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Обеззараживание и обезвреживание с иcпользованием окислителей природных, сточных вод и их осадков

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?INNEENEEE OIEAA?NEOAO Ae?OAEAU IA?IAeIA

YEIEIAE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

IAACCA?AAEEAAIEA E IAACA?AAEEAAIEA N ECIIEUeCIAAIEAI IEENEEOAEAE
I?E?IAeIUO, NOI*IUO AIAe E EO INAAeEIA

Iaienae: Iiiia I. E.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: I?eiaiei A. I.

Aeenoeeieeia: Yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai e

naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa

IINEAA

1997

Niiniau iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu, ?ieue ieeneeoaeae a aiaeiiiaeaioiaea

Iaacca?aaeeaaieai aiaeu iacuaaaony i?ioeann oie/oiaeaiey iaoiaeyueony
oai iee?ii?aaieciia. Aei 98 % aaeoa?ee caaea?aeeaaaony a i?ioeanna
i/enoee aiaeu. Ii n?aaee inoaaoeony aaeoa?ee, a oaeaea n?aaee ae?onia
iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny iaoiaaiiua (aieaciaoai?iua) iee?iau, aeey
oie/oiaeaiey eioi?uo ioaeia niaoeeaeueiay ia?aaioea aiaeu. I?e iieiie
i/enoea iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae iaacca?aaeeaaiea iaiaoiaeeii anaaaea, i?e
eniieueciaaiee iiaecaiiuo aiae oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iee?iaeieiae/aneea
naienoaa enoiaeiie aiaeu yoiai o?aaotho. Aeey i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai
iaacca?aaeeaaiey e ia?aaioee aiaeu a aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo nii?oaeaiey
iaacca?aaeeaaiey iaiaoiaeeiu ia anao noaioeeyo iiaeaioiaee
oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaauo aiae.

Aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey eniieuecotho a iniiaiii aeaa iaoiaea – ia?aaioeo
aiaeu neeueiuie ieeneeoaeyie e aicaeaenoaea ia aiaeo oeueo?aoeieaoiauie
eo/aie. E?iia iacaaiiuo iiaeii iaiaoiaeeiue yooaeo iieo/eoue
oeeueo?iaaieai aiaeu /a?ac oeueo?aoeeueo?u, ia?aaioeie oeueo?acaoeii,
eeiy/aieai aiaeu. Aeey i/enoee iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii
i?eiaiytho ieeneeoaee – oei?, oei?niaea?aeauea ?aaaaiou, icii; aeey
iaacca?aaeeaaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aaeoa?eoeeaeiua
onoaiiaee; aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey iaaieueoeo ii?oeee aiaeu – ia?iaiaaiao
eaeey, ia?aeenue aiaei?iaea. Iaaeaaeiui n?aaenoaii oie/oiaeaiey iee?iaia
yaeyaony eeiy/aiea aiaeu.

I?e iiaea/a a aiaeo ieeneeoaeae aieueoay /anoue aa ec?anoiaeoaony ia
ieeneaiea i?aaie/aneeo e iaeioi?uo ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. A ?acoeueoaoa
nieaeathony oeaaoiinoue aiaeu, a oaeaea eioaineaiinue i?eaeonia e
caiaoia, yooaeoeaiaa aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue i?ioeann iineaaeothuae
eiaaoeyoeee i?eianae. Nei?inoue i?ioeanna iaacca?aaeeaaiey ?anoao n
iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u aiaeu i ia?aoiaeii ?aaaaioa a
iaaeennioeee?iaaiioth oi?io. Acaaoaiiua aauanoaa ieacuaatho
io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea, iineieueeo i?aiyonoaotho eiioaeoo iee?iaia
n ?aaaaioii.

Anee ieeneeoaeue eniieuecoaony oieueei aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey, oi ii
iiaeaaony a aiaeo ia?aae ?aca?aoa?ii /enoie aiaeu, aaea iaania/eaaaony e
iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy eiioaeoa; anee oeaeue ia?aaioee – ieeneaiea
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, oi ?aaaaio iiaeaaony a aiaeo ia?aae i/enoiuie
nii?oaeaieyie. Oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou aeaao aeaoonooiai/aoay ia?aaioea,
eiaaea /anoue ?aaaaioa-ieeneeoaey – iiaeaaony aei, /anoue – iinea
i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee.

Iaacca?aaeeaaiea oei?ii.

Oei? – yaeiaeoue aac caeaiiaaoi-aeaeoiai oeaaoa n ?aceei oaeooeeaui
caiaoii, a 2,45 ?aca oyaeaeaa aicaeooa. ?anoai?eiinoue oei?a a aiaea
oaaee/eaaaony n iiieaeaieai oaiia?aoo?u e iiauoaieai aeaaeaiey; i?e
aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee e oaiia?aoo?a 20° N ?anoai?eiinoue N12 ninoaaeyao
7,29 a/e. I?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a e aunieii aeaaeaiee (-34,6° N i?e
aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiey eee 0,575 IIa i?e 15° N) oei? naeeaeaaony. Aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey enia?aiey aeeaeeee oei? o?aieony iiae aeaaeaieai
0.6…0.8 IIa n aaeeiiao eee a ai/eao (eiioaeia?ao).

Caaiaeu iinoaaeytho oei? a aaeeiiao iannie aei 100 ea e a eiioaeia?ao
iannie aei 3000 ea, a oaeaea a aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oeenoa?iao
aianoeiinoueth 48 o. I?e aeiaaaea a aiaeo oei?a i?ienoiaeeo aai
aeae?ieec

Cl2 + H2O ( HClO + HCl

. I?e iaee/ee a aiaea aiieaea ia?acothony iiii- e aeeoei?aieiu:

HClO + NH3 ( NH2Cl + H2O

HClO + NH2Cl ( NHCl2 + H2O

ia?acotho naiaiaeiue oei?, oei?aiei e aeeoei?aiei – naycaiiue oei?.
Aaeoa?eoeeaeiinoue oei?a aieueoa i?e iaeuo cia/aieyo ?I, iiyoiio aiaeo
oei?e?otho aei aaiaea iiaeuaea/eaathueo ?aaaaioia.

Iaiaoiaeeiay aeica oei?a ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueii
iino?iaiiie e?eaie oei?iiiaeiuaaiinoe aiaeu. Iioeiaeueiie n/eoaaony
aeica, eioi?ay i?e caaeaiiii a?aiaie eiioaeoa iaania/eo a aiaea
o?aaoaioth eiioeaio?aoeeth inoaoi/iiai oei?a – aeey
oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaauo aiae 0,3… 0,5 ia/e naiaiaeiiai oei?a i?e
a?aiaie eiioaeoa 30 iei eee 0,8 … 1,2 ia/e naycaiiiai oei?a i?e
a?aiaie eiioaeoa 60 iei.

I?e ionoonoaee aeaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo ecuneaiee aeico oei?a i?eieiatho
aeey iaacca?aaeeaaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo aiae 2… 3 ia/e, aeey iiaecaiiuo
0,7 … 1,0 ia/e.

Oei?e?iaaiea aeeaeeei oei?ii yaeyaony iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaiui
iaoiaeii iaacca?aaeeaaiey aiaeu ia n?aaeieo e e?oiiuo aiaeii/enoiuo
noaioeeyo.

Aaeaeo iaeie ?anoai?eiinoe aeeaeeiai oei?a iinooiathuee ?aaaaio
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii enia?yaony. Caoai oei?-aac ?anoai?ytho a iaeii
eiee/anoaa aiaeu, iieo/aaioth oei?ioth aiaeo ia?aiaoeaatho n
ia?aaaouaaaiie aiaeie. Aeice?iaea oei?a i?ienoiaeeo a oaca aaciia?aciiai
aauanoaa, niioaaonoaothuea aaciaeicaoi?u iacuaathony oei?aoi?aie. Ia
i?aeoeea i?eiaiytho eae iaii?iua, oae e aaeooiiua oei?aoi?u. NIeI
2.04.02-84 o?aaoao eniieueciaaiey iineaaeieo, oae eae i?e aaeooiiuo
oei?aoi?ao iaiueoa iianiinoue iiiaaeaiey oei?-aaca a aicaeoo iiiauaiee.
Eiathony oei?aoi?u i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai e iinoiyiiiai ?anoiaea, a oaeaea
aaoiiaoe/aneea oei?aoi?u, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea a aiaea caaeaiioth
eiioeaio?aoeeth inoaoi/iiai oei?a.

A ?innee iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecotho aaeooiiua oei?aoi?u iinoiyiiiai
?anoiaea EIIEE-100 i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth aei 85 ea// N12.

Aeey enia?aiey oei?a aaeeii eee eiioaeia? onoaiaaeeaatho ia aanu e
ioe?uaatho aaioeeue. Iauai oei?-aaca ec iaeiiai aaeeiia i?e eiiiaoiie
oaiia?aoo?a ninoaaeo 0,5… 0,7 ea//, n iaeiiai eiioaeia?a – 3 ea// ia 1
i2 aai iiaa?oiinoe. Nuai oei?a iiaeii cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue
iiaeia?aaii aaeeiiia oaieie aiaeie eee aicaeooii. Iiyoiio ia e?oiiuo
noaioeeyo eniieuecotho niaoeeaeueiua enia?eoaee oei?a a aeaea aiena,
eoaea onoaiaaeeaatho aaeeii eee eiioaeia? e iiaeaaony oaieay aiaea eee
iiaeia?aoue aicaeoo.

Oei?-aac iinooiaao a i?iiaaeooi/iue aaeeii, aaea caaea?aeeaathony eaiee
aiaeu e i?i/ea i?eiane. Aieaa iieiay i/enoea aaca i?ienoiaeeo a
oeeueo?a, eioi?ue caiieiai noaeeiaaoie, caii/aiiie a na?iie eeneioa.
?aaeoeoi? iaania/eaaao iinoiyiiia aeaaeaiea a nenoaia; ecia?eoaeueiia
ono?ienoai a aeaea aeeao?aaiu e ?ioaiao?a iaania/eaaao eiio?ieue e
?aaoee?iaeo eiee/anoaa iiaeaaaaiiai oei?a. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
oei?aoi?a caaeneo io i?eiaiyaiiai ?ioaiao?a: i?e ?N-3 aei 10 ea//, i?e
?O-5 aei 20 ea// e i?e ?N-7 aei 85 ea//. I?eaioiaeaiea oei?iie aiaeu
i?ienoiaeeo a nianeoaea. Iaiaoiaeeiue aaeooi nicaeaaony yaeaeoi?ii, i?e
iiiiue eioi?iai oei?iay aiaea iiaeaaony a ia?aaaouaaaioth aiaeo.
Aeeth/aieai a noaio ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaeecaoi?a inoaoi/iiai oei?a iiaeii
aaoiiaoe/anee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue caaeaiioth eiioeaio?aoeeth oei?a a
i/euaiiie aiaea a oneiaeyo eciaiaiey naienoa iinooiathuae aiaeu.

Oei?iia oicyenoai aiaeii/enoiie noaioeee ?aniieaaaaony a ioaeaeueiii
caeaiee, aaea naeiee?iaaiu neeaae oei?a, enia?eoaeueiay i oei?aoi?iay.

?anoiaeiue neeaae oei?a ioaeaeai io inoaeueiuo iiiauaiee aeooie noaiie
aac i?iaiia. Neeaae iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny e a naiinoiyoaeueiii caeaiee. A
oaeii neo/aa oai iau/ii ?aniieaaatho oaeaea enia?eoaeueioth, i?e/ai
oei?aoi?iay iaoiaeeony a iniiaiii aeiea aiaeii/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee.
Aieinoue ?anoiaeiiai neeaaea oei?a ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 100 o.
AEeaeeee oei? o?aieony ia neeaaea a aaeeiiao eee eiioaeia?ao, i?e
nooi/iii ?anoiaea oei?a aieaa 1 o – a oaieao aianoeiinoueth aei 50 o n
iinoaaeie oei?a a aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo oeenoa?iao.

Neeaae ?aciauatho a iacaiiii eee iieocaaeoaeaiiii caeaiee n aeaoiy
auoiaeaie n i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?ii caeaiey. A iiiauaiee neeaaea
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue aieinoue n iaeo?aeecaoeeiiiui ?anoai?ii noeueoeoa
iao?ey aeey auno?iai iia?oaeaiey aaa?eeiuo eiioaeia?ia eee aaeeiiia.

Anee o?oaii?iaiae oei?-aaca ?aniieiaeai aia caeaiey, ia auoiaea ec
enia?eoaey o?aaoaony onoaiiaea aaeooiiiai eeaiaia, eneeth/athuaai
aiciiaeiinoue eiiaeainaoeee aaca i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a ie?oaeathuaai
aicaeooa. O?oaii?iaiaeu aeeaeeiai e aaciia?aciiai oei?a ecaioiaeytho ec
noaeueiuo aanoiaiuo o?oa aeeaiao?ii aei 80 ii, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia ?aai/aa
aeaaeaiea 1,6 IIa. Aioo?e iiiauaiey oei?ii?iaiae ?aciauatho ii noaiai
eee ynoaeaaeai ia e?iiooaeiao, aia caeaiey – ia ynoaeaaeao,
i?aaeoniao?eaay caueoo o?oaii?iaiaea io nieia/iuo eo/ae.

A oei?aoi?iuo onoaiaaeeaatho aeicaoi?u oei?a n iaiaoiaeeiie a?iaoo?ie e
o?oaii?iaiaeaie. Oei?aoi?iua (oei?aeicaoi?iua) iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a
iniiaiii ei?iona noaioeee eeai a caeaiee oei?iiai oicyenoaa. Iiiauaiea
oei?aoi?iie aeieaeii auoue ioaeaeaii io ae?oaeo iiiauaiee aeooie noaiie
aac i?iaiia e eiaoue aeaa auoiaea, i?e/ai iaeei ec ieo /a?ac oaiao?. Ana
aeaa?e aeieaeiu ioe?uaaoueny ia?oaeo, a iiiauaiee aeieaeia auoue
i?eioaeeoaeueiay auoyaeiay aaioeeyoeey.

O?oaii?iaiaeu oei?iie aiaeu auiieiythony ec ei??iceiiiinoieeeo
iaoa?eaeia. A iiiauaiee o?oaii?iaiae onoaiaaeeaatho a eaiaeao a aaeo eee
ia e?iiooaeiao, aia caeaiey – a iiaecaiiuo eaiaeao eee oooey?ao ec
ei??iceiiiinoieeeo o?oa.

Oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu ii?ioeiia?aciuie oei?niaea?aeaueie ?aaaaioaie e
aeeieneaeii oei?a.

Ia iaeuo noaioeeyo e aiaeii/enoiuo onoaiiaeao /anoi oeaeaniia?acii
ioeacaoueny io eniieueciaaiey aeeaeeiai oei?a e i?eiaiyoue oaa?aeua,
ii?ioeiia?aciua aauanoaa – oei?ioth ecaanoue e aeiioei?eo eaeueoeey. Yoe
aauanoaa iaiaa iianiu a ia?auaiee, i?ioeann eo iiaeaioiaee e iiaea/e
cia/eoaeueii i?iua – i?aeoe/anee aiaeiae/ai i?eiaiaieth eiaaoeyioa.

Oei?ioth ecaanoue iieo/atho i?e ia?aaioea nooie, iaaaoaiie acaanoe
oei?ii. I?e eiioaeoa n aicaeooii e aeaaie oei?iay ecaanoue iinoaiaiii
?aceaaaaony

2NaN12I+NI2+I2I ( NaNI3+NaN12+2IN1I

iiyoiio ?aaaaio iaiaoiaeeii o?aieoue a nooii, aaioeee?oaiii iiiauaiee a
cae?uoie oa?a.

Aeiioei?eo eaeueoeey ia?acoaony i?e ianuuaiee ecaanoeiaiai iieiea oei?ii

2Na(II)2+2N12 ( Na(N1I)2+NaN12+2I2I

Oiaa?iue i?iaeoeo NaNl2O eee Na(N1O)2 ?anoai?ytho a ?anoai?iii aaea n
iaoaie/aneei ia?aiaoeaaieai. Eiee/anoai aaeia ia iaiaa aeaoo. Caoai
?anoai? ?acaaaeytho a ?anoiaeiii aaea aei eiioeaio?aoeee 0,5… 1( e
iiaeatho a aiaeo aeicaoi?aie ?anoai?ia e noniaicee.

O/eouaay ei??iceiiioth aeoeaiinoue ?anoai?a, aaee neaaeoao ecaioiaeyoue
ec aea?aaa, ieanoiannu eee aeaeaciaaoiia, ec ei??iceiiiinoieeeo
iaoa?eaeia (iieeyoeeai eee aeieieano) aeieaeiu auoue oaeaea
o?oaii?iaiaeu e a?iaoo?a.

Aeeieneae oei?a iieo/atho iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aiaeii/enoiie noaioeee
oei?e?iaaieai oei?eoa iao?ey NaN1O2:

2NaClO2 + N12( 2N1O2+2NaN1

Aianoi oei?a iiaeii aeey iieo/aiey ClO2 oaeaea eniieueciaaoue icii eee
noeyioth eeneioo

2NaN1O2 + O3 + I2O ( 2N1O2 + 2NaII+O2;

5NaN1O2+4IN1 ( 4N1O2 + 5NaN1+ 2I2O,

NlO2 yaeyaony yaeiaeoui, ac?uaiiianiui aacii n eioaineaiui caiaoii,
aiaeiue ?anoai? aai i?aeoe/anee aaciianai. Ii n?aaiaieth n Cl2
aeaoieenue oei?a eiaao ?yae i?aeiouanoa – aieaa aunieay
aaeoa?eoeeaeiinoue a uaei/iie n?aaea, aieaa aeoeaii ieeneyao
i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, iiaeao ?aceaaaoue oaiieu, ia i?eaeaaay i?e yoii
aiaea oei?oaiieueiiai caiaoa, iaee/ea a aiaea aiieaea ia nieaeaao
yooaeoeaiinoe ClO2.

Oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu aeiioei?eoii iao?ey.

Ia aiaeii/enoiuo noaioeeyo, aaea nooi/iue ?anoiae oei?a ia i?aauoaao 50
ea, aaea o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaiea e iiaeaioiaea oiene/iiai oei?a
naycaiu n o?oaeiinoyie, iiaeii aeey oei?e?iaaiey aiaeu eniieueciaaoue
aeiioei?eo iao?ey NaNlO. Aeaiiue ?aaaaio iieo/atho ia noaioeey a
i?ioeanna yeaeo?ieeca ?anoai?a iiaa?aiiie niee. Yeaeo?ieeciay onoaiiaea
ninoieo ec aaea eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?anoai?a niee (?anoai?iiai aaea),
yeaeo?ieeciie aaiiu (yeaeo?ieeca?a), aaea-iaeiieoaey ?anoai?a
aeiioei?eoa, aui?yieoaey e aeiea oi?aaeaiey.

?anoai?iuo aaeia aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa aeaoo, eo noiia?iue iauai
aeieaeai iaania/eoue aania?aaieioth ?aaioo onoaiiaee a oa/aiea 24 /. I?e
iie?ii o?aiaiee niee iauai ?anoai?iuo aaeia i?eieiaaony ec ?an/aoa 1,5
i3 ia 1 o niee. Aeiioneaaony o?aiaiea niee ia neeaaea a nooii aeaea,
i?e/ai oieueia neiy niee ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 2 i.

A ?anoai?iii aaea ecaioiaeyaony ?anoai?, aeeceee e ianuuaiiiio
-200…310 a/e. Aeey ia?aiaoeaaiey i?eiaiytho iaoaie/aneea ono?ienoaa i
oee?eoeyoeeiiiua ianinu.

Yeaeo?ieeca?u iiaoo auoue i?ioi/iiai eee iai?ioi/iiai oeia. Iaeaieaa
oe?iei eniieuecotho iineaaeiea. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaiio n
onoaiiaeaiiui oai iaeaoii ieanoei/aouo yeaeo?iaeia. Yeaeo?iaeu, eae
i?aaeei a?aoeo, i?eniaaeeiytho a naoue iinoiyiiiai oiea.

– 2e ( Cl2, caoai eo aeae?ieec Nl2 + I2O ( IN1O+IC1. Ia eaoiaea
auaeaeyaony aac I2, ia?acoaony aaeeee iao?

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeoeee NaII n INlO ia?acoaony aeiioei?eo.

A iaaeyeaeo?iaeiii i?ino?ainoaa yeaeo?ieeca?a iai?ioi/iiai oeia
ieioiinoue yeaeo?ieeoa a ?acoeueoaoa aai ianuuaiey iocu?ueeaie aaca
aoaeao iaiueoa, /ai a inoaeueiii iauaia aaiiu, iiyoiio aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue oee?eoeyoeey ?anoai?a – iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie ainoiaeyuaa,
a inoaeueiie aaiia ienoiaeyuaa oa/aiea yeaeo?ieeoa. Oee?eoeyoeey
i?iaeieaeeony aei iieiiai yeaeo?ieeca anaai ?anoai?a iiaa?aiiie niee.
Caoai yeaeo?ieeciay aaiia iii?iaeiyaony e caiieiyaony iiaie ii?oeeae
?anoai?a NaCl.

I?e ?aaioa yeaeo?ieeca?a iaiaoiaeeii naanoe e ieieioio ?aniaae
ia?aciaaiiiai NaClO. Aeey yoiai neaaeoao i?ioeann yeaeo?ieeca
i?iaiaeeoue i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a e aieueoie ieioiinoe oiea ia aiiaea,
aicaea?aeeaaynue io ia?aiaoeaaiey yeaeo?ieeoa a aaiia.

A NIA na?eeii ecaioiaeythony yeaeo?ieeca?u iai?ioi/iiai oeia ia?ee YA.
Ia noaioeee iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue ia iaiaa o?ao yeaeo?ieeca?ia, eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaatho a nooii ioaieeaaaiii iiiauaiee. A yeaeo?ieeciie aaiia
aeieaeiu auoue o?oaii?iaiaeu aeey aiaeyiiai ioeaaeaeaiey, iaae
yeaeo?ieeca?ii onoaiaaeeaatho ciio auoyaeiie aaioeeyoeee.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ?aai/aai ?anoai?a niee a yeaeo?ieeciie aaiia i?eieiaaony
100…120 a/e, aunioiia ?aniieiaeaiea yeaeo?ieeca?a aeieaeii iaania/eoue
iinooieaiea ?anoai?a NaNlO a aae-iaeiieoaeue naiioaeii. Aae-iaeiieoaeue
?aciauatho a aaioeee?oaiii iiiauaiey, aeice?iaea ?anoai?a aeiioei?eoa a
aiaeo i?ienoiaeeo yaeaeoi?ii, ianin-aeicaoi?ii eee ae?oaei ono?ienoaii
aeey iiaea/e ?anoai?ia e noniaicee.

Oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu i?yiui yeaeo?ieecii.

Aeey yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai ecaioiaeaiey aaeoa?eoeeaeiiai oei?a iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue oei?eaeiua eiiu, eiathueany a naiie i?e?iaeiie aiaea.
Iaoiae iacuaaaony i?yiui yeaeo?ieecii, ?ac?aaioaia niioaaonoaothuay
onoaiiaea «Iioie». I?eiaiaiea onoaiiaee aiciiaeii i?e niaea?aeaiee a
aiaea oei?eaeia ia iaiaa 20 ia/e i iauae aeanoeinoe ia aieaa 7 ia-yea/e.

Onoaiiaea «Iioie» ninoieo ec aa?oeeaeueiiai yeaeo?ieeca?a, eioi?ue ia
oeaioeao i?eniaaeeiyaony e o?oaii?iaiaeo ia?aaaouaaaiie aiaeu.
Aeaeaeaiea aiaeu – nieco aaa?o. E?iia oiai eiaaony aeie ieoaiey e
caieiooay nenoaia eeneiou, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey niuaa n yeaeo?iaeia
ea?aiiaoiie ieaiee. A nenoaio aoiaeyo aae e eeneioinoieeee ianin.
?acia?u yeaeo?ieeca?a 940o815o1590 ii, aeaaeaiea a ?aai/ae eaia?a – ia
aieaa 0,5 IIa, iiieiaeueiay iiuiinoue 7,6 eAo-/, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
15…150 i3//.

Iniiaiie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea ea?aiiaoiie ieaiee ia
iiaa?oiinoe yeaeo?iaeia, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao n?ie noaaeeueiie
iai?a?uaiie ?aaiou onoaiiaee. Aeey niuaa ieaiee i?eiaiyaony 3%-iue
?anoai? IN1.

Anee aeanoeinoue ia?aaaouaaaiie aiaeu ia aieaa 3…4 ia-yea/e,
?aeiiaiaeoaony iai?aaeyoue anth aiaeo /a?ac yeaeo?ieeca?; i?e aeanoeinoe
10…12 ia-yea/e – 10…12( aiaeu, eioi?ay caoai ia?aiaoeaaaony n
inoaeueiui iioieii.

Ia?aoei?e?iaaiea e aeaoei?e?iaaiea, n aiiiiecaoeeae.

Oei?e?iaaiea aiaeu n iiauoaiiuie aeicaie ia?aae i/enoiuie nii?oaeaieyie
iacuaatho ia?aoei?e?iaaieai. Iaoiae i?eiaiyaony a oneiaeyo, eiaaea
iee?iaeieiae/aneea naienoaa aiaeu auno?i e a aieueoeo i?aaeaeao
iaiythony, a oaeaea i?e aunieie oeaaoiinoe i?e?iaeiie aiaeu, aieueoii
niaea?aeaiee a aiaea i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa e ieaieoiia. Ia?aoei?e?iaaiea
eniieuecotho a nenoaiao oaoie/aneiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey eae n?aaenoai
i?ioea ia?aciaaiey aeieiae/aneie ieaiee. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey
ia?aoei?e?iaaiey a nenoaiao oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ia iniiaa oaoiieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e aiaeecia.
I?e yoii iaaei iniai i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaiey
oei?i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee (o?eaaeiaaiiaoaiia). Yoi ?acoeueoao
oei?e?iaaiey aiaeu, niaea?aeauae iiiai .i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.
O?eaaeiaaiiaoaiu (oei?ioi?i e ae?oaea niaaeeiaiey) – eaioea?iaaiiua
aauanoaa, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo a ieoueaaie aiaea ai iiiaeo no?aiao
ii?ie?oaony noaiaea?oii. A /anoiinoe, Anaie?iay annioeeaoeey
cae?aaiio?aiaiey ?aeiiaiaeoao ii?io 30 ia/e. Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey
ia?aciaaiey oei?i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa i?e iiaeaioiaea
oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaauo aiae ?aeiiaiaeoaony ioeacaoueny io aaaaeaiey
oei?a aei i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee (ia?ae/iia oei?e?iaaiea), caiaieoue N12
ia ClO2 eee I3, eniieueciaaoue ieeneeoaee a eiiaeiaoeee c ni?aaioaie.
Iai?eia?, ii noaia: I3 – aeoeaiue oaieue – aoi?e/iia oei?e?iaaiea.

Aeey iaania/aiey o?aaoaiiai niaea?aeaiey a aiaea inoaoi/iiai oei?a
iinea ia?aoei?e?iaaiiy, a oaeaea a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeii aiaeo
aeaoei?e?iaaoue. N yoie oeaeueth i?eiaiytho oece/aneea e oeie/aneea
niiniau.

I?e oece/aneeo niiniaao ecauoie aeoeaiiai oei?a auaeaeyaony ec aiaeu
ni?aaioaie eee ay?e?iaaieai. Eniieuecotho oaieueiua oeeueo?u n oieueiie
neiy oaey 2,5 i i?e nei?inoe oeeueo?iaaiey 20…25 i//. Ay?e?iaaiea
aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou i?e ?I

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