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Affixation in modern english

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Introduction

Theme actually. Word – building is one of the main ways of enriching
vocabulary. Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word
building throughout the history of English. The main function of
affixation in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another;
the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part
of speech. As we are future teacher must know the rules of word –
formation. It will help us to teach our students. Besides if we know
affixes we can easily form new words while we are writing or speaking,

The aims and purposes of the work. The goal of the work is based on
detailed study of affixation, which play important role in word –
formation. According to this general aim the following particular tasks
are put forward:

1. to classify affixes.

2. to classify the affixes according to its structure and semantics.

3. to show productive ways of word – building process of the English
language.

The scientific novelty of the work. Novelty of the qualification work is
determined by the necessity o the study of affixation which form a large
layer of word – building process. And studying the productive ways of
affixes in Modern English.

The practical value. The practical value of the research is that
material and the results of the given qualification work can serve the
material for theoretical course of lexicology, stylistics, typology as
well as can be used for practical lessons in translation, home reading,
conversational practice and current events.

Literature overview. While writing present qualification work I used the
books written by great scholars such as: The English Word by Arnold I.V,
A Course of Lexicology by Ginzburg R.S, A Course of lexicology by
Buronov J.B. Besides above mentioned literatures I took information from
Internet, Work Book Encyclopedia.

The structure of the work. Present qualification work consists of
Introduction, main part, conclusion and the list of used literatures.

1. Main part

1.1 Morphemes, free and bound forms

If we describe a word as an autonomous unit of language in which a
particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex and
which is capable of a particular grammatical employment and able to form
a sentence by itself we have the possibility to distinguish it from the
other fundamental language unit, namely, the morpheme.

A morpheme is also an association of a given meaning with a given sound
pattern. But unlike a word it is not autonomous. Morphemes occur in
speech only as constituent parts of words, not independently, although a
word may consist of a single morpheme. Nor are they divisible into
smaller meaningful units. That is why the morpheme may be defined as the
minimum meaningful language unit.

The term morpheme is derived from Gr morphe ‘form’+ eme. Linguists to
denote the smallest unit or the minimum distinctive feature have adopted
the Greek suffix – eme. (Cf. phoneme, sememe). The morpheme is the
smallest meaningful unit of form. A form in these cases is a recurring
discrete unit of speech.

A form is said to be free if it may stand alone without changing its
meaning; if not, it is a bound form, so called because it is always
bound to something else. For example, if we compare the words sportive
and elegant and their parts, we see that sport, sportive, elegant may
occur alone as utterances, whereas eleg – – ive, – ant are bound forms
because they never occur alone. A word is, by L. Bloomfield’s
definition, a minimum free form. A morpheme is said to be either bound
or free. This statement’ should be taken with caution. It means that
some morphemes are capable of forming words without adding other
morphemes: that is, they are homonymous to free forms.

According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are
subdivided into roots and affixes. The latter are further subdivided,
according to their position, into prefixes, suffixes and infixes, and
according to their function and meaning, into derivational and
functional affixes, the latter also called endings or outer formatives.

When a derivational or functional affix is stripped from the word, what
remains is a stem (or a stem base). The stem expresses the lexical and
the part of speech meaning. See also: П A. Coболева, об ocновах слов,
связанных отношениями конверсии. Сб «Иностранные языки в высшей школе»,
вып. 2, 1963. For the word hearty and for the paradigm heart (Sing.) –
hearts (Pl.) A paradigm is defined as the system of grammatical forms
characteristic of a word. the stem may be represented as heart– This
stem is a single morpheme, it contains nothing but the root, so it is a
simple stem. It is also a free stem because it is homonymous to the word
heart.

A stem may also be defined as the part of the word that remains
unchanged throughout its paradigm. The stem of the paradigm hearty –
heartier – (the) heartiest is hearty– It is a free stem, but as it
consists of a root morpheme and an affix, it is not simple but derived.
Thus, a stem containing one or more affixes is a derived stem. If after
deducing the affix the remaining stem is not homonymous to a separate
word of the same root, we call it a bound stem. Thus, in the word
cordial ‘proceeding as if from the heart’, the adjective-forming suffix
can be separated on the analogy with such words as bronchia/, radial,
social. The remaining stem, however, cannot form a separate’ word by
itself: it is bound. In cordially and cordiality, on the other hand, the
stems are free.

Bound stems are especially characteristic of loan words. The point may
be illustrated by the following French borrowings: arrogance, charity,
courage, coward, distort, involve, notion, legible and tolerable, to
give but a few. Historical lexicology shows how sometimes the stem
becomes bound due to the internal changes in the stem that accompany the
addition of affixes; cf. broad: breadth, clean: cleanly [‘klenhj, dear:
dearth [d?:? ], grief : -.grievous. After the suffixes of these words
are taken away the remaining elements are: arrog-, char-, cour-, cow-, –
tort, – voIve, nat-, leg-, toler-, which do not coincide with any
semantically related independent words.

Roots-are main morphemic vehicles of a given idea in a given language at
a given stage of its development. A root may be also regarded as the
ultimate constituent element which remains after the removal of all
functional and derivational affixes and does not admit any further
analysis. It is the common element of words within a word-family. Thus,
– heart – is the common root of the following series of words: heart,
hearten, dishearten, heartily, heartless, hearty, heartiness,
sweetheart, heart-broken, kind-hearted, whole-heartedly, etc. In some of
these, as, for example, in hearten, there is only one root; in others
the root – heart is combined with some other root, thus forming a
compound like sweetheart.

It will at once be noticed that the root in English is very often
homonymous with the word. This fact is of fundamental importance as it
is one of the most specific features of the English language arising
from its general grammatical system on the one hand, and from its
phonemic system on the other. The influence of the analytical structure
of the language is obvious. The second point, however, calls for some
explanation. Actually the usual phonemic shape most favoured in English
is one single stressed syllable: bear, find, jump, land, man, sing, etc.
This does not give much space for a second morpheme to add classifying
Lexico-grammatical meaning to the lexical meaning already present in the
root-stem, so the Lexico-grammatical meaning must be signaled by
distribution. In the phrases a morning’s drive, a morning’s ride, a
morning’s walk the words drive, ride and walk receive the
Lexico-grammatical meaning of. a noun not due to the structure of their
stems, but because they are preceded by a noun in the Possessive case.

An English word does not necessarily contain formatives indicating to
what part of speech it belongs. This holds true even with respect to
inflexible parts of speech, i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives. Not all roots
are free forms, but productive roots, i.e. roots capable of producing
new words, usually are. The semantic realization of an English word is
therefore very specific. Its dependence on distribution is further
enhanced by the widespread occurrence of homonymy both among root
morphemes and affixes. Note how many words in the following statement
might be ambiguous if taken in isolation: A change of work is as good as
a rest.

The above treatment of the root is purely synchronic, as we have taken
into consideration only the facts of present-day English. But the same
problem of the morpheme serving as the main signal of a given lexical
meaning is studied in etymology, i.e. in that branch of linguistics
which deals with the origin and development of words tracing them back
to their earliest determinable source. When approached thus historically
or diachronically the word heart will be classified as Common Germanic.
One will look for cognates, i.e. words descended from a common ancestor.
The cognates of heart are the Latin cor, whence cordial ‘hearty’,
‘sincere’, and so cordially and cordiality; also the Greek kardia,
whence English cardiac condition. The cognates outside the English
vocabulary are the Russian сердце, the German Herzt the Spanish corazon
and somе other words.

To emphasize the difference between the synchronic and the diachronic
treatment, we shall call the common element of cognate words in
different languages not their root but their radical element. An
interesting example of historical treatment may be found in Potter’s
book.11 S. Potter, Modern Linguistics, p. 81, London, 1957 Potter shows
that the same radical element s-d is to be recognized in the English
monosyllables sit, seat, soot and nest. The radical element is s-d, the
vowels may be different. Potter distinguishes five grades: (1) – sed –
as in Latin sedere, whence the English sedentary ‘requiring much
sitting’, ‘physically inactive’ (sedentary work, sedentary person) and
sediment ‘the part that settles to the bottom of a liquid’. From sedare,
sedat (the causative of sedere) the English vocabulary has sedate
‘quiet’, ‘calm’ and its derivatives: sedately, sedateness, sedative;
supersede is ‘to sit above’, hence ‘to replace’. This meaning developed,
as Potter explains, at the time when seats at schools were assigned by
quality of work, so if a pupil surpassed another he superseded him. The
verb sit belongs to this group also, being developed from Common
Germanic setjan. (2) The variant – – sod – is represented by the Past
Tense sat, (3) [-se:d] – is observed in Mode seathoneymoon v. The treatment remains
synchronic because it is not the origin of the word that is established
but its present correlations in the vocabulary and the patterns
productive in present-day English.

The analysis into immediate constituents described below permits us to
obtain the morphemic structure and provides the basis for further
word-formation analysis.

Analysis into immediate constitute

A synchronic morphological analysis is most effectively accomplished by
the procedure known as the analysis into immediate constituents11
Immediate constituents — pny of the two meaningful parts forming a
larger linguistic unity. (IC’s). First suggested by L. Bloomfield22 L.
Bloomfield, Language, London, 1935, p. 210. it was later developed by
many linguists.33 See: E. O. Nida, Morphology. The Descriptive Analysis
of Words, Ann Arbor, 1946 p. Fl. The main opposition dealt with is the
opposition of stem and affix. It is a kind of segmentation revealing not
the history of the word but its motivation, i.e. the data the listener
has to go by in understanding it. It goes without saying that
unmotivated words and words with faded motivation have to be remembered
and understood as separate signs, not as combinations of other signs.

The method is based on the fact that a word characterized by
morphological divisibility (analysable into morphemes) is involved in
certain structural correlations. This means that, as Z. Harris puts it,
«the morpheme boundaries in an utterance are determined not on the basis
of considerations interior to the utterance, but on the basis of
comparison with other utterances. The comparisons are controlled, i.e.
we do not merely scan various random utterances but seek utterances
which differ from our original one only in stated portions. The final
test is in utterances which are only minimally different from ours. «11
2.S. Harris, Methods in Structural Linguistics, p. 163.

A sample analysis which has become almost classical, being repeated many
times by many authors, is Bloomfield’s analysis of the word
ungentlemanly. As the word is convenient we take the same example.
Comparing this word with other utterances the listener recognizes the
morpheme un-as a negative prefix because he has often come across words
built on the pattern un-adjective stem: uncertain, unconscious, uneasy,
unfortunate, unmistakable, unnatural. Some of the cases resembled the
word even more closely; these were: unearthly, unsightly, untimely,
unwomanly and the like. One can also come across the adjective
gentlemanly. Thus, at the first cut we obtain the following immediate
constituents: un + gentlemanly. If we continue our analysis we see that
although gent occurs as a free form in low colloquial usage, no such
word as lemanly may be found either as a free or as a bound constituent,
so this time we have to separate the final morpheme. We are justified in
so doing as there are many adjectives following the pattern noun
stem+ly, such as womanly, masterly, scholarly, soldierly with the same
semantic relationship of ‘having the quality of the person denoted by
the stem’; we also have come across the noun gentleman in other
utterances, The two first stages of analysis resulted in separating a
free and a bound form: 1) un + gentlemanly, 2) gentleman + ly. The third
cut has its peculiarities. The division into gent-+-leman is obviously
impossible as no such patterns exist in English, so the cut is
gentle+man. A similar pattern is observed in nobleman, and so we state
adjective stem + – man. Now, the element man may be differently
classified as a semi – affix or as a variant of the free form man. The
word gentle is open to discussion. It is obviously divisible from the
etymological viewpoint: gentle<.0fr gentil gentilis permits to discern the root or rather radical element gens and suffix il. but since we are only concerned with synchronic analysis this division is not relevant. if however compare adjective gentle such adjectives as brittle fertile fickle juvenile little noble subtle some more containing le-ile added a bound stem they form pattern for our case. that remains present in following group: gently gentleness genteel gentile gentry etc. one might observe procedure of looking similar utterances has shown english vocabulary contains vulgar word gent been mentioned above meaning person pretending status gentleman simply then there no structure noun le so should be interpreted homonym question. sum up: break obtain at any level two ic which given word. all time based on patterns characteristic vocabulary. showing interdependence constituents segregated various stages formula: un man ly- breaking into its immediate each cut structural order may differ from their actual sequence furthermore shall ultimate can arranged according word: un-un gent- repeat word-formation morphemic also it built carried out terms proportional oppositions. main requirements essentially same: must reveal observed other words same language stems obtained after affix taken away correspond separate segregation derivational oppositions having lexical lexico-grammatical meaning. ungentlemanly opposed ungentleman does exist gentlemanly pairs similarly connected correlated opposition. examples are: unkind="unselfish" fair kind selfish correlation reveals un- stem. type defined derivation. sense un-as used either commonly reverse implication blame praise. next step away: scholarly woman scholar series shows these derived stem-mi common numerator term suggested american linguistics further developed treatment by combining purely formal semantic analysis. check means instance distinguish monthly although both follow relationship different ly qualitative first case frequentative second i.e. every month point confirmed correlations: personal equivalent quality denoted qualities masterly master soldierly soldier womanly fit write: hand group denoting period formula occurring hourly hour yearly year show sort equivalence transform obviously impossible process an elementary transformational similarity difference revealed possibility impossibility transforming them prescribed model certain rules called conditions between original prefixed. fulfilled sameness kernel morpheme. will discussed chapter methods linguistic study. e.o. nida11 e. nida morphology university michigan press pp. discusses another complicated case: untruly seems divided ways being untrue- yet observing notice prefix rarely combined adverb very freely have already above. justified thinking untrue uncommonly unlikely. course cases especially among borrowed defy altogether calendar nasturtium chrysanthemum. remain open unresolved. linguists example hold view like pocket cannot subjected morphological argument though singling et because considered regular hogget lock: locket distinctly diminutive remaining part pock regarded occur anywhere else. others prof. i. smirnitsky think morphologically divisible least elements belong correlation.22 a.h. c m. controversial issues nature do invalidate principle constituents. convincing. illustrate let us take hamlet small village present-day clearly diachronically ofr hamelet germanic origin hamel cognate home. forget hundreds place names end ham shoreham wyndham nevertheless making mixture historical approach never do. keep look recurring identities procedures find booklet cloudlet flatlet leaflet ringlet t contradict hamlet. therefore supported evidence afforded material.and within strictly limits. number authors ceiling. contain morpheme argued ceiling ceil longer current speaker understands covering lining roof existence seen sufficient itself consider divisible. performs function. thus flooring decking piping paving etc ing semi-affix work framing synonymous frame-work. helps differentiation offered test. substitution identical contexts. testifies favour taking consisting morphemes contrast flooring. s. potter quotes example: apartment floored sandal ceiled nacre. make conclusion namely lexicological grouped affixes well. derivation functional lexicology primarily domain grammarians. fact well whole problem boundary area grammar studied both. system closely interrelated study complete without discussion morphemes. obvious often homonymous. otherwise groups render types serve convey grammatical build forms word-form aspects result inflection. sets when inflectional declensions conjugations termed paradigms. paradigm e.g. near nearer nearest son sons supply components words. sometimes accompanied combinations meanings. supplied y consists ability express idea peculiar creates stems. meanings somewhat variegated: bushy cloudy stony slangy baggy more. conveys emotional my school reports say: amenable discipline too fond organizing was way saying: dickens bossy boss derogatory fundamental function results interesting relationship: presence prevent absent substituted context. changes distributional properties much simple violating standard. see familiar quotation shakespeare: cowards die many times before deaths valiant taste death once. here one-morpheme absence plural mark sentence ungrammatical. derivative brave. semi-affixes inflection where difficult drawer hard fast line roots flexional formatives other. distinction caused easy matter altogether. few great position general affix. receive name semantically functionally structurally statistically behave than roots. general. determine lexicon-grammatical class belongs to. cf sailor: seaman semi-affix. specific farmed adverb-forming noun-forming suffixes: ness er ed combination stems: fainthearted long legged. almost unlimited possibilities valiancy fusion resemble formatives. suffixes derivatives worth entry dictionary omitted self-evident. produce help abstract up ness. verbal doer adding ing. approaching those productivity ish moderate degree named explained dictionaries referring reader underlying concise oxford read: womanized senses verb womanishly-in womanish manner adv-in womanishness-the state womanish. remarkable high valence formation compound corresponding free phrases. day: everydayness. allomorphs allo-from greek allo terminology denote whose members together constitute unit ion tion sion ation positional variants suffix. separated sign shav slight sound depending final phoneme preceding allomorphs. descriptive deals regularities relations features speech occurrence restively utterances. consequently principles allomorph variant environment characterized complementary distribution. distribution said hen appear environment. ending consonants rule pt becomes fused contrastive signal able mean measurable measured whereas resultant force: due proportion beauty classical art hence movement verse tread. clear-cut ical cod points vaguer connection what indicated stem: comic paper comical story. sharp. prefixes. depends initials assimilate. im-occurs bilabials ir-before r il-before l vowels inability existing under a: length n excite y: excitation n. treated basis dishes dreams books formally unrelated oxen vowed modification tooth: teeth zero sheep strength surely needs serious re-thinking cease units become pure abstractions. reek morphe turns misnomer lost. sore phonetically conditioned differing insomuch produces phonetic assimilation effects. suffixation classification purpose research classifications suggested. classified parts served frequency characteristics. last conformity convenient begin most frequent occur. listed accordingly illustrating possible force. noted diachronic would differently traces latin complet-us. age breakage mileage vicarage ance ence reference ant ent student dom freedom officialdom ee eer type-writer ess lioness hood washing creation tension explanation ism icism criticism ist communist ment nourishment nees ship ty adjective-forming ible uble audible soluble al dependent ary ate ete d ful ian australian reddish childish ive less ous ious curious dressy numeral-forming fold teen th verb-forming en fy ify speechify solidify ize ward wards northwards wise change interested signalize detailed classes subclasses. possessing categories inherent expressed. prop-words prop-word syntax. denotes provide completeness word-group. aphonic stands written. pronouns he she substituting nouns male female beings. specifically prop-words. functions following: i did go couldn good charles paused said: m afraid want you set affixes. subdivide proper nouns. animate beings collective falling several minor material things. signaled ancy ensy ty. emotionally neutral arian ician ite others. feminine classed subgroup suffixes. frequent: ine rix ette accepted caution. true polysemantic witl class. c.f. settlement translation give pleasure eye mind occurs beautiful woman. witness accordance coincidence regular. collectivity ery ship. borne poly persons whom characteristic. cf. knighthood. alongside charge derogatory: ard ling ster ton seem numerous endearment. coloured rendering endearment things illustrated ie ey: auntie cabbie daddie also: hanky nightie smallness kin kins ock connotation outlandish elegance novelty particularly launderette lecturette maisonette productive tendency semiaffix mini : mini-bus mini-car mini-crisis mini-skirt objects situations. formely forming value independent unit. endings necessary citizen citizenry formed plus sight conceptual looks alike: the-s citizens ry plurality collectivity. valued s formative category suffixal form. two-morpheme behaves constructions ola inflected meet just stated. while feels insulted could substitute crowd multitude nation bi-morphemic behavior replacement involve feel. est expressing comparison paul older peter old-er o dish adj old old-ish. note make-up comparatives super lateness compared adjectives. youngish longish betray consonant initial vowel younger standing medial finger clangor ante vocalic sonantic allophone come existence: once originated usually secretion. applies native only. dem still oe second-word historically. extended ended l. hall-way second-words felt isolation: monger wright and-wise suffixs. semi frequently gives right call caster broadcaster gamecaster newscaster fiend ae cigarette opium-fiend absinthe-fiend cocaine craft witchcraft leechcrajt prestaraft statecraft smith raft mother proof bomb- fire- rain- sound- water- hole kiss- humor-etc. jazzperson wrongly one. contact foreign languages led adoption countless introduced consequence hybrid composites. basing groups. dear-ness un-button. production uncomplicated element. involved use reason why prefixes were french immediately had introduced. early faithful faithless clearness recorded merely syntagma speakers imitated complicated. happen formations found later type. phenomenon. explains break-age hindr-ance yeoman-ry crop numerous. exceptional. arrival ity majority owe existance reinterpretation loons. comes analyzed composite acquire syntagmatic character fore precondition development landscape du landsdap resulted scrape entirely suffixs seascape earths cape cloudscape sands mountains moonscape parks skyscape waterscape house-scape roads-cape mindscape. bottlegger attracted booklegger trading obscene foodlegger food-seller meatlegger tirelegger rationed hierarchy squir archy arohy. attraction prob rime coinages made. is-eteria store establishment starting-point prob. mexican spanish cafeteria passed about analyzable attected mencken basketeria caketeria candyteria cleaneteria luncheteria drygoodsteria drugteria fruiteria shoeteria chccolateria furnitureteria. articles sold self-service plant recent coinage gas-a-teria life international stressed indicated. secretion requires comment. basic re-interpretation: re-interpretation occurs. contituent lemonade land-scape. direct assumes. made constituent far concerned. aristocracy democracy plutocracy yield jocular landocracy mobocracy cottoncracy meeting blending heterogeneous systems: isolated system. knowledge isolates ocracy reek-coined introduces english. tied morphologic naturally transplanted unlike subject conditions. hybrids word-coiner himself purposes rule. admittance impeded bear resemblance hearer familiar. situation foreign-coined associated hearers language. barometer thermometer automatically mater unstressed contain. rise currency speedometer cream ometer quite drunkometer. always limited range tinge faketiousness bumpology bumposopher hump cranium special mental faculies storiology weather logy dollolaty a. o. parallel ocrat mobocrat bancrat bankocrat. speed omoter fest. fom german sincerest turn fest u.s. smoke walkfest eatfest stuntfest bookfest gabfest. feast. cavalcade re-interpreted caval- horse suffix-cade coining aerocade aquacade autocade camelcade motorcade stand test time. panorama ending-rama secreted recently cinerama motorama autorama. ignorant pretentious people re-interpreting own way. vaguely feel termination attach c.b.a tinge. get barbarisms in-athon coined marathon danceathon swimathon etg in-thorium corsetorium lubritorium passage stay pf accounted third arise. apparently develop hamburger cheeseburger bufburger fishburger. tempted assume burger humburger. arisen re-interpretation. shortening fore-clipped representative contained hamburger. clipped non-existent cheese furture shrimpfurder krautfurter chicenfurter. election campaign hoovercrat willkiecrat crat short democrat. telegram gave cablegram radiogram pidgeongram lettergram gram tnr prginated wolfling wolf blend wol fand young-ling animal nominal me adverbs. particular attached circumstances parlance fiver bill five pounds crikret jargon hit boy who scrapes through five. greening green variety apple pear whiting white fish. instance. concepts apt represented condition appurtenance agent a.o theoretically telling concept expression ier pommier fruit trees ile stable demos tic animals nephritis disease. parallels either. intrinsic new goes corroborate this. needed regard adverbal derivatives. adeverbal fundamentally cpd member denominal possible. practice restricted. deverbal usual implications quidanse warning bewilderment impersonal: baker eraser disinfectant object indirect transferee draftee savings brewery lodgings considerations apply blackaut valency essential feature overlooked power actually used. unhappy unattractive seemingly analogous unsad unfalse un-pretty unusual. phonomor-phological factors. onli b dz v disturbance insistence indepence z: condensation organization. describe clear example. mostly highly suffix-able alike even phrases producing ungetatable characteristics importance semantically. significance realize know typical coined. achieve consist recurrent them. ensures rigorously identification speech. inquiry info promising begins affect attention. worthy viewpoint information theory capable makes code reliable protects noise. noise interference communication mistakes misunderstanding. unlimited. followed collier ics ial eous equal valiancy. combine ense editor comprehensible sive tive furnish shorter list: cruelty important wichita composed stave contrasted it. local environments same. oppositions: formality: formalism: humanity: humanist: reality: realism. roughly describes quality. resulting countable. naming disposition ideology. beng uncountable apposition consideration paragraph description differentiate helpful render. furnished vast boyish waspish enmesh aspish not. constraints nature. regularly nationalities british irish spanish. formes moderately colouring bookish churlish monkeyish sheepish swinish. chidish twist childlike. petulance childlike simplicity. befitting compassion grace tact effeminate in: tears traitors love duty. ridge renders named: greenish stiffish stiff thinnish thin. colours: blackish brownish reddish. stylistically numeral eightyish fortyish round eighty forty: whats min stout grey hair. tweeds. red face. colloquial four-oclockish fourish four robert went cocktail party annette six thirty going cooper correlations bringing relief picked random proof: good: goodness: kind: kindness: lonely: loneliness: ready: readiness: righteous: righteousness: slow:slowness. opposition serves subclasses accumulation: accumulator action:actor election:elector liberation:liberator oppressor vibration:vibrator action subclass. cultivation cultivating soil cultivated. cultivator cultivates machine ground loosening earth growing plants destroying weeds. involved: inanimate grammatically too: exists english: pronoun sustained neutralized. neutralization temporary suspension functioning inanimate. accountant keeps accounts coolant cooling substance fitter mechanic fits kinds metalwork shutter photography device regulating exposure light plate film: runner messenger millstone. observations useful properties. notions trubetzkoy previous chapters prove relevant prefixation particle prefixed full selves existence. small: a- be- reversative fore- mid-and mis- came ready speak. tey loans languages: strucure formations. became le-rely uses counter sub arch particles phenomenon also. prefixing neo-latin chiefly learned scientific borrowing modern ante- extra- intra- meta para century really develops progress science esp century. practical difficulty. represent prepositions intra circum hyper multi- omni- astro- hydro. webster three footing wf loan macro- micro hyper- hypro- intro- oed justified. pts fool generals technical hyper-in hypersensitive hypertrophy as-trophy deal prepositive electro- galato- hepato- oscheo book. offer interest howe fall duded lie outside scope prfs pronominal auto wider crypto- neo- pseudo- competition words: over overlap overlapping in- dis de- pre- trans- supra. pre-particle aspects: adjectival force sbs anteroom archbishop co-hostess ex-king adverbial verbs unconscious informal overanxious unroll revrite mislay prepositional prewar years postgraduate studies antiaircraft gun afire aflutter afternoon vbs syntagmas determinate anti-nazi encage respective determinants determination stress: adjunct relation tends heavy stresses enemy stress subway prf. middle types. phonemic semi-independent word-like appears stress. exception befriend em- emplace non-composite useful. re-full re- ri refill basically non-morphemic re proved unpredictable re-in refilled tank sake emphasis shift conceivable mono-morphemic incite prefer invariably maintain non-productive comparing simultaneously determined. establishes whether affixation word-forming took source. sources lat. illiterates litera-ture lat litteratura: reactivation harrowed participle understood infinitive false etymology: destroyed suggesting motivation asparagus sparrowgrass crevice crayfish. concentrates treats aiming consistent facts cab non-observed predicted. aim achieved consistently fragmentary revision. concentrating possesses fully worked out. foregoing consideration. picture acquainted stock involved. indispensable. detalt subdivided suffixation. ex. say affixation. modify dislike transfer teach teacher investigations showed results. traditional opinion changing correct. head behead bus debus brown embrown title entitle large enlarge camp encamp war besides linguists1 treat word-composition. has.he component linguists2 borrowed. suffixes-ness origin. anti- dis- languages. lost independence turned hood. rank condemn shape out- under- homonymic spelling noun: loveful manful verb: forgetful thank thankful homonymous quickly slowly lovely friendly. suffix-en strengthen soften wooden golden. unshoe unbind unfair untrue. history borrowings appeared negation non- rnis synonymic lexico groupings lexico-semantic undergo polysemantic. meanings: trade profession hunter doing moment question chooser giver tools atomizer boiler transmitter resembling features. comparative rich uzbek total vice versa prefixes: no- ba bo- nim ones suffixes:chi gar zor li lik but. izm atsiya bo namo- ki table ting alak gina jon negative widely uzbek: siz anti de ir im non another. adab. boadab hosil serhosil literature. dead living. singled etymological ex.admit ad deed seed flight bright living easily childhood marriage. traditionally non-productive. lander kema taraf ee. un-non- ex cy mis productive. plays role wordformation. degrees mixed occurence characterised adverbs over- . up- semibound doubtful generalized homonyms outdoor outcome outbreak preposition door ir- il- im- defeat decentralize disappear discomfort space relations: for- post- prehistory postposition superstructure overspread forefather as: reread remake meaning: sailor typist employee appurtenance: ese russian chinese japanese collectivity: marriage kingdom dimi-nutiveness: hillock quan-titativeness1: some. form: nouns: ance. adjective-forming: numeral-forming: verb-forming: adverb-forming: be: verbs: adjectives: stylistic reference: characterize dancer understandable oid tron rhomboid cruciform cyclo bibliography ginsburg al. lexicology. pp.72 buranov muminov readings t. arnold i.v. jespersen. linguistics. london jespersen otto. growth v.d. russky yazyk abayev v.i. a.i. m.1977 pp.57 dubenets e.m. lectures moscow training publishers akhmanova o.s. lexicology: method. burchfield r.w. lnd. canon g. wordformation: items. n.y. p. howard ph. old. sheard john. use. maurer f.c. go. bloomsbury hornby advanced learner longman lexicon contemporary longman. world book encyclopedia ny vol internet: http: mpsttu.ru philology>

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