeaathuei aai noi?iiu,
ea/anoaa, nouanoaaiiua i?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai iaicia/aiey a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiioaenoao. A ianiaiaaeaiee o?acaieiae/aneie e eaene/aneie
naiaioe/aneeo no?oeoo? iiaeii oaeaea oaaaeeoueny, anee n?aaieoue
o?acaieiae/aneea e eaene/aneea neiiieiu a ninoaaa ethaiai eaeneei –
o?acaieiae/aneiai neiiieie/aneiai ?yaea. Oae, o?acaieiae/aneeie
neiiieiaie aeaaiea to die yaeythony OA go over to the (great) majority,
go the way of all flesh, go up the flume e ae?. Aeaaie to die yaeyaony
neiaa?iui eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii yoeo OA.

Niiinoaaeaiea yeaiaioia yoiai neiiieie/aneiai ?yaea auyaeyao
nouanoaaiiua nenoaiiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo OA e eo eaene/aneei neiiieiii.

1. O OA iaeii cia/aiea – oia?aoue.

Aeaaie yaeyaony iieenaiaioe/iui: 1) oia?aoue; 2) (?aca.) aei nia?oe
oioaoue (I am dying to see him); 3) eii/aoueny, en/acaoue, auoue
caauoui (his fame will never die).

Neiaa?ue Oi?iae ?aaeno?e?oao yoe o?e naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua cia/aiey
aeaaiea to die. A «Aieueoii Ienoi?aeneii neiaa?a» ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 12
cia/aiee aeaaiea to die.

2.OA go over to the (great) majority – oooeeaue iai?io n ia?aciui
cia/aieai ioi?aaeoueny a eo/oee ie?. OA go the way of all flesh –
eieaeiue iai?io n ia?aciui cia/aieai eniuoaoue oaeae anaai caiiiai. OA
go up the flume – i?inoi?a/iue aia?eeaineee iai?io oeia aeoaa aeaoue,
nua?aoue a yuee.

Cia/aiea aeaaiea – oia?aoue ia yaeyaony ia?aciui e noeeenoe/aneei
iaeo?aeueii. Cia/aiea i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa o?acaieiaeciia – ?acoeueoao
iieiiai eee /anoe/iiai ia?ainiuneaiey, eaene/aneia aea cia/aiea iiaeao
auoue eae aoeaaeueiui, oae e ia?ainiuneaiiui.

3. OA yaeythony ?acaeaeueiiioi?ieaiiuie ia?aciaaieyie, ninoiyueie ec
aeaoo eee aieaa eiiiiiaioia, a aeaaie to die – oeaeueiiioi?ieaiiui
ia?aciaaieai.

4.OA go over to the (great) majority; go the way of all flesh e go up
the flume ia iiaoo ni/aoaoueny n iinoaa?aaie oeia away, down, off, out.
Aeaaie to die ni/aoaaony n iei: die away – caie?aoue (i caoea);
caoeoaoue (i aao?a); die down – caoooaoue (ia iaia); caie?aoue (i
caoea); ineaaaaaoue (i aieiaiee)); die off – ioie?aoue, oie?aoue iaeei
ca ae?oaei; die out – auie?aoue; oaanaoue (ia iaia).

Aiiaua ni/aoaaiinoue aeaaiea to die cia/eoaeueii aieaa oe?ieay, /ai o
aai o?acaieiae/aneeo neiiieiia, /oi iauyniyaony cia/eoaeueii aieaa
oe?ieei iauaiii cia/aiey aeaaiea. I?eia?aie iiaoo neoaeeoue
neiaini/aoaiey die a natural death – oia?aoue anoanoaaiiie nia?oueth;
lie a violent death – oia?aoue ianeeuenoaaiiie nia?oueth; die a hero s
death – oia?aoue nia?oueth aa?iy e iiiaea ae?oaea iai?iou n oae
iacuaaaiuie «aioo?aiiei aeiiieiaieai (cognate object).

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu iai?iou oeia lie in one s bed; die by violence;
die a beggar, a martyr e o.ae. ie iaeei o?acaieiae/aneee neiiiei aeaaiea
to die, a neeo naieo naiaioe/aneeo e no?oeoo?iuo iniaaiiinoae, ia iiaeao
i?eieiaoue ie i?yiiai aeiiieiaiey, ie ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia?aca aeaenoaey.

5. OA, neiiieie/iua aeaaieo to die, a ioee/ea io yoiai aeaaiea, ia
eiatho oi?i aeeeoaeueiiai aeaea ianoiyuaai e i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie (n?. he
is dying, he was dying).Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi aeaaie to die
iaicia/aao eae aeaenoaea n oi/ee c?aiey ioiioaiey e aai aioo?aiiaio
i?aaeaeo, oae e aac ia?aie/aiee a aai oa/aiee; ii iiaeao iaicia/aoue eae
iaiiaaiiia, oae e aeeeoaeueiia aeaenoaea. O?acaieiae/aneea aea neiiieiu
iaicia/atho oieueei iaiiaaiiia aeaenoaea e ia iiaoo iaicia/aoue
aeeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey, o.a. yaeythony i?aaeaeueiuie ii naiaio
cia/aieth.

6.O?acaieiae/aneea neiiieiu aeaaiea to die ia iiaoo aoiaeeoue ie a
ninoaa o?acaieiaeciia, ie a ninoaa neiaeiuo neia.

Aeaaie to die ano?a/aaony eae eiiiiiaio ?yaea o?acaieiaeciia: die a dog
s death – ecaeioiooue eae niaaea; die in the last ditch – noiyoue
iania?oue; never say die – ieeiaaea ia neaaeoao io/aeaaoueny e ae?.

7. Aeaaie to die aoiaeeo oaeaea a ninoaa neiaeiuo neia, iai?eia?: die –
hard – oaa?aeieiaue, eiina?aaoi? (ia?aciaaii ii eiiaa?nee io
neiaini/aoaiey – iaaeeaiii ioie?aoue, auoue aeeao/ei).

8.OA, yaeyynue ?acaeaeueiiioi?ieaiiuie ia?aciaaieyie, aeiioneatho
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua noeeenoe/aneea iaiiaeaiey: The spare furniture has
gone the of all superfluities (A. Huxley). Yoa OA ieeaceiiaeueii
oiio?aaeyaony i?eiaieoaeueii e iaaaee, a iineaaeiee eiiiiiaio
o?acaieiaecia – neiai flesh – caiaiyaony neiaii superfluities. Aeaaie to
die ia iiaeao oiio?aaeyoueny i?eiaieoaeueii e iaaaee e ia aeiioneaao
ieeaeeo no?oeoo?iuo eiiiaaoeee.

9. OA go over to the (great) majority ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa
eaaioeoaoeaiuo aa?eaioa: go over to the great majority e go over to the
great majority. Aeaaie to die aa?eaioa ia eiaao.

10. O aeaaiea eiaaony neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiia aiacaei: dying – oie?athuee;
the dying – oie?athuea; dyingly – oie?ay. OA, neiiieie/iua aeaaieo to
die, ia noanoaioeae?othony e ia iaeaaeatho neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiie
ia?aaeeaiie.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?anniio?aiea eeoue iaeiiai o?acaieiae/aneiai
neiiieie/aneiai ?yaea ia iiaeao auyaeoue anao iniaaiiinoae naiaioe/aneie
no?oeoo?u o?acaieiaeciia e naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u neiaa. Ii aeaaea
e?aoeia ?anniio?aiea o?ao OA e eo eaene/aneiai neiiieia eae a
ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneii ieaia, o.a. aacioiineoaeueii e eo ooieoeeiie?iaaieth,
oae e a ieaia neioaaiaoe/aneii, o.a. i?e niiinoaaeaiee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yoeo aaeeieoe, iieacuaaao, /oi naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a OA e
naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a neiiieie/aneiai ei neiaa ia niaiaaeatho ii
iniiaiui eiee/anoaaiiui e ea/anoaaiiui iieacaoaeyi.

I.I. Aiiniaa, eioi?ay aia?aua iinoaaeea iiae niiiaiea oai?eth
yeaeaaeaioiinoe OA neiao, ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aao ioiineoaeueiinoue
yeaeaaeaioiinoe OA neiao e ?aciua noaiaie aeaaea yoie ioiineoaeueiie
yeaeaaeaioiinoe a caaeneiinoe io oeia OA. Noieue aea ni?aaaaeeeai e
ooaa?aeaeaiea I.I.Aiiniaie, /oi ec-ca ioiineoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
yeaeaaeaioiinoe OA neiao aa ia neaaeoao aeeth/aoue a iauaa ii?aaeaeaiea
OA eae iaeei ec aa iii?iuo ioieoia. Oai?ey niioianaiiinoe o?acaieiaeciia
ni neiaaie yaeyaony /anoueth o?acaieiaee eae eeiaaenoe/aneie
aeenoeeieeiu.

Iauai o?acaieiaee a eiioeaioeeyo ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aiuo

Iiai?ioiui ioieoii a aeaea eco/aiey o?acaieiaee ?acee/iuo ycueia
yaeeenue ecaanoiua ?aaiou aeaaeaieea A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa, iinayuaiiua
?onneie o?acaieiaee. Ia?iiiia aeeyiea o?oaeia yoiai o/aiiai ii/oe ia ana
enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe o?acaieiaee iauyniyaony oai, /oi yoe ?aaiou
caiieieee a?aoue, eioi?ay ia?aciaaeanue aaeaeo iaaeinoaoi/iiai eco/aiey
naiaioeee onoie/eauo ni/aoaiee neia.

Ii aa?iiio caia/aieth I.I.Aiiniaie, «Eiioeaioeey aeaae. A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa
– yoi iniaay nooiaiue a ?acaeoee oai?ee « ia?aceiaeeiuo ni/aoaiee»,
aieaa aunieay ii n?aaiaieth n oai, /oi auei naeaeaii a ?onneii
ycueiciaiee aei iaai. Iniiaiia aa cia/aiea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aeaaiaea?y ae o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu iieo/eee aieaa iainiiaaiiia
ii?aaeaeaiea, eiaiii eae eaene/aneea eiiieaenu n iniaui naiaioe/aneei
naiaia?aceai».

A.A. Aeiia?aaeia auaeaeye o?e oeia o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe:

1.O?acaieiae/aneea n?auaiey, eee eaeeiiu – iaiioeae?iaaiiua aaeeieoeu,
aunooiathuea eae yeaeaaeaiou neia, iai?eia?, iaaino?eoue euaee, nionoy
?oeaaa, /a?ac iaiue eieiaeo, aio oae eetheaa, eae au ia oae e ae?.

2. O?acaieiae/aneea aaeeinoaa – iioeae?iaaiiua aaeeieoeu n aaeeiui
oeaeinoiui cia/aieai, aicieeathuei ec neeyiey cia/aiee eaene/aneeo
eiiiiiaioia. O?acaieiae/aneea aaeeinoaa aeiioneatho ?acaeaeaeaiea
eiiiiiaioia iin?aaenoaii iiaeiaiiiai «oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea e
aunooiatho eae iioaioeeaeueiua yeaeaaeaiou neia», iai?eia?, aea?aeaoue
eaiaiue ca iacooie, iaeei ieaaaoue, ia?aue aeei eiiii, ieuoue i?ioea
oa/aiey e ae?.A.A. Aeiia?aaeia oaeaea aeeth/aao a ninoaa
o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeinoa neiaaniua a?oiiu, yaeythueany oa?ieiaie,
iai?eia?, i?yiay eeoea, aeii ioaeuoa, ea?aoa nei?ie iiiiue, ai?ueaa ca
nouanoaiaaiea e o.i.

3. O?acaieiae/aneea ni/aoaiey – iai?iou, a eioi?uo o iaeiiai ec
eiiiiiaioia o?acaieiae/anee naycaiiia cia/aiea, i?iyaeythuaany eeoue a
nayce ni no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiui e?oaii iiiyoee e eo neiaaniuo iaicia/aiee.
I?e yoii aeey oaeiai ia?aie/aiey, iiae/a?eeaae A.A. Aeiia?aaeia, eae
aoaeoi iao iniiaaiee a eiae/aneie eee aauiie i?e?iaea naieo iaicia/aaiuo
i?aaeiaoia, aeaenoaee, yaeaiee. Yoe ia?aie/aiey nicaeathony i?enoueie
aeaiiiio ycueo caeiiaie nayce neiaaniuo cia/aiee. Iiaeiaiua ni/aoaiey
yeaeaaeaioaie neia ia yaeythony, oae eae o eaaeaeiai eo eiiiiiaioa
?acee/iua cia/aiey, iai?eia?, no?ao aa?ao, oinea aa?ao, caaenoue aa?ao,
niao aa?ao e ae?. ii iaeuecy neacaoue: ?aaeinoue aa?ao, oaeiaieuenoaea
aa?ao e o.i.

Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia oie iieiaeeoaeueiie ?iee, eioi?oth nua?aee ?aaiou
A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa, iinayuaiiua o?acaieiae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeea, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?ee o?acaieiaee ianoiyoaeueii
o?aaoao aeaeaaoueny aia?aae e ia caiueaoueny a ?aieao i?eau/iuo noai.

Acaeyaeu A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa a iaeanoe o?acaieiaee aucaaee caia/aiey ?yaea
o/aiuo. Oae, I.I. Aiiniaa iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi iia?e?iaaiea iiiyoeai
«onoie/eainoue neiaaniiai eiiieaena» a aeaea aeneiiu, ia o?aaothuae ie
ii?aaeaeaiey, ie ooi/iaiey, iaeuecy iauynieoue niaoeeoeeie ?onneiai
iaoa?eaea. I.I, Aiiniaa oaeaea ioia/aao, /oi iiiyoea
«iaiioeae?iaaiiinoue o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe» ia iie?aaony a ?aaioao
A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa ia eaeea- eeai eiie?aoiua, iauaeoeaii onoaiaaeeaaaiua
i?eciaee (Aiiniaa, 1963, n.7-9). Aneaaenoaea yoiai ia anaaaea aiciiaeii
?aca?aie/eoue n?auaiey e aaeeinoaa. Yoa o?oaeiaeoay i?iaeaia e ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ia iaoea naiaai ?aoaiey, oioy iienee a yoii
iai?aaeaiee aaaeoony.

E?eoe/aneea caia/aiey aucuaaao oe?ieee e iiiaiia?aciue ninoaa eaoaai?ee
o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeinoa, aeeth/athuee oaoie/aneea e iao/iua oa?ieiu,
e?ueaoua au?aaeaiey, eaeaiao?u, eeoa?aoo?iua oeeoaou, iineiaeoeu e
iiaiai?ee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeeth/aiiua a ninoaa o?acaieiae/aneeo
aaeeinoa eae ia?ainiuneaiiuo, oae e iaia?ainiuneaiiuo iai?ioia
iaoeaeaniia?acii. A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaa /anoi oi?aeatho ca ionoonoaea
aaeeiiai i?eioeeia eeanneoeeaoeee o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe. Aeaa ia?aua
a?oiiu – n?auaiey e aaeeinoaa – ioaeaeythony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii i?eciaeo
iioeae?iaaiiinoe o?acaieiae/aneie aaeeieoeu, o?aouey a?oiia –
o?acaieiae/aneea ni/aoaiey – ii i?eciaeo ia?aie/aiiie ni/aoaaiinoe
neiaa.

A nayce n yoei N.A. Aaa?ei auaeaeaaao oaaaeeoaeueiua aic?aaeaiey. «Aeaei
a oii, /oi iauaeoeaii (oioy A.A. Aeiia?aaeia i?yii ia yoii ieaaea ia
ieoao) aaeeiue i?eioeei, aaeeiia iniiaaiea a eeanneoeeaoeee anoue –
aeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo ii noaiaie cao?oaeiaiiinoe auaaaeaiey cia/aiey
oeaeiai ec cia/aiey eiiiiiaioia: a n?auaieyo oaeia auaaaeaiea
cao?oaeiaii a aunoae noaiaie (iaauaiaeeii); a aaeeinoaao iii neeueii
ineiaeiaii naiaioe/aneie aeaoieaiiainoueth, ii yaii auaiaeeii; ai
o?acaieiae/aneeo ni/aoaieyo auaaaeaiea i/aiue ineiaeiaii iaaeinoaoi/iie
/aoeinoueth cia/aiey o?acaieiae/anee ia?aie/aiiiai eiiiiiaioa; ai
o?acaieiae/ane4eo au?aaeaieyo (aaaaeaiiua aanueia i?aaie/ii a
niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eioeeiii I.I. Oaineei) cia/aiea oeaeiai aac o?oaea
auaiaeeoueny ec cia/aiey eiiiiiaioia».

E o?ai oeiai o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeieoe I.I. Oaineee aeiaaaee aua iaeei –
o?acaieiae/aneea au?aaeaiey. Iiae o?acaieiae/aneeie au?aaeaieyie
iiieiathony onoie/eaua a naiai ninoaaa e oiio?aaeaiee iai?iou, eioi?ua
ia oieueei yaeythony naiaioe/anee /eaieiuie, ii e ninoiyo oeaeeeii ec
neia ni naiaiaeiuie cia/aieai, iai?eia?, nioeeaeenoe/aneia ni?aaiiaaiea,
aieeia aiyoueny, a ean ia oiaeeoue, ia ana oi cieioi, /oi aeanoeo e
o.ae. O?acaieiae/aneea au?aaeaiey – yoi oieueei iai?iou n aoeaaeueiui
cia/aieai eiiiiiaioia. Aeeth/aiea ia?aciuo iineiaeoe a ninoaa
o?acaieiae/aneeo au?aaeaiee iaoeaeaniia?acii, oae eae a oii neo/aa
ninoaa o?acaieiae/aneeo au?aaeaiee aoaeao oaeei aea ?acii?iaeiui, eae e
ninoaa o?acaieiae/aneeo aaeeinoa.

A.E. Nie?ieoeeee ?acee/aao o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu e eaeeiiu.
O?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu – yoi noeeenoe/anee iaeo?aeueiua iai?iou,
eeoaiiua iaoaoi?e/iinoe eee iioa?yaoea aa. E o?acaieiae/aneei aaeeieoeai
A.E. Nie?ieoeeee ioiineo iai?iou oeia get up, fall in love e ae?oaea.
Eaeeiiu iniiaaiu ia ia?aiina cia/aiey, ia iaoaoi?a, ynii niciathuaeny
aiai?yuei. Eo oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie yaeyaony y?eay noeeenoe/aneay ie?anea,
iooiae io iau/iiai iaeo?aeueiiai noeey, iai?eia?,

take the bull by the horns – aeaenoaiaaoue ?aoeoaeueii; a?aoue auea ca
?iaa; dead as a doornail – aac i?eciaeia aeecie e ae?.

O?acaieiae/aneea n?auaiey, o?acaieiae/aneea ni/aoaiey e o?acaieiae/aneea
au?aaeaiey ia aoiaeyo a eeanneoeeaoeeth A.E. Nie?ieoeeiai. A no?oeoo?iii
ioiioaiee A.E. Nie?ieoeeee aeaeeo o?acaieiaeciu ia iaeiiaa?oeiiua,
aeaooaa?oeiiua e iiiaiaa?oeiiua a caaeneiinoe io /enea ciaiaiaoaeueiuo
neia. Iai?eia?, iaeiiaa?oeiiue o?acaieiaeci – yoi niaaeeiaiea
iaciaiaiaoaeueiiai neiaa eee iaciaiaiaoaeueiuo neia n iaeiei
ciaiaiaoaeueiui.

Eeanneoeeaoeey onoie/eauo ni/aoaiee neia a ?aaioa A.E. Nie?ieoeeiai
yaeyaony yneeciie e iniiaaiiie a iniiaiii ia noeeenoe/aneii e?eoa?ee.
I.I. Aiiniaa auaeaeyao aeaa oeia OA – o?acaiu e eaeeiiu. O?acaia – yoi
aaeeieoea iinoiyiiiai eiioaenoa, a eioi?ie oeacaoaeueiue ieieioi,
o?aaoaiue aeey aeooaeecaoeee aeaiiiai cia/aiey naiaioe/anee ?aaeecoaiiai
neiaa, yaeyaony aaeeinoai aiciiaeiui, ia aa?uee?oaiui, o.a. iinoiyiiui,
iai?eia?, beef tea- e?aieee iyniie aoeueii; knit one s brows –
iaoio?eoueny; black frost – ii?ic aac niaaa e ae?oaea.

Aoi?ie eiiiiiaio yaeyaony oeacaoaeueiui ieieioiii aeey ia?aiai. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi aaeeie/iay ni/aoaaiinoue ai iiiaeo o?acaiao yaeyaony
e?aeia iaonoie/eaie e iie eaaei ia?aoiaeyo a ia?aiaiiua ni/aoaiey neia.
A «Aieueoii Ienoi?aeneii neiaa?a» eiaaony ia?iiiia /enei i?eia?ia
ia?aiia/aeueiie aaeeie/iie ni/aoaaiinoe neia, a caoai ?aniaaea yoie
aaeeie/iie ni/aoaaiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa /aai neiai i?eia?aoaao naiaiaeiia
cia/aiea. I.I. Aiiniaa i?eciaao, /oi o?acaiu ninoaaeytho iaeaieaa
oaeo/oth /anoue o?acaieiae/aneiai oiiaea, /oi ?anoe?aiea ni/aoaaiinoe
?ac?ooaao noaaeeueiinoue ninoaaeythuaai eo eiioaenoa e oai naiui
auaiaeeo eo ca i?aaeaeu o?acaieiaee .

Eaeeiiu, a ioee/ea io o?acai, – yoi aaeeieoeu iinoiyiiiai eiioaenoa, a
eioi?uo oeacaoaeueiue ieieioi e naiaioe/anee ?aaeecoaiue yeaiaio
ii?iaeueii ninoaaeytho oiaeaeanoai e iaa i?aaenoaaeaiu iauei eaene/aneei
ninoaaii neiaini/aoaiey. Eaeeiiu oa?aeoa?ecothony oeaeinoiui cia/aieai,
iai?eia?, red tape – aieieeoa, ath?ie?aoeci; play with fire – ea?aoue n
iaiai e o.i.

I.I. Aiiniaa auaeaeeea /anoe/iii?aaeeeaoeaiua o?acaieiaeciu – iai?iou, a
eioi?uo niaea?aeeony a?aiiaoe/anee aaaeouee /eai – aioaoeaaeaio – e
caaenyuay io iaai i?aaeeeaoeaiay aaeeieoea. I?e yoii oaeay no?oeoo?a
aunooiaao eae i?enouaa aeaiiiio o?acaieiaecio oi?iaeueiia naienoai, a ia
?acoeueoao eaeeo – eeai neioaene/aneeo aai i?aia?aciaaiee, iai?eia?,
fiddle while Rome is burning – caieiaoueny ionoyeaie ia?aae eeoeii
na?ueaciie iianiinoe; see how the land lies – auynieoue, eae ianoiyo
aeaea; ships that pass in the night – ieiieaoiua ano?a/e e o.i.

Iiaeoiaey e o?acaieiae/aneei ni/aoaieyi n ia?eie eiioaenoieiae/aneiai
aiaeeca, I.I. Aiiniaa ia n/eoaao cia/aiea naiaioe/anee ?aaeecoaiiai
neiaa a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo o?acaieiae/anee naycaiiui, iineieueeo
oeacaoaeueiue ieieioi, aeey iaai iaiaoiaeeiue, ia yaeyaony iinoiyiiui.
«Iieo/aaony iaeee ia?aoiaeiue oei eiioaenooaeueiie naycaiiinoe cia/aiey,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iniaue, oaeaea ia?aoiaeiue, oei eiioaenoa, oae
neacaoue, «iieoiinoiyiiue» eiioaeno».

Aiiniaa iacuaaao oaeie eiioaeno ocoaeueii ia?aie/aiiui, a cia/aiea
naiaioe/anee ?aaeecoaiiai neiaa, a iaai aoiaeyuaai, – ocoaeueii
naycaiiui cia/aieai. Ia yoii iniiaaiee I.I. Aiiniaa n/eoaao, /oi
aaeeieoeu ocoaeueii ia?aie/aiiiai eiioaenoa noiyo o a?aieoe
o?acaieiae/aneiai oiiaea ycuea e iaia?oaeeaatho ?acee/ioth aeecinoue e
iaio. *ai aieaa ia?aie/aia a ieo aa?eaioiinoue oeacaoaeueiiai ieieioia,
oai yoa noaiaiue aeecinoe e o?acaiai auoa. Onoie/eaua iai?iou n
oeaeueiii?aaeeeaoeaiie no?oeoo?ie (iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee) I.I. Aiiniaa
a ninoaa o?acaieiaee ia aeeth/aao.O?acaieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey I.I.
Aiiniaie yaeyaony iiaaoi?neie e, ianiio?y ia ?yae nii?iuo iieiaeaiee,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaia neiai a oai?ee aiaeeeneie o?acaieiaee.

Oe?iei iiieiaao iauai o?acaieiaee N.A. Aaa?ei , iiaeoiaeyuee e
o?acaieiae/aneie nenoaia n oi/ee c?aiey ooieoeeiiaeueii- naiaioe/aneie
eiiieeeaoeaiinoe (ineiaeiaiiinoe). N.A. Aaa?ei aeeth/aao a ninoaa
o?acaieiaee ana onoie/eaua e ia?aiaiii – onoie/eaua ni/aoaiey neia,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuea e?eoa?eyi ooieoeeiiaeueii – naiaioe/aneie
eiiieeeaoeaiinoe.

N.A. Aaa?eio oaeaeinue nicaeaoue no?ieioth eeanneoeeaoeeth
o?acaieiaeciia a nia?aiaiiii ?onneii ycuea. A ioiioaiee iauaia
o?acaieiaee o/aiua i?eaea?aeeaathony ?acee/iuo oi/ae c?aiey. Yoi
iauyniyaony eneeth/eoaeueiie neiaeiinoueth iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e
nouanoaiaaieai a ycuea ?yaea ia?aoiaeiuo neo/aaa, iaoiaeyueony iaaeaeo
eeanne/aneeie OA e naiaiaeiuie, eee, eae eo nae/an iacuaatho,
ia?aiaiiuie, ni/aoaieyie neia. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea, iiae
eaeei oaeii c?aiey iiaeoiaeeo o/aiue e eeanneoeeaoeee OA. Aeey A.E.
Nie?ieoeeiai iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo ia?aiao?ia o?acaieiae/iinoe yaeyaony
yeaeaaeaioiinoue OA neiao, aeey I.I. Aiiniaie – oei iinoiyiiiai
eiioaenoa, aeey N.A. Aaa?eia – ooieoeeiiaeueii – naiaioe/aneay
eiiieeeaoeaiinoue.

Aeey A.E. Nie?ieoeeiai e I.I. Aiiniaie oa?aeoa?ii oceia iiieiaiea iauaia
o?acaieiaee, a aeey N.A. Aaa?eia – oe?ieia. Oe?ieia iiieiaiea iauaia
o?acaieiaee yaeyaony nae/an i?aiaeaaeathuei. Iu oaeaea enoiaeei ec
oe?ieiai iiieiaiey o?acaieiaee, iauaeoii eioi?ie yaeythony ana
onoie/eaua ni/aoaiey neia n ineiaeiaiiui cia/aieai.

Ieaeiyy a?aieoea o?acaieiaecia – aeaooneiaiia ia?aciaaiea. I?e yoii
iaeei ec eiiiiiaioia iiaeao auoue neoaeaaiui neiaii. Aa?oiyy a?aieoea –
neiaeiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. O?acaieiaeciaie ni no?oeoo?ie neiaeiiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoo auoue oieueei iineiaeoeu. Ia?aciaaiey, auoiaeyuea ca
i?aaeaeu neiaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, aaeeieoeaie ycuea ia yaeythony e
iiyoiio ia iiaoo auoue o?acaieiaeciaie. Yoi iiiiaaao ioa?aie/eoue
o?acaieiaeciu io iaeuo aeai?ia oieueeei?a – caaaaeie, i?eaaooie,
n/eoaeie e o.i.

O?acaieiaey ninoieo ec o?ao ?acaeaeia: eaeeiiaoeea, eaeeio?acaiiaoeea
(semi – idioms) e o?acaiiaoeea. Yoi aeaeaiea iniiaaii ia ?acee/iuo oeiao
cia/aiey o?acaieiaeciia: io aieaa ineiaeiaiiuo aei iaiaa ineiaeiaiiuo.
Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey aeeth/aao eeanneoeeaoeeth, i?aaeeiaeaiioth A.A.
Aeiia?aaeiaui, e aeiiieiyao aa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iiaie eeanneoeeaoeee
aicieeea a nayce n oai, /oi aiaeeeneay o?acaieiaey ia oeeaaeuaaaony a
o?e eeanna, auaeaeaiiuo A.A. Aeiia?aaeiaui. Aia?aua auaeaeaiu
eaeeio?acaiiaoeea e ?yae a?oii, aoiaeyueo ai o?acaiiaoeeo, iai?eia?,
o?acaiiaoeciu n i?eaaai/ii – ooi/ieoaeueiui cia/aieai.

A ?acaeae o?acaiiaoeee aoiaeyo nianoaaiii o?acaieiae/aneea aaeeieoeu,
eee eaeeiiu (eaeeiiaoeciu), o.a.onoie/eaua ni/aoaiey eaenai n
iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ia?ainiuneaiiui cia/aieai. Yoe OA auaatho
?acee/iuo no?oeoo?iuo oeiia e iiaoo auoue eae iioeae?iaaiiuie, oae e
iaiioeae?iaaiiuie.

A ?acaeae eaeeio?acaiiaoeee aoiaeyo eaeeio?acaiiaoe/aneea aaeeieoeu, eee
eaeeio?acaiiaoeciu, o.a. onoie/eaua neiaini/aoaiey, o ia?auo
o?acainaiaioe/aneeo aa?eaioia (iiae o?acainaiaioe/aneei aa?eaioii
iiieiaaony iaeii ec cia/aiee iieenaiaioe/aneiai o?acaieiaecia. Oa?iei
ia?aciaai ii aiaeiaee n i?aaeeiaeaiiui A.E. Nie?ieoeeei oa?ieiii
«eaeneei – naiaioe/aneee aa?eaio», o.a. iaeii ec cia/aiee
iieenaiaioe/aneiai neiaa.

O aoi?uo eaeeiiaoe/aneeo aa?eaioia – iieiinoueth ia?ainiuneaiiua,
iai?eia?, 1) oeaiiay ?aaeoeey (iieiinoueth ia?ainiuneaiiue
eaeeiiaoe/aneee aa?eaio). Aoi?ie aa?eaio – ia?ainiuneaiea ia?aiai,
yaeythuaainy aai i?ioioeiii. Ia?ainiuneaiea iineo iaoaoi?e/aneee
oa?aeoa?.

A ?acaeae o?acaiiaoeee aoiaeyo o?acaiiaoe/aneea aaeeieoeu, eee
o?acaieiaeciu iaeaeeiiaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ii n ineiaeiaiiui
cia/aieai.

A o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iai?ioao oeia fail in one s duty – ia auiieieoue naie
aeiea; hope for the best – iaaeayoueny ia eo/oaa e o.i. naiaioe/aneay
no?oeoo?a ia ineiaeiaia, e iiaeiaiua iai?iou ia yaeythony iauaeoaie
eco/aiey o?acaieiaee. Iie iaoiaeyony a aaaeaiee eaeneeieiaee. Yoi
ni?aaaaeeeai e a ioiioaiee iai?ioia n oa?ieiieiae/aneei cia/aieai,
iai?eia?, – aeae?aaee/aneee oi?iic; – ecia?eoaeueiue i?eai?; –
aecoaeueiia noaeiaiaeaeaiea e o.i.

Iiaeiaiua iai?iou, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yaeythony aini?iecaiaeeiuie
aaeeieoeaie ycuea, a n ae?oaie ia?acothony ii ii?iaeaeathuae iiaeaee
ia?aiaiiiai neiaini/aoaiey, o.a. i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia?aiaiii –
onoie/eaua ia?aciaaiey. Ii?iaeaeathuay iiaeaee?iaaiiinoue auaiaeeo
iiaeiaiua ia?aciaaiey ca i?aaeaeu o?acaieiaee. Aeaeeii, oeaeaniia?acii
inoaaeoue a ea/anoaa iauaeoa eco/aiea o?acaieiaee oieueei oaoie/aneea
iai?iou, eae n aoeaaeueiuie, oae e n iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii
ia?ainiuneaiiuie cia/aieyie, ia ia?acothueany ii ii?iaeaeathuae iiaeaee,
iai?eia?, black box (oaoi.)- /a?iue yuee; blind gut (iaae.) – neaiay
eeoea e o.i. n?.?onne. au/uea na?aeoea, aie/uey ianoue, a?oaeiay aeaaa,
a?oaeiay eeaoea, cay/uey aoaa, coa ioae?inoe, Eo?eiiay neaiioa, neiiiaay
aieaciue, ooiay ?aeiaeia e o.i.

Ia yaeythony iauaeoii o?acaieiaee e neiaini/aoaiey n oceei cia/aieai
aaaeouaai eiiiiiaioa, iai?eia?, n aeaaieii to launch– caioneaoue a
einiin; to launch a rocket (spacecraft, spaceship, an astronaut, an
earth satellite) e ae?.

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